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For Std.

IX
Contents Chemistry
Experiment 1 Indicators ...............................................................................................................................
Experiment 2 Nature of Solution .................................................................................................................
Experiment 3 pH of Fruit Juice .....................................................................................................................
Experiment 4 Hydrolysis of salt....................................................................................................................
Experiment 5 Strong & Weak Acid ...............................................................................................................
Experiment 6 Effects of Heat on Compounds ..............................................................................................
Experiment 7 Detection of Radicals .............................................................................................................
Experiment 8 Identifying the Solution .........................................................................................................
Experiment 9 Detection of Radicals .............................................................................................................
Experiment 10 Emulsion role of Emulsifying Agents ...................................................................................
Experiment 11 Study of properties of solution (Colloid and Suspension) ...................................................
Experiment 12 Sublimation ..........................................................................................................................
Experiment 13 Preparation of CO2. ....................................................................
Experiment 14 Preparation of H2S ...............................................................................................................
Experiment 15 Separation Techniques ........................................................................................................
Experiment 16 Neutralization Reaction .......................................................................................................
Experiment 17 Type of Chemical Reaction ..................................................................................................
Experiment 18 Type of Chemical Reaction ..................................................................................................

Contents Physics
Experiment 1 Distance and displacement....................................................................................................
Experiment 2 Work done .............................................................................................................................
Experiment 3 Good or bad conductor of electricity ....................................................................................
Experiment 8-Laws of Reflection ....................................................................................................................
Experiment 9-Multiple Reflections .................................................................................................................
Experiment 10-Pressure exerted by metal block ............................................................................................
Experiment 11 Surface tension capillary ......................................................................................................
Experiment 12 Find unknown weight using the principle of moment .........................................................
Experiment 13 Mirrors-Spherical and plane ................................................................................................
Experiment 14-Pulley ......................................................................................................................................
Experiment 15 Lens focal length ..................................................................................................................
Experiment 16 Simple Pendulum .................................................................................................................
Experiment 17 Simple Pendulum .................................................................................................................

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Experiment 18 Error in spring balance .........................................................................................................
Experiment 19 Paper scale............................................................................................................................

Contents Biology

Experiment 1 : Herb Shrub Tree Climber Creeper ...........................................................................


Experiment 2: Dicot and Monocot Plants .........................................................................................
Experiment 3: plant identification and classification........................................................................
Experiment 4: Animal classification. ...............................................................................................
Experiment 5. Habitat and adaptation of plants and animals............................................................
Experiment 6: classification of waste. ..............................................................................................
Experiment 7 :Asexual methods of reproduction .............................................................................
Experiment 8: Plant movements .......................................................................................................
Experiment 9: Locomotory organ and symmetry .............................................................................

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Experiment 1 Indicators
AIM:
To identify whether the given solution is acid or base or neutral by litmus paper test.

CHEMICAL USED:
Dilute Sulphuric acid, Dilute Potassium Hydroxide, Potassium Nitrate solution, Red and Blue Litmus Paper

APPARATUS:
Three fresh and cleaned beaker and name it A, B and C.

PROCEDURE:
1. Take about 10 mL of Dilute Sulphuric acid, Dilute Potassium Hydroxide, Potassium Nitrate solution in
beaker A, B and C respectively
2. Now, dip red and blue litmus paper simultaneously in each solution.
3. Record the observation in the table

OBSERVATION:
Colour Change
S. No. Solution Final
Initial Colour
Colour

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

CONCLUSION:
Solution Nature

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CONCEPT CHECK:

Q1.What is an indicators? Name any three of them and their reaction towards acidic and basic medium.
Q2.What is pH? How do you measure pH? Give examples of : Basic Salt, Acidic Salt
Q3.Write down the equation when acid and bases react? Do they always produce a neutral salt?
Q4.Name two other indicators that can be found commonly and can used in the household to test pH? What
are they called?

Experiment 2 Nature of Solution


AIM:
To identify whether the given solution is acidic or basic or neutral by Phenolphthalein and Methyl Orange

CHEMICAL USED:
Phenolphthalein (Ph.), Methyl Orange (MO) and the unknown solutions M and N (to be identified) in two
separate beakers

APPARATUS:
Four test tube, Test tube stand and dropper

PROCEDURE:
1. Name the test tube A, B, C and D.
2. Take about 5 mL of solution of M in test tube A and B, 5 mL of solution of N in C and D
3. Now, add few drops of MO to A and C, and Ph. to B and D
4. Record the observation in the table

OBSERVATION:
S.
Solution Indicator added Observations Inference
No.

1. Test tube A Methyl Orange

2. Test tube B Phenolphthalein

3. Test tube C Methyl Orange

4. Test tube D Phenolphthalein

CONCLUSION:
Solution Nature

Solution M

Solution N

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CONCEPT CHECK:

Q1.Can we find out the pH of a solutions with only one indicator? If yes, name it
Q2.Lime water has a pH of (>7, =7, <7)
Q3.Lime Juice has a pH of (>7, =7, <7)
Q4.What is universal indicator? How does it work?

Experiment 3 pH of Fruit Juice


AIM:
To determine pH the of the given different fruits juices with the help of universal indicator

CHEMICAL USED:
Fruit Juices from different fruits A, B, C, D and E, universal indicator

APPARATUS : Five test tube, Test tube stand and dropper


PROCEDURE:
1. Take about 5 mL of fruit juice A in test tube and add few drops of universal indicator to it
2. Record the observation in the table
3. Repeat the steps (1) and (2) with other juices

OBSERVATION:
S. Colour of pH Nature
Solution pH
No. paper (Acidic/Basic/Neutral)

1. Juice A

2. Juice B

3. Juice C

4. Juice D

5. Juice E

CONCLUSION:
1) _______________________________________________________________________
2) _______________________________________________________________________
3) ________________________________________________________________________

CONCEPT CHECK:

Q1.What is an indicators? Name any three of them and their reaction towards acidic and basic medium.
Q2.What is pH? How do you measure pH?
Q3.Write down the equation when acid and bases react? Do they always produce a neutral salt?
Q4.Give examples of : Basic Salt, Acidic Salt
Q5.Name two other indicators that can be found commonly and can used in the household to test pH? What
are they called?

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Experiment 4 Hydrolysis of salt

AIM : To determine pH the of the given salt solutions with the help of universal indicator
CHEMICAL USED: Different salt solutions A, B, C, D and E, universal indicator
APPARATUS:
Five test tube, Test tube stand and dropper

PROCEDURE:
1. Take about 5 mL of salt solution A in test tube and add few drops of universal indicator to it
2. Record the observation in the table
3. Repeat the steps (1) and (2) with other salt solutions

OBSERVATION:
S. Salt Colour of pH Nature
pH
No. Solution paper (Acidic/Basic/Neutral)

1. A

2. B

3. C

4. D

5. E

CONCLUSION:
1) _______________________________________________________________________
2) _______________________________________________________________________
3) ________________________________________________________________________

CONCEPT CHECK:

Q1.What is hydrolysis of salt?


Q2.Will salts respond to the universal indicator in solid form? Give reasons for your answer.
Q3.What are acidic salts and basic salts? Name few of them.
Q4.Which chemical is used as antacid? What is its pH?

