You are on page 1of 13

Health & Fitness Journal

of Canada
Copyright 2014 The Authors. Journal Compilation Copyright 2014 Health & Fitness Society of BC
Volume 7 December 30, 2014 Number 4
E.!Jean!Burrows1,!Angela!M.!Kolen2,!and!Melanie!R.!Keats3! ! !!

Abstract! Introduction!
Background:'As'Canadian'children'average'only'14'min' Canadian' data' show' that,' on' average,'
of' moderate' to' vigorous' physical' activity' (MVPA)'
during'3<6'pm,'there'is'a'pressing'need'to'improve'their' children' aged' 5<17' yr' spend' 14' min' in'
participation' in' physical' activities' and' to' reduce' their' moderate' to' vigorous' physical' activity'
time' spent' in' sedentary' behaviours.' Although' the' after' (MVPA)'between'3'and'6'pm'daily'(Active'
for' improving' childrens' physical' activity' levels' and' Healthy' Kids' Canada,' 2011).' Moreover,'
reducing' time' in' sedentary' behaviour,' little' is' known' only'7%'of'Canadian'children'are'meeting'
about' the' effectiveness' of' current' programming' that' the' recommended' 60' min' of' daily' MVPA,'
after' school' programs' (a' low<organized' games' and' a' on' six' days' of' the' week' (Tremblay' et' al.,'
sport<based'program)'were'examined'to'determine'the' 2011b).' Additionally,' Canadian' children'
time' participants' (n=39)' spent' in' MVPA' and' SB' while' spend'an'average'of'8.6'hr'of'waking'time'
attending' these' physical' activity' programs.' Results:!
Using'accelerometry,'it'was'found'that'children'in'both' in' sedentary' behaviours,' which' is'
programs' spent' more' than' 50%' of' the' scheduled' time' attributed' in' part' to' exceeding' the'
in' MVPA;' however,' the' sport<based' program' recommended' maximum' of' 2' hr' per' day'
participants' obtained' significantly' more' MVPA' and'
significantly'(p'<'0.05)'less'time'in'sedentary'behaviour' in' entertainment' based<screen' activities,'
than' the' low<organized' games' based' program' as' well' as' the' high' use' of' motorized'
participants.' Conclusions:! Existent' after' school' transport'(Colley'et'al.,'2011;'Tremblay'et'
programs' with' a' physical' activity' focus' appear' to' be'
providing' significant' MVPA' time' for' participants.' al.,'2011a).''
However,'there'appears'to'be'room'for'improvement'in' Adherence' to' international' physical'
time' spent'in'SB.' To' more' effectively' encourage'higher' activity' recommendations' is' of' particular'
levels' of' MVPA' and' reduce' sedentary' behaviour' in' the'
after' school' time' period,' further' research' is' needed' to' importance' due' to' the' multitude' of'
better'understand'the'effect'of'program'type,'as'well'as' known'health'benefits'of'physical'activity,'
other' contributing' variables' on' MVPA' and' sedentary' including'improved'cardiovascular'health,'
behaviour' participation.' Health! &! Fitness! Journal! of!
Canada!2014;7(4):3R15.' insulin' sensitivity,' and' bone' mineral'
! density,' as' well' as' reduced' anxiety' and'
Keywords:'Children,'youth,'leisure'time' improved' perceived' self<worth' (Bailey' et'
From'1School'of'Kinesiology,'University'of'British' al,' 1999;' Bell' et' al.,' 2007;' Ekeland' et' al.,'
Columbia,'Vancouver,'Canada,'2Human'Kinetics,'St.' 2005;' Goldfield' et' al.,' 2007;' Kang' et' al.,'
Francis'Xavier'University,'Antigonish,'Canada,'3School' 2002;' MacKelvie' et' al.,' 2001;' Mark' and'
University,'Halifax,'Canada.'' Janssen,' 2008a).' Conversely,' extended'
Email:''' periods'of'sedentary'behaviour'have'been'
' shown' to' increase' the' likelihood' of'
! metabolic' syndrome' and' hypertension,'
! independent'of'time'spent'in'MVPA'(Mark'
! and' Janssen,' 2008b;' Pardee' et' al.,' 2007).'
! Without' a' doubt,' creating' opportunities'


for' children' and' youth' to' participate' in' (41.2%),' 38.5' min' of' MVPA' (24.4%),' and'
physical' activity' is' of' the' utmost' 54.3' min' of' the' after' school' period'
importance.'' engaged'in'sedentary'behaviours'(34.4%)'
Previous' initiatives' at' promoting' (Kolen<Thompson' et' al.,' 2013).' The'
physical' activity' have' primarily' focused' discrepancy' between' the' national' and'
on' the' school' day' (Erwin' et' al.,' 2011;' provincial' data' is' likely' due' to' age,' as'
Goreley' et' al.,' 2011;' Lawlor' et' al.,' 2011;' multiple' research' initiatives' have' shown'
Naylor' et' al.,' 2006;' Sallis,' et' al.,' 1997);' reduced' MVPA' participation' in' older'
however,' with' competing' outcomes' in' children' (Nader' et' al.,' 2008;' Thompson'
mathematics,' science' and' language' arts,' and'Wadsworth,'2012).''
placing' the' onus' on' the' school' day' alone' While' only' 28%' of' Canadian' children'
is' impractical.' Consequently,' the' after' have' access' to' a' supervised' after' school'
school' time' period' has' recently' garnered' program,' of' those' with' access,' 81%'
attention' as' a' critical' period' for' attend' a' program' on' a' regular' basis'
improving' children' and' youths' (CFLRI,'2010).'Additionally,'parents'cited'
participation' in' MVPA' and' reducing' physical' activity' as' the' primary' focus' of'
sedentary'behaviour'(Active'Healthy'Kids' the' majority' (41%)' of' these' programs'
Canada,' 2011).' To' date,' however' (CFLRI,'2010).'Daycare'(27%),'homework'
relatively' little' is' known' about' current' and' tutoring' (17%)' or' other' (15%)' were'
programming' that' aims' to' engage' less' frequently' selected' choices' (CFLRI,'
children' in' MVPA' and' reduce' time' in' 2010).' Given' the' high' uptake' of' after'
sedentary' behaviours' during' the' after' school'programs'for'children'with'access,'
school'time'period.'' coupled' with' the' understanding' that'
Two' large<scale' surveillance' studies,' many' parents' enroll' their' children' in'
the'Canadian'Health'Measures'Survey'and' programs'where'the'stated'primary'focus'
the'Nova'Scotia'Keeping'Pace'Study,'have' is'physical'activity'(CLFRI,'2010),'a'better'
shown' varying' levels' of' MVPA' understanding' of' the' physical' activities'
participation' during' the' 3<6' pm' time' performed' at' these' programs' is'
period' (Active' Healthy' Kids' Canada,' warranted.''
2011;' Colley' et' al.,' 2011;' Kolen< The' limited' research' on' after' school'
Thompson' et' al.,' 2013).' The' Canadian' programming' has' shown' a' wide' range' of'
Health'Measures'Survey'showed'children' MVPA' for' the' participants' (Atkin' et' al.,'
aged' 5<17' yr' participated' in' only' 14' min' 2011;' Sharpe' et' al.,' 2011;' Trost' et' al.,'
of' MVPA' (8%' of' total' time),' with' 59%' of' 2008;' Wilson' et' al.,' 2011)' with' most'
the' total' time' spent' in' sedentary' demonstrating' the' potential' to' increase'
behaviours' and' 33%' in' light' physical' MVPA'time'during'the'3<6'pm'time'period'
activity' (Active' Healthy' Kids' Canada,' (Beets' et' al.,' 2009).' Notably,' Trost' et' al.'
2011).' Data' from' the' KP' study' showed' (2008)' measured' MVPA' participation'
that' girls' in' Grade' 3' spend' 61.4' min' using' accelerometers' at' seven' sites'
(37.9%' of' time)' engaged' in' light' activity,' offering' a' non<specialized' after' school'
38.7' min' (23.9%' of' time)' engaged' in'' program' to' determine' location' and' type'
MVPA,'and'62.1'min'(38.3%)'in'sedentary' of' physical' activity' that' resulted' in' the'
behaviour' during' the' after' school' time' most' time' spent' in' MVPA.' Program'
period.' Grade' 3' boys' were' found' to' participants'engaged'in'an'average'of'13.4'
participate' in' 65.0' min' of' light' activity' min'in'moderate'physical'activity'and'6.9'


