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ASSIGNMENT 1 BMM2533_1112/1

UMP

FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


BMM 2533 FLUIDS MECHANICS 1
Assignment 1
DURATION
DEADLINE
NAME
MATRIC NO.
SECTION
DECLARATION I hereby declare that the work is entirely my own effort. Under no
circumstances did I allow anyone to copy my work. I understand and
accept that any breach of trust will automatically penalize all parties
concern and zero mark will be given for the above assignment.
MARKS
100 marks ( ?? % Final)
DISTRIBUTION

Chapter 1: Fluids statics assignment

1. A spherical tank of methanol with internal diameter of 0.75m has a mass of 1400 kg. Find the
methanols weight, density, specific weight, specific volume, specific gravity and dynamic viscosity if
kinematic viscosity is 1.5 stoke

Weight, W mg 14009.81 13734 N


1400
Density, m 6337.9 kg/m
V

4 0.75
3 2
3

Specific weight, g 6337.99.81 62174 N/m
1 1
Specific volume, 1.57810-4 m/kg
6337.9
6337.9
Specific gravity, SG 6.34
H O2
1000
1.5
Dynamic viscosity, 6337.9 0.95 kg/m.s
2
100

SHARMA/ADAM/IDRIS_1112/1
ASSIGNMENT 1 BMM2533_1112/1

2. A cone with base radius of 5 cm and height of 20 cm is filled with oil with specific gravity of 0.85.
Determine the length of a cubic steel which its weight is equivalent to the oil weight. Steel Specific
Gravity, 7.1

Weight of oil = Weight of cubic steel


oil gVoil steel gVsteel
oilVoil steelVsteel
oilr 2l / 3 steel x 3

0.85 0.052 0.2


1/ 3
SGoil H 2Or 2l
1/ 3 1/ 3 1/ 3
r 2l
SGoilr l
2
x oil
3 steel
3SGsteel H O
2 3SGsteel 37.1

x = length of steel cube = 0.0397 m @ 3.97 cm

3. A pressure gauge indicates the nitrogen pressure inside a vessel is 5.2 bar gauge pressure. Determine
absolute pressure of nitrogen in term of kilopascal (kPa)

Pgage 5.2 bar = 5.2 105 Pa = 520 kPa


Pabs Patm Pgage = 101.325 kPa + 520 kPa = 621.325 kPa

4. Determine the absolute pressure at point A, B, C and D in figure 1. Also determine the gauge pressure
at point A, B, C and D

Air Air
A
0.4 m C

0.4 m
0.5 m B
SG oil =0.9
Water 1m
D

Figure 1

Pabs,A PO gh Patm gh 101325 98100.8 93477 Pa


Pabs,B PO gh Patm gh 101325 98100.5 106,320 Pa
Height of air does not significantly boost pressure as compare to liquid, thus
Pabs,C Pabs,B = 106,320 Pa
Pabs,D Pabs,C gh 106320 0.998101.9 = 123095 Pa

Pgage,A -7848 Pa, Pgage,B 4995 Pa, Pgage,C 4995 Pa, Pgage,D 21770 Pa

SHARMA/ADAM/IDRIS_1112/1
ASSIGNMENT 1 BMM2533_1112/1

5. Determine gauge pressure at point A, B and C in manometer as shown in figure 2

Oil, SG = 0.9

12cm
B
15cm
Mercury,
C SG = 13.6

Figure 2
Pgage,C 0 Pa
PB PC m ghm 0 SGm H 2O gh 0 13.698100.15 -20012.4 Pa
PA PB oil ghoil PB SGoil H 2O gh 20012.4 0.998100.12 -21071.88 Pa

6. In figure 3, determine value of X if absolute pressure at A = 125.78 kPa and F = 141.643 kPa. Then,
determine absolute pressure value at B, C, D and E.
SG=1.5 SG=0.7

E
B
SG=0.9 F
C
A SG=1.0
X cm
D
45cm SG=
13.6
33cm
20cm
27cm 15cm

Figure 3
PA 1 gh1 2 gh2 3 gh3 4 g x 0.15 5 gh1 x 0.33 PF
PA 0.998100.25 1.598100.18 13.698100.12 0.79810x 0.15 9810x 0.33 PF
0.79810x 0.15 9810x 0.33 PF PA 16451.37
0.79810x 9810x PF PA 16451.37 0.798100.15 98100.33
141643 125780 16451.37 0.798100.15 98100.33
x
98100.3
x 0.55 m @ 55 cm

