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WHITE PAPER Author : Suvro Raychaudhuri
In a competitive arena, the advantage is taken by the first-mover – and for an environment where Seth and Sisodia’s The Rule-Of-Three predominates, it is not just the first mover, but the fast -mover who has it all. Every organisation, no matter how stable its quality and people processes, are bound to fall prey to the silent warfare of the fast-movers – which I would prefer to call Corporate SitzKrieg1 ; and Hertzberg’s “Satisfiers” are today’s HR nightmare – because nothing seems to work! Thus today, HR as a strategic partner in any organisation has lots to do in terms of metrics, HR analytics, prediction of trends and quantifying Human Capital measures. Since attrition is one of the main problems for any organisation struggling to retain its expertise and knowledge base, an analytical approach to the same would also help in prediction and necessary remedies. This paper aims to draw on the recent HR trend of referring to the employee as an “internal customer” and therefore assumes that manpower attrition is similar to customer switching problems in case of products, thus has used Markov Analysis as an Operations Research technique to predict attrition, and therefore form a basis for manpower planning. This white paper is aimed at a greater scope of having more thought provoking ideas in the HR Analytics arena and within its limited scope here, suggests an OR model as part of manpower inventory planning in general.
Innovative Solutions, Quality Leadership
................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 15 WIPRO IN COLLABORATION AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT .. 14 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................. 14 ABOUT THE AUTHOR ..............................................................................................A Markov Analysis Attempt for Attrition-rate Prediction and Stabilization Table of Contents INTRODUCTION ................ 4 WHAT WE REALLY LOSE ........................ 14 ABOUT WIPRO TECHNOLOGIES ................................................................................................ 8 THE MARKOV ANALYSIS .......................................................................... 7 THE VALIDITY OF ATTRITION DATA .................................................... 13 RELEVANT LINK ....... 3 THE KNOWLEDGE-HARVEST ......................................................................................... 10 CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................... 15 Table of: Contents Page .....WHITE PAPER Attrition Analytics .................................................. 5 WHAT OTHERS ARE DOING .........................
The concept of what has been stated above can be put into a simple model as shown below. (fig1. Human Resource professionals are under increased pressure from a different kind of a Corporate Sitzkrieg – the silent firepower of attrition which causes no less harm to Human capital assets. the nature of the enemy and most importantly. On the opposite end of the spectrum is maneuver warfare.” Metrics like body counts and terrain captured measure the progress of battle. The predominant style depends on a variety of factors such as the overall situation. Though this paper deals with attrition with respect to the War for Talent in Corporate arena. the strategy involved is the same – and even the terminologies quite similar – if “body count” can be a parameter to measure effectiveness of attrition warfare.A Markov Analysis Attempt for Attrition-rate Prediction and Stabilization Introduction The Attrition Warfare One of the greatest strategies of War had been the strategy of attrition warfare. that today. The main point here is.) Environment Strategy Organization Technology People Structure fig1 Culture © Wipro Technologies Page : 03 of 15 . The concept of applying warfare terminologies has been an age-old concept amongst marketers – and human resource professionals are coming to terms with such terminology like strategic human resource management. and the employee as the “internal customer” as per the marketing concepts – this has something to do with the changing scenario of a competitive environment. All warfare involves both maneuver and attrition in some mix. on attackers’ capabilities. where strategies no longer are framed at the top.WHITE PAPER Attrition Analytics . cascading through the entire organization and demanding concrete action plans. defined in military terms as “a strategy of warfare that pursues victory through the cumulative destruction of the enemy’s material assets by superior firepower. but evolves out of the environment. then in corporate recruitment strategies the similar parameter would perhaps be “acceptance to offer ratio” (from the attacker’s perspective). as compared to “the enemy’s material assets” as in the definition above.