min'in'vigorous'physical'activity,'totalling' organized'games'(Sharpe'et'al.,'2011).'Of'
20.3' min' of' MVPA' during' program' time' particular'note'from'this'study'was'that'at'
(Trost'et'al.,'2008).'It'was'noted'that'free< baseline,' all' three' physical' activity' based'
play' or' non<organized' activities,' both' program'types'examined'had'participants'
indoors' and' outdoors,' accounted' for' the' engaged' in' MVPA' for' more' than' 35%' of'
greatest' contribution' to' MVPA' (Trost' et' program'time'(Sharpe'et'al.,'2011).'
al.,'2008).' The' considerable' increase' in' MVPA'
More' recently,' two' intervention' time' noted' in' the' Catch' Kids' Club'
studies' showed' the' potential' to' improve' intervention,' coupled' with' the'
MVPA' during' programming' in' the' after' recognition'that'competitive'sports<based'
school' time' period' (Sharpe' et' al.,' 2011;' programming' may' not' be' fully' inclusive'
Wilson' et' al.,' 2011).' Active' by' Choice' of'all'participants'and'may'have'differing'
Today,' aimed' to' improve' MVPA' objectives' (e.g.,' increase' sport' specific'
participation' for' low<income' and' skills)'(Sharpe'et'al.,'2011;'Stratton'et'al.,'
minority' adolescents' during' and' outside' 2008),' gives' rise' to' a' need' to' explore'
of' program' time' (Wilson' et' al.,' 2011).' As' alternative'physical'activity'programming'
measured' by' accelerometry,' a' 9' min' offered' during' the' after' school' time'
increase' in' MVPA' was' seen' in' the' period.'Moreover,'a'systematic'review'on'
participants' during' the' 2<hour' program' after' school' physical' activity'
time' at' the' end' of' the' 17<week' programming' showed' little' conclusive'
intervention;' however,' no' changes' were' evidence' as' to' what' constituted' an'
found' in' MVPA' participation' outside' of' effective' program' or' intervention' with'
the' program' (Wilson' et' al.,' 2011).' The' the' major' findings' showing' that' single'
Catch' Kids' Club,' a' low<organized' games' outcome' interventions' (e.g.,' those' that'
based' after' school' program,' was' solely' focused' on' improving' MVPA'
introduced'to'several'existing'after'school' participation' versus' those' that'
programs'with'a'physical'activity'focus'to' incorporated' nutrition' or' other' health'
increase' MVPA' participation' (Sharpe' et' education' objectives),' had' the' most'
al.,' 2011).' Many' of' the' sites' where' the' success.' Additionally,' program' location'
program'was'introduced'were'previously' (e.g.,'at'a'recreation'centre'or'at'a'school),'
coordinating' a' general' physical' activity' did' not' impact' the' success' of' the'
program' with' 6' sites' utilizing' a' sport< intervention'(Atkin'et'al.,'2011).'
based' model' (Sharpe' et' al.,' 2011).' With' To' date,' the' existing' body' of' research'
the' added' focus' on' the' Catch' Kids' Club' is'limited'and'it'is'not'clear'how'effective'
program' the' general' physical' activity' current'after'school'care'programs'with'a'
programs' showed' little' to' no' primary' focus' on' physical' activity' are' ' at'
improvement' in' MVPA' participation;' engaging' children' in' substantive' periods'
however,' for' the' 6' sites' that' transitioned' of' MVPA' during' the' 3<6' pm' time' period.'
to' the' low<organized' games' based' model' Additionally,' as' some' have' shown' that'
from'the'sport<based'model,'time'spent'in' low<organized'games'based'programming'
MVPA' doubled,' from' 35.2%' to' 70.8%' of' may' be' more' effective' at' engaging'
program' time' (Sharpe' et' al.,' 2011).' children' in' MVPA' than' sport<based'
Researchers' speculated' that' the' increase' programming' (Sharpe' et' al.,' 2011),'
found' in' MVPA' in' this' program' was' due' exploring' programs' of' both' types,' and'
to' the' more' inclusive' nature' of' low< generating' comparisons' is' warranted' to'


