Gender Inequality in Banking Sector
Sir Ashraf Janjua Instructor, Seminar in Economic Policy Institute of Business Management Korangi Creek Karachi, Pakistan
Prepared by Zain Ali (2002-1-31-2747)
LETTER OF ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
September 10th, 2007
Ashraf Janjua, Dean and Instructor, College of Business Management, Korangi Creek, Karachi.
Dear Sir: It is an honor for me to prepare this report by the help of survey, which I conducted, on a topic, which was assigned to me by International Labor Organization. I am thankful to all the Bank Employees who filled out the questionnaires truthfully and Gave me an overall idea of Gender discrimination in banking sector. I would especially like to express my acknowledgement to you for providing me valuable direction about the professional aspect of this report. Sincerely,
TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY …………………………………………………... 4 INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………..6 GENDER INEQUALITY ………………………………………………….….6 FACTORS OF GENDER INEQUALITY …………………………...…...…..9 LOCAL SCENARIO ……………………………………………….…………11 EFFECTS OF GENDER INEQUALITY ……………………………………14 STEPS TAKEN BY GOVERNMENT ………………………………………15 OVERVIEW OF PAKISTANI BANKING SECTOR …………………...…20 DETAILED FINDINGS ………………………………………………………21 SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ………………………………43 CONCLUSION ………………………………………………………………..45 REFERENCES ………………………………….…………………………….46 APPENDIX …………………………………………………………………….48
Gender inequality is often based on thinking and perception of a particular society, i.e. considering men physically strong and women as emotionally sensitive. Gender discrimination has had several psychological effects on women who either resort to committing suicide, revolting in a similar way or end up becoming psychological patients. My aim of the research was to determine the gender inequality in Pakistani Banking Sector, because the issue of women’s status, autonomy and equality has frequently been raised internationally on the premise that a nation cannot progress when a vast segment of society is deprived of its due share and not allowed to play its role properly. Inequality between women and men limits productivity and ultimately slows economic growth. There is discrimination against female workers arising either from job segregation or unequal pay for equal work or less investment in training by employers or lack of support services for working mothers Currently, female literacy rate is 32 per cent as compared to 56 per cent for males while school participation rate is 27 per cent and 73 per cent respectively for females and males. In my research by going in different banks, I analyzed how gender inequality prevailed in their working environment. Though I found a lot of difficulty in my research because this is a very controversial topic. Data was taken to determine ratio of males and females employees working in banks and according to my research most banks were male dominated and had an average ratio of (Male 3: Female: 1), I took views of the employees about Discrimination acts in their work place and the most frequent answer I got is that our society is male dominated society and women are always regarded as a weaker sex .In the banking environment authorization of documents by female have less value than the authorization by men employees as well as their decision making is not valued by the top management as compared to decision making of male employees, there was another aspect which I found was the personal liking factor which prevailed all over banking sector and was the main reason for discrimination among genders. In some local banks especially there was differences in pay scale but foreign banks paid its employees on the basis of equal pay act. Marital status did affect the chances for 4
promotion for employees like single women were much easily promoted as compared to married women. I also found out that in some places different working hours were allotted to women because of their family issues and women were facing a difference of attitude by the clients. Co-workers had different attitude towards men and women and they were usually more polite towards women. Our Society has the perception that women should not work and remain at houses, this perception should change and more education should be provided to women so that they could compete with men and a culture should be built in which both genders should be treated and respected equally. Banks should keep checks on employees to ensure that discriminatory practices do not prevail in the bank. Such policies should be mentioned in the rules and regulations as well as in the employment contract. There should be surprise visits by top management or people assigned who would look into such cases. Employees working in the banks should change their approach toward other employees and work more professionally and fairly so that gender inequality doesn’t prevails in the work place. There are societies made in which laws regarding how to protect women from being harmed and also against discrimination. Societies such as Welfare Organization of Women, Society for the Advancement of Community, Health, Education and Training, Alliance Against Sexual Harassment, Women in Urban Credit All societies think that solution of gender discrimination is women empowerment, where they should be equipped enough to fight for themselves and reduce dependency. Need is there to put them in practice and then evaluating the performance of the law. This campaign should not be kept on the shoulders of the government of the country, instead Banks should plan and execute these laws in collaboration with the local governments. Further, mass media can play a vital role in bringing awareness among the general public. Social reforms of the societies by inviting the leaders of the societies at a bigger arena can also help to resolve the conflict.
