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 Transisi dari masa remaja
 Pemilihan karir
MASA DEWASA  Stress sehari – hari

Aurora Lumbantoruan, MPSi
STIKIM, 19 Januari 2017

The Criteria for
Becoming an Adult
The Transition From  Penanda utama yang umumnya disebut sebagai
penanda memasuki tahap perkembangan dewasa
Adolescence to Adulthood adalah ketika pertama kali ia memperoleh
pekerjaan, yang permanen dan full time
 Kemandirian secara ekonomi merupakan salah
satu kriteria bagi orang dewasa.
The Criteria The Transition
for Becoming from High School  Survey thd mahasiswa; menjadi dewasa berarti
menerima tanggung jawab atas konsekuensi dari
an Adult to College tindakannya, memutuskan keyakinan dan nilai –
nilainya sendiri dan menjalani hubungan dengan
orangtua sebagai sesama orang dewasa.
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Today’s College Kids
• Mahasiswa saat ini mengalami tekanan yang lebih
besar dibanding masa lalu.
• The pressure to succeed in college, get a great job, Cognitive Development
and make lots of money were found to be pervasive
concerns of students.
• There has been a dramatic increase in the number of
individuals who attend community college rather
than four-year colleges.
• An increasing number of today’s college students are Cognitive Creativity
“returning students,” those who either did not go to
college right out of high school or went to college, Stages
dropped out, and have returned.

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juga disebabkan  Realistic and Pragmatic karena memiliki pengetahuan yang lebih banyak.Post-Formal Stage? Creativity • Post-formal thought secara kualitatif berbeda dengan apa yang dikemukakan Piaget ttg formal operational thought. • Post-formal thought menampilkan pemahaman bahwa: Adult Developmental – Jawaban benar terhadap masalah membutuhkan cara Changes berpikir reflektif – Jawaban dapat bervariasi tergantung situasi – Pencarian kebenaran berlanjut terus dan merupakan proses Csikszentmihalyi’s Ideas yang tak pernah berakhir – Solusi – solusi dari masalah haruslah realistis • Selain itu. 9 10 Is There a Fifth. stage. 8 Realistic and Pragmatic Reflective and Relativistic Thinking Thinking • Ilmuwan lain mengatakan bahwa sebenarnya orang  William Perry mengemukakan beberapa dewasa memiliki kemampuan berpikir yang perubahan yang terjadi ketika orang melebihi thap formal operational memasuki masa dewasa musda. Thinking • He also believed that adults especially increase their knowledge in a specific area. dualistic thinking gives way to reflective. ada faktor – faktor emosi dan subyektif yang dapat mempengaruhi pemikiran 11 12 2 . good/bad. • He does believe that adults progress beyond relativistic thinking of adulthood.  Reflective and Relativistic • Whereas adolescents may begin to plan and Thinking hypothesize about intellectual problems. adults go beyond the powerful methods of scientific thinking characteristic of the formal operational  As they move into adulthood. • This especially occurs as young adults move into the world of work and face constraints of reality. • However. many adults do not think at the formal 7 operational level.  He believed that adolescents view the world in polarities: right/wrong. this absolute. • K. Warner Schaie concluded that it is unlikely that we/they. adults are more systematic and sophisticated about it. adolescents in their use of intellect. 1/19/2017 Cognitive Stages Piaget’s View • Piaget mengemukakan bahwa orang dewasa muda  Piaget’s View secara kuantitatif memiliki kemampuan berpikir yang lebih maju dibandingkan remaja.

 the magnitude of the decline in productivity  contrasts across creative domains • Spend time in settings that stimulate your creativity.  Investigative  He believes that this will more likely result in their enjoyment of work and longevity at a job. 1/19/2017 Adult Developmental Csikszentmihalyi’s Ideas Changes  Penelitian mengemukakan bahwa kreativitas meningkat dan mencapai puncaknya pada • Try to be surprised by something every day. found in the fifties and later. Personality Finding the  In high school. most are a combination of two or three. however. umumnya di usia 40an. • When something sparks your interest.  In the late teens.  individual differences in lifetime output 13 14 Careers and Developmental Changes Work Developmental The Skills Changes Employers  Children have idealistic fantasies about what Want they want to be when they grow up. creative accomplishments are: • Take charge of your schedule. • Wake up in the morning with a specific goal to look  Qualifying any conclusions about age and forward to. Careers  From the mid twenties through the Monitoring the remainder of early adulthood. • Try to surprise at least one person every day. students begin to think about Types Right Career careers on a somewhat less idealistic basis.  Enterprising  Holland’s personality types are incorporated into the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory. masa dewasa.  Artistic  Holland acknowledges that individuals are rarely  Social pure types.  A decline in creative contributions is often • Write down each day what has surprised you and how you surprised others.  Conventional 17 18 3 . follow it. career Values and Work decision making has turned more serious. it is not as great as commonly thought. early twenties. individuals Occupational often seek to establish their emerging career. Handbook 15 16 Personality Types Holland’s Six Types  Personality type theory is John Holland’s view that  Realistic it is important for individuals to select a career that matches up well with their personality type.