better' understand' the' merits' of' each.' provided' care' for' children' ranging' from'
Accordingly,' this' study' examined' two' 6<10'yr'of'age.'A'general'schedule'of'daily'
physical' activity' focused' after' school' activities'based'upon'observation'for'each'
programs,'a'sport<based'model'and'a'low< program' can' be' found' in' Table' 1.' During'
organized' games<based' model,' to' structured' activity' time,' both' programs'
determine' first,' whether' current' were' broken' into' smaller' sub<groups' to'
programming' with' a' physical' activity' facilitate' higher' levels' of' participation.'
focus'is'engaging'children'aged'6<10'yr'in' Daily' breakdown' of' these' activities' have'
meaningful' MVPA' time' during' the' after' been'previously'reported'(Burrows'et'al.,'
school'time'period,'and'secondly'whether' 2014).' This' study' employed' a' non<
the' two' programming' models' differed' in' randomized,' quasi<experimental' design'
MVPA' and' sedentary' behaviour' time.' We' and'utilized'between'group'comparisons.'
hypothesize' that' both' programs' will' The' Dalhousie' Health' Research' Ethics'
provide' meaningful' contributions' to' Board' reviewed' the' ethical' protocol' for'
MVPA' time' and' that' the' low<organized' this' study.' The' research' project' was' part'
games' program' participants' will' engage' of' a' larger' study' examining' motor' skill'
in' more' MVPA' and' less' SB' time' than' the' development' and' physical' activity'
sport<based'program'participants.' participation'during'the'after'school'time'
! period' over' a' period' of' 11' weeks'
Methods! (Burrows' et' al.,' 2014).' Throughout' the'
Two' after' school' programs' with' a' data' collection' period,' researchers' noted'
physical' activity' focus' were' selected' that' both' programs' utilized' a' kids'
following' an' internet' search' of' after' choice'system'once'or'twice'a'week,'with'
school' care' programs' offered' within' the' participants' in' both' programs' selecting'
Halifax' Regional' Municipality.' Exclusion' similar'or'identical'activities.''
criteria' eliminated' home<based' care' '
centres' and' programs' that' were' not' Procedure1
offered' on' all' school' days.' This' search' Upon' providing' informed' consent/'
revealed' a' total' of' 18' programs,' many' of' assent' all' participants' were' asked' to'
which' offered' care' at' multiple' sites,' provide' their' birth' date,' and' undergo' a'
including' the' school' board' program,' brief' anthropometric' assessment,'
which'offers'care'at'almost'all'elementary' measuring' height' and' weight.' Physical'
schools' within' the' municipality.' The' two' activity' data' was' collected' on' five'
programs' compared' in' this' study' were' consecutive' program' days' in' different'
selected' as' their' philosophies' weeks' due' to' time<related' constraints.'
represented' a' low<organized' program' These' weeks' were' selected' as' they' were'
and' a' sports' program.' Additional' without' interruption' from' teacher'
inclusion' criteria' necessitated' access' to' training' days' and' statutory' or' school'
indoor' and' outdoor' space,' jungle' gym' holidays.' Accelerometers' were'
type' equipment,' a' large' area' where' distributed'to'participants'by'members'of'
children'could'freely'run,'and'a'variety'of' the' research' team,' or' program' leaders,'
equipment'(i.e.,'multiple'sport'balls,'bats,' and'collected'by'research'assistants'at'the'
basketball' hoops' and' mats);' in' order' to' end'of'each'program'session.'On<'and'off<
increase' validity' in' the' comparison' times' were' recorded' by' research'
between' programs.' Both' programs' assistants.' Tri<axial' Actigraph'


accelerometers' (Model:' GT3X,' Pensacola,' reliable' and' valid' measure' of' intensity' of'
FL)' were' used' to' measure' time' spent' in' physical'activity'(Freedson'et'al.,'1998).'
sedentary' behaviour,' light' physical' 1
activity,' combined' MVPA,' as' well' as' Data1Analysis1
vigorous' and' very' vigorous' physical' Accelerometer' data' were' analyzed'
activity'as'separate'components'of'MVPA.' using' ActiLife' Version' 6.' Wear' time' was'
Accelerometers' were' worn' around' the' cropped' by' 2' min' at' the' start' and' end' to'
waist' on' an' elasticized' belt,' with' the' eliminate' excessive' movement' of' the'
accelerometer'sitting'over'the'right'hip,'in' device' that' may' have' occurred' when'
line' with' the' mid<line' of' the' right' thigh.' placing'it'around'the'waist'and'removing'
Accelerometers' were' removed' during' it.' Previous' research' has' been' used' to'
pool<based'activities'(e.g.,'swimming).' establish' cut<points' for' accelerometer'
1 counts,' which' correspond' to' activity'
Participants1 levels' from' 0<1.5' METs' (sedentary'
Prior' to' the' beginning' of' the' school' behaviour),'1.6<2.99'METS'(light'physical'
year,' a' letter' was' sent' by' program' activity),' 3.0<5.99' METS' (moderate'
administrators' via' email' to' parents' of' activity),' 6.0<8.99' METS' (vigorous'
program' participants' informing' them' of' activity),' and' >9.0' METS' (very' vigorous'
the' upcoming' study.' During' the' first' few' activity)'(Freedson'et'al.,'1998).'Moderate'
weeks' of' programming,' the' principal' activity,' vigorous' activity' and' very'
investigator' coordinated' information' vigorous' activity' time' were' combined' to'
sessions'at'the'two'after'school'programs,' provide'an'estimate'of'MVPA.'Age<related'
and'provided'a'letter'of'invitation'and'an' equations' were' used' to' calculate' these'
informed'consent/assent'package'to'each' cut<points,' as' age' can' directly' affect'
child' registered' in' the' programs.' A' total' accelerometer' counts' (Freedson' et' al.,'
of' 41' participants' out' of' a' potential' 135' 2005).' A' 5<s' epoch' was' chosen,' as'
registered'program'participants'provided' previous' research' has' established' that'
signed' parental' consent' and' child' assent.' children' typically' perform' physical'
As'a'result'of'personal'circumstances'two' activity,' particularly' vigorous' activity,' in'
participants,' one' from' each' program' did' short'spurts'lasting'less'than'10's'(Baquet'
not' attend' their' respective' after' school' et'al.,'2007;'Nilsson'et'al.,'2002).'As'seen'
programs' during' the' week' of' data' in' Table' 1,' program' length' varied'
collection.'' between' the' two' programs,' and' as' well'
1 between' individual' participants' as'
Measures1 participants' left' the' program' at' different'
Height' was' measured' to' the' nearest' times' dependent' on' when' parents/'
0.1' cm' using' a' portable' seca' stadiometer' guardians' picked' them' up,' thus'
(Seca'GmbH'and'Co.,'Hamburg,'Germany),' percentage' of' time' spent' in' MVPA' was'
and' weight' was' measured' to' the' nearest' used' for' comparisons.' Average' minutes'
0.1' kg' using' a' calibrated' digital' scale' spent'in'MVPA'during'program'time'were'
(Health<o<Meter' Model' 349KLX,' Jarden' estimated' by' multiplying' average'
Co,' Rye,' NY).' The' GT3X' accelerometer' accelerometer' wear' time' and' average'
was'used'to'record'physical'activity'data.' percentage' of' time' in' MVPA.' Statistical'
Accelerometers' are' considered' to' be' a' analyses' were' done' using' IBM' SPSS'
Version' 20.' Independent' t<tests' were'