that attrition rate among junior employees (2-4 yrs) would be higher for the functional knowledge part – associated with technical and operational processes. 2. the counter strategy is to predict attrition “zones” which depend on the criticality or type of knowledge that is at important to the organization. etc) and cultural knowledge from the competitors. who bring along with them the three kinds of knowledge.A Markov Analysis Attempt for Attrition-rate Prediction and Stabilization The pressure of competition from the environment and the evolution of strategy are selfexplanatory in the above figure. 2. and this is the origin of strategic human resource focus. AQPC has categorized three knowledge types that are under attack through attrition. depending on which type of knowledge it needs form the competitor. strategic recruiting.WHITE PAPER Attrition Analytics . Thus from the attacker’s point of view. Cultural knowledge – This includes management practices. The point to note here is the extent of the impact. the recruitment strategies are also sorted out accordingly. and done that in different ways. and thereby evolve plans to counter loss of human assets from those positions. Once we realize this. and decision flows. internal job offers. which involves hitherto soft issues like culture and people. Historical knowledge – this includes the organization’s journey from the day it was founded till the present Functional knowledge – this includes technical. operational. It is evident therefore. the next step is to come out with concrete plans to prevent attrition. the war for talent and the need to garrison the human resource capital as one of the strategic parameters. This includes 1. Identifying a burning platform or issue related to knowledge loss Looking for windows of opportunity through champions who are willing to try out knowledge retention approaches. Page : 04 of 15 . and thereby attack the very strategic base of the organization. 3. From the organization’s point of view. which can only be forecast using data and trends available. the attrition warfare would be more for gaining historical knowledge (business portfolio changes down the years. Some of the world’s best practice organizations have tried capturing data to predict attrition on the long run. respect for hierarchy. process and client information A more careful look at figure 1 indicates that there seems to be some good amount of convergence with respect to AQPC’s definition of the three types of knowledge and the model given in figure 1 – particularly the fact that corporate attrition warfare is all about gaining (through head-hunting. The Knowledge-Harvest APQC (American Productivity and Quality Centre) has made several recommendations to raise awareness of the problem of knowledge attrition. which include 1. At higher levels. etc) human assets. values.
In a famous article 1 . and this vacancy in knowledge base cannot be filled in by any person. attrition (through normal retirement or through resignations) has been discussed as one of the pain areas in the field of KM. This is particularly in context of a tough economy where the concept of all-size-fits-all is no longer working. originally by Takeuchi and Nonaka. which most organisations today are grappling to capture and retain. one of the parameters to measure effectiveness of corporate attrition warfare might be “acceptance to offer” ratios. but taking some of the most vital knowledge quantum from the company to it’s competitor. EXPLICIT Codified knowledge Migratory knowledge Attrition event TACIT Discovered knowledge PROPRIETARY Invisible knowledge SHARED The problem can be aptly stated through examples from the corporate world itself – Corning. This is precisely what is referred to as tacit knowledge. This closely pertains to what AQPC referred to as the Cultural and Historical knowledge. Attrition is a pain area in any organization that intends to have a knowledge management system in place.A Markov Analysis Attempt for Attrition-rate Prediction and Stabilization What We Really Lose Attrition and Knowledge Management – Loss of Historical and Cultural knowledge From the attackers’ perspective. and vacancy of a position by attrition is basically vacancy of a knowledge-base. Page : 05 of 15 . but filling in the knowledge gap is not. This can be exemplified better through the typical knowledge-cycle of an organisation as shown below. because vacancy of a position might be easier to fill in through the proper people-sourcing approaches. and therefore is never assimilated in the organisation as invisible knowledge. which had been experiencing knowledge loss through the large scale retirements through 1990’s estimated that it lost around 2000 years of cumulative years of experience as a result of a retirement package offered in 1998 – and this exemplifies loss of knowledge due to planned retirements alone – here we are talking of corporate SitzKrieg.WHITE PAPER Attrition Analytics . the problems associated are larger. in addition to the Individual or Proprietary knowledge that goes off without being codified and migratory. But from the perspective of the organization that has to cope up with this ever-growing problem. where an employee may walk into the office any morning to place his resignation letter and walk off with the competitor – not just creating a vacancy.
