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Soil Mechanics Assist. Prof. Dr. Rafi' M. S.

SOLVED PROBLEMS

Problem (1): (Ordinary method of slices or Fellenius method)


For the slope shown in the figure below, find the safety factor against sliding for the trial slip
surface AC. Use the ordinary method of slices.

Problem (1): Ordinary method of slices.


Solution:

The sliding wedge is divided into 7 slices.


The weight (W) of each slice and its tangential and normal components are calculated and
tabulated in the following table.

Slice W n W n sin n W n cos n


No. (kN/m) (deg.) sin n cos n Ln (m) (kN/m) (kN/m)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

1 22.4 70 0.94 0.342 2.924 21.1 6.7


2 294.4 54 0.81 0.588 6.803 238.5 173.1
3 435.2 38 0.616 0.788 5.076 268.1 342.94
4 435.2 24 0.407 0.914 4.376 177.1 397.8
5 390.4 12 0.208 0.978 4.09 81.2 381.8
6 268.8 0 0 1 4 0 268.8
7 66.58 -8 -0.139 0.990 3.232 -9.25 65.9
30.501 m 776.75 kN/m 1637.04 kN/m
Soil Mechanics Assist. Prof. Dr. Rafi' M. S.

col.8
tan

c ( col .6 ) +
c L+ W cos tan
F . S .= =
W sin
20
tan
F . S .= 1.55
20 ( 30.501 )+ ( 1637.04 )

Problem (2): (Bishops simplified method)

Using Bishops simplified method, determine the short term stability of the slope shown in the
figure below. Given that the slope was initially submerged with water and that the water level
has now been drawn down to the level of the top of the sand.

Problem (2): Bishops simplified method.

Solution:

Initially the centre and radius of the failure plane must be assumed. The calculations presented below
are for one such assumption. However, to find the factor of safety of the slope, a number of centres
and radii will be needed to find the combination that gives the minimum factor of safety.

Problem calculations for slice 6:

xi = 1.0 m measured from the figure


xi = 2.5 m measured from the figure
i = sin-1 (2.5/5.83) = 25.4o or measure from the figure. Note that is positive for
slices giving positive overturning moments

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Soil Mechanics Assist. Prof. Dr. Rafi' M. S.

Wi = A = (1)(2)(15) + (1)(0.268)(20) = 35.36 kN/m


Wi sin i = 35.36 sin (25.4) = 15.17 kN/m
ui = Z = (9.81)(0.268) = 2.628 kN/m
ci xi + (Wi ui xi) tan i = (0)(1) + [35.36 (2.628)(1)] tan 30o = 18.9 kN/m
Note that it is the friction angle, not in this
calculation
Now assume a factor of safety, say F = 3

Mi = cos i (1 + tan i tan i /F) = cos(25.4) [1+ tan (25.4) tan(30)/3] = 0.986
or read Mi off the chart for = 25.4 and (tan /F = tan(30)/3 = 0.19

The results for all the slices can be similarly evaluated and tabulated as shown below:

Slice x u W Wsin c T* = c x + M T*/M


No. o
() (m) (kPa) (kN/m) (W u
(kN/m) x x) tan
(kN/m
) (kN/m)

1 -25.4 1.0 2.628 5.357 -2.30 - 1.58 0.821 1.92


2 -14.9 1.0 6.227 12.70 -3.77 - 3.74 0.917 4.08
3 -4.93 1.0 7.942 23.69 -2.03 - 9.09 0.980 9.28
4 4.93 1.0 7.942 38.69 3.317 - 17.75 1.013 17.52
5 14.89 1.0 6.227 42.70 10.98 - 21.06 1.016 20.73
6 25.4 1.0 2.628 35.36 15.17 - 18.9 0.986 19.17
7 36.87 1.0 - 24.96 14.98 25.0 25 0.800 31.26
8 50.53 1.0 - 10.62 8.20 25.0 25 0.636 39.30

F=
T / M = 143 .3
= 3.22
W sin 44 . 54

Then using the updated F=3.22 re-evaluate M and T / M until the solution converges. In this
problem this gives F = 3.25

Problem (3): (Taylor Chart c soil )


A slope has an inclination of 30 o and is 8 m high. The soil properties are c u = 20 kN/m3, u
=5o, bulk = 15 kN/m3. Determine the short term factor of safety if the clay deposit is infinitely
deep.

