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Air Service Training (Engineering) Limited

PART 66 B2/020 Propulsion

SECTION 2 : EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE (EGT)


An EGT indicating system is incorporated in each engine to effectively measure the
temperature of the exhaust gases as they leave the turbines and provide indication
of this in the flight compartment. EGT indication is achieved by measuring an
electrical signal produced by a system of thermocouples positioned in the hot gas
stream and wired to form a parallel circuit.

Purpose
Its purpose is to measure the jet engine exhaust gas temperature

Principle
If two dissimilar metals are joined together at each end and one end is heated, an
emf is generated in the circuit proportional to the DIFFERENCE in temperature
BETWEEN the two ends. If the circuit is opened at one end, termed the cold end
and a millivoltmeter is inserted then the value of the emf can be measured. The
millivoltmeter may be calibrated in degrees of temperature.
Thermo-electric types of temperature indication systems use THERMOCOUPLES
for temperature sensing. Uses are for cylinder head temperature indication on piston
engines and exhaust gas temperatures on turbine engines.

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Propulsion PART 66 B2/020

EGT THERMOCOUPLE TYPES


There are two basic types:
Contact
Immersion

The Contact Type


This measures the temperature of a solid component, as in measurement of cylinder
head temperature of piston engines. The copper/constantan or iron/constantan hot
junction may be bolted to the cylinder head or be in the form of a washer under one
of the spark plugs.

The Immersion Type


This is designed for measurement of gas temperature. The chromel/alumel hot
junction and wires are encased in ceramic insulation within a metal sheath, the
complete assembly forming a probe which can be immersed in the gas stream at the
points selected for measurement.

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PART 66 B2/020 Propulsion

IMMERSION TYPE CLASSIFICATION


There are again, two types:
Stagnation
Rapid Response

Stagnation Types
These are used in the pure jet engine where gas velocities are high gas entry and
exit holes in the sheath are staggered and of unequal size to slow the gas flow down
to allow the junction to respond to changes in gas temperature.

Rapid Response Types


These are used in turbo prop engines where the gas velocities are lower sampling
holes are of equal size and diametrically opposite so that gas flow is directly over the
junction to ensure rapid response to any change in temperature.

THERMOCOUPLE PROBES

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Propulsion PART 66 B2/020

LOCATION OF THERMOCOUPLE PROBES


To ensure overall measurement of the exhaust gas is taken, six or more probes are
connected in parallel so as to measure the average temperature in the flow.

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PART 66 B2/020 Propulsion

EGT COLD JUNCTION TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION


The differential between this cold junction and the hot junction governs the emf
produced. From this it follows that if we have a change of ambient temperature at
the cold junction but the hot junction stays the same, then we should expect a
change of emf which will, of course, change the indicator reading.
These errors are unacceptable and must be compensated for. To correct these
errors, a device is fitted to the indicator to detect and correct any changes in ambient
temperature; this device is called the cold junction compensator.
The normal thermocouple system maintains its cold junction at either 0C or 20C
and the temperature range is calculated from this. If, for example, the cold junction
is 0C and the hot junction reaches 500C, at this temperature difference a known
emf of 20.64 mV is generated if a chromel/alumel thermocouple is used. If there is a
20C temperature increase at the cold junction while the hot junction stays at 500C,
the temperature difference drops to 480C and the emf is 20.64 mV minus the 20C
difference, which is 0.79 mV, so the new emf will be 19.85 mV. This new emf will
obviously affect the indicator and, in fact, reduces the reading to 480C.

Hot Junction temp constant }


} Change in emf
Cold Junction temp increases }

Indicator reads lower temp by an amount equal to the increase of ambient temp.

COMPENSATION FLAT BI-METALLIC SPIRAL SPRING


With Indicator Disconnected from Thermocouple System
When the temperature at the cold junction increases, the spring responds to this
temperature change by unwinding, giving an indication that the temperature has
increased.

REVERSE ACTION OCCURS WITH A DECREASE IN TEMPERATURE


With Indicator Connected to Thermocouple System
If the temperature at the cold junction is increased the emf will therefore decrease.
However this is directly opposed by the bi-metallic spring unwinding in response to
the temperature change.

INDICATOR REMAINS AT HOT TEMPERATURE


Second effect requiring compensation is the change of resistance in the moving coil
itself.
This is compensated for by connecting a thermistor in series with the moving coil.

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Air Service Training (Engineering) Limited
Propulsion PART 66 B2/020

6 THERMOCOUPLE COMBINATIONS

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PART 66 B2/020 Propulsion

EGT EXTERNAL CIRCUITRY


To ensure the accuracy of the temperature indication, the indicator must be
connected to the thermocouples by either:
Extension Leads
Compensating Leads

Extension Cables
These are cables made up of the same materials as the thermocouple junction.

Compensating Cables
These cables use alternative materials to those of the junction, but are chosen such,
so that they have similar thermoelectric properties as the wire they are replacing.
Usually, CONSTANTAN is chosen to connect with the alumel wire and COPPER is
chosen to connect with the chromel wire.