The role of the religious institutions in our society has dominated the perception of the ordinary public on defining the respective gender roles. but there’s a technical difference between the both. and so it produced a balancing factor for each and every object. The average mullah neither has the education nor the mental capacity to interpret the teachings and tenets of the Quran in an open and unbiased manner.e. The role of woman in society is largely influenced by the role of woman prescribed in the religious tenets. Concepts like "Chaadar and chardivari" have been enforced as decrees by these mullahs. The interpretation of the religion is unfortunately in the hands of the socalled religious representatives like mullahs. It is unfortunate that this misrepresentation of the religion by the Mullahs in Islamic countries
Gender inequality is often based on gender stereotypes of a particular society. Both the terms are used as synonyms of each other in normal context. or they 6
. this difference of individuals is same in all the cultures. These balancing factors vary in the proportion of the support they provide to their counter part. It is because of the fact that the term ‘gender’ is often conflicted with the term ‘sex’. In the same context. categorizing them as males and females. while ‘gender’ is a social differentiation of individuals which categorizes them as ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’. men & women are considered as the supporting counterpart for each other. In this context we can’t say that followers of such kind of discrimination are found more in western society than eastern. but the major conflict in this systematic support is the term ‘gender inequality’.Introduction
Nature has always maintained a balance in the objects of this world in order to garnish it with beauty. regardless of the influence of any religious or social factor. ‘Sex’ is a biological differentiation of individuals. This difference determines the role of individuals in a particular society. i.
Gender inequality prevails at various levels in our socities: • At the individual level (individual’s thought of male chauvinism’) gender discrimination exists round the globe. The role of individuals in different societies is different and thus the role of gender is variable in accordance with the prevailing social setup. considering men physically strong and women as emotionally sensitive.
it is treating a person differently because of his or her sex. that was just the unfortunate result.
There are several different forms of discrimination:
Direct Discrimination This occurs when there is less favorable treatment of a woman or a man because of their gender. hours.exist more in religion ‘A’ than religion ‘B’. but for a woman it’ll be impossible to become the leader of a mass if she’d been involved in a minor crime. keeping females away from general education.
. Starting with social responsibilities. There is no defense for an employer who has directly discriminated.
There are two types of sex discrimination: • • Disparate treatment is straightforward discrimination.
Sex discrimination is treating an employee or employees differently because of their gender. Terms or conditions of employment means just about anything relating to someone's job: their position. comes group level activities which hold the conflict of gender discrimination. vacations. Disparate Impact is where some type of company policy excluded a certain individuals from the job or from promotions. In this context economic and social responsibilities of individuals are misallocated. pay. Whenever this discrimination affects the terms or conditions of employment. There does not have to be a person of the opposite sex who was actually treated better. Simply put. most everything is a term or condition of employment. holding that they are not supposed to participate in any economic activity so there’s no need to educate them. for instance people will heartily accept a man as their leader even if has some criminal record in the past. Disparate Impact Discrimination is more complicated. It does not matter what the motive is or whether the discrimination was intentional or not. The reason behind this phenomenon can be any physical or psychological factor. is one of the major examples from Asian social setups. Women are discouraged in other social concerns as well. Whether or not a person is hired is also considered a term or condition of employment. title. • Secondly. You only have to show that they would have been better treated. The policy was not designed to exclude them. it is illegal.