Experiment 5 Strong & Weak Acid


AIM:
To determine and compare the pH of strong and weak acidic solutions with same concentration with help of
universal indicator

CHEMICAL USED:
Different acidic solutions A, B, C, D and universal indicator

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APPARATUS:
Four test tube, Test tube stand and dropper

PROCEDURE:
1. Take about 10 mL of acidic solution A in test tube and add few drops of universal indicator to it
2. Record the observation in the table
3. Repeat the steps (1) and (2) with other solutions

OBSERVATION:
S. Acidic Colour of pH Nature
pH
No. Solution paper (Strong/Weak)

1. A

2. B

3. C

4. D

5. E

CONCLUSION:
1) _______________________________________________________________________
2) _______________________________________________________________________
3) ________________________________________________________________________

CONCEPT CHECK:

Q1.What is strong base? How do you determine whether a given base is strong base?
Q2.Identify whether the given solution is Strong acid/Strong base/ Weak acid/weak base: Human Blood,
Tap Water, Malic Acid, and Lime Juice.

Experiment6 Effects of Heat on Compounds


AIM:
To study the effect of heat on crystals of hydrated salt
CHEMICAL USED:
Salts A and B
APPARATUS:
Two test tube, Test tube holder and Bunsen burner
PROCEDURE:
1. Take about 0.1 g of salt A in dry test tube , and heat it strongly with Bunsen burner
2. Record the observation in the table
3. Repeat the steps (1) and (2) with salt B

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OBSERVATION:

S. No. Salt Effect of Heat Colour of residue


1. A

2. B

CONCLUSION:
1) _______________________________________________________________________
2) _______________________________________________________________________
3) ________________________________________________________________________

CONCEPT CHECK:

Q1.What is water of crystallization? What is nature of gas evolved?


Q2.When Washing Soda is heated strongly, gas A is evolved then on further heating gas B is evolved. Find
gas A and B, also state is it acidic/basic or neutral?
Q3.What is efflorescence and deliquescent? Give two examples

Experiment 7 Detection of Radicals


AIM:

To detect the presence of Cl , Br and I in a given solutions.

APPARATUS: Test Tubes, test tube stand

CHEMICALS USED: Powders A, B and C, conc. H2SO4, starch paper, starch iodide paper, Black Powder X

PROCEDURE:

1. Take 0.2 g of powder A in a dry test tube and add a pinch of Black powder X to it.
2. Add 2-3 mL of conc. H2SO4to the test and heat it strongly.
3. Observe and record the colour of the gas.
4. Now hold a moist starch paper and starch iodide paper at the mouth of the test tube, and record the
colour changes.
5. Repeat the steps (1) to (4) with powder B and C.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

Colour of Effect on Effect on starch


S.NO POWDER CONCLUSION
evolved gas starch paper iodide paper
1. A
2. B
3. C

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RESULT:

1. Radical in solution A is ____________


2. Radical in solution B is ____________
3. Radical in solution C is ____________

CONCEPT CHECK:

Q1. What will be the observation when the gas evolved passed on moist Red and Blue litmus paper? Give
reasons for the same
Q2. What is role of powder X and conc. H2SO4 in the experiment?
Q3. All the halogens are good reducing agent. Why?

Experiment 8 Identifying the Solution


AIM:

To identify the solution

APPARATUS: Test Tubes, test tube stand

CHEMICALS USED:

Unknown solutions A, B, C and a known solution X (which either one of A, B, C)

PROCEDURE:

1. Take Solution A in test tube and add Solution B to it.


2. Record the observation in the table
3. Now, repeat the same procedure with solution C and X, and note down the same in given table
4. Repeat the steps (1) to (3) with solution B and C

OBSERVATION TABLE:

S.NO SOLUTION MIXED OBSERVATION CONCLUSION


1. A+B

2. A+C

3. A+X

4. B+C

5. B+X

6. C+X

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RESULT:

1. The Solution X is actually _____________. Give Reasons


2. If the acidic radical of a given compound is bicarbonate and acidic radical of another compound is
Chloride then, write down balance reaction between them?
3. Which is Oxidizing agent in the above reaction? Why?
4. Which type of reaction takes between A and B, A and C?
5.

Experiment 9 Detection of Radicals



AIM: To detect the presence of Cl , Br and I in a given solutions.

APPARATUS: Test Tubes, test tube stand, etc.

CHEMICALS USED: a) Solution A, B, C b) Reagent X

PROCEDURE:

1. Take 5mLsolution A in test tube and add Reagent X to it and shake it well.
2. Record the observation in the table
3. Repeat the steps (1) and (2) with solution B and C

OBSERVATION TABLE:

S.NO TEST OBSERVATION CONCLUSION

1. Solution A

2. Solution B

3. Solution C

RESULT:

4. Radical in solution A is ____________


5. Radical in solution B is ____________
6. Radical in solution C is ____________

Experiment 10 Emulsion role of Emulsifying Agents


AIM: To study role of Emulsifying Agents in stabilizing the emulsion of different oils

APPARATUS: Test Tubes, test tube stand, droppers and stop clock

CHEMICALS USED: Kerosene Oil, Mustard Oil, Machine Oil, Castor Oil and Coconut oil

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PROCEDURE:

1. Firstly, take the oil in different test tubes and name it A, B, C, D, E


2. Now add, water solution to test tube A and shake it well
3. Note down the time taken to separate and form different layers
4. Now add soap solution with the help of dropper to the above test tube, and shake it well
5. Note down the time taken to separate and form different layers after adding soap solution
6. Repeat the same experiment with B, C, D, E.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

Time taken to form Time taken to


TEST different layers form different
S.NO OBSERVATION
TUBE (without soap layers (with soap
solution) solution)

1. A

2. B

3. C

4. D

5. E

CONCEPT CHECK:

Q1.Which one the solutions takes the longest time before and after the addition of Soap Solution? Are both the
oils same. If no, why?
Q2.What is emulsifying agent? How do they stable the solution
Q3.Do all the emulsifying agent have the same effect on solution? Give reasons

Experiment 11 Study of properties of solution (Colloid and Suspension)


AIM:

To study different properties of solutions

APPARATUS: Test Tubes, test tube stand, droppers and filter paper

CHEMICALS USED: Sugar, Milk, Copper Sulphate, Olive Oil, Chalk Powder

PROCEDURE:

1. Firstly, take the oil in different test tubes and name it A, B, C, D, E


2. Now add, sugar to test tube A and shake it well for 30 seconds
3. Note down the appearance of the solution after a few minutes
Fiure 1

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4. Now use the filter paper as shown in fig. 1 to filter the given solutions, and take down the appearance of
filtered solution
5. Note down the time taken to separate and form different layers after adding soap solution
6. Repeat the same experiment with B, C, D, and E.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

Materials Appearance Appearance after


Appearance
S.NO mixed with before Type of Solution
after mixing filtration
Water mixing

1. Sugar

2. Milk

Copper
3.
Sulphate

4. Olive Oil

5. Chalk Powder

CONCEPT CHECK:

Q1.Which of the above solution(s) cant be filtered with filter paper? Give reasons.
Q2.Suggest the methods to separate each of the mixtures?
Q3.What are the size of particles in colloidal solution and suspension?

Experiment 12 Sublimation
AIM: Separation of following mixture by using sublimation method

APPARATUS: Tripod stand, evaporating dish, funnel etc.