Time! LowRorganized!games! SportsRbased!program!
2:30<3:00' School'still'in'session.' School' still' in' session' for' approximately' half' of'
program' participants.' Pick' up' at' some' schools,' and'
' School' day' ends,' children' make' their' Pick' up' at' other' schools,' and' walk' back' to' program'
3:00<3:30' way' to' classrooms' for' centre.' Unstructured' free' play' on' playground' and'
snack/unstructured'seated'activities.' snack'time'for'children'in'attendance'already.'
3:30<3:45' Snack/Unstructured'seated'activities.' Unstructured'free'play'on'playground'and'snack'time.'
3:45<4:00' Transition'to'outdoor'time.' Unstructured'free'play'on'playground'and'snack'time.'
4:00<5:00' Structured' physical' activity' (15<60' Structured'physical'activity.'
min)' followed' by' unstructured' free'
5:00<5:30' Unstructured' free' play' on' playground' Unstructured'free'play'on'playground'until'pick'up.'
5:30<6:00' Program'no'longer'in'session.' Unstructured'free'play'on'playground'until'pick'up.'

performed' to' determine' differences' accelerometers'for'an'average'of'3.6'days'

between' average' time' spent' in' MVPA,' out'of'5'potential'wear'days,'providing'an'
light' physical' activity' and' sedentary' average' of' 101.9' ' 19.8' minday<1.'
behaviour' in' both' programs,' as' well' as' Percentage' breakdowns' of' time' spent' in'
between' time' spent' in' vigorous' and' very' MVPA,' light' physical' activity' and'
vigorous'physical'activity.' sedentary' behaviour' can' be' found' in'
! Table' 3.' Participants' in' both' programs'
Results! spent'more'than'50%'of'program'time'in'
Demographic' information' for' the' 39' MVPA.' Children' in' the' sports' program'
participants' can' be' found' in' Table' 2.' No' participated' in' significantly' more' MVPA'
statistically' significant' differences' were' than'children'in'the'low<organized'games'
found' between' the' two' groups,' with' the' program' (p' <' 0.001)' as' can' be' seen' in'
exception' of' the' low<organized' games' Table'3.'Calculated'average'time'in'MVPA'
program'participants'having'more'female' was' 65.7' min' per' day' for' the' sports'
participants.' program' and' 48.1' min' for' the' low<
' organized'games'program.'

' Female
Males! Age!(yr)! Height!(cm)! Weight!(kg)!
Low<organized'games' 7' 15' 8''1' 127''10' 28.1''8.5'
Sports<based' 8' 9' 8''1' 130''8' 25.8''7.5'

'Participants' from' the' games' program' There' were' no' significant' differences'
wore'accelerometers'for'an'average'of'4.1' in'time'spent'in'vigorous'or'very'vigorous'
days' out' of' 5' potential' wear' days,' activity' between' the' two' groups,' when'
providing' an' average' of' 94.9' ' 18.8' MVPA' was' broken' down' into'
minday<1' worn.' Participants' from' the' components.' On' average,' the' sports'
sports<based' program' wore' program' participants' spent' 11.7' ' 5.3%'


of' program' time' in' vigorous' activity' and' that' positively' contributed' to' the' daily'
1.8' ' 2.0%' of' program' time' in' very' recommendations' of' 60' min' of' MVPA.'
vigorous'activity.'Participants'of'the'low< Low<organized' games' based' program'
organized' game' program' spent' on' participants'engaged'in'48.1'min'of'MVPA'
average' 8.7' ' 5.4%' of' program' time' in' (50.7%' of' time),' nearly' meeting' the'
minimal' daily' recommendation.' Sport<

! Games! Sports! pRvalue!

Sedentary'Behaviour'(%)' 38.5''10.8' 26.1''9.1' 0.001'
Light'Intensity'Physical'Activity'(%)' 10.8''1.7' 9.4''1.9' 0.016'

MVPA'(%)' 50.7''10.8' 64.5''9.0' <'0.001'

Minimum'MVPA'(%)' 32.0' 42.4' '

Maximum'MVPA'(%)' 69.0' 75.9' '


vigorous' activity' and' 1.8' ' 2.0%' of' based' program' participants' engaged' in'
program'time'in'very'vigorous'activity.' 65.7' min' (64.5%' of' time),' exceeding' the'
! daily' recommended' time' by' Health'
Discussion! Canada' for' children' and' youth.' This' is' in'
The'aim'of'this'study'was'to'determine' support' of' previous' research' conducted'
the' amount' of' time' participants' spent' in' by' Sharpe' et' al' (2011)' indicating' that'
MVPA' and' SB' while' participating' in' after' physical' activity' focused' after' school'
school' programs' with' a' physical' activity' programs' may' already' be' providing'
focus.' As' well,' the' project' aimed' to' substantial'contributions'to'daily'physical'
compare' low<organized' games' based' activity.' In' fact,' participants' from' both'
programming' and' sport<based' programs' spent' greater' than' 50%' of'
programming' to' determine' if' program' program' time' engaged' in' health'
type' affected' time' spent' in' MVPA.' This' promoting' physical' activity,' which' could'
project'is'unique'in'that'current'research' be' considered' a' potential' benchmark' for'
has' focused' on' developing' intervention' physical'activity'programming.'
studies'to'improve'physical'activity'in'the' Our' study' found' that' children'
after' school' time' period,' without' participating' in' an' after' school' program'
examining' whether' existent' models' are' with' a' physical' activity' focus' engaged' in'
efficacious,' and' whether' there' are' more' MVPA' than' the' national' average' of'
differences' between' these' existent' 14' min' (8%' of' time)' during' the' 3<6' pm'
models.' time' period' (Active' Healthy' Kids' Canada,'
1 2011).'As'well,'participants'of'the'current'
After1 school1 programs1 with1 a1 physical1 study' participated' in' more' MVPA' than'
activity1focus1 provincial' averages' of' 38.5' min' of' MVPA'
Participants' in' both' after' school' (24.4%' of' time)' and' 38.7' min' of' MVPA'
programs' engaged' in' physical' activity' (23.9%' of' time),' for' Grade' 3' boys' and'


