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UMP

BMM 2533 FLUIDS MECHANICS 1

Assignment 1

DURATION

DEADLINE

NAME

MATRIC NO.

SECTION

DECLARATION I hereby declare that the work is entirely my own effort. Under no

circumstances did I allow anyone to copy my work. I understand and

accept that any breach of trust will automatically penalize all parties

concern and zero mark will be given for the above assignment.

MARKS

100 marks ( ?? % Final)

DISTRIBUTION

1. A spherical tank of methanol with internal diameter of 0.75m has a mass of 1400 kg. Find the

methanols weight, density, specific weight, specific volume, specific gravity and dynamic viscosity if

kinematic viscosity is 1.5 stoke

1400

Density, m 6337.9 kg/m

V

4 0.75

3 2

3

Specific weight, g 6337.99.81 62174 N/m

1 1

Specific volume, 1.57810-4 m/kg

6337.9

6337.9

Specific gravity, SG 6.34

H O2

1000

1.5

Dynamic viscosity, 6337.9 0.95 kg/m.s

2

100

SHARMA/ADAM/IDRIS_1112/1

ASSIGNMENT 1 BMM2533_1112/1

2. A cone with base radius of 5 cm and height of 20 cm is filled with oil with specific gravity of 0.85.

Determine the length of a cubic steel which its weight is equivalent to the oil weight. Steel Specific

Gravity, 7.1

oil gVoil steel gVsteel

oilVoil steelVsteel

oilr 2l / 3 steel x 3

1/ 3

SGoil H 2Or 2l

1/ 3 1/ 3 1/ 3

r 2l

SGoilr l

2

x oil

3 steel

3SGsteel H O

2 3SGsteel 37.1

x = length of steel cube = 0.0397 m @ 3.97 cm

3. A pressure gauge indicates the nitrogen pressure inside a vessel is 5.2 bar gauge pressure. Determine

absolute pressure of nitrogen in term of kilopascal (kPa)

Pabs Patm Pgage = 101.325 kPa + 520 kPa = 621.325 kPa

4. Determine the absolute pressure at point A, B, C and D in figure 1. Also determine the gauge pressure

at point A, B, C and D

Air Air

A

0.4 m C

0.4 m

0.5 m B

SG oil =0.9

Water 1m

D

Figure 1

Pabs,B PO gh Patm gh 101325 98100.5 106,320 Pa

Height of air does not significantly boost pressure as compare to liquid, thus

Pabs,C Pabs,B = 106,320 Pa

Pabs,D Pabs,C gh 106320 0.998101.9 = 123095 Pa

Pgage,A -7848 Pa, Pgage,B 4995 Pa, Pgage,C 4995 Pa, Pgage,D 21770 Pa

SHARMA/ADAM/IDRIS_1112/1

ASSIGNMENT 1 BMM2533_1112/1

Oil, SG = 0.9

12cm

B

15cm

Mercury,

C SG = 13.6

Figure 2

Pgage,C 0 Pa

PB PC m ghm 0 SGm H 2O gh 0 13.698100.15 -20012.4 Pa

PA PB oil ghoil PB SGoil H 2O gh 20012.4 0.998100.12 -21071.88 Pa

6. In figure 3, determine value of X if absolute pressure at A = 125.78 kPa and F = 141.643 kPa. Then,

determine absolute pressure value at B, C, D and E.

SG=1.5 SG=0.7

E

B

SG=0.9 F

C

A SG=1.0

X cm

D

45cm SG=

13.6

33cm

20cm

27cm 15cm

Figure 3

PA 1 gh1 2 gh2 3 gh3 4 g x 0.15 5 gh1 x 0.33 PF

PA 0.998100.25 1.598100.18 13.698100.12 0.79810x 0.15 9810x 0.33 PF

0.79810x 0.15 9810x 0.33 PF PA 16451.37

0.79810x 9810x PF PA 16451.37 0.798100.15 98100.33

141643 125780 16451.37 0.798100.15 98100.33

x

98100.3

x 0.55 m @ 55 cm

SHARMA/ADAM/IDRIS_1112/1

ASSIGNMENT 1 BMM2533_1112/1

PC = PB + 2gh2 =123572.75 +1.5(9810) (0.18) = 126221.45 Pa

PD = PC + 3gh3 =126221.45 + 13.6(9810)(0.12) = 142231.37 Pa

PE = PD 4gh4 =142231.37 0.7(9810)(0.4) = 139484.57 Pa

(Or can start from PE, PD, PC then PB)