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PROCEDURE:

1. Take the mixture in a evaporating dish


2. Cover the dish with glass funnel as given in figure
3. Heat the mixture

OBSERVATION:

1. Observe the changes after heating


2. Smell of sublimatory/ sublimable substance.
3. The type of mixture is ________.

CONCEPT CHECK:

Figure 2: Sublimation
Q1.Substance left behind in the dish
Q2.Any 2 examples of sublimable substances used in our day to day life.
Q3.Give two examples of sublimation from day to day life.

Experiment 13 Preparation of CO2

AIM: To demonstrate the laboratory preparation of carbon.

CHEMICALS USED:

Dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl), lime water, magnesium ribbon, calcium


carbonate (marble chips), universal indicator, litmus paper.

APPARATUS:

Candle, thistle funnel, glass jar, U-tube, test tube, matches, flask, rubber cock

PROCEDURE: Figure 3

1. Add calcium carbonate chips to the flask and close the tube with rubber clock.
2. Pour dilute hydrochloric acid into the top of the funnel; ensure that the liquid covers the tip of the funnel
in the flask.
3. Perform these various tests on the gas collected and note your results:
I. Observe the gas for colour.
II. Uncover one of the gas jars and use your hand to gently waft the gas towards the nostrils.
III. Add lime water to one of the gas jars and shake the mixture gently.
IV. Uncover one of the gas jars and place a lit candle over the mouth of the jar.
V. Use a match to light a small piece of magnesium ribbon and place in gas jar
VI. Add a universal indicator to an uncovered jar and shake the mixture gently to determine its pH
VII. Introduce the moist litmus paper to an uncovered jar.

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CONCEPT CHECK:

1. How the gas is collected in the laboratory?


2. What will happen when CO2 is passed through lime water for a longer time and why?
3. Explain physical and chemical properties of CO2.
4. Why CO2 gas has no effect on filter paper dipped in acidified KMnO4?
5. Name two carbonates which do not produce CO2 on heating.
6.

Experiment 14 Preparation of H2S

AIM:

To demonstrate the laboratory preparation of hydrogen sulphide.

CHEMICALS USED:

Iron sulphide, Hydrochloric acid, Acidified CuSO4 solution, Acidified Pb(NO3)2, Acidified K2Cr2O7solution,
Blue and Red litmus paper

APPARATUS:

Thistle funnel, glass jar, U-tube, test tube, rubber cock,


round bottom flask

PROCEDURE:

1. Pour the dilute hydrochloric acid through the thistle


funnel such that the funnel dips into the acid.
2. As soon as hydrochloric acid comes into contact with
iron sulphide, it combines a gas is evolved
3. Now pass the gas with acidified CuSO4and note
down the observations
4. Now repeat the procedure with remaining other three solutions

OBSERVATIONS:

1. Effect of gas on acidified CuSO4_____________________


2. Effect of gas on acidified Pb(NO3)2_____________________
3. Effect of gas on acidified K2Cr2O7_____________________
4. Effect of gas on moist Red litmus_____________________
5. Effect of gas on moist Blue litmus _____________________

6. Smell of the Gas _____________________

CONCLUSION:

The gas evolved is _______________________

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CONCEPT CHECK:

Q1.What the uses of gas evolved?


Q2.Write down the reaction involved in this experiment.
Q3.Is properties of H2O and H2S are similar? Give reasons.

Experiment 15 Separation Techniques

AIM: To separate out the given components in given mixture

PROCEDURE:

1. Take 20 grams of the given mixture for testing and divide it into two equal parts A and B.
2. Now, take Part A of mixture and heat it strongly with the help of Bunsen burner. Note down the
observation in the table.
3. Next, take Part B of mixture and add 10 mL of distilled water. Note down the observation in the table.
4. Continue with different methods, till you can separate out the mixture

OBSERVATIONS:

S.NO TEST OBSERVATION INFERENCE

1. On heating

2. On adding water

3.

4.

5.

CONCLUSION:

The mixture given is mixture of _______________and_______________, which is separated by


_______________ process.

CONCEPT CHECK:

Q1.Which type of mixture is given? What are other types of mixtures? Give two examples each
Q2.What are the physical methods used to separate mixtures?

Experiment 16 Neutralization Reaction


AIM: To produce and isolate a salt by neutralization reaction.

CHEMICALS USED:1M hydrochloric acid, 1M sodium hydroxide, phenolphthalein solution.


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APPARATUS: Conical flask, Titrating tube, test tube holder, pipette, test tube

PROCEDURE:

1. Pour 20 ml of 1M sodium hydroxide into a clean beaker


2. Add a drop of phenolphthalein indicators solution to the beaker
3. Add, drop by drop, 1M HCl to the beaker using a dropper, Stir constantly while
adding the acid, continue adding the acid until the colour of solution just
disappears within one drop. Then add one more drop.
4. Pour the contents of beaker into evaporating dish and place the dish on the sand bath.
5. Evaporate the solution to dryness using the Bunsen burner.
6. Turn off the gas burner and remove the evaporating dish from sand bath using
tongs. Examine the residue in the evaporating dish.

OBSERVATION:
Figure 4
Volume used of HCl = ______________

Other observation (if any): __________________

CONCEPT CHECK:

Q1.What is neutralization reaction? Write down the reaction involved in this experiment?
Q2.Is it possible to take HCl in beaker and NaOH in titrating tube? If yes, which indicator should we use?

Experiment 17 Type of Chemical Reaction


AIM: To study the types of chemical reactions

CHEMICALS USED: Unknown chemicals A, B,C and D, dil. HCl.

APPARATUS: Test Tubes, test tube stand, droppers, candle, burner

PROCEDURE:

1. Part I

i. Take 4 ml of A solution in a test tube


ii. Take 2 ml of B solution in another test tube. And add B to A
iii. Observe the change

2. Part II

i. Take about 2g of C crystals in a dry boiling tube and note the colour of the crystals
ii. Hold the boiling tube with a test tube holder and heat the boiling tube over the flame of a burner.
iii. Smell the gas being emitted
iv. Observe the colour of the crystals often heating

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3. Part III

i. Place granulated D crystals in the conical flash and dil. hydrochloric acid is added slowly using a dropping
funnel.
ii. Collect the gas emitted in an invested tube and brings the tube near a burning candle.
iii. Observe the change

OBSERVATION:

S.NO TEST OBSRVATION Type of reaction Type of change

1. A+B

2. C + Heat

3. D + diluted HCl

CONCEPT CHECK:

Q1.If the basic radical in compound A is M+3 and acidic radical is Nitrate the give chemical reaction
involved in Part I. What is the type of reaction?
Q2.Write down the chemical equations involved in 2nd and 3rd parts.

Experiment 18 Type of Chemical Reaction


AIM: To study the types of chemical reactions

CHEMICALS USED: Compound A, Solution B and Liquid C.

APPARATUS: Test Tubes, test tube stand, droppers, candle, burner

PROCEDURE:

i. Take pinch of A in a test tube and Liquid solution C in it.


ii. Now strongly heat the above mixture
iii. Next, dip the glass rod in solution B and take it near the mouth of the test tube
iv. Observe it carefully, and note down the observation in given table

OBSERVATION:

S.NO TEST OBSRVATION Type of reaction Type of change


Compound A + liquid
C + Solution B when
1.
taken the mouth of test
tube

Compound A + Heat
2. (Observe the flame
colour)

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CONCEPT CHECK:

Q1.Name the gas involved in the reaction.