2013).' While' direct' statistical' as' opposed' to' a' general' program' design'
comparisons' cannot' be' made,' the' low< that' incorporates' some' physical' activity'
organized' games' and' sport<based' time,' as' substantial' opportunities' to'
program' participants' spent' 50.7%' and' engage'in'MVPA'was'provided'in'the'two'
64.5%' of' program' time' in' MVPA,' physical'activity'based'programs'studied.'
respectively,'which'is'more'than'six'times' A' number' of' similarities' exist' between'
that' of' the' national' average,' and' double' the'two'programs'examined'in'this'study,'
that' of' Nova' Scotian' data.' The' extreme' with' both' programs' providing'
difference' seen' between' the' national' opportunity' to' engage' in' MVPA' in'
average' and' the' current' data' is' likely' in' structured' and' unstructured' settings,' as'
part' due' to' the' range' of' ages' of' children' well'as'a'variety'of'physical'activity'types,'
studied' in' the' national' data' collection' (5' potentially' contributing' to' the' high'
to'17'yr)'versus'the'current'study'(6'to'10' percentages' of' MVPA' observed.' Likewise'
yr).' Research' has' established' that' MVPA' both' groups' spent' meaningful' periods' of'
participation' decreases' with' age' (Nader,' time' in' combined' vigorous' and' very'
Bradley,' Houts,' McRitchie,' and' O`Brien,' vigorous' activity,' 13.5%' of' program' time'
2008;' Thompson' and' Wadsworth,' 2012).' for'the'sports<based'program'participants'
The' provincial' KP' data,' may' be' a' better' and' 10.5%' of' program' time' for' the' low<
comparison,' as' the' participants' are' of' a' organized' games<based' program'
similar' age' (8' yr)' to' the' current' study,' participants.' While' these' results' are' in'
and' the' large' difference' seen' between' contrast' to' previous' research' initiatives,'
these' two' data' sets' highlights' the' the' differences' may' be' attributed' to' the'
importance' of' prioritizing' physical' methodological' differences' associated'
activity' in' after' school' programming.' with'analyzing'and'reporting'the'physical'
Additionally,' as' program' participants' did' activity' data.' Specifically,' larger'
not' necessarily' spend' the' entire' 3<6' pm' surveillance' studies' (Colley' et' al.,' 2011;'
time' period' at' their' respective' after' Thompson' and' Wadsworth,' 2012;' Trost'
school' program' in' this' study,' due' to' et' al.,' 2008)' used' a' longer' epoch' for'
varying' parent' collection' times,' there' is' physical'activity'data'collection'(30'or'60'
potential' that' these' children' accrued' s)'in'comparison'to'the'5's'epoch'used'in'
more' minutes' of' MVPA' during' the' after' the' current' study,' making' direct'
school'time'period'than'reported.'' comparisons' challenging.' Based' on'
In' comparison' to' Trost' et' al.s' (2008)' previous' research' that' has' shown' that' a'
examination' of' non<specialized' after' small' epoch' (i.e.,' 5' s)' has' a' higher'
school'programs,'participants'in'both'the' sensitivity'for'detecting'vigorous'physical'
sports<' and' low<organized' games<based' activity' in' comparison' to' a' larger' epoch'
programs' engaged' in' substantially' more' (i.e.,' 30' or' 60' s)' we' feel' that' this' is' an'
MVPA.' Specifically,' an' average' of' 20.3' important' improvement' in' the'
minday<1' of' MVPA' was' recorded' in' the' measurement' and' reporting' of' physical'
non<specialized' programs,' compared' to' activity'behaviours'in'children'and'youth'
48.1' and' 65.7' minday<1' for' the' low< (Baquet'et'al.,'2007;'Nilsson'et'al.,'2002).'
organized' games' and' sports' programs' in' Ultimately,'participants'of'both'programs'
the' current' study' respectively.' This' spent' over' 10%' of' program' time' in'
difference'indicates'a'benefit'to'the'focus' vigorous' physical' activity,' which' we'
on'physical'activity'during'program'time,' propose' to' be' a' noteworthy' portion.' For'


example,'Hay'et'al.'(2012)'reported'that'7' participant' interest,' whereas' the'
min' of' daily' vigorous' physical' activity' participants' in' the' study' by' Sharpe' et' al.'
was' associated' with' better' health' (2011)' were' enrolled' in' a' general'
measures' in' children.' This' lends' support' neighbourhood' program' that' had' no'
to' our' recommendation' that' 10%' of' specifically' stated' sport' focus.'
physical' activity' program' time' should' be' Accordingly,' a' pre<existing' interest' in'
spent' in' vigorous' physical' activity,' as' a' sports'may'have'enhanced'the'motivation'
program' of' only' 60' min' in' length' would' of' participants' of' the' current' study' to'
nearly' meet' the' 7<min' recommendation.' more' actively' engage' in' program'
As' shorter' epochs' more' accurately' activities.' Additionally,' Sharpe' et' al.'
measure' vigorous' activity' in' children,' (2011)' introduced' a' change' in'
future' research' initiatives' examining' programming' to' participants,' which' may'
physical' activity' time' in' children' and' have' accounted' for' the' increase' in'
youth' should' utilize' 5<s' epoch' times' in' motivation,' as' new' or' novel' programs'
order' to' gain' better' understanding' of' may' also' enhance' motivation' and'
vigorous'physical'activity'participation.'' intensity' of' participation' (Allender' et' al.,'
' 2006;'Strong'et'al.,'2005).''
LowAorganized1 games1 versus1 sportAbased1 Other' factors' unrelated' to' after' school'
programming1 program' type' may' have' contributed' to'
Participants' in' the' sport<based' the' differences' noted' between' the' sport<
program' engaged' in' significantly' more' based' and' low<organized' games<based'
MVPA' and' significantly' less' sedentary' programs.' For' example,' during' the' week'
behaviour,' than' participants' in' the' low< of' data' collection,' half' of' the' low<
organized' games' program.' Low< organized' games' based' program'
organized' games' based' program' participants' engaged' in' sedentary'
participants' spent' more' program' time' in' behaviour' by' watching' a' movie' due' to'
light' physical' activity' than' sport<based' inclement' weather,' despite' access' to' a'
program' participants;' however,' this' gymnasium.' Engaging' in' this' sedentary'
represents' only' a' 1.46%' difference' in' behaviour,' or' other' screen<based'
program'time,'therefore'it'is'unlikely'that' activities,' creates' direct' competition' for'
there' is' any' clinical' relevance' to' this' valuable' physical' activity' time' in' a' short'
finding.' The' differences' in' MVPA' and' window' of' program' time.' While' the'
sedentary' behaviour' seen' between' the' program' administrators' stated' that'
two' programs' are' contradictory' to' screen<based' activities' are' utilized' a'
previous'research'by'Sharpe'et'al.'(2011),' maximum' of' once' per' month,' the' results'
which' showed' an' increase' in' time' spent' of' this' study' provide' support' for' the'
in' MVPA' following' transition' to' a' low< complete'elimination'of'sedentary'screen<
organized' games<based' program' from' a' based' activities' during' after' school'
sport<based' model.' This' difference' may' programming.' Additionally,' the' low<
be' due' to' key' differences' between' the' organized' games' program' scheduled' an'
program' studied' by' Sharpe' et' al.' (2011)' extended' seated' snack' time,' which' may'
and' the' current' study.' Particularly,' the' also' have' contributed' to' the' higher'
participants' in' the' current' study' had' sedentary' behaviour' time,' and' lower'
specifically' elected' to' enrol' in' a' sport< MVPA' time.' Program' administrators'
based' program,' potentially' due' to' should' consider' the' necessity' of' such'