7. Determine resultant force acting on triangle gate as shown in figure 4. Determine also the centre of

pressure from water surface for the gate

Water

3m

Triangle

Gate

1m

1.2 m

Figure 4

hC 3 11 1 / 3 11/3 m

F ghC A 981011 / 30.51 1.2 21.582 kN

1.21 / 36

3

I xx ,c

hP hC 11 / 3 3.682 m

hC A 11 / 30.51 1.2

Centre of pressure Centre of gravity

Total sum of a pressure field acts, causing a force Centre of mass(Centroid), point of gravity is

and no moment about that point concentrated

For immerse body only Can be applied either immerse or not

Much higher value than the Centroid of the Lower value compare to centre of pressure at the

immerse body same immerse body

Require second moment of inertia Does not require second moment of inertia

Depend on centre of gravity Independent of centre of pressure

SHARMA/ADAM/IDRIS_1112/1

ASSIGNMENT 1 BMM2533_1112/1

9. Explain why buoyancy force acting on submerge bodies is independent of depth (from fluid surface).

For figure 5, a wooden ball is tied with a rope which attached to the bottom of the oil reservoir.

Determine the weight of the wooden ball, weight of oil displaced and the tension of the rope. If the

wooden ball is replaced with a steel ball, what would happen?

Wooden Ball with diameter

of 1.5 m

rope

Figure 5

Buoyancy force depends on the difference of pressure between the top plate and the lower

plate. Even though the plate sink deeper (naturally or by force), the thickness of the body

still maintain thus the pressure difference is maintain regardless of the depth from the fluid

surface

3

W = Weight of wooden ball, mg wood gVsphere 0.49810 4 1.5 = 6934 N

2

3

3

FB = Buoyancy force =Weight of oil displaced, oil gVsphere 0.99810 4 1.5 = 15602 N

2

3

FB

Fy 0, FB W T 0 ,

If replaced by steel ball, the ball will sink and there will be no tension in the rope

SHARMA/ADAM/IDRIS_1112/1

ASSIGNMENT 1 BMM2533_1112/1

10. A uniform square cylinder of SG 0.4 floats in oil of SG 0.8. as shown in figure 6. Determine the

maximum ratio of the cylinder length towards the square length (l/a) so it can float vertically.

a

a

l

Top view

Oil, SG 0.8

b = l mm Body, Y Centroid

G

lb =2OB B

d = a mm Displaced fluid,

Y Centroid

Front view O

Oil, SG = 0.8

Depth of immerse, lb

Buoyancy force = Weight of fluid displaced = Weight of rectangular cylinder

f V f g rcVrc g

f Alb g rc A lg

f lb rcl

lb l l 0.5l

f SG f 1000 0.8

OG = l/2 = 0.5l

OB = 0.5 l/2 = 0.25l

BG = OG - OB = 0.5l - 0.25l = 0.25l

Volume of water displaced (V = aalb =alb )

I a 4 /12 a2

Using relation, BM = 2

V a 0.5l 6l

SHARMA/ADAM/IDRIS_1112/1

ASSIGNMENT 1 BMM2533_1112/1

In order to float vertically, Metacentric must be below than Centroid G, Thus GM must be at least

0 or higher (positive)

GM = BM - BG = 0 or higher (positive)

Thus,

BM > BG

a2

0.25l

6l

1.5l 2 a 2

l2 1 l 1

2

a 1.5 a 1.5

so it can float vertically

a 1.5

l 1

Therefore the maximum ratio of is or 0.816

a 1.5

SHARMA/ADAM/IDRIS_1112/1

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