Q2.Identify and write down the reaction when Solution B is bought near A
Q3.Can you identify the metal in the given compound?

Experiment 1 Distance and displacement


AIM:
To determine distance and displacement covered by a body.

APPARATUS:
Pencil, scale and graph paper

Diagram:

PROCEDURE:

1. Amit walks 3 km towards north.


2. Then he turns right and moves 5 km towards east.
3. Then he again turns right and moves 3 km towards south.
4. Taking scale of 1 km = 1 cm draw all 3 above steps on a graph paper.

OBSERVATION:

Sr No. Steps Distance(cm) Displacement(cm)

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CALCULATIONS:
Total distance =

Total displacement =

CONCLUSIONS:

1. Distance is a scalar quantity that refers to "how much on ground an object has covered" during its motion.
2. Displacement is a vector quantity that refers to "how far out of place an object is"; it is the object's overall
change in position.

CONCEPT CHECK:

Q1. How much will be total distance if Amit continues his journey by turning right and moves 5 km towards
west?
Q2. How much will be total displacement in question 1.

Experiment 2 Work done


AIM:
To determine work done by a body

APPARATUS:
Pencil, scale and object

ASSUMPTIONS:

1. Applied force on the object is equal to 200 newton.


2. Applied force on the object is equal to 500 newton.

DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

1. By applying force of 200 N on the object we move it from A to B.


2. Measure the distance of A and B with help of scale.
3. By applying force of 200 N on the object we move it from C to D.
4. Measure the distance of C and D with help of scale.
5. By applying force of 500 N on the object we move it from A to B.
6. Measure the distance of A and B with help of scale.
7. By applying force of 500 N on the object we move it from C to D.

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8. Measure the distance of C and D with help of scale.
9. Record all observations in the table.

OBSERVATIONS:

Step Displaceme Force


S. No Work Done(J) = Force X Displacement
s nt(m) applied(N)

CONCLUSIONS:

1. Work is done whenever a force moves something over a distance.


2. Either force or displacement increases work done increases.

CONCEPT CHECK:

Q1. How much work is done by an applied force to lift a 15-Newton block 3.0 meters vertically?
Q2. How much is the work done in a circular motion?

Experiment 3 Good or bad conductor of electricity


AIM:

To classify the given materials as good conductors and bad conductors

Apparatus:

1. Materials for classification


2. Electric bulb
3. Switch
4. Connecting wires
5. Connector
6. Electric cell.

Given materials for classification: Material A, Material B, Material C and Material D.

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DIAGRAM:

B u lb

x y
+

S w itch C ell C on n ector


(to con n ect th e
g iven m a ter ia l)

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the apparatus as per the diagram given.


2. Connect each material (A, B, C, D) in the circuit and identify the effect of these materials in the electric
bulb and classify these as good and bad conductors in the table given.

OBSERVATION:

EFFECT ON BULB (BULB GOOD


EXPERIMENT MATERIALS
GLOWS/BULB DOES NOT CONDUCTOR OR
NO. USED
GLOW) BAD CONDUCTOR
1 MATERIAL A
2 MATERIAL B
3 MATERIAL C
4 MATERIAL D

CONCLUSION:

The given materials are classified as:

Good conductors
Bad conductors

1. The materials which conduct electricity are called good conductors and the materials which do not conduct
electricity are called bad conductors.
2. In this experiment, the bulb glows when _____________ (name the materials) are connected in the circuit
and the bulb does not glow when _____________ (name the materials) are connected in the circuit. Thus
_____________ (name the materials) are good conductors and _____________ (name the materials) are bad
conductors.

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CONCEPT CHECK:

1. Define good conductor of electricity with at least 5 examples.


2. From the examples given in the above question, identify the best conductor of electricity.
3. Define bad conductor of electricity with at least 5 examples.
4. Draw a simple diagram to show the direction of electric current and the direction of flow of electrons.
5. Which material is used as the filament in the bulb?

Experiment 4 Density of bottle


AIM: Find density of a given bottle
Instruction:
1. Take a plastic bottle with wide mouth. Find volume of bottle. Also find its mass and enter it in the
observation table. Take a jar filled with water upto 3/4th part.
2. CASE A:Put the empty plastic bottle in the jar. How much part of bottle is immersed in water? Note it
down in the observation table.
3. CASE B:Add some quantity of wheat to the bottle (say upto 1/4th part) and now find volume and mass
of the bottle. Enter it in the observation table. Now transfer it to the jar. How much part of bottle is
immersed in water? Note it down in the observation table.
4. CASE C:Add some more quantity of wheat to the bottle (say upto half) and repeat the above step.
5. CASE D:Now fill it upto 3/4th part with wheat and repeat the above procedure.

OBSERVATION:

Part of bottle
S. Density (gm/cc)
Case Mass (gm) Volume(cc) immersed in
No. Under water(cm)
water
1. A.
2. B.
3. C.
4. D.
5. E.

CONCLUSION:
_____________________________________________________________________

CONCEPT CHECK:

Q1.Explain the law of floatation.


Q2.Why does the bottle sink in water when completely filled?
Q3.Why does the bottle float on water when it is empty?
Q4.Find capacity of the bottle?

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Experiment 5 Archimedes Principle: Wooden Cube
AIM:

Use Archimedes principles find out volume of the wooden cube.

APPARATUS: beaker, submersible heavy object like stone, thread, wooden cube, measuring cylinder.

PROCEDURE:

1. Take a beaker and fill it completely with water and dip the heavy stone and measure the volume of water
displaced.
2. Take one thread and tie the cube and a heavy stone together to it.
3. Now dip both cube and stone together in to water and note down the volume of water displaced.
4. Calculate the volume of the cube by, mathematical method, and verify the answer.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

1. Volume of water displaced when stone was immersed in water ____________


2. Volume of stone ________________________
3. Volume of water displaced when stone and cube together were immersed in water
_______________________
4. Volume of cube by Archimedes method ____________
5. Volume of cube by mathematical method ____________

CONCLUSION: _____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

CONCEPT CHECK:

Q1.How will you determine volume of hollow plastic ball using above method?

Experiment 6 Archimedes Principle: Loss of Weight

AIM:
To verify Archimedes principle.

APPARATUS:
Metal Slab, spring balance, over-flow vessel, measuring cylinder, water and thread.

PROCEDURE:
1. Find the weight of metal slab in air with spring balance.
2. Fill the overflow vessel with water upto the spoilt. Keep the measuring cylinder below the spout.
3. Immerse the metal slab completely in water as shown in fig.
4. Collect the water displaced by the slab in a measuring jar.
5. Also note down the weight of the slab when immersed completely in water.
6. Calculate the loss of weight of the metal slab in water.
(Loss in wt. = wt. in air wt. in water)
23
7. Since weight of 1cm3 water=1gm-wt, find the weight of the water displaced.
8. Repeat same experiment with kerosene.

OBSERVATION:

Volume of
Wt. of slab in Wt. of slab in Loss of wt. in Wt. of water
water
air water water displaced (gm-
displaced
(gm-wt.) (gm-wt.) (gm-wt.) wt.)
(ml)

CONCLUSION:
1. A body loses weight in liquid.
2. Loss in the weight of a body in liquid is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the immersed part of
the body.