Even though most of the people it hired were women. such as caring for children. This is presumed as assigning gender specific roles. for example. Therefore. frequently employers expect women to have certain duties. His hiring criteria clearly reflected discrimination based on gender roles. Jobs that are considered “men's jobs” or “women's jobs” tend to unnecessarily deny employment opportunities to one sex or the other. Individuals should be considered on the basis of individual capacities and not on the basis of any characteristics generally attributed to the group. But he couldn't let it affect his employment decisions.Examples of direct discrimination include sexual harassment and discriminating against a woman because of her pregnancy. Moreover. or that women are less capable of aggressive salesmanship The refusal to hire an individual because of the preferences of coworkers. there was still discrimination. the employer. It occurs when a requirement or rule is applied equally to men and women but in practice. In one case. The employer didn't think women with young children should be working outside the home. The employer is entitled to this belief. affects women more than it affects men (or vice versa) and is not genuinely necessary. while at the same time it did hire men with preschool-age children. The refusal to hire an individual based on stereotyped characterizations of the sexes. in the following situations :•
The refusal to hire a woman because of her sex based on assumptions such that the turnover rate among women is higher than among men.
. an employer did not hire women with preschool-age children. clients or customers. that men are less capable of assembling intricate equipment. Such stereotypes include. Indirect discrimination applies when all of these conditions are met: o An employer applies a condition of employment which is applied equally to members of the opposite sex o Fewer workers of one gender than the other can meet the requirement or condition o Those workers are put at a disadvantage o The employer cannot justify the requirement or condition other than by reason connected to the worker being male or female An example would be changing shift patterns that are more likely to adversely affect women relative to men. • Indirect Discrimination This type of discrimination is more complicated.
Department of Labor defines such barriers as “Those artificial barriers based on attitudinal or organizational bias that prevent qualified individuals from advancing in their organization”. Specifically. it appears that gender-role stereotypes are key in keeping this ceiling in place. can also lead to significant increase in expenditures The implied growth in labor demand can contribute to breaking the shackles of gender discrimination in the labor market and lead to larger participation rates and higher wage rates for females.One key reason why women and men have such different job experiences is that as a group. therefore. possibly because of narrowing of the nutrition and education gap between males and females at the household level and an improvement in economic opportunities for women. there is a strong correlation between the level of per capita Income and the degree of equalization of economic opportunities for men and women. which is accompanied by a reduction in the proportion of households below the poverty line. women generally face barriers that prevent them from reaching the top positions in many companies. For example. women also report fewer chances than men to take part in projects that increase their visibility or widen the scope of their responsibilities
Factor of Gender inequality
Per Capita Income
A rise in real per capita income can be a major factor in reducing the extent of gender inequality for a variety of reasons. women may receive fewer opportunities that prepare them for top-level jobs. A rise in household incomes. Further. Moreover. the glass ceiling often takes subtle forms rather than conscious efforts by male executives to keep women from their domain. The U.S. The growth rate of per capita income can. A rise in the real per capita income leads to a reduction in inequality. which is fraught with serious measurement problems in Pakistan. This phenomenon is known as the ‘Glass Ceiling’. also act as a proxy for the unemployment rate.
Access to Public Services
all coeducational schools were converted into single sex institutions and Islamic dress code was adopted in schools. This highlights the importance of schooling in gender inequality and the role of access to educational facilities as opposed to demand factors. thereby promoting women participation in schooling and labor market. which takes the value of unity for periods when the prevalence of such forces peak in the country. which influence female enrollment rates. Socio-cultural norms play an important part. marriage age and religion/culture have in particular been highlighted. Age at marriage and changes in religious norms.Access to public services such as proximity to school etc affect the pattern of time allocation of women and enable labor savings. Similar steps have been taken in Pakistan such as establishment of single sex schools and female teachers for female schools. especially as they relate to the role of women outside the households. labor force. for example. Also. improve productivity and enhance female participation rates Relating to provision of services was best proxied by the ratio of girl to boy schools. have an important bearing on the time path of gender inequality
. This phenomenon can be proxied by a dummy variable. Following the ‘Islamic cultural revolution’ in Iran. and other socio-cultural activities the role of demographic factors like fertility rate.