Organizations tend to spend huge sums of money on recruitment. and annual revenue of $100m. According to the Forum Group. 20% due to lack of attention) – thus internal attrition can devastate call-centre effectiveness if not tackled properly. and it corresponds more to AQPC’s definition of functional knowledge. employee referral bonuses. training. Though it is a known fact that high turnover rates drain the cost effectiveness of call centres.2 MEDIAN (%) Part time inbound Full time inbound Part time outbound Full time outbound 20 19 15 10 AVERAGE (%) 33. 65% of the external customers leave due to internal reasons alone (45% for poor service quality.Loss of Functional Knowledge The problem is more acute depending on the industry and the demographics of the employees too. as in call centres. etc. but overlook the vital costs associated with attrition. ads. and therefore an indicator of failure in capturing tacit knowledge bases.5 21.6 26 35. realistic job previews (8%). This shows that retention alone can significantly bring up the bottom-line for a call-centre. aptitude testing (10%). managers in call-centres normally tend to look only at advertising costs.A Markov Analysis Attempt for Attrition-rate Prediction and Stabilization However. Merrill Lynch attempted to find out costs associated with call-centre attrition – which came out to be around $9m per annum for a company with 1000 employees. job fairs. Proper testing and screening.3 HIGHEST (%) 300 252 480 210 TABLE1 Page : 06 of 15 . Shown in the table below are the typical turnover rates of call centres. organisations even with established knowledge management practices have not been able to come up with any substantial measure to check this knowledge loss. Attrition and Call-centers . and end up with 50% employees leaving before reaching any level of proficiency. unfortunately little is being done about it. In the article “Reducing Call Centre Turnover”1 . structured behavioral interviews (3%) can help prevent attrition by percentages shown in parenthesis.WHITE PAPER Attrition Analytics . for web-postings. introduction of the apprenticeship scheme. interviewing and training costs etc. Here the knowledge drain is at a different level.
Measurement of soft skills – because gaps exist when the companies say they value their people. Best practice companies. “The retention dilemma: Why productive workers leave and seven suggestions for keeping them”. Schlumberger. for example. according to AQPC.1 Pfizer also takes preventive measures to combat knowledge-drain and promote better knowledge transfer through its six-step knowledge retention process. Stated in another way. should conduct a thorough audit to determine what knowledge is worth capturing. reveals that employees leave because of disillusionment of the company management’s direction. Fight attrition with smart training – taking a longer term perspective in training and development as a retention tool. which can create a substantial problem to the company incase it is vacated under competitor attack. The table below shows the practices that are followed by these organizations to collect data related to attrition:2 Siemens Corning World Bank Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Northrop Grumman Y Xerox Connect Y Best Buy Y Internal networks Interviews Videotaping SME directory Repositories After action project milestone reviews Mentoring programme Knowledge maps Recruiting strategy Retention strategy Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y TABLE2 The importance for including the various ways companies worldwide are collecting data on attrition would be clearer in the subsequent sections. this would also indicate the “critical positions” in the organization. and because of under-utilization. and do something else 2.A Markov Analysis Attempt for Attrition-rate Prediction and Stabilization What Others Are Doing Organizations across the world and operating in different industry segments have tried to find out means to measure business loss through attrition. Page : 07 of 15 . In their survey. Two of the seven things Hay Group identified as “attrition-preventing” are clearly related to training – 1.WHITE PAPER Attrition Analytics . A Hay Group survey1 reveals that what people want most is to feel that their careers are moving forward. understands how important it is to link its knowledge sharing techniques with its HR processes: the oil industry faces an attrition rate of 44% by 2010.
that inspite of a great number of efforts. and the respondent. few organisations have been able to tackle attrition in spite of using various types of data-gathering instruments as shown in table 2. and the availability of a number of instruments for collecting reasons as to why people are leaving. 1978). can be influenced by the design and implementation of the survey.A Markov Analysis Attempt for Attrition-rate Prediction and Stabilization The relationship between job satisfaction and attrition as surveyed by Hay Group is shown as follows: Satisfaction with Total percent satisfied Gap Employees planning to stay for >2Yrs (%) Use of my skills and abilities Ability of top management Company has clear sense of direction Advancement opportunities Opportunity to learn new skills Coaching and counseling from one’s own supervisor Training Pay 54 51 50 66 54 83 74 57 Employees planning to leave in <2Yrs (%) 49 41 27 34 33 30 22 38 26 28 28 28 36 25 18 26 TABLE3 However. there is a social exchange between the survey interviewer. These rewards might include monetary payment. because perhaps the data itself is not valid. to some extent. who desires information possessed by the respondent. but more importantly would include intangible rewards that. Dillman posits that the respondent participates because the act of participation is expected to bring rewards that exceed the cost of participation. Page : 08 of 15 . it is important to question the very validity of the data that is given by the employees – it is only common sense that an employee would not reveal the correct reason for leaving the company at some point of time – thus any action taken by the organization to prevent attrition by altering the factors as mentioned above does not have any effect. The problem of the validity of the data from an attrition survey – The Social Exchange Theory8 We have seen above. According to this.WHITE PAPER Attrition Analytics . As to why employees would not/might not give the correct response to an attrition survey stems from the social exchange theory (Dillman. an organization is really not being able to do much about attrition – the primary reason of this could be the validity of the data. Thus the problem is perhaps somewhere else. who decides how much information to convey. The Validity of Attrition Data In order to understand this.