CONCEPT CHECK:

1. What is the unit of weight?


2. What is the unit of mass?
3. Distinguish between mass and weight
4. Why it is easier to swim in ocean water than in river water?
5. Why does motorboat sink more in river tan in ocean?

Experiment 7 Archimedes principle: Density of solid


AIM:

To determine density of a solid heavier than water by Archimedes principle.

APPARATUS: Beaker, submersible heavy object like stone, thread, overflow vessel, measuring cylinder,
spring balance.

PROCEDURE:

1. Find weight of solid in air using spring balance. Note it as W1.


2. Find weight of solid in water keeping solid completely immersed in water. Note it as W2.
3. Takes care that solid should not touch sides of beaker or bottom.

OBSERVATION:

1. Weight in air=W1=___________
2. Weight in water=W2=___________
1
3. Density of solid= 103 kg/m3=___________
1 2

24
CONCEPT CHECK:

1. What is up-thrust?
2. What is relative density?

Experiment 8-Laws of Reflection


AIM: To prove the law of reflection through a plane mirror.
FIRST LAW: When a light ray strikes a plane mirror, the light ray reflects off the mirror. Reflection involves
a change in direction of the light ray. The angle of incidence is the angle between this normal line and the
incident ray; the angle of reflection is the angle between this normal line and the reflected ray. According to the
law of reflection, the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.

SECOND LAW: Incident ray, Reflected ray and the normal at the point of incidence lie in the same plane.

APPARATUS:

Soft board, white sheet of paper, optical pins, mirror, pencil, protractor and ruler.

DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE

1. Place the paper on the board and fix


2. Place the mirror vertically on the white sheet of paper and trace its edge.
3. Draw a line at right angles to the edge of the mirror to act as the normal- ON
4. Stating with angle i as 30 degree , draw an incident ray and place two pins, P and Q along it as shown
5. With your eyes at position shown, place two other pins R and S to coincide with the images of P and Q as
seen in the mirror
6. Remove pins R and S and join the dots left with a straight line
7. Measure and record angle r.
8. Repeat procedure 4, 5, 6 and 7for angles i = 35o, 40o, 45o, 50oand 55o.
9. Record the results in a table

25
OBSERVATIONS:

Sr No. i (in degrees) r(in degrees)

CONCLUSION:

1. The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection


2. Incident ray, Reflected ray and the normal at the point of incidence lie in the same plane

CONCEPT CHECK:

1. What are regular and irregular reflection? Also give the examples of each.
2. What are the applications of Reflection of light?
3. Calculate the angle of deviation for Reflection of light.

Experiment 9-Multiple Reflections


AIM:
To study the multiple reflection of an object by two mirrors with different angle between them.

APPARATUS:
Protractor, two identical plane mirrors, modelling clay, small object, strip of paper, pen, plastic packaging tape

PROCEDURE:
1. Tape your mirrors together so that they can be opened and closed like a hinge. Leave a slight gap between
the two edges (around 1/16th of an inch) .
2. Mark angles of 30, 36, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 180 degrees on a piece of paper using your protractor.
3. Place the hinge of your mirrors at the vertex of your marked angles.
4. The first angle you will test will be 180 degrees.
5. Place your object (you can embed it in modeling clay if it wont stand up on its own) in the middle of the
mirrors and look at the reflection.
6. Keeping the object equally between the two mirrors, move the mirrors together into the other angles you
marked out with your protractor.
7. Record the number of images formed in the observation table.

26
OBSERVATIONS:

TOTAL INVERTED ERECT


SR. NO. ANGLE
IMAGES IMAGES IMAGES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

CONCLUSION:
__________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
CONCEPT CHECK:

Q1.What is the relation between number of images formed and angle between mirrors?
Q2.How many images will be formed when the angle between the mirrors is 45,60,90?

Experiment 10-Pressure exerted by metal block


AIM:

The aim of this experiment is to observe and compare the pressure exerted by a solid iron cuboid on sand while
resting on its three different faces and to calculate the pressure exerted in the three cases.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: Solid Iron Cuboid, Small Scale (6 scale with cm marking), Tray and dry sand

PROCEDURE:

1. Fill three-quarter of a tray with dry sand and level it.


2. Measure the dimensions of a solid iron cuboid accurately using a scale. Mark the three faces of the cuboid
as A, B and C.
3. Place the solid iron cuboid by the surface A on the plane levelled sand in the tray.
4. After a few minutes, remove the Iron cuboid and you will see that it has made a depression in the sand.
5. Measure the depth (depression) it has made in the sand using the scale.
6. Repeat the same procedure for the other two surfaces.

OBSERVATIONS:

Gravitational force on the environment = __________ m/s2

1. Calculate the area occupied by each surface of the solid iron cuboid.
a) Area occupied by surface A in the sand; A1 = _________ cm2
27
b) Area occupied by surface B in the sand; A2 = _________ cm2
c) Area occupied by surface C in the sand; A3 = _________ cm2
2. Calculate the thrust applied by each surface of the solid iron cuboid.
a) Thrust applied by the surface A in the sand; T1 = ____________N
b) Thrust applied by the surface B in the sand; T2 = ____________ N
c) Thrust applied by the surface C in the sand; T3 = ____________ N

CALCULATIONS:

Area (Ai) Thrust (Ti) Thrust (in Newton)


S No. 104
(cm2) (N) Area (in 2 )
1
2
3
Thrust (in Newton)
Pressure (in Pa) =
Area (in 2 )

a) Pressure exerted when area A1 is in contact


b) Pressure exerted when area A2 is in contact
c) Pressure exerted when area A3 is in contact

CONCLUSION:

To study and compare the pressure exerted by a solid iron cuboid on sand, we need to find its mass and weight.
Simply stated, weight is the force acting vertically downward. The weight of an object is the force with which it
is attracted towards the earth, that is:

An object's weight depends on its environment, while its mass does not.

For an object in free fall, when gravity is the only force acting on it, the expression for weight follows Newton's
Second Law.

Thus:

The force acting on an object perpendicular to the surface is called thrust. The effect of thrust depends on the
area on which it acts. Thus:

= =

The thrust on unit area is called pressure. Thus:

Thrust
Pressure =
Area
28
SI unit of pressure is N/m2 or Nm-2 (Newton per square meter).

In honor of scientist Blaise Pascal, the SI unit of pressure is called Pascal, denoted by Pa.

CONCEPT CHECK:

1. The normal force exerted on unit area is called?


(a) Density (b) Pressure (c) Relative density (d) Thrust
2. The thrust exerted by a wooden block on the table top is 49 N and the area of the wooden block is
200 cm. Find the pressure.
(a) 0.245 Nm (b) 2450 Nm (c) 245 Nm (d) 24.50 Nm
3. Which of the following shows the application of the idea of pressure in daily life?
(a) Nail has a pointed tip. (b) Knives have sharp edges.
(c) Buildings have wide foundations. (d) All of the above
4. When the area is large, then the pressure exerted is ________.
(a) Medium (b) more (c) less (d) Independent of area
5. The effect of pressure exerted is larger _________.
(a) While standing (b) while sitting (c) While lying (d) same in all the cases.