Literature extensively highlights the contribution of socio-cultural factors in inhibiting the Participation of women in schooling. access to cheap health care services help reduce maternal mortality.
increasing its acceptance in society. media and traditions are a few of the agents that make gender discrimination customary and commonplace.
o Gender inequality is basically divergent in nature. Culture. and this conduct has become an integral part of the Pakistani corporate system. She is viewed by man as an individual who has no rights whatsoever and can be dominated easily. in the labor market women face wage discrimination. glass ceilings for top management jobs. To a very large extent women in Pakistan are dominated and subdued in every walk of life. be it the political. According to the article mentioned. we found the determinants of gender discrimination in Pakistan to include the following. Pakistan has suffered from the problem of gender discrimination. This term is a prejudiced belief of an individual or a group of individuals that men are undeniably superior to women. Our society has created unwritten rules that restrict women to the household. Adherence to abhorrent rites and rituals in the past such as sati (a Hindu tradition) and honor killings even today provide evidence of how a woman is and was sacrificed. works to fulfill the financial needs of her family and yet suffers the brunt from her husband and inlaws. and takes the responsibility of several other roles including that of a bread earner. Women face unequal treatment throughout the course of their lives. This is the very cliched term. The issue of gender discrimination has given rise to several evident problems. there is one focal point from which the roots of gender discrimination emerge. “Male Chauvinism”. Generally acceptable and yet never questioned norm of women to be responsible of domestic chores and childrearing while men are the bread earners of the family puts an unfair burden on women especially the working women who face dual responsibility. Such a woman manages her household. teachers etc. woman. gives birth. economic or in the social arrangement where we all reside. secretaries. In our study. It is a common sight in the rural areas of Pakistan to see a woman washing dishes or lifting bricks in the scorching heat whilst her husband comfortably rests at home. Furthermore. Groups and/ or Societies. Here. Since early on.
• The General Perception of Individuals. Male chauvinism does not 11
. harassment at work and are encouraged to occupy less challenging jobs e. sustains and nourishes her family. All these factors individually or in combination make up the face of gender discrimination. looks after her children. we face a challenge to overcome gender discrimination within the public as well as the private domain. the subservient slave.g.THE LOCAL SCENARIO
Since the beginning of civilization.
based solely on membership in that group. ‘leaders’ and ‘followers’ etc. o Gender roles. as merely the less privileged. As a result of such half considered phenomenon. According to the article referred. The conflict of gender discrimination arises when only physical part of one’s strengths is considered and the mental part is neglected.stop on biased categorization of the society in two groups but furthers to glorify one as the more privileged one and the other. individuals are categorized as ‘strong’ and ‘weak’. ‘competent’ and incompetent’. the definition of honor has lost its true meaning. •
Moral Standards/ Respect for Women
o Recently. In this case the gender discrimination doesn’t remain in its totality or originality and is considered as a factor deteriorating the process of development of human skills. show that men often get away with having illicit relationships. It is an ultimate outcome of individual perception. This perception of the individual is regardless of any external factor. The standards of honor and chastity are not equally applicable to both males and females. o The problem of gender inequality is also due to the fact that women are categorized as the inferior sex. “it is noteworthy that stereotypically male traits are associated with success in the business world and that stereotypically female traits are not ”. Stereotypes are ideas held by some individuals about members of particular groups. Surveys conducted in Balochistan and NWFP. the definition of the man as the provider has led to a great deal of male chauvinism which defines the woman as the weaker sex which hinders women empowerment in Pakistan. ‘emotionally strong’ and ‘emotionally sensitive’. religious belief. culture etc. This is primarily due to the wrong interpretation and manipulation of Islamic principles. o Gender stereotypes of a particular society. whereas the women are killed at the slightest suspicion of immodesty. but are rampant in the local environment. family. society. o Due to certain personal conflicts gender discrimination is evident. Islam has adequately defined the role of both man and woman and how both are necessary and play a vital role in society. They are often used in a negative or prejudicial sense and are frequently used to justify certain discriminatory behaviors. However. such as numerous petty interests that provoke people to indulge in gruesome
. This clearly shows that stereotypes not only exist. like.
it takes about Rs. are constantly exploited at the hands of the male members of society.
• Economic Conditions
o Economic aspect of gender discrimination is of utmost importance. Hence women. Also the influence of the Hindu culture has further weakened the status of women. As the admission in medical colleges is subjected to merit and girls excel in academics. In enlightened parts of Asia.
o Lack of education among the masses is another vital cause. and their performance. After getting qualified from there as doctors. consider medical studies in Pakistan. they are not granted permission to play their role as an earning member of the family. The argument they present is one of increased responsibility on women’s shoulders due to which their work is sacrificed. so they don’t participate in economic activities and hence their professional qualification goes down the drain.crimes against women. due to social hurdles. Hence those who do not practice. The female literacy rate is as low as 28% as compared to the third world average of 66%. 90% of the girls do not practice. According to careful approximations. they have a proactive strategy instead. employers prefer recruiting fewer women
• Education. more girls avail admissions there. women need time off from work.