Hit are hours of work Pit is a respondent payment for participation in the tth wave of the survey. Substituting the labor supply function and the time and money budgets into Equation (1). wit is the market wage rate... Eit = 0 if the individual does not participate.. (3) and Eit = lit = Pit = 02. The individual’s time budget. Vit)... This choice is described by the labor supply function Hit = H(wit.. …………………………………………….... the individual’s willingness to participate in a survey depends on a comparison of the benefits and costs of participation to him.. Yit. The individual’s money budget is Yit =Vit + wit Hit + pit ……………………………………………(2) where Vit is nonlabor income.(4) Treating lit as a marginal loss of leisure and pit as a marginal gain in income. T = Hit + Lit + lit.A Markov Analysis Attempt for Attrition-rate Prediction and Stabilization Dillman argues that the willingness of an individual to participate in a survey depends critically on the degree of trust that the expected terms of the social exchange described above will be fulfilled. Yit) + Eit …………………………………………(1) where UR (Lit.Hit(wit. This paper only outlines the theory. the individual’s utility function is given by UitR = UR [T . and income. hours of leisure.WHITE PAPER Attrition Analytics .(5) where Page : 09 of 15 .(3) is the sum of hours of work. leaving it for future scope of research on the subject. or loss from participation in the survey is given by HU = -ULlit + UYpit + Eit = (-witlit + pit)UY + Eit. The social exchange model described above can be translated into an economic model and. The individual obviously chooses his labor supply independently of the survey interview by maximizing Equation (1) subject to Equations (2).. Vit) + pit] + Eit. and time spent on the interview. Let the individual’s utility function be given by URit = UR (Lit. According to social exchange theory... ………………………………………………………. Lit.. the net utility gain.Vit) . validity of the response and the data. Vit + wit Hit(wit. can be used to help generate some empirically testable hypotheses about the determinants of survey participation.. Yit) is the utility the individual receives from leisure.. Eit is the psychic value the respondent expects to experience by participating in the interview.lit.. in its translated form.
Though Marketers won’t converge on the benefits of such a trend because that causes some confusion between external and internal customers and strategies. The other figures put in the example are selfexplanatory. then the next step is to consider attrition as a customer-switching problem – and once we can do that. As an example laid down below. therefore he is under no obligation to respond correctly/accurately to attrition surveys.02. The Markov Analysis One of the most recent trends in HR is treating the employees as internal customers.pit. otherwise. the organization needs to have data that is needed to form the transition probability matrix. A Markov chain is a random process for which the future depends only on the present state. and thereby his perceived-utility is low.95. refuse ………………. because of the inaccuracy of responses as mentioned in the previous section. A central property of ‘nice’ Markov chains is that they settle down into a (stochastic) equilibrium. The solution proposed here is the application of Markov analysis to customer switching problems – clearly stated.A Markov Analysis Attempt for Attrition-rate Prediction and Stabilization UL is the marginal utility of leisure. If we can consider employees as internal customers. say the probability that the employee stays in the organization is 0. The corresponding probabilities of his/her switching to competitor companies 2. a Markov analysis to find out the attrition rate and prediction of its stability within time period t. This simplifying assumption leads to a family of systems having a mathematical theory. 0. which would give HR people a relevant input in terms of their manpower planning and recruitments. the main advantage here is that enables a large number of strategies to be developed. Page : 10 of 15 . and 4 are say 0.WHITE PAPER Attrition Analytics . the reason for attrition. that a person who is leaving an organization wants neither psychic utility nor rewards. it has no memory of how the present state was reached. as well as many applications to modeling in more applied science. The individual will participate in wave t of the survey if the rewards from doing so outweigh the costs according to the decision rule Participate if Eit/UY > witlit . The validity of the output would depend on the validity of this probability. Here I propose to exemplify the construction of the transition-probability matrix as under: In analyzing switching between companies. The basic method for solving this is to construct the transition probability matrix.01 respectively. which takes in attrition probability data by using instruments as mentioned in the TABLE2. 3. UY is the marginal utility of income wit = UL/UY is the shadow price of time in nonmarket uses which is equal to the market wage rate if the individual is working in the labor force. which is a problem area. attrition rate prediction may be dealt with similarly as in customer switching problem in case of marketing.02 and 0.(6) Where Eit/UY is the monetary value of the psychic costs and rewards of the survey experience – the problem here being.