Experiment 11 Surface tension capillary

AIM:

The aim of this experiment is to investigate the capillary rise of water in capillary tubes and as an extension to
determine the surface tension of water.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

a) A clean and dry capillary tube


b) A tipped pointer
c) A beaker containing water
d) A travelling microscope
e) Adjustable wooden stand
f) Clamps and stand

PROCEDURE:

1. To set up the apparatus:

a) Place the adjustable height stand on the table and make its base horizontal by leveling the screws.
b) Fix the capillary tube and the pointer in a cork, and clamp it in a rigid stand so that the capillary tubes and
the pointer become vertical.
c) Adjust the height of the vertical stand, so that the capillary tubes dip in the water in an open beaker.

29
d) Adjust the position of the pointer, such that its tip just touches the water surface.

2. To find the capillary rise:

a) Find the least count of the travelling microscope for the horizontal and the vertical scale.
b) Make the axis of the microscope horizontal.
c) Adjust the height of the microscope using the height adjusting screw.
d) Bring the microscope in front of the capillary tube and clamp it when the capillary rise becomes visible.
e) Make the horizontal cross wire just touch the central part of the concave meniscus.
f) Note the reading of the position of the microscope on the vertical scale.
g) Now, carefully remove the beaker containing water
h) Move the microscope horizontally and bring it in front of the pointer.
i) Lower the microscope and make the horizontal cross wire touch the tip of the pointer.
j) Corresponding vertical scale readings are noted.
k) The difference in the two readings (i.e., height of water meniscus and height of the tip of pointer) will give
the capillary rise of the given liquid.
l) We can repeat the experiment by changing the height of the wooden stand.

3. To find the internal diameter of the capillary tube:

a) Place the capillary tube horizontally on the adjustable stand.


b) Focus the microscope on the end dipped in water.
c) Make the horizontal cross- wire touch the inner circle at A (fig i). Note microscope reading on the vertical
scale.
d) Raise the microscope to make the horizontal cross wire touch the circle at B (fig ii). Note the vertical scale
reading.

e) The difference between the two readings will give the vertical internal diameter (AB) of the tube.
f) Move the microscope on the horizontal scale and make the vertical cross wire touch the inner circle at C (fig
iii). Note microscope reading on the horizontal scale.
g) Move the microscope to the right to make the vertical cross wire touch the circle at D (fig iv). Note the
horizontal scale reading.
h) The difference between the two readings will give the horizontal internal diameter (CD) of the tube.
i) We can calculate the diameter of the tube by calculating the mean of the vertical and horizontal internal
diameters. Half of the diameter will give the radius of the capillary tube.

30

=
.

0.5
= = 0.01 = 0.001
50
OBSERVATIONS:

To find the capillary rise:

Radius of the water meniscus Reading at the tip of pointer


Height,
No. V.S.R Total = MSR Total = MSR +
M.S.R. M.S.R. V.S.R. h = (h1-
. +h1(VSRLC) h2(VSRLC)
(cm) (cm) (div.) h2) (cm)
(div.) (cm) (cm)

Mean h = .......... cm = ............. 10-2 m

To find the internal diameter of the capillary tube:

Microscope readings for cross wire in


Internal diameter Internal
position
radius (cm),

Mean
Vertical, Horizont
A B C D (cm),
Y= B-A al, X=D- =
(cm) (cm) (cm) (cm) +
(cm) C (cm) =

CALCULATIONS:

Density of water at observed temperature, = __________ kgm-3

Angle of contact of water in glass, = 8

cos = 0.99027 ~ 1
31
Note the values of h in the first table and r in the second table for each capillary tube separately and find the
value of T in each case.

(+ )
Surface tension, = 3
= _______________ N/m
2 cos

CONCLUSION:

Surface tension of water is _________________ N/m.

1. Surface tension is the property of a liquid, by virtue of which its free surface at rest behaves like an elastic
skin or a stretched rubber membrane, with a tendency to contract so as to occupy minimum surface area.
This property is caused by cohesion of molecules and is responsible for much of the behaviors of liquids.
2. The property of surface tension is revealed, for example, by the ability of some objects to float on the
surface of water, even though they are denser than water. Surface tension is also seen in the ability of some
insects, such as water striders, and even reptiles like basilisk, to run on the waters surface.

The Theory behind Surface Tension

Surface tension has been well- explained by the molecular theory of matter. According to this theory, cohesive
forces among liquid molecules are responsible for the phenomenon of surface tension. The molecules well
inside the liquid are attracted equally in all directions by the other molecules. The molecules on the surface
experience an inward pull.

32
So, a network is formed against the inward pull, in order to move a molecule to the liquid surface. It results in a
greater potential energy on surface molecules. In order to attain minimum potential energy and hence stable
equilibrium, the free surface of the liquid tends to have the minimum surface area and thereby it behaves like a
stretched membrane.

Surface tension is measured as the force acting normally per unit length on an imaginary line drawn on the free
liquid surface at rest. It is represented by the symbol T (or S). It's S.I. The unit is Nm -1 and dimensional formula
is M1L0T-2.

CONCEPT CHECK:

1. Why are rain drops spherical in shape?


(a) Downward Movement (b) Capillarity
(c) Acceleration due to gravity (d) Surface Tension
2. The force of cohesion is maximum in ________.
(a) Gases (b) Liquids (c) Ideal gas (d) Solids
3. Which of the following liquids show capillary depression?
(a) Mercury (b) Glycerin (c) Water (d) None of these
4. Where do we find adhesive force?
(a) Between similar molecules (b) Between polar molecules
(c) Between different molecules (d) All of the above.
5. Choose the correct statement.
(a) Water sticks to the glass of windows due to adhesion
(b) Cohesive force of mercury is larger than that of water.
(c) The S.I. unit of surface tension is N/m
(d) All of the above
6. Liquids which have more adhesive force than cohesive force show________.
(a) No fixed shape (b) Plane meniscus
(c) Concave meniscus (d) Convex meniscus

7. What is the angle of contact for water and glass?


(a) 0o (b) 180o (c) 90o (d) 8o
8. What happens in the capillary rise of a liquid, when the radius of the capillary tube increases?
(a) Decreases (b) Increases (c) Remains same (d) becomes zero
9. When there are no external forces, what is the shape of a liquid drop determined by?
(a) Gravitational force. (b) Viscosity.
(c) Surface tension. (d) None of these
33
10. If the angle of contact between a solid and a liquid is 90, then:
(a) Cohesive force >> adhesive force (b) Cohesive force > adhesive force
(c) Cohesive force < adhesive force (d) Cohesive force = adhesive force

Experiment 12 Find unknown weight using the principle of moment


AIM: To determine the mass of a given body using metre scale by principle of moments.

APPARATUS: A meter scale suspended at centre of gravity, a body of unknown mass, hanger with slotted
weight etc.

FORMULA:

m1d1=m2d2

m1=m2d2/d1

Where m1=mass suspended on one side of centre of gravity (C.G) at distance d1.

m2 = mass suspended on another side of centre of gravity (C.G) at distance d2.

DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

1. Balance the meter scale carefully at its C.G.


2. Suspend the body of unknown mass (m1) at a fixed distance (d1) from C.G. as shown in figure.
3. Suspend the hanger with slotted weights (m2) at a distance (d2) from C.G. to the other side as shown.
4. Adjust the distance (d2) in such a way that the meter scale become horizontal.
5. Repeat the procedure by changing the slotted weights (m2) & note down the corresponding distance (d2) in
each case.
6. Record your observations in observation table. Find the mass of unknown body (m1) by using formula and
take mean.

34
OBSERVATION TABLE:

Distance of hanger Unknown mass


Mass attached to m2d2
S.No. from C.G. Point (d2) m1=m2d2/d1
the hanger (m2) gm-cm
cm gm-wt

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Mean m1= _______________ gm-wt

RESULT: The unknown mass of the given body is m1= ____________gm-wt

CONCEPT CHECK:

1. What is the principle of moments of force?


2. What is the meaning of moment of force?
3. What is the moment of force at the centre of gravity of body?
4. What is the common name of moment of force?
5. State unit and dimension of moment of force.

Experiment 13 Mirrors-Spherical and plane


AIM:

To identify the given mirrors as Plane, Convex and Convex mirrors from the nature of the images formed by
these mirrors on the given screen.

APPARATUS: Mirrors A, B, C, Screen, Lighted candle, Mirror holder, Procedure:

Place one mirror on the mirror stand. Keep the lighted candle in the front of the mirror at a particular distance.
Place the screen behind the candle and check whether the image of the candle is formed on the screen or not.
Adjust the distance of the screen from the candle to get the image. Repeat the experiment for the remaining
mirrors. Identify the mirrors given as Plane, Convex and Concave mirrors.

Image formed on the The nature of the


Experiment No. Mirror Used
screen (Yes or No) image

35
1

OBSERVATION:

Image formed on the screen


The nature of the image Mirror used
(yes or no)

CONCLUSION:

1. Plane mirrors form __________ images (Real / Virtual).


2. Convex mirrors form __________ images (Real / Virtual).
3. Concave mirrors form __________ images (Real / Virtual).

CONCEPT CHECK:

1. What is the nature of the image formed by the convex mirror?


2. If the object is kept at 10 cm from a plane mirror, what is the distance of the image from the mirror?
3. What are the uses of concave mirrors?
4. What are the uses of convex mirrors?
5. Why are convex mirrors used as rear view mirrors in vehicles?

Experiment 14-Pulley
AIM:
To investigate how a pair of pulley can be used to decrease the magnitude of the force being exerted against a
load.

APPARATUS:

36
Two light pulleys, two pans of equal masses, weights(from weight box),string

DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:
Part I: Use of a fixed pulley:-

1. Arrange the fixed pulley and the pans as shown in the fig.1
2. Add suitable weight to the pan P1, holding the pan P2.
3. Add suitable weight to the pan P2, so that p1 moves upward steadily.
4. Repeat the steps 2 and 3for different weights in the pan p1.

Part II: Use of a pair of pulley


1. Arrange the fixed pulley, movable pulley and the pans as shown in the fig.2.
2. Add a suitable weight the pan p2 so that the movable pulley moves upward steadily.
3. Add a suitable weight to the pan P1
4. Repeat the steps 2 and 3 for the different weights in the pan P1 as in the part I.

OBSERVATION:
PART I

Load (Weight in the pan p1) Force(Weight in the pan p2)


Sr No.
W (gm wt) F(gm wt)
1.

2.

3.

PART II
37
Weight in the pan Load Weight in the pan P2
p2 to balance the (weight in to balance the load Force
S No. pan P1 and balance the pan P1 ) W, the pan P1 and F=M-F0
the movable pulley W movable pulley M (gm wt)
F0 (gm wt) (gm wt) (gm wt)
1.

2.

3.

CONCLUSION:

1. When only a fixed pulley is used, the magnitude of the force being exerted against the load is slightly more
than magnitude of the load
2. When a pair of pulleys is used, the magnitude of the force being exerted against the load is nearly half of the
magnitude of the load.

CONCEPT CHECK:

Q1.What are the advantages of:


a) Using two pans of equal masses
b) A fixed pulley
c) A movable pulley
d) Combination of mixed and movable pulley.

Experiment 15 Lens focal length


AIM:
To find the focal length of a convex lens using distant object.

APPARATUS:
White screen, convex lens mounted on a stand, meter scale

38
DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:
1. Keep the stand with the convex lens mounted on it in such a way that rays of light coming from a distant
stationary object like a tree or building fall on the lens.
2. Place the white screen behind the lens at a suitable distance from it.
3. Adjust the lens in such a way that you get sharp and inverted image of the distant object on the screen.
4. Touch the 0 cm end of the meter scale to the screen, with the scale perpendicular to the screen and measure
the distance between the lens and the screen. Record it as f1
5. Repeat the experiment. Record the corresponding distance between the lens and the screen as f2.
6. Note the nature of the image.

OBSERVATION:

Distance between the convex lens and


No.
the screen(cm)

CALCULATION: Focal length of the given convex lens, f=f1+f2/2= .. cm

CONCLUSION: Focal length of the given convex lens, f=.cm

CONCEPT CHECK:

Q1.What is meant by the focus and focal length of a convex lens?

39
Experiment 16 Simple Pendulum

AIM:
To determine value of g by simple pendulum

APPARATUS:
A metallic bob, a fine cotton thread, split cork, clamp stand, stopwatch

PROCEDURE:
1. Take a metallic bob and measure its diameter with a scale
2. Tie one end of the fine cotton thread to the hook attached with the bob.
3. Pass the other end of the thread through the two halves of the split cork and hold the cork firmly in the
clamp stand on the table.
4. Adjust the length of the thread at a distance of 70 cm from the point of suspension point to the surface of the
bob.
5. Displace the bob through small angle at the point of suspension and set to vibrate to vibrate about the mean
position.
6. Start the stopwatch just when bob crosses mean position and count zero. Go on counting upto 1,2,3,4.......
7. Stop the watch at the end of 20th oscillation and note the time. Note one more reading for the same length.
8. Increase the length of pendulum in the step of 10cm and repeat the steps 5 to 7, in this way take five more
readings.
9. Find the time period (T) for each length, T = t/20.
10. Find value of g using above formula.

OBSERVATION:-
Diameter:

D1 = ____________ cm

D2= ______________ cm.


1 + 2
Mean = 2
= D = _________ cm.

Radius of the bob = r = D/2 = __________cm.

OBSERVATION TABLE FOR TIME PERIOD:-

Length of Time for 20


Corrected Period
No. Thread (l) length Oscillation (t) in sec.
T=
=
(cm) L=(l + r) cm 1 2 Mean t t/20 sec

1.

40
2.

3.

RESULT: MEAN g = ____________

Experiment 17 Simple Pendulum

AIM:
To State the relationship between length of pendulum and time period

APPARATUS:
Pendulum of different lengths, stopwatch, scale.

PROCEDURE:
1. Take pendulum A of the length 30cm and record the time required for 20 oscillations.
2. Note one more reading for Pendulum A.
3. Repeat the procedure for pendulum B, C and D. Enter your readings in the observation table below.
4. Ta,Tb,Tc,Td, be time period of A, B, C and D respectively.
5. State the relationship between length of pendulum and time period. Draw your conclusion.