. Hence. At instances. ignorant of their rights. waste public finance as well as deprive others of the opportunity to educate themselves and ultimately serve the nation. o Maternity is one of the factors leading to gender discrimination. For instance. So. This creates gaps between work assigned to women. women are encouraged to get educated. so girls readily join the advanced courses. due to pregnancy.
• Marital Status/ Maternity
o Marital status has an adverse effect in the sense that human resource managers prefer not to recruit women of marriageable age or those already married.000 for the education of a doctor. But after getting technically or professionally qualified. 150. in order to prevent future bottlenecks. and at the time of birth.
increasing economic opportunities and empowering women. This is leading to a greater women empowerment. Gender discrimination also plays a great role in impeding the career development of women. Due to this. Gender discrimination has had several psychological effects on women who either resort to committing suicide. this perception should change and more education should be provided to women so that they could compete with men and a culture should be built in which both genders should be treated and respected equally. As time progresses. However. improving efficiency.Gender equality has a direct impact on economic growth and the reduction of poverty by raising productivity. which can come at any time from men closest to her. such as rape. the advent of the concept of feminism and the appearance of certain influential women rights activist’s (such as Asma Jahangir) work towards solving these problems. honor killings.
Effects of Gender Inequality
Gender discrimination has aided in further undermining the status of women. They are either restricted to their houses. being married of to the Holy Quran and several other gruesome acts. Our Society has the perception that women should not work and remain at houses.
. revolting in a similar way or end up becoming psychological patients. or prevented to excel by various other social processes and norms which also tend to discourage them. the problem of gender discrimination still prevails in Pakistan where the woman lives in a constant fear of attack. It has led to several barbaric practices. there is also an indirect unfavorable impact on the families of those discriminated against. which have deprived women of the basic right to live.
a Karachi-based organisation. is running almost 100 non-formal schools in small villages of Sind . NAZ. ORGANIZATIONS
Changing social perceptions is a long process. is running fifty formal and non-formal girls' schools in the city's outskirts 4) The NGO Resource Center. However. steps have been taken to Bring about a positive attitudinal change regarding women:
For the appalling situation of girls’ education in Pakistan there is a lack of concern on the part of government. Following are some examples of successful education programs in Pakistan: 1) Al-khidmat. Oxfam and the Makhi Welfare Organisation (MWO) have succeeded in getting 168 girls into school. is operating scores of girls' schools. 5) Green Crescent. 3) In the province of Sindh. is running twenty nonformal schools for girls in villages throughout the province.
. a countrywide NGO. where not merely girls but adult women are admitted for basic primary education. another Karachi-based NGO. a Khairpur-based NGO. and influencing the national Education Department.STEPS TAKEN BY VARIOUS GOVT. where female literacy is a shocking 0.3 per cent. 2) In the remote Achhro Thar region of Pakistan. political parties and NGOs are working actively to do so despite all barriers. Baluchistan and NWFP Provinces . as well as changing community attitudes towards education and gender equality. but some religious groups. AND NON-GOVT.
Puppetry shows were one of the mediums employed to raise awareness about women’s issues. Guidelines have been provided for reporting publishing and disseminating materials based on gender discrimination and violence against women. is operating some 200 formal and non-formal schools. Of the five hundred and four participants from public and private sectors who received training. The National Project Director of this project was a woman and was awarded the pride of performance award and the Commonwealth Broadcast Association’s award for gender programming and technical excellence. 7) The government. The campaign aimed at a) Creating overall awareness of women’s rights and status and b) bringing a positive attitudinal change within the society regarding women 3) Ethical Code of Practice (print media) was approved by the Cabinet in 2002. gender-awareness workshops were organized (1998) for senior PTV managers.
