
Power System Technology POWERCON 2004
Singapore, 2124 November2004
:[=I:[
the Y bus matrix as follows
]: E] (2)
5x2 X"
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dependent variables and 1"" and 1"'" are the column matrices B. Computarionof voltage stability objective frmction
of linearized upper and lower limits on the control variables. ( vL = L2 ) sensitivities (C) with respect to control
The linear programming technique is now applied to the
variables
above problems to determine the optimal settings of the
control variables. The sensitivities of the voltage stability objective function
The control vector in incremental variables is defined as ( v r ) with respect to the real and reactive power injections at all
the buses except the swing bus (angle reference bus) are first
x =[AT, ?. .+,AT,+,
,..,,AT ,Ay ..?A& ,Mg+l,. 7
computed and these values are used to compute the objective
function sensitivities with respect to the control variables.
(7) Considering the fact the real power injection does not change
and the dependent vector in incremental variables as
for a small change in voltage magnitude of the bus and the
]I , A ~ power injection at a bus does not change for a small
b=[AQl y..., A ~ , A ~ + ~ y , . . ? A ~ + ~ + ~(8), . . .reactive
change in the phase angle of the bus voltage, the relation
The upper and lower limits on both the control and between the sensitivities of the objective function with respect
dependent variables in linearized form are expressed as to the real and reactive power injections at all the buses except
b" =lAQ;D" ,... y A ~ ~ " , A Vr*. ~. . , A V ~ ~ 7 A V ~ ~ + i ,
aVL a4
..., A V , i i , l t   ap, avL
...  
bm =[AQlm" ,...,AQgmi"yAVgT,..., AV$,AV8~l;ntl, as, as, as, ap,
..  .. ... *
..,,AV,P',Y
xmax= [AT, .. .,AT,"", AV," ,...,AVx, A Q g y , avL 
 apz ... ap. 
 avL
...,AQg% ,I'
 as,   aa,, as,   ap. 
xmin= [AT,"'",. .., A T ~ d n ,...,AV,.On,AQg$ ,
..*
. . . , AQg,l'
(9) ...
Where
ATmx = Tm"  T a c r , ATmin = Tmin Tuct ...
A Q w = Q m x Qocf, I
AQmin = Qmin  Qacr
AV" = Vim  V a c r , AV& = V d U V Q C t Knowing the terms av@, dvL/av, d P p 8 , and
aQ/aV in the above relation, the sensitivities of the objective
A. Computation of sensitivity mtrix (S) function with respect to the real and reactive power injections
The sensitivity matrix S relating the dependent and control at all the buses except the swing bus,
variable is evaluated [7] in the following manner. Considering &,/ap, ,av, fdQ,, k=2 ...n @us 1 is considered as a
the fact that the reactive power injections at a bus does not reference bus) can be computed. From the solution of the
change for a small change in the phase angle of the bus above the objective function sensitivities with respect to
voltage, the relation between the net reactive power change at transformer taps and generator excitation voltages can be
arty node due to change in the transformer tap settings and the calculated using the equations given below.
voltage magnitudes can be written as
(10)
(14)
A9 A10 A l l A12
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Step I: Perform the initial operationai load flow (or output of Case I Effect of tup  controllersettings on the system:
state estimation) to obtain the values of Lindex at
each load bus and check for voltage violations in the In this case, tap setting of each transformer is varied in its
system. full range from lower limit (0.9 p a ) to the upper limit
Step 2: Advance the VAR control iteration count. (1.1p.u.) in steps of 0.0125 by keeping the tap settings of the
Step 3: Compute the column matrices (b, bdn) of the remaining transformers at nominal value (1.0 pa.), under peak
linearized upper and lower limits on the dependent load conditions. For each tap setting of controlling transfomer
variables. the power flow solution and voltage stability indices of all the
Srep 4: Compute h e column matrices (x, x ~ , Jof the load buses for the system are obtained. The corresponding
linearized upper and lower limits on the control results of voltage magnitudes and voltage stability indices (L
variables. values) are shown in Fig.2 and Fig.3 respectively.
Step 5: Modify the matrices x, and x ~ , ,to reasonably small
ranges.
Step 6: Compute the sensitivity matrix (S), relating the
dependent variables and the control variables.
Step 7: Compute the row matrix (C) of the objective function
sensitivities with respect to the control variables.
Step 8: Solve the optimization problem using the linear
programming technique.
Step 9: Obtain the optimum settings of control variables.
Step 10: Perform the operational loadflow with the optimum
settings of the control variables. Find the Lindex for
all the load buses in the system.
S f q 11: Check for satisfactory limits on the dependent
variables. If no, go to step 2.
Tap senings
Fig. 3. L index values at the controlled buses with respecc to tap settings
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solution. The results are shown from Fig.4 and Fig. 5
corresponding to Generator GI and Generator G3 respectively.
From these results it is clear that the transformer connecting
between the buses 14 and 8 (T,&S) drawing more reactive
=I P
power from the generators in comparison to other
transformers, when the tap is moved from nominal 1.0 towards
0.9 setting. Hence this transformer i s critical for the system.
Tap settings
TABLE I
MOVEMENT OF CONTROLLER SETlTNG.5 DUREVG OPTTMIZAnON
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VI. CONCLUSION WI. BIOGRAPHIES
The problem of voltage stability in power system focusing on D. Thukaram (SM, 90) received the B.E. degree in
the effect of On Load Tap Changing transformers i s Electrical Engineering from Osmania University,
Hydembad in 1974, M.Tech degree in Intepted
discussed. An approach is presented for monitoring the on  Power Systems from Nagpur University in 1976 and
load tap changing transformers effect on voltage stability and Ph.D. degree from Indian Institute of Science,
identifying the critical transformers which may lead to voltage Bangalore in 1986. Since 1976 he has been with
instability under peak Ioad conditions. The approach is based i
Indian Institute of Science as a research fellow and
faculty in various positions and currently he i s
on voltage stability L index. The effect of OLTCs on voltage Professor. His research interests include computer
stability are simulated and explained for a 24  node practical aided power system Analysis, reactive power
power system.. The studies show that under varying load optimization, voltage stability, distribution
conditions the OLTC directions obtained with different automation and AI applications in power systems.
objectives are similar, if the system conditions are not close to Lawrence Jenkins received the B.Tech degree in
critical voltage instability situation. However, as the system Electronics from IlT Madras in 1972. In 1974 and
conditions are approaching closure to voltage instability 1976 he received MS and Ph.D. d e g m both in
conditions, sensitivities of some critical transformers may be Electricat Engneering from the University of Nortre
Dame, USA. Since 1979 he bas been with Indian
reversed. Institute of Science, Bangalore where currently he is
Professor. His research interests include power system
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