x2. and nothing else. 0. 3 and 4 respectively.05 0. 2.01 | 0. for example. say this month. 0.95 0. that is.] Hence the employee demand elapsed after two months are 49. 0. it has been assumed that the strategic sourcing group of the organization aims to have a 75% target of the probability of employees wanting to remain. 3.02 0.02 0.03 3 | 0.02 0.89% for companies 1.05 0. 0. 0.83 0. 20% and 12%. x4] where [x1.16742.02 0. We have the initial system state s1 given by s1 = [0. perks.02 4 | 0.23.249266.1018] and so after two months have elapsed the state of the system = s3 = s2P = [0.05 | 0. 0.2416. 0. 2. x4] = [x1.13 0.A Markov Analysis Attempt for Attrition-rate Prediction and Stabilization Thus we construct our probability matrix as follows: To company 1 2 3 4 From comp 1 | 0.45. the probability of switching to companies 2.90 0. 4 are 23%.08893] and of course the elements of s2 and s3 add to one (as required).02 0.83 0. whereby any event would only depend on the preceding event.03 | 0. around 25% attrition rate. x3. 0.12] and the transition matrix P given by P = | 0.93%. and for staying in the company itself is 45%. competitors’ pay.494384. x2. [The probability is calculated on various parameters that evoke switching.20.74% and 8. The basic assumption of Markov analysis is also applied here.01 2 | 0.4746. 24.10 0. [Please note that any since we are utilizing the Markov analysis process. which is a stochastic chain. x4]P and x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 1 Page : 11 of 15 .95 | 0.02 0.90 0.02 0. any event therein would follow only from the event preceding it – thus s2 = s1 x P. Assuming that in the long-run the system reaches equilibrium [x1.13 0. While exemplifying through the matrix.44%. and so on.05 0. x2.10 | 0.13 0.02 | 0.02 0. that the process is a stochastic one.WHITE PAPER Attrition Analytics . etc] The Solution Assumptions 1.1820. x3.13 0. x3. work environment.72 | Hence after one month has elapsed the state of the system s2 = s1P = [0. 0. 16.72 Say for the present time.
10x2 = 0.28(1 .17x3 = 0. x2.29x1 + 0.28) .75.(0. x2.e.31 and equation (7) by 0.05x3 + 0. 0.28x4 = 0.31)(0.03x2 + 0.01x1 + 0. 3 and 4 respectively.02x4 x4 = 0.02x3 + 0.02x1 + 0.07x1 .17x3 = 0.02 i. x3 = (0.25) and we have a transition matrix given by Page : 12 of 15 . x4] where x2.e.05x2 + 0.30x3 (7) Multiplying equation (6) by 0.17x3 = 0. Hence the long-run employee demands for the companies are 59.05x3 + 0.02x2 + 0. 2. 0.0.10x2 = 0.05x3 (6) Also substituting for x4 from equation (5) in equation (4) we have 0.31x2 + 0. 0.2/0.83x3 + 0.03x2 + 0.10526 Now subtracting equation (2) from equation (1) we get 0.02x4 (3) 0.03x2 + 0.01x1 + 0. 0.10x3 .02x1 + 0.13x4 (1) 0.13x4 (2) 0.30x3 i.05x2 + 0.49% for companies 1.05x1 .0.30)x3 and since we know x3 = 0.01x1 + 0.02(1-x3) i.59655 Hence from equation (6) we find that x2 = 0.10x3 + 0.15x2 = 0.02x3 i.72x4 x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 1 Rearranging we get 0.02x3 (4) x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 1 (5) Now from equation (3) we have 0.02x1 + 0.19x3 = 0.05)x3 + (0. 24.x3 Hence 0.15)(0.15 and adding we get (0.95x1 + 0.e.15)(0.29)x1 = (0.10x3 + 0.29x1 + 0.66%.02x1 + 0.31)(0.02x2 + 0.31x2 = 0.05x2 + 0.WHITE PAPER Attrition Analytics .05489 As a check we have that these values for x1.13x4 x3 = 0.05x3 i.10526 we have x1 = 0.28 = 0. 10.24330 and from equation (5) that x4 = 0.e.05x1 = 0.0.x3) = 0.e.02(x1 + x2 + x4) and from equation (5) we have x1 + x2 + x4 = 1 .19) = 0.0.07)x1 + (0.28 .(5) (to within rounding errors). x3.90x2 + 0. x3 and x4 satisfy equations (1) .15)(0.53% and 5.02x1 . x3 and x4 are unknown (but sum to 0.13x4 x2 = 0.33%.x1 .x2 . We need a long-run system state of [0.0.A Markov Analysis Attempt for Attrition-rate Prediction and Stabilization we have that x1 = 0.