feel secure or insecure about whether a partner will be available.  However.  Temperament is linked to adjustment in adulthood. relationship patterns in adulthood  Ex. values. we may seek a complimentary personality. • Involvement in campus organizations and extracurricular activities • Relevant experiences in internships. adulthood • Some aspects of work create stress. part-time work. opening up tot higher marital satisfaction – but in this study.  Attachment-related avoidance: the degree to which  Those with similar personality attributes reported individuals feel secure in relying on others. some individuals do revise their attachment behavior are similar to our own. • When unable to work. in attitudes and values did not predict marital  Other links exist between childhood attachment and satisfaction.  Temperament involves emotions and the ability to • Most individuals spend about one-third of their control them adult lives at work. or co-ops 19 20 • Good grades Work PERSONALITY  Adult personalities are flexible as one ages • Work defines individuals in fundamental ways. 1/19/2017 Values and Careers The Skills Employers Want • Oral and written communication skills  An important aspect of choosing a career is that it • Interpersonal skills also match up with your values. and being intimate with them.  Easy 3 to 5 yr olds were more likely to be well adjusted as adults than difficult 3 to 5 yr olds. and physical attractiveness.  The connections between childhood temperament and 21 adulthood adjustment are based on a small number of studies  The majority of securely attached children have secure ATTRACTION relationships in adulthood  People actively seek out others to associate with  The quality of childhood attachment relationships is linked to the quality of adult romantic relationships  Familiarity is necessary for a close relationship  Securely attached adults score low on both:  People seek others who are similar to themselves in  Attachment-related anxiety: extent to which individuals attitudes.: death of a parent may disturb attahcment  Consensual validation: our own attitudes and values are supported when someone else’s attitudes and  Not cast in stone. similarity them. • New issues have arisen with the increasing career commitment on the part of women. styles as they experience relationships in their adult years 4 . with some continuity from early childhood to esteem. • Computer skills  Some values are reflected in Holland’s personality • Leadership skills and experience types. they can refine their career choice more effectively. responsive and attentive. • Analytical skills  When people know what they value most. lifestyles. many individuals experience emotional distress and low self.

1/19/2017 Love and Intimacy  Research does validate the “matching hypothesis”  Matching Hypothesis: For the long term. Sternberg’s Triangle of Love 3 types of love combine to form these patterns of love  Falling out of love includes  The tragic collapse of a close relationship Present  One person being taken advantage of Passion Absent or low by another Types of Love Passion Intimacy Commitment  Betrayal of trust Infatuation  Emotions like depression or obsessive Affectionate Fatuous thoughts Consummate  Being with someone who does not return your feelings Fig. maintaining a relationship  Intimacy should occur after one is well into establishing a  Standards of what is attractive are always stable and successful identity changing over time and across cultures  Failure to achieve intimacy results in social isolation  Intimacy’s most important aspect is commitment  Attempts to establish intimacy occur at the same time that one is seeking personal autonomy Friendship  Friendship is important throughout the life span • Friendships between men and between women  Friendship is a form of close relationship providing people – Women have more friends than men with – Communication is central to female relationships  Enjoyment and spontaneity – Females do more self-disclosure than men  Acceptance – Females exchange more mutual support  Trust. – Male relationships are more competitive gender friendships in adulthood.  Erikson defined Intimacy as finding oneself while losing  Physical attractiveness may not be the primary oneself in another person. respect. 15. we tend to choose romantic partners that we  Erikson’s Stage for Early Adulthood: Intimacy vs.2 5 . but not as common as same. and it requires commitment factor in establishing and to another person. perceive are similar to our own level of Isolation attractiveness. and mutual assistance – Activities are central to male relationships  Confidences shared and a sense of understanding – Men share useful information but keep a distance  Friends and lovers are similar in many ways – Men seek practical solutions to their problems  Cross-gender friendships are more common in adulthood – Men are less likely to disclose personal weaknesses than in elementary school.