extended' periods' of' sedentary' time,' and' efforts' to' increase' the' physical' activity'
shorten' or' remove' mandatory' seated' levels'of'children'between'the'ages'of'6'to'
time.' 10'yr.'Both'programs'considered'physical'
1 activity'to'be'the'main'goal'or'purpose'of'
Limitations1 the' program,' and' both' programs' were'
The'results'of'this'study'are'limited'to' successful' at' providing' substantial' MVPA'
the' two' after' school' programs' studied' participation' for' participants.' Secondly,'
and'the'individual'participants'from'these' all' sedentary' screen<based' activities'
programs' that' took' part' in' the' research' should'be'removed'from'after'school'care'
initiative.' The' research' study' design,' program' settings.' The' significant'
which' employed' a' quasi<experimental' difference' in' time' spent' in' MVPA' and'
design' with' limited' controls,' may' have' sedentary' behaviour' seen' between' the'
also' impacted' research' results.' As' two' programs' may' have' been' strongly'
assignment'to'after'school'program'could' influenced' by' the' use' of' a' screen' activity'
not' be' randomized,' individual' during' inclement' weather.' Finally,' the'
participants' may' have' chosen' the' after' elimination' or' reduction' of' an' extended'
school' program' that' fit' their' individual' mandatory' seated' snack' time' should'
preferences' for' physical' activity' occur,' as' this' time' may' have' negatively'
participation' and' increased' individual' impacted' low<organized' games' based'
motivation'to'engage'in'the'programming' program' participants' ability' to' take' part'
at' that' specific' site.' Additionally,' in'MVPA.''
individuals' that' elected' to' participate' in' While' the' results' of' this' study' are'
the' research' project' may' participate' in' promising,' further' research' on' after'
the' physical' activity' at' their' after' school' school' programming' is' warranted' to'
programs' more' than' their' peers' who' did' examine' the' multiple' variables' that'
not' volunteer.' Pool<based' activities' were' influence' the' success' of' after' school'
not' able' to' be' included' within' the' physical' activity' interventions.' Program'
analysis,' and' this' time' period' was' leader' training,' adherence' to'
removed' entirely' from' the' analysis;' programming' and' individual' enjoyment'
therefore,' overall' physical' activity' time' of' the' program' may' all' influence' MVPA'
may' have' been' more' or' less.' Finally,' participation' during' a' program,' and'
variability' between' program' leaders,' research' should' continue' to' examine' the'
including' their' ability' to' engage' effects' of' these' factors' in' randomized'
participants' in' activity' and' decisions' to' studies.' Continuing' research' in' this' area'
follow' programming' as' set' out' by' will' help' ensure' the' effectiveness' of'
administrators' was' not' controlled' nor' future' programming.' Additionally,' access'
measured'in'the'current'study.' to' quality' after' school' programs,' in'
1 particular' those' with' a' physical' activity'
Recommendations/Practical1Implications1 focus,' should' be' considered' a' priority,' in'
Despite' these' limitations,' a' number' of' particular' for' older' children' and' those'
specific'recommendations'for'after'school' living' in' rural' areas,' as' these' two'
programming' can' be' made' from' these' populations' typically' have' less' access'
results.' Firstly,' providing' a' focus' on' than'younger'children'and'those'in'urban'
physical' activity' during' after' school' areas' (CFLRI,' 2010).' Importantly,' widely'
program' time' should' be' a' priority' in' available' physical' activity' focused' after'


school' programs' may' help' to' improve' after'school.'The1Active1Healthy1Kids1Canada1
MVPA' participation' in' the' 3<6pm' time' 20111 report1 card1 on1 physical1 activity1 Afor1
period'for'Canadian'children.' Kids' Canada.' URL:'
Conclusion! tcard2011/ahkcreportcard20110429final.p
After' school' programming' should' df'
incorporate' a' focus' on' physical' activity,' Allender,' S.,' Cowburn,' G.' and' Foster,' C.' (2006).'
Understanding' participation' in' sport' and'
even'if'only'for'a'portion'of'program'time.' physical'activity'among'children'and'adults:'
The' elimination' of' sedentary' screen< a' review' of' qualitative' studies.' Health1
based' activities' from' childcare' Education1 Research,1 21(6),' 826<835.' URL:'
programming' and' a' limitation' on'
mandatory<seated' snack' time,' may' 6/826.full.pdf+html'
improve'time'spent'in'MVPA'during'after' Foster' C.' (2011).' Interventions' to' promote'
school' program' time.' Incorporating' physical'activity'in'young'people'conducted'
structured' indoor' physical' activity' time' in' the' hours' immediately' after' school:' A'
should' be' a' priority.' Likewise,' providing' systematic' review.' International1 Journal1 of1
varied' programming' to' engage' the' Behavioural1 Medicine,1 18,' 176<187.' doi:'
interest' of' program' participants' in' order' Bailey,'D.'A.,'McKay,'H.'A.,'Mirwald,'R.'L.,'Crocker,'
to' promote' continued' participation' in' P.' R.' E.' and' Faulkner,' R.' A.' (1999).' A' six<
MVPA' is' also' needed' (Allender' et' al.,' year' longitudinal' study' of' the' relationship'
2006;' Strong,' et' al.,' 2005).' Future' of'physical'activity'to'bone'mineral'accrual'
research' initiatives' should' focus' on' the' in' growing' children:' The' University' of'
Saskatchewan' Bone' Mineral' Accrual' Study.'
construction' of' well<controlled' physical' Journal1 of1 Bone1 and1 Mineral1 Research,1
activity' interventions' that' look' at' the' 14(10),' 1672<1679.' URL:'
multiple' factors' that' influence' program'
success' including' program' leaders,' 9/jbmr.1999.14.10.1672/pdf'
content' and' individual' participant' Baquet,' G.,' Stratton,' G.,' Van' Praagh,' E.' and'
Berthoin,' S.' (2007).' Improving' physical'
characteristics' in' order' to' offer' effective' activity'assessment'in'prepubertal'children'
health' promoting' physical' activity' with' high<frequency' accelerometry'
programming' for' children' (Atkin' et' al.,' monitoring:' A' methodological' issue.'
2012).' Preventive1Medicine,144,'143<147.'DOI:'DOI:'
' 10.1016/j.ypmed.2006.10.004'
Acknowledgements! J.'L.'(2009).'After<school'program'impact'on'
The'authors'would'like'to'acknowledge' physical' activity' and' fitness:' A' meta<
Michelle' Patrick' for' her' contributions' to' analysis.' American1 Journal1 of1 Preventive1
data'collection.' Medicine,1 36(6),' 527<537.' URL:'
Authors!Qualifications! ! Bell,' L.' M.,' Watts,' K.,' Siafarikas,' A.,' Thompson,' A.,'
The' authors' qualifications' are' as' Ratnam,' N.,' Bulsara,' M.,' Finn,' J.,' ODriscoll,'
follows:' E.' Jean' Burrows' MSc,' Angela' M.' G.,' Green,' D.' J.,' Jones,' T.' W.' and' Davis,' E.' A.'
Kolen' MSc,' PhD,' Melanie' R.' Keats,' MSc,' (2007).' Exercise' alone' reduces' insulin'
PhD.! resistance' in' obese' children' independently'
' of1 Clinical1 Epidemiology1 and1 Metabolism,1
References! 92(11),' 4230<4235.' URL:'
be' the' most' physical' activity' our' kids' get'