SHARMA/ADAM/IDRIS_1112/1
ASSIGNMENT 1 BMM2533_1112/1

PB PA 1 gh1 125780 0.998100.25 123572.75 Pa


PC = PB + 2gh2 =123572.75 +1.5(9810) (0.18) = 126221.45 Pa
PD = PC + 3gh3 =126221.45 + 13.6(9810)(0.12) = 142231.37 Pa
PE = PD 4gh4 =142231.37 0.7(9810)(0.4) = 139484.57 Pa
(Or can start from PE, PD, PC then PB)

7. Determine resultant force acting on triangle gate as shown in figure 4. Determine also the centre of
pressure from water surface for the gate

Water
3m
Triangle
Gate
1m

1.2 m
Figure 4
hC 3 11 1 / 3 11/3 m
F ghC A 981011 / 30.51 1.2 21.582 kN
1.21 / 36
3
I xx ,c
hP hC 11 / 3 3.682 m
hC A 11 / 30.51 1.2

8. State at least 3 differences of centre of pressure and centre of gravity


Centre of pressure Centre of gravity
Total sum of a pressure field acts, causing a force Centre of mass(Centroid), point of gravity is
and no moment about that point concentrated
For immerse body only Can be applied either immerse or not
Much higher value than the Centroid of the Lower value compare to centre of pressure at the
immerse body same immerse body
Require second moment of inertia Does not require second moment of inertia
Depend on centre of gravity Independent of centre of pressure

SHARMA/ADAM/IDRIS_1112/1
ASSIGNMENT 1 BMM2533_1112/1

9. Explain why buoyancy force acting on submerge bodies is independent of depth (from fluid surface).
For figure 5, a wooden ball is tied with a rope which attached to the bottom of the oil reservoir.
Determine the weight of the wooden ball, weight of oil displaced and the tension of the rope. If the
wooden ball is replaced with a steel ball, what would happen?

SG = 0.4 Oil, SG = 0.9


Wooden Ball with diameter
of 1.5 m
rope

Figure 5

Buoyancy force depends on the difference of pressure between the top plate and the lower
plate. Even though the plate sink deeper (naturally or by force), the thickness of the body
still maintain thus the pressure difference is maintain regardless of the depth from the fluid
surface

3

W = Weight of wooden ball, mg wood gVsphere 0.49810 4 1.5 = 6934 N
2
3

3

FB = Buoyancy force =Weight of oil displaced, oil gVsphere 0.99810 4 1.5 = 15602 N
2
3

Free body diagram


FB

Fy 0, FB W T 0 ,

Thus, rope tension, T FB W = 15602-6934 = 8668 N

If replaced by steel ball, the ball will sink and there will be no tension in the rope

SHARMA/ADAM/IDRIS_1112/1
ASSIGNMENT 1 BMM2533_1112/1

10. A uniform square cylinder of SG 0.4 floats in oil of SG 0.8. as shown in figure 6. Determine the
maximum ratio of the cylinder length towards the square length (l/a) so it can float vertically.
a

a
l

Top view
Oil, SG 0.8

b = l mm Body, Y Centroid
G

lb =2OB B
d = a mm Displaced fluid,
Y Centroid
Front view O

Oil, SG = 0.8

Depth of immerse, lb
Buoyancy force = Weight of fluid displaced = Weight of rectangular cylinder
f V f g rcVrc g

f Alb g rc A lg

f lb rcl

c SGc 1000 0.4


lb l l 0.5l
f SG f 1000 0.8

OG = l/2 = 0.5l
OB = 0.5 l/2 = 0.25l
BG = OG - OB = 0.5l - 0.25l = 0.25l

Moment of inertia for this case (I = aa/12= a4/12)


Volume of water displaced (V = aalb =alb )
I a 4 /12 a2
Using relation, BM = 2
V a 0.5l 6l

SHARMA/ADAM/IDRIS_1112/1
ASSIGNMENT 1 BMM2533_1112/1

In order to float vertically, Metacentric must be below than Centroid G, Thus GM must be at least
0 or higher (positive)

Therefore, Metacentric height,


GM = BM - BG = 0 or higher (positive)
Thus,

BM > BG
a2
0.25l
6l
1.5l 2 a 2
l2 1 l 1
2

a 1.5 a 1.5

The ratio, l must be lower than 1


so it can float vertically
a 1.5

l 1
Therefore the maximum ratio of is or 0.816
a 1.5

SHARMA/ADAM/IDRIS_1112/1