including role definitions • Many remarriages occur to reduce loneliness and – Are easier to dissolve than heterosexual improve financial circumstances marriages – Raise concerns in some people about their • Negative behaviors from earlier marriages may carry influence as parents over into the remarriage • Strategies are available to help with remarriage stresses • Lesbian couples place a high priority on equality in their relationships 6 . and some activities of contemporary  Almost 50% of all U. • Loneliness often occurs when life and relationships  Many singles feel pressure from a marriage-oriented society to change. 25% of American adults lived alone. households are headed by singles.S. but with about 50% ending in divorce  Whether cohabitation is a harm or help toward later – Young adults have more expectations from marriage and marital quality their partners is controversial – Adults are delaying marriage  Some research suggests yes. 2004). some society are causes of isolation by choice and others by circumstances • Married persons are less lonely than nonmarrieds  In 2000. other research suggests no. • Remarried couples face many changes and challenges • Gay and lesbian relationships – Custodial and noncustodial parenting issues – Are similar to heterosexual relationships in – Negotiating rules for reconstituted families satisfactions and conflicts and stepfamilies – Have many misconceptions about them. leaving the familiar for the unfamiliar settle down and get married  Cohabitation  Is more acceptable in today’s society (increased from 11% in 1970 to nearly 60% in 2000)  Has its advantages and disadvantages • A stable marriage was the endpoint in adult development until about 1930  Tends to be short-lived (less than 1 in 10 lasts 5 years or when personal fulfillment became a competing goal more)  Involves relationships that tend to be more equal than • Marriage in the United States those between husbands and wives – A tradition. • Many strategies exist for reducing loneliness  Singlehood • Loneliness is a chronic condition for some people and  Has many myths and stereotypes linked to impaired physical and mental health  Has its advantages and disadvantages • Chronic loneliness differs from the desire to be alone  Some adults choose to never marry but may still desire to have children or have some time to oneself  About 8% of US adults over 65 are never married. – Adult marriages are not lasting as long  Some research suggests that cohabitation is not negative for couples who cohabitate after becoming engaged (Kline and others. 1/19/2017 Loneliness Single Adults • Everyone feels lonely at some time in his or her life. compared to 8% in 1970.

divorce rates  Individual needs and expectations have created many  Numerous myths about marriage are thought to be myths about parenting the basis of unrealistic expectations  Child-rearing practices (desirable/ undesirable) tend to  Gottman identified 7 main principles that determine pass on from one generation to the next whether a marriage will work or not  Today’s parenting roles are changing in response to  There are many benefits to having a good marriage changing marriage and family patterns  Overall.S. 1/19/2017 The Family Life Cycle Family life-cycle stages Emotional process of transition: key • The family life cycle has 6 stages principles – Leaving home allows youths to launch into Leaving home: single young adults Accepting emotional and financial responsibility for self adulthood Joining of families through marriage: the Commitment to a new system – Marriage is the uniting of two entire family new couple systems Becoming parents and families with Accepting new members into children the system – Becoming parents creates new problems and The family with adolescents Increasing flexibility of family boundaries to requires lots of adjustments include the children’s independence and grandparent’s – Parenting can be very challenging when frailties adolescents are seeking autonomy and identity The family at midlife Accepting multitude of exits and entries into family system – The family at midlife discovers new freedoms The family in later life Accepting the shifting of generational roles – The family in later life is a time of adaptation Fig. women are more expressive and affectionate  Interest in careers has postponed parenthood for many than men in marriage • Men – Have roles that are contradictory and inconsistent • Women – Live 8 to 10 years less than women – Need to be self-motivated and maintain (on average) their competency in relationships – Are expected to be dominant in – Cite lack of communication much more relationships with women. 15. seeing often than men as a cause of divorce them in physical terms and as inferior – See conversation as interaction or – Often have too little interaction with involvement. while men see it as a source of their fathers information – Need to reconstruct their masculinity – See listening as a way to show care in more positive ways. unrealistic marital expectations are linked to many emotional demands dissatisfaction and underlie high U.4 Becoming a Parent Making Marriage Work  Successful parenting requires many skills and entails  High. eliminating and interest cultural stereotyping 7 .

being separated from them  Mediating factors  According to Levinson. but our daily experiences • Focus on daily hassles and uplifts rather than major events Stress and Personal Control Stress and Personal Control • Overall. 70%–80% of men find the midlife  The individual’s adaptation to the life event transition tumultuous and psychologically painful  Life-stage context  A successful transition rests on reducing the polarities and accepting each as an integral part of one’s being  Sociohistorical context The Life-Events Approach The Life-Events Approach • Drawbacks: • Life-events approach places too much emphasis on change. stress is highest in young and middle-aged adults. being old events influence the individual’s development depends  Being destructive vs. declines in older adults • Middle-aged adults experience more “overload” stressors that involve juggling too many activities at once • Middle-aged adults are more reactive to interpersonal stressors (but less reactive to work stressors) than younger adults • On average. being feminine  The life event itself  Being attached to others vs. being constructive on:  Being masculine vs. a sense of personal control decreases as adults become older • Some aspects increase while others decrease 8 . not adequately recognizing stability • It may not be life’s major events that are the primary sources of stress. 1/19/2017 Stages of Adulthood The Life-Events Approach  Levinson’s Seasons of a Man’s Life (continued):  The life-events approach is another major way to  Transition to middle adulthood lasts about 5 years (ages 40 conceptualize adult personality development to 45) and requires that men come to grips with conflicts existing since adolescence:  Contemporary Life-Events Approach: how life  Being young vs.