1) The Pakistan Television has produced plays giving a positive portrayal of women. producers and other media professionals. mostly for girls and women. however. balanced and diverse portrayal of women was undertaken in the media. the Al-Ghazali Education Trust. In 1999. has contributed by setting up around 1500 nonformal girls education schools yet due to political instability such projects fail to remain functional. 4) The Code of Ethics adopted by the Pakistan Federal Union of Journalists (PFUJ) states under Article XII that the press has a special responsibility to prevent bias against women. a Lahore-based organization. As such extreme caution shall be exercised in reporting incidents pertaining to them. all over the province. Gender sensitization and mainstreaming were important elements of the training program. Furthermore. two hundred were women. Nevertheless some semi governmental organizations like the Sindh Education Foundation have achieved great success in renovating government schools and introducing effective teaching techniques.
. Through a donor funded ‘Portrayal of Women in Media’ project. PTV also issued a directive that violence against women or verbal and physical humiliation of women is not to be shown on the television. 2) The MoWD initiated an awareness raising Campaign for Women through Mass Media. minorities and other disadvantaged sections of society. The Pakistan Television also established a training academy for media professionals in program development and production techniques. a positive.6) In Punjab.
cast and creed and promise fundamental rights. AASHA is an initiative directed towards taking active measures to mobilize and influence policy makers at higher levels for providing protection to women at their workplace and ensuring safe and healthy working environments. Within the courts. However. where they should be equipped enough to fight for themselves and reduce dependency. This website explains the issue in easy terms.
1) Alliance Against Sexual Harassment (AASHA) Alliance Against Sexual Harassment (AASHA) aims to raise awareness about.REGULATIONS
The articles 14. www. carry a potential of remedial measures through courts of law. Therefore the solution of gender discrimination is women empowerment. cases of zina and other forms of abuse.aasha. and contains a proposed code of practice for gender justice at the workplace in downloadable form. Speaking at a seminar sponsored by the AGHS Law Associates on gender-based litigation to be conformed to international human rights’ norms.pk
2) Women in Urban Credit (WUC)
. property rights cases. the law fails to protect women from harm and ironically is unjust to women. and assists the government and private sectors to create a society free of sexual harassment. judges and lawyers have misused law in numerous rape cases. the SCBA president was of the view that the judiciary was under a major responsibility of ensuring freedom of the people and society from gender bias and discrimination in any of its manifestations. 25 and 26 of the Constitution which enshrine equality of citizens regardless of gender.org.
education. its newsletter "Agehi" and contact information are accessible online. the government.org. www. poverty and economic development.savingwomenslives. www. nongovernmental welfare and development organization. women's social status and education. Pakistan.pk/unworks/stories/sakina.org
. Through five modules. equity and empowerment. publications. PAWLA's various projects.org. human resource development and population are available on this site. www. including reproductive health. safe motherhood. Education and Training (SACHET) is a registered.un. non-profit. it explains the concept and the steps taken to develop and replicate the model throughout Pakistan. Urdu and English articles related to health. www. a project of the UNDP and the First Women's Bank Ltd.htm
3) Society for the Advancement of Community. Details about SACHET's organizational setup. Education and Training (SACHET) Based in Established in 1999. Led by Family Care International.sachet.This is the website of Women in Urban Credit (WUC). violence against women.pk
4) Pakistan Women Lawyers' Association (PAWLA) The Pakistan Women Lawyers' Association (PAWLA) is an NGO delivering professional legal services and economic counseling to Pakistani women by networking with legal bodies. Health.pawla. this website aims to educate and raise awareness of the broad range of women's global health and rights issues. gender.sdnpk. and upcoming activities are showcased on this website. equality. donors and other NGOs. Health.org
5) Saving Women's Lives The Saving Women's Lives initiative is an international collaboration of organizations dedicated to the health and well-being of the world's women. the Society for the Advancement of Community. Striving for women's rights. case studies. News updates about its activities.