OBSERVATION:

Time for 2
Period T = t/20
No Pendulum Length oscillations
(sec)
1 2 Mean(t)

1. A 30 =Ta

2. B 40 =Tb

3. C 50 =Tc

4. D 60 =Td

41
CONCLUSION:

Experiment 18 Error in spring balance


Instruction:
1. You are given two spring balance A and B. You are also given a potato.
2. Observe spring balance A carefully and find L, C. of it. Is there any error in the instrument? If yes, state the
type of error.
3. Suspend the potato to the spring balance A. Find out weight of it on spring balance A. Let it be Wa.
4. Observe spring balance B carefully and find L, C. of it .is there any error in instrument? If yes, state the type
of error.
5. Suspend the potato to spring balance B. Find out the weight of it on spring balance B. Let it be Wb.

OBSERVATION:

Table1:

S.
Last count Spring balance A Spring balance B
No.

1.

2.

3.

4.

Table2:

S.
Reading Spring balance A Spring balance B
No.

1. Final

2. Initial

3. Difference

Weight of
4. =Wa =Wb
potato

42
Experiment 19 Paper scale
AIM:
To prepare a paper scale

APPARATUS:
Paper scale, pencil, rubber, wooden strip

PROCEDURE:
1. Prepare paper scale of L.C. 0.2 cm
2. Using your regular scale measure length of wooden strip.Note it as

OBSERVATION:
1. L.C. of regular scale=
2. L.C.of paper scale=
3. a=_____cm
4. b=_____cm

CONCEPT CHECK:

Length of wooden strip can be accurately measured with____________ scale because_______________

BIOLOGY
1. HERB-SHRUB-TREE-CLIMBER-CREEPER

Q1. A few specimens have been provided to you. Use the samples, observe them, note characteristics.

Classify these specimens accurately as Herbs, Shrubs, Trees, Creepers and Climbers in the table
given below and answer the given questions.

Sr. Sr.
Specimen Classification Specimen Classification
No. No.

1 Rice 6 Rose

2 Lemon 7 Maize

3 Bignonia 8 Bougainvillea

4 Mango 9 Peas

5 Money Plant 10 Neem

43
Questions:

1. Give any two defining characteristics of Herbs


2. Give any two defining characteristics of Shrubs
3. Give any two defining characteristics of Trees
4. Give any two defining characteristics of Climbers
5. Give any two defining characteristics of Creepers.

EXPERIMENT 2: DICOT AND MONOCOT PLANTS

Q.2 A. Identify the odd one out on the basis of root system.

EXPERIMENT 3: PLANT IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION


B. Observe the specimen

44
(a) Identify the given species.
(b) State whether the given plant is gymnosperm or angiosperm.

C. Observe the given specimen and write its classification.

(a) Sub-division ---------------

(b) Order ------------------

D. The plant move towards the source of light

(a) Name this phenomenon shown in the figure


45
(b) Name the plant hormone responsible for the movement.

E. Observe the leaflet of the plant given and give information about reddish brown spot
on it.

(a) Name the division of the plant given.

(b) Name the reddish brown spot found on the back of the leaf.

F.

(a) Identify the given plant.

(b) Economic importance of the given plant.

G.

46
(a) Identify the given plant species.

(b) Whether the plant is medicinal or non medicinal.

H. Classify into monocot and dicot plants

I. Write the genus and species of the given sample.

(a) (b)
47
EXPERIMENT 4: ANIMAL CLASSIFICATION

FOR ALL THE ORGANISMS GIVEN BELOW CLASSIFY ON THE BASIS OF FOLLOOWING
CRITERIAS:

i) Number of germinal layers (diploblastic and triploblastic )


ii) Type of body symmetry (radial, bilateral or asymmetrical)
iii) Thermoregulation ( cold and warm blooded)

a) b)

c) d)

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e) f)

g) h)

i) j)

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k) l)

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EXPERIMENT 5. HABITAT AND ADAPTATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
I. ADAPTATION IN PLANTS
The given specimens are to be observed. Mention the adaptations in them:
Sp.no Specimen Adaptation
1 Venus fly trap
2 Dandelion
3 Rose
4 Poison ivy
5 Lotus
6 Cactus
7 Pine tree
8 Eucalyptus

II.ADAPTATION IN ANIMALS

The given specimens are to be observed. Mention the adaptations in them:

Sp.no Specimen Adaptation

1 Tiger

2 Polar bear

3 Panda

4 Toucan

5 Blue whale

6 Wolf

7 Butterflies

8 Duck

III. HABITAT OF PLANTS

The given specimens are to be observed. Mention the habitat each of them belongs to :

Sp.no Specimen Adaptation

1 Venus fly trap

2 Peepal

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3 Vallisneria

4 Coconut

5 Fox tail

6 Buffalo grass

7 Cedar

8 Tumbleweed

IV. HABITATOF ANIMALS

The given specimens are to be observed. Mention the habitat each of them belongs to ::

Sp.no Specimen Adaptation

1 Camel

2 Snow leopard

3 Red Panda

4 Kangaroo

5 Penguin

6 Toad

7 Apple snail

8 Piranha

EXPERIMENT 6: CLASSIFICATION OF WASTE


A few samples have been provided to you. Use the samples, observe them, note characteristics.

Classify these samples according to the type of wastes

Sr. Sr.
Specimen Classification Specimen Classification
No. No.

1 Plastic cans 6 Cotton fabric

2 Battery 7 Electronic gadgets

3 Syringes 8 Egg shells

4 Vegetable peels 9 Metals scraps

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5 Iron filings 10 Surgical tongs

Q1 What is the criteria for classifying wastes?

Q2 Give two examples of biodegradable and non Biodegradable wastes ?

Q3 Name any two methods of segregation of wastes .

Q4 Name two methods of disposing organic wastes .

CLASSIFICATION OF WASTES IN DUSTBIN


Q. 12 Observe the dustbin in your kitchen. Classify the waste as Wet garbage Dry garbage. Enlist the
material in garbage which can be used for composting.
Questions :- 1. Enlist the material in garbage which is bio degradable.
2. Enlist the material in garbage which can be reused.

EXPERIMENT 7 :ASEXUAL METHODS OF REPRODUCTION


Q1 name the methods of asexual reproduction described in the following figures. Also identify the organisms
below

a) b)

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c) d)

E)

Q. Identify the specimens and explain method of asexual reproduction in each of them.

Method of Method of
No. Specimen No. Specimen
Reproduction Reproduction
1 Potato 7. Banana
2. Rose 8. Spirogyra
3. Chrysanthemum 9. Grapes
4. Yeast 10. Sugarcane
5. Sweet potato 11. Amoeba
6. Bryophyllum 12. Mucor

Experiment 8: Plant movements


Q . Observe the given specimen and identify the plant movement involved. Also classify the growth as growth dependent
or growth independent movement.

No Diagram/ specimen Plant movement Type of movement

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involved

Questions : 1. What is geotropism?

2. What is phototropism?

3. What is photonastic movement?

Experiment 9: Locomotory organ and symmetry

Q .Observe the figures carefully and comment on their locomotory organs and symmetry.

Organ for
No. Specimen Symmetry
locomotion

1 Leech

2 Mosquito

3 Paramoecium

4 Earthworm

5 Fish

6 Pigeon

7 Lizard

8 Hydra

9 Scorpion

10 Snail

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