! 74<84.' URL:'
Burrows,'E.'J.,'Keats,'M.'R.'and'Kolen,'A.'M.'(2014).' 5868<6<5.pdf'
Contributions' of' after' school' programs' to' Hay,' J.,' Maximova,' K.,' Durksen,' A.,' Carson,' V.,'
the'development'of'fundamental'movement' Rinaldi,' R.' L.,' Torrance,' B.,' Ball,' G.' D.,'
skills' in' children.' International1 Journal1 of1 Majumdar,'S.'R.,'Plotnikoff,'R.'C.,'Veugelers,'
Exercise1 Science,1 7(3),' 236<249.' URL:' P.,' Boule,' N.' G.,' Wozny,' P.,' McCargar,' L.,' Downs,' S.,' Lewanczuk,' R.' and' McGavock,' J.'
iss3/9'' (2012).' Physical' activity' intensity' and'
Canadian' Fitness' and' Lifestyle' Research' Institute' cardiometabolic' risk' in' youth.' Archives1 of1
(CFLRI).'(2010).'The'2010'Physical'Activity' Pediatrics1and1Adolescent1Medicine,1166(11),'
Monitor.'Ottawa,'Ontario:'Canadian'Fitness' 1022<1029.' DOI:' 10.1001/'
and' Lifestyle' Research' Institute.' URL:' archpediatrics.2012.1028'' Kang,' H.<S.,' Gutin,' B.,' Barbeau,' P.,' Owens,' S.,'
Colley,' R.' C.,' Garriguet,' D.,' Janssen,' I.,' Craig,' C.' L.,' Lemmon,'C.'R.,'Allison,'J.,'Litaker,'M.'S.'and'
Clarke,' J.' and' Tremblay,' M.' S.' (2011).' Le,'N.<A.'(2002).'Physical'training'improves'
Physical' activity' of' Canadian' children' and' insulin' resistance' syndrome' markers' in'
youth:'Accelerometer'results'from'the'2007' obese' adolescents.' Medicine1 and1 Science1 in1
to' 2009' Canadian' Health' Measures' Survey.' Sports1 and1 Exercise,1 34(12),' 1920<1927.'
Health1 Reports,1 22(1),' 15<23.' URL:' URL:'<003<
x/2011001/article/11397<eng.htm' /uploads/' Journal'
Ekeland,'E.,'Heian,'F.'and'Hagen,'K.'B.'(2005).'Can' _db/Physical%20training%20improves%2
exercise' improve' self<esteem' in' children' 0insulin%20resistance.pdf'
and' young' people?' A' systematic' review' of' Kolen<Thompson,' A.' M.,' Wadsworth,' L.' A.,' Wang,'
randomised'controlled'trials.'British1Journal1 X.,' van' Bommel,' C.' M.,' Terrio' C.' A.' (2013).'
of1 Sports1 Medicine,1 39,' 792798.' URL:' Measuring'physical'activity'in'children'and' youth:' Learning' from' experience.' In' de'
/PMC1725055/pdf/v039p00792.pdf' Brito' Andr' PS,' Varnum,' H.' eds.'
Erwin,'H.'E.,'Beighle,'A.,'Morgan,'C.'F.,'and'Noland,' Accelerometers:1 Principles,1 Structure1 and1
M.' (2011).' Effect' of' a' low<cost,' teacher< Applications.' Nova' Science' Publishers.'
directed' classroom' intervention' on' ebook'2013:245<269.'
elementary' students' physical' activity.' Lawlor,'D.'A.,'Jago,'R.,'Nobel,'S.'M.,'Chittleborough,'
Journal1 of1 School1 Health,1 81(8),' 455<461.' C.' R.,' Campbell,' R.,' Mytton,' J.,' Howe,' L.' D.,'
DOI:'10.1111/j.1746<1561.2011.00614.x.' Peters,' T.' J.' and' Kipping,' R.' R.' (2011).' The'
Freedson,'P.'S.,'Melanson,'E.'and'Sirard,'J.'(1998).' Active'for'Life'Year'5'(AFLY5)'school'based'
Calibration' of' the' Computer' Science' and' cluster' randomised' controlled' trial:' Study'
Applications,' Inc.' Accelerometer.' Medicine1 protocol' for' a' randomized' controlled' trial.'
and1 Science1 in1 Sports1 and1 Exercise,1 30(5),' Trials,1 12,' 181<193.' URL:'
Freedson,' P.' S.,' Pober,' D.' and' Janz,' K.' F.' (2005).' /1745<6215<12<181.pdf'
Calibration' of' accelerometer' output' for' MacKelvie,' K.' J.,' McKay,' H.' M.,' Khan,' K.' M.,' and'
children.'Medicine1and1Science1in1Sports1and1 Crocker,' P.' R.' E.' (2001).' A' school<based'
Exercise,1 37(11),' S53<S530.' URL:' exercise' intervention' augments' bone' mineral' accrual' in' early' pubertal' girls.' The1
/uploads/Journal_db/' Journal1of1Pediatrics,1139(4),'501<508.'
Calibration%20of%20Accelerometer%20O Mark,'A.'E.'and'Janssen,'I.'(2008a).'Dose<response'
utput.pdf' relation' between' physical' activity' and'
Goreley,' T.,' Morris,' J.' G.,' Musson,' H.,' Brown,' S.,' blood' pressure' in' youth.' Medicine1 and1
Nevill,' A.' and' Nevill,' M.' E.' (2011).' Physical' Science1 in1 Sports1 and1 Exercise,1 40(6),' 1007<
activity' and' body' composition' outcomes' of' 1012.' DOI:'
the' GreatFun2Run' intervention' at' 20' 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318169032d.'
month' follow<up.' International1 Journal1 of1 Mark,' A.' E.' and' Janssen,' I.' (2008b).' Relationship'
Behavioral1Nutrition1and1Physical1Activity,18,' between' screen<time' and' metabolic'


