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Mathematics is

used throughout the world as an essential tool in many fields, including natural

science, engineering, medicine, and the social sciences. Applied mathematics, the

branch of mathematics concerned with application of mathematical knowledge to other

fields, inspires and makes use of new mathematical discoveries and sometimes leads

to the development of entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and

game theory. Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its

own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating

pure and applied mathematics, and practical applications for what began as pure

mathematics are often discovered.

Selected article | Selected picture | Did you know... | Topics in mathematics

Categories | WikiProjects | Things you can do | Index | Related portals

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Selected article

Carl Friedrich Gauss

Image credit: C.A. Jensen (1792-1870)

Carl Friedrich Gauss (30 April 1777 23 February 1855) was a German mathematician

and scientist of profound genius who contributed significantly to many fields,

including number theory, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, electricity,

magnetism, astronomy and optics. Known as "the prince of mathematicians" and

"greatest mathematician since antiquity", Gauss had a remarkable influence in many

fields of mathematics and science and is ranked as one of history's most

influential mathematicians.

Gauss was a child prodigy, of whom there are many anecdotes pertaining to his

astounding precocity while a mere toddler, and made his first ground-breaking

mathematical discoveries while still a teenager. He completed Disquisitiones

Arithmeticae, his magnum opus, at the age of twenty-one (1798), though it wasn't

published until 1801. This work was fundamental in consolidating number theory as a

discipline and has shaped the field to the present day.

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Selected picture

ASCII-art depiction of the Mandelbrot set

Credit: Elphaba

This is a modern reproduction of the first published image of the Mandelbrot set,

which appeared in 1978 in a technical paper on Kleinian groups by Robert W. Brooks

and Peter Matelski. The Mandelbrot set consists of the points c in the complex

plane that generate a bounded sequence of values when the recursive relation zn+1 =

zn2 + c is repeatedly applied starting with z0 = 0. The boundary of the set is a

highly complicated fractal, revealing ever finer detail at increasing

magnifications. The boundary also incorporates smaller near-copies of the overall

shape, a phenomenon known as quasi-self-similarity. The ASCII-art depiction seen in

this image only hints at the complexity of the boundary of the set. Advances in

computing power and computer graphics in the 1980s resulted in the publication of

high-resolution color images of the set (in which the colors of points outside the

set reflect how quickly the corresponding sequences of complex numbers diverge),

and made the Mandelbrot set widely known by the general public. Named by

mathematicians Adrien Douady and John H. Hubbard in honor of Benoit Mandelbrot, one

of the first mathematicians to study the set in detail, the Mandelbrot set is

closely related to the Julia set, which was studied by Gaston Julia beginning in

the 1910s.

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Did you know...

Did you know...

...that you cannot knot strings in 4-dimensions? You can, however, knot 2-

dimensional surfaces like spheres.

...that there are 6 unsolved mathematics problems whose solutions will earn you one

million US dollars each?

...that there are different sizes of infinite sets in set theory? More precisely,

not all infinite cardinal numbers are equal?

...that every natural number can be written as the sum of four squares?

...that the largest known prime number is over 22 million digits long?

...that the set of rational numbers is equal in size to the subset of integers;

that is, they can be put in one-to-one correspondence?

...that there are precisely six convex regular polytopes in four dimensions? These

are analogs of the five Platonic solids known to the ancient Greeks.

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WikiProjects

The Mathematics WikiProject is the center for mathematics-related editing on

Wikipedia. Join the discussion on the project's talk page.

WikiProjects

Project pages

Participants

Current activity

Manual of style

Conventions

Essays

Proofs

Subprojects

Graphics (Talk)

Article assessment (Talk)

Related projects

Statistics

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Things you can do

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Create a new article: See requested articles list

Add a new image: Requested images list

Improve articles: Pages needing attention (Category)

Expand articles: Mathematics stubs

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Categories

C Puzzle.png

Algebra | Arithmetic | Analysis | Complex analysis | Applied mathematics | Calculus

| Category theory | Chaos theory | Combinatorics | Dynamic systems | Fractals |

Game theory | Geometry | Algebraic geometry | Graph theory | Group theory | Linear

algebra | Mathematical logic | Model theory | Multi-dimensional geometry | Number

theory | Numerical analysis | Optimization | Order theory | Probability and

statistics | Set theory | Statistics | Topology | Algebraic topology | Trigonometry

| Linear programming

| Literature | Notation | Organizations | Theorems | Proofs | Unsolved problems

? Mathematics

? Fields of mathematics

? Mathematics-related lists

? Mathematicians

? Mathematical concepts

? Mathematics and culture

? Mathematical examples

? History of mathematics

? Mathematics and art

? Mathematical modeling

? Mathematical notation

? Mathematical science occupations

? Philosophy of mathematics

? Mathematical projects

? Mathematical proofs

? Pseudomathematics

? Set indices on mathematics

? Mathematical terminology

? Mathematics textbooks

? Mathematical theorems

? Mathematical tools

? Women in mathematics

? Wikipedia books on mathematics

? Mathematics stubs

More mathematics categories

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Topics in mathematics

General Foundations Number theory Discrete mathematics

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Mathematicians

History of mathematics

Philosophy of mathematics

Mathematical notation

Mathematical beauty

Mathematics education

Areas of mathematics

List of basic mathematics topics

List of mathematical symbols

Wikipedia Books: Mathematics

Set theory icon.svg

Foundations of mathematics

Mathematical logic

Proof theory

Gdel's incompleteness theorems

Model theory

Recursion theory

Set theory (portal)

Naive set theory

Axiomatic set theory

Category theory (portal)

Topos theory

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Number theory (portal)

Algebraic number theory

Analytic number theory

Arithmetic

Fundamental theorem of arithmetic

Numbers

Natural numbers

Prime numbers

Rational numbers

Algebraic numbers

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Discrete mathematics (portal)

Combinatorics

Combinatorial geometry

Coding theory

Combinatorial design

Enumerative combinatorics

Combinatorial optimization

Graph theory

Order theory

Lattice theory

Arithmetic symbols.svg

Algebra (portal)

Elementary algebra

Abstract algebra

Group theory

Ring theory

Field theory

Commutative algebra

Geometric algebra

Linear algebra

Matrix theory

Multilinear algebra

Universal algebra

Fundamental theorem of algebra

Source

Analysis (portal)

Calculus

Fundamental theorem of calculus

Vector calculus

Geometric calculus

Measure theory

Real analysis

Complex analysis

Differential equations

Ordinary differential equations

Partial differential equations

Integral equations

Approximation theory

Special functions

Potential theory

Harmonic analysis

Fourier analysis

Functional analysis

Operator theory

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Geometry (portal)

Euclidean geometry

Trigonometry

Analytic geometry

Non-Euclidean geometry

Affine geometry

Projective geometry

Convex geometry

Discrete geometry

Algebraic geometry

Differential geometry

Riemannian geometry

Lie groups

Topology (portal)

General topology

Algebraic topology

Geometric topology

Differential topology

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Applied mathematics

Mathematical modeling

Mathematical physics

Dynamical systems

Control theory

Calculus of variations

Optimization

Mathematical economics

Game theory

Mathematical finance

Statistics (portal)

Probability theory

Stochastic processes

Numerical analysis

Theoretical computer science

Computability theory

Complexity theory

Cryptography (portal)

Information theory

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Index of mathematics articles

ARTICLE INDEX: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z (09)

MATHEMATICIANS: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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