75. List the internal and external forces that can contribute to the problem.13x4 x3 = 0.05 0.A Markov Analysis Attempt for Attrition-rate Prediction and Stabilization P= | p1 p2 p3 p4 | | 0. p2. x3. Conclusion The above approach through a Markov analysis is a proposed model.10 0.05x2 + 0. p1 + p2 + p3 + p4 = 1 Here we have six equations in seven unknowns and so to solve we need an appropriate objective.75p3 + 0.02x2 + 0.75p2 + 0.75 = 0. In order to avoid having to change the transition probabilities too much a suitable objective would be Maximize p1 I. According to International Data Corp. This model may be followed and can be mapped to a much more complex data through the construction and the solving of the probability matrix through a mathematical tool. In fact.75p4 + 0. x2.90x2 + 0.10x3 + 0.25 .05x3 + 0. x2. p3 and p4 are unknown (but sum to one).02 0.72x4 Together with x2 + x3 + x4 = 0.02x3 + 0.02x4 x4 = 0.WHITE PAPER Attrition Analytics . Companies should project retirements and attrition over the next five years.03x2 + 0. Page : 13 of 15 . Michael Boyd. A mix of job assignments.83x3 + 0.05 0. x4] = [0. or plan the manpower inventory accordingly.13 0.75.83 0. The objective of the paper was to propose a quantitative way to predict attrition rate in any industry and therefore take the necessary steps to prevent it. program elements can include the following: • • • • Ongoing education and training. The main approach to preventing attrition should be grooming leaders. x3.90 0. the companies with leading-edge retention programs address all the areas mentioned below.72 | where p1. Hence using the equation [0. The organization of small groups and teams.02 0. Peer group and mentoring programs.02 | | 0.13x4 x2 = 0.13 0. Then take the worst-case scenario.e.’s1 guru on resourcing strategies.75p1 + 0. rather than just treating employees the way it is normally done.03 | | 0. find the largest value for the transition probability from company 1 to itself such that the recruiter achieves the long-run employee demand of 75%. x4]P we have the equations 0.
April 2002 issue. 2 “Why attrition is a chance to prove the value of KM”. Issue1. John. Robert J.35 4 Purdue University Centre for customer driven quality 5 “Proactive strategies to combat attrition”. 7/3/2000.wipro. But in case nothing works.. Daniel H. Computerworld. Page : 14 of 15 . P-10. Flextime and other lifestyle benefits. March/April 2003 3 Drew Robb. Relevant Link www.WHITE PAPER Attrition Analytics . P-13 8 REDUCING PANEL ATTRITION . Volume 6 Issue 1 March/April 2003. 36. He holds a Degree in Mechanical Engineering and is a Post-Graduate in Personnel Management and Industrial Relations from one of the premier Business Schools in India. Issue 6.com/b2e/i-desk References 1 The German Word for “Propaganda” or “Silent Warfare”. Vol6. Willis. the best way is to predict it and act accordingly. Thus prediction becomes vital. 9 TO KEEP YOUR BEST IT PEOPLE. in the capacity of a domain consultant. Issue 27 About the Author Suvro Raychaudhuri is working as an HR Process Consultant with i-Desk. including on-site day care. 00104841. Vol.. • Internal marketing and communication with employees. P-34. Customer Interface March 2002 Issue. KEEP THEM LEARNING . 34. Vol 4. Presently he is involved with e-HR initiatives of I-desk. Journal of Human Resources.A Markov Analysis Attempt for Attrition-rate Prediction and Stabilization • • Organized career counseling. 7 “Hay Group Study Identifies Training as One of Top 7 Employee Attrition Fighters” IOMA’s report on managing training & development. Summer2001. Rowan Wilson and Jennifer Wilson. By: Gantz. 0022166X. KM Review. fitness clubs and sponsored charity work. By: Hill. Jan/Feb2002 6 “Why attrition is a chance to prove the value of KM” KM Review Briefings. Issue 3. Vol. KM Review Briefings.
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