syndrome' in' adolescents.' Journal1 of1 Public1 Strong,' W.' B.,' Malina,' R.' M.,' Blimkie,' C.' J.' R.,'
Health,1 30(2),' 153<160.' URL:' Daniels,' S.' R.,' Dishman,' R.' K.,' Gutin,' B.,' Hergenroeder,' A.' C.,' Must,' A.,' Nixon,' P.' A.,'
nt/30/2/153.full' Pivarnik,' J.' M.,' Rowland,' T.,' Trost,' S.' and'
Nader,'P.'R.,'Bradley,'R.'H.,'Houts,'R.'M.,'McRitchie,' Trudeau,' F.' (2005).' Evidence' based'
S.' L.' and' O`Brien,' M.' (2008).' Moderate<to< physical' activity' for' school<age' youth.'
vigorous'physical'activity'from'ages'9'to'15' Journal1of1Pediatrics,1146,'732<737.'''
years.' Journal1 of1 the1 American1 Medical1 Thompson,' A.' M.' and' Wadsworth,' L.' A.' (2012).'
Association,1 300(3),' 295<305.' URL:' Keeping'Pace:'Physical'Activity'and'Healthy' Eating' Among' Children' and' Youth,' Key'
?articleid=182251' Findings' from' the' 2009<2010' Study.'
Naylor,'P.'J.,'Macdonald,'H.'M.,'Warburton,'D.'E.'R.,' Government' of' Nova' Scotia.'
Reed,' K.' E.' and' McKay,' H.' A.' (2006).' An'
active' school' model' to' promote' physical' aceReport.pdf'
activity' in' elementary' schools:' Action' Tremblay,'M.'S.,'LeBlanc,'A.'G.,'Janssen,'I.,'Kho,'M.'
schools!' BC.' British1 Journal1 of1 Sports1 E.,' Hicks,' A.,' Muruments,' K.,' Colley,' R.C.'
Medicine,1 42,' 338<343.' URL:' Duggan,' M.' (2011a).' Canadian' sedentary' behaviour' guidelines' for' children' and'
ll' youth.' Applied' Physiology,' Nutrition' and'
Nilsson,'A.,'Ekelund,'U.,'Yngve,'A.'and,'Sjstrm,'N.' Metabolism,' 36(1),' 59<64.' DOI:'
(2002).' Assessing' physical' activity' among' 10.1139/H11<012'
children' with' accelerometers' using' Tremblay,' M.' S.,' Warburton,' D.' E.' R.,' Janssen,' I.,'
different' time' sampling' intervals' and' Paterson,'D.'H.,'Latimer,'A.'E.,'Rhodes,'R.'E.,'
placements.' Pediatric1 Exercise1 Science,1 14,' Kho,'M.'E.,'Hicks,'A.,'LeBlanc,'A.'G.,'Zehr,'L.,'
8796.' Murumets,'K.'and'Duggan,'M.'(2011b).'New'
Pardee,' P.' E.,' Norman,' G.' J.,' Lustig,' R.' H.,' Canadian' physical' activity' guidelines.'
Preudhomme,' D.,' and' Schwimmer,' J.' B.' Applied1 Physiology,1 Nutrition1 and1
(2007).' ' Television' viewing' and' Metabolism.1 36(1),' 36<46.' DOI:'
hypertension' in' obese' children.' American1 10.1139/H11<009'''
Journal1of1Preventative1Medicine,133(6),'439< Trost,' S.' G.,' Rosenkranz,' R.' R.,' and' Dzewaltowski,'
443.' URL:' D.' (2008).' Physical' activity' levels' among' children' attending' after<school' programs.'
les/PIIS0749379707005260.pdf' Medicine1and1Science1in1Sports1and1Exercise,1
Sallis,'J.'F.,'McKenzie,'T.'L.,'Alcaraz,'J.'E.,'Kolody,'B.,' 40(4),' 622<629.''
Faucette,' N.' and' Hovell,' M.' F.' (1997).' The'
effects' of' a' 2<year' physical' education' andle/2097/12203/Physical?sequence=1'
program' (SPARK)' on' physical' activity' and' Wilson,' D.' K.,' Van' Horn,' M.' L.,' Kitzman<Ulrich,' H.,'
fitness' in' elementary' school' students.' Saunders,'R.,'Pate,'R.,'Lawman,'H.'G.,'Hutto,'
American1Journal1of1Public1Health,187,'1328< B.,' Griffin,' S.,' Zarrett,' N.,' Addy,' C.' L.,'
1334.' URL:' Mansard,' L.' Mixon,' G.' and' Brown,' P.' V.' (2011).' Results' of' the' Active' by' Choice'
/PMC1381094/pdf/amjph00507<0074.pdf' Today' (ACT)' randomized' trial' for'
Sharpe,'E.'K.,'Forrester,'S.,'and'Mandigo,'J.'(2011).' increasing' physical' activity' in' low<income'
Engaging' community' providers' to' create' and' minority' adolescents.' Health1
more' active' after<school' environments:' Psychology,1 30(4),' 463<471.' DOI:'
Results' from' the' Ontario' CATCH' Kids' Club' 10.1037/a0023390''
implementation' project.' Journal1 of1 Physical1 '
Activity1and1Health,18(S1),'S26<S31.' '
Stratton,' G.,' Fairclough,' S.' J.,' and' Ridgers,' N.' D.' '
(2008).' Physical' activity' levels' during' the' '
school' day.' In' A.L.' Smith' and' S.J.H.' Biddle,'
Youth1 physical1 activity1 and1 sedentary1
behaviour' (31<57).' Champaign,' IL:' Human'