education. Changing these is a difficult task. all give a broader perspective to the viewers and show them that women can play a number of important roles other than being wives and mothers. They provide legal aid in cases of sexual and psychological violence. the increase in female literacy rate. the increase in the percentage of women in the labor force. post harvest food care. Efforts.6) Welfare Organization of Women (WOW) The Welfare Organization of Women (WOW) has been set up as a non-political welfare organization to combat the dominance of men in social and economic spheres of life. history. Women now make up an increasingly significant proportion of the police force. the wide availability of information through the radio. social services to research and management etc. A more recent phenomenon has been women’s entry into the uniformed services. information dissemination.com/wow
A society’s attitudes. point to a change in the right direction. preferences. religion. Pakistani women are taking an active part in the management of NGOs. This website introduces the organization's work on advocacy. and improving the living conditions and health status of women and children in prisons through training. based on gender. while in some cases not very impressive numerically. zafcointl. The first woman Major General was appointed in the Army Medical Corps in 2001. Though the number of such individuals might be considered insignificant. poverty alleviation. This site outlines its research work. biases and prejudices develop over centuries and are the product of a complex mix of culture. Women are also receiving training as air-guards. The Airport Security Force also has a large complement of women.
Role of Women
Education. The increase in percentage of the girls going to school. race and nationality. television and cable. In varying numbers. petro-chemicals. ideas about the roles of men and women are more deeply held in Pakistan. diplomatic service. media. custom and religion. healthcare. project details and objectives. animal husbandry. yet their mere existence is encouraging for people who put in immense effort to curb the exploitation of women in our surroundings. class. human rights. There is no doubt that compared to more developed countries. ranging from nuclear technology. However there is also no doubt that change has started to take place. like those afore-mentioned. are gradually paying off as slow but sure change in the attitudes of people over time has been witnessed. they are engaged in all sectors of the economy. Women are also being recruited in
. education and law. the decrease in population growth rate and the fertility rate.
For instance they are serving as air-traffic controllers and as pilots in supporting roles in the air.
.the regular armed forces.force.
Career planning development would be of essence for efficient banking industry in Pakistan. Pakistan shows immense potential through its banking sector. both investors and industry are seeking better investments and financing alternatives and solutions. whose volume of business is expected to expand enormously in future ” This serves to further emphasize on the importance of recruits for the efficiency of banks. are crucial to the success of the banking industry as well. Chairman of the country’s largest National Bank of Pakistan stated.
. reorganization of existing systems as well as infrastructure with de-centralized work processes. in short. Mr. there are a number of challenges that have emerged following the most recent macroeconomic developments in the domestic and global economy. like the rest of Asia. The Banks need to develop their human resources for future challenges and produce professionals having the desired expertise for specialized banking like Treasury functions. Pakistan’s banking industry has seen brisk growth in banking assets. To deal with this issue.693 billion. credit derivatives and hedge products now emerging from different segments of the economy and population. the overall labor force participation rate in the banking sector was 30. Pakistan. According to the Labor Force Survey 2003-2004. Among others. asset based and mortgage based securities. We have chosen the banking industry for our hypothesis because of its increased importance in our economy as mentioned above. This is the need of the hour that banks should develop their own Human Resources.OVERVIEW OF PAKISTAN’S “BANKING SECTOR”
Today. especially in human capital. The human resource factor plays a critical role maintaining the efficiency and profitability level of the bank in future. with demand for private debt. emergence of the middle-income group and relative wealth increases altogether bring with them new demands for the retail banking industry. Upon being questioned about the future of the banking industry of Pakistan. as in every other industry. banks may enhance their collaboration with the educational institutions. “ Banks will have to engage qualified professionals for providing specialized banking products and services to their customers.41 percent. is growing fast and the rise in per capita income. In today’s era human resources are as important as financial resources to any organization. Syed Ali Raza. SME financing and Islamic Banking etc. These challenges as mentioned before are crucial in determining the long run robustness of the banking industry. Pakistan offers a promising ground for financial experimentation and innovation. Employees. which today stand at around $3. The profitability of banks is at an all time high and unprecedented. external challenges. which can be made better by careful investments. In addition to this.
his or her designation and the concerned department by help of questionnaires. which was previously prepared by me.Data collection
Data used is collected from the Pakistani banking industry. Standard Chartered Bank Meezan Bank Ltd. HSBC United Bank Ltd. and employees were asked to fill the questionnaire out with honesty and without any bias. The total sample size was 200 and therefore I sent out 20 questionnaires each to the following banks: • • • • • • • • • • Citi Bank Habib Metropolitan Bank Muslim Commercial Bank ABN AMRO Bank Alfalah Ltd.