Identification of Leads (Chromel/Alumel System)


Cables consist of two leads of dissimilar metals the positive lead being chromel
(nickel/chromium) identified by RED insulation and the negative lead being alumel
(nickel/aluminium) identified by BLUE insulation

NOTE: In the event that the colour coding is not clear, the fact that the Alumel is
slightly magnetic may facilitate identity

There may also be a physical size differential with Alumel being bigger than
Chromel.

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Propulsion PART 66 B2/020

BASIC EGT TEMPERATURE CIRCUIT

EGT

Circuit Trimming Resistances


To allow for final adjustment of the circuit resistance in situ after installation, a
trimming resistance is inserted in one of the cable leads. These resistors are wire
wound on a spool and located at some convenient access point along the cable run.
Final adjustment is made by removing turns of wire from the spool until the required
circuit resistance is obtained.
The choice of wire material for the trimmers depends upon two important factors:
The temperature coefficient must be small so that the resistance value is
unaffected by temperature.
The wire material must have similar thermoelectric properties as the cable in
which they are placed.
In practice, EUREKA wire is used for trimming in the CONSTANTAN (-ve) cable and
MANGANIN is chosen for trimming in the COPPER (+ve) cable.

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PART 66 B2/020 Propulsion

BALLAST RESISTORS
All engines of similar type have slightly different exhaust temperature characteristics
and in order that the indicated temperature is the same with all engines, ballast
resistors are fitted in a junction box on the engine and wired across the cable
connections to the thermocouple harness. The value of this resistance is calculated
from the test bed results and must not be replaced by a different value during the
overhaul life of the engine. The specified value is usually marked on the junction box
and the engine data plate and is also included in the engine log book.

EGT TERMINAL BLOCK

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Propulsion PART 66 B2/020

EGT INDICATOR

Servo Operated Indicating System


In some applications of the thermocouple method of temperature indication, the
indicators can operate on servo control principles as opposed to the conventional
moving coil millivoltmeter.

Operation
The thermocouple output is supplied to a signal processing module consisting of a
cold junction reference circuit and an error signal amplifier.
The cold junction reference circuit compensates for changes in ambient temperature
of the indicator and automatically adjusts the thermocouple output to produce a
computed demand exhaust gas temperature signal to indicate the EGT readings in
pointer and digital form. This signal is then compared with a DC output from the
wiper of a position feedback potentiometer and since the wiper is geared to the main
pointer and digital counter, the DC output which is fed back to the cold junction
reference circuit represents the indicated exhaust gas temperature.
The output voltage from the first stage of the servo amplifier is also fed to a servo
loop monitor which will detect any failure of the servo loop to back off the error signal
voltage. Should a failure occur, the monitor functions as an ON/OFF switch, in the
OFF state it de-energises a solenoid controlled warning flag across the digital
counter display. The flag will also appear in the event of 115v AC supply to the
indicator falling below 100v.
An overtemperature warning light is incorporated in the indicator and is controlled by
a relay, a comparator solid state switching circuit. The function of the comparator is
to compare the feedback voltage from the positional potentiometer with a preset
voltage to the level of which is equivalent to a pre-determined overtemperature limit
for a particular type of engine. If this limit is exceeded the reference voltage level
and the switching circuit will cause the relay to energise, closing its contacts to
illuminate the warning light. A separate supply voltage may be connected to the light
by means of an override facility as a means of testing its filament at any point over
the temperature range of the indicator.
An overtemperature pointer is also fitted concentrically with the main pointer and is
initially positioned at the appropriate scale graduation. If the main pointer exceeds
this position, the limit pointer is carried with it. When the temperature has been
reduced the main pointer will move correspondingly, but the limit pointer will remain
at the maximum temperature reached. It can be returned to its initial position by
applying a separately switched 28v DC supply to a reset solenoid within the
indicator.

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PART 66 B2/020 Propulsion

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EGT PYROMETER
The pyrometer measures the blade heat energy of the LPT first stage blades.
The pyrometer is made of three parts. The parts stay together as a unit.
Sensor.
Fibre optic cable.
Electronics module.
It installs into an adaptor on the turbine centre frame. The fibre optic cable goes
forward from the sensor to the electronics module.
The pyrometer adapter has two air connectors. One connector is for a cooling air
tube from a variable bypass valve duct. This tube supplies fan or LPC cooling air to
the sensor and fibre optic cable. The tube divides and also supplies cooling air to
the electronics module.
The other connector is for an air tube from the T3 sensor. It supplies air to clean the
sensor. The air comes from the exit of the HPC. It flows through the adapter, over
the sensor, and into the turbine exhaust stream. This keeps exhaust contamination
away from the sensor.
The pyrometer sensor is a lens that gets infrared light from the LPT first stage
blades. The infrared light goes through the fibre optic cable to the electronics
module. The electronics module turns the infrared light into the electrical signals for
the EEC.

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Air Service Training (Engineering) Limited
PART 66 B2/020 Propulsion

ENGINE INDICATING EGT - PYROMETER

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Air Service Training (Engineering) Limited
Propulsion PART 66 B2/020

NOTES:

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