8m
30o
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Soil Mechanics Assist. Prof. Dr. Rafi' M. S.

Solution:
c
011
.
From Taylor stability chart, Fig.(10.18) for i = 30o and = 5o: HF
c 20
F= = =1.5
Hence
HN s (15)(8)(0.11)

However, for the correct solution a factored tan-1[(tan /F] should be used. So having
determined F.O.S. an iterative procedure is required using the updated * to determine the
correct factor of safety.
Regions on the chart indicate that the failure in this problem is a deep-seated failure mode.

Problem (4): (Taylors Stability Chart for =0 Soils )


A cut 7.5m deep is to be made in a stratum of highly cohesive soil as shown in the figure
below.
1. The slope angle is 30.
2. Bedrock is located 12m below the original ground surface.
3. The soil has a unit weight of 18.86 kN/m3; cohesion = 31.1 kN/m2 and angle of internal
friction = 0. Find the F.O.S. against slope failure.

7.5m Cohesive soil


30o c 31.1 kN/m2 12m
0
18.86 kN/m3

Rock
Solution:

D H = 12m and H = 7.5m, so D = 12/7.5 = 1.60

From stability chart, Fig.(10.19) with = 30o and D = 1.6; Ns 0.17

cd 31.1
(Taylors stability number) Ns ; F= = 1.29
HF ( 18.86 )( 7.5 ) ( 0.17)

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Soil Mechanics Assist. Prof. Dr. Rafi' M. S.

Problem (5): (Single Slice on a Planner Surface)


Find the Factor of Safety of the slope cut shown in the figure below. Given that c = 7.2
kN/m2, = 25 and = 16.50 kN/m3.
Permeable Soil: 16.5 kN/m3

1
3m 1
Highly Impermeable
Cohesive Soil
4.5m 30o
Solution:

D 3 1.5m
L= = = 6m 45o
sin sin 30

D 3
h= sin( )= sin(4530)= 1.1m
sin sin 45

L h ( 6 ) ( 1.1 ) (16.5)
w= = = 54.45 kN/m
2 2

30
25
tan



30 2.39
sin

cos
( 7.2 )( 6 )+(54.45)
c L+W cos tan
F . S .= =
W sin

Problem (6): (Culmanns method)


A 1.8 m deep vertical trench wall is to be dug in a soil without shoring. The soils unit weight,
angel of internal friction, and cohesion are 19.0 kN/m 3, 28, and 20.2 kN/m2 respectively.
Find the Factor of safety of this trench using the Culmann method.
Note: This method assumes that sliding occurs along plane passes through the toe of the
slope.

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Soil Mechanics Assist. Prof. Dr. Rafi' M. S.

Solution:
4 c d si n cos d
H=
[ 1cos ( d ) ]
Try a F.S.

tan tan28
tan d = = = 0.532
F . S . 1.0
Therefore, d = 28 and = 90for a vertical wall.

( 4 ) ( c d ) sin 90 cos 28
1.8= ; cd = 5.14 kN/m2
19 [ 1cos(9028) ]

c 20.2
F . S .c = = = 3.93 kN/m2
c d 5.14

Since [F.S.c [ F.S.another trial factor of safety must be attempted.

Try a F.S.
tan tan28
tan d = = = 0.265
F . S . 2.0

Therefore, d = 14.89 and = 90for a vertical wall.

( 4 ) ( c d ) sin 90 cos 14.89


1.8= ; cd = 6.57 kN/m2
19 [ 1cos(9014.89) ]

c 20.2
F . S .c = = = 3.07 kN/m2
c d 6.57

Since [F.S.c [ F.S.another trial factor of safety must be attempted.

Try a F.S.
tan tan28
tan d = = = 0.177
F . S . 3.0

Therefore, d = 10.04 and = 90for a vertical wall.

( 4 ) ( c d ) sin 90 cos 10.04


1.8= ; cd = 7.17 kN/m2
19 [ 1cos(9010.04) ]

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Soil Mechanics Assist. Prof. Dr. Rafi' M. S.

c 20.2
F . S .c = = = 2.82 kN/m2
c d 7. 17

Since [F.S.c
[ F.S.the correctfactor of safety
has not yet been found. Rather than
continue the trial and error procedure, the
values of F . S .c and F . S . are
plotted in figure, from which the
applicable factor of safety of about 2.84
can be read.