There were 121 females and 79 males who filled the questionnaires
Employees according to their Gender
Number of Employees 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Female Gender Male 79 121
. Data is sorted depending on the gender of the employee. Bank Al Habib Ltd. Karachi.
In core banking such as corporate. The other reason behind low ratio of women in banks are that very less women apply for banks and it’s a very stressful job and work load is high because people have to work long hours and dead lines which employees have to meet which women usually don’t prefer because of family issues. treasury and credit analysis very few female employees are employed and there is a norm that males have more growth than female employees because of their dominating nature and they could leads more efficiently than women According to my survey I found that on an average ratio of male employee to female employee in various banks is 3:1
" Average" Ratio of Male to Female Employees 3:1
. My survey stated that a lot of females are employed in marketing departments. customer relations and few in human resource departments.•
Ratio of Males and Females in Department of Bank
Ratio of male employees in banking sector was more than female employees because of more workload could be placed on males as they are treated as dominant in our community and females are always thought weaker than males. sales. investment banking.
5% The reason behind so many males as head of the department is that educational backgrounds of males are much stronger than females.• Current Head of the Department
In our survey 133 employees had males as their department head. because when there is a male which is head of the department he communicates more effectively to both male and female subordinates as compared to a head of department which is female because males have more positive approach in their leadership
Head of the Department
Number of Employees 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Male Gender Female 67 133
. frm etc The other reason behind more as head of department is that males feel weak when they work under a female and they don’t have a smooth working relationship and in Pakistani culture male doesn’t want females to dominate them because females are always thought as a weaker sex. Females think that MBA is their limit but man goes for higher certifications after MBA such as ca.5% and 67 employees had female employees as their head which makes up to 33. Communication barriers was another reason. which makes up to 66. cfa.
is free of discriminatory practices. Womens faced open display of Chauvinism and men regard women as chattel. unlike their expectations. have less value as compared to male witness of documents. which were witnessed by women. Looking at the general values.• Discriminatory Act Taken place
There is a general tendency among the masses that holds the view that the banking sector. Dependence. they leave no opportunity unveiled to make her remorseful for such an act. There is a perception in banking sector that females are not as much committed towards their work as compared to males in banks and this is the main reason why discrimination takes place further more females are preferred in banks to do mostly indoor work while on the other hand males can do both indoor and outdoor work easily. In my survey most women were facing male dominance in their working environment as well as the documents. if a female turns out to be audacious. which we came across during our analysis that portray the pessimistic. but internal sources revealed to us some upsetting cases. improving efficiency. Gender and power can only be understood in terms of the social structures and how they distribute values in Pakistani society. Even if there is a wrongdoing on part of the men. low self-esteem and denial of even some of the basic rights characterize their general status. Gender equality has a direct impact on economic growth and the reduction of income poverty by raising productivity. one finds women in the country as the most oppressed social and political class. Females have the upper hand in dealing and interacting with customers in branches. being relatively new and ‘modern’. passivity. Males were assigned much more workload than women because of the thinking that males are much stronger than women to hold more workload. cynical treatment of women in the Pakistani banking industry. In some banks there is no female policy because banks don’t prefer hiring female employees because they think that working environment will be disturbed and males would not be able to focus on their work properly.
. they think it is ‘obligatory’ for women not to report such cases. which gives a good impression on clients. They think that they should be meek and submissive. There are a disturbing number of cases. However. and they feel more satisfied with the working of the bank. Though most of our respondents preferred not speaking about them. social structures and cultural orientation of the Pakistani population. increasing economic opportunities and empowering women.
. effort.5% and 55 people were facing discrimination of pay in their work environment which makes 27. and work experience therefore less discrimination is found in regard to pay But in sum banks differences in pay scale does exist because males have to support their whole family and males are paid more as compared to women. According to my survey 145 people had their views that men and women were getting the same pay which makes 72. education qualification. these differences reflected discrimination against Women as opposed to Men. and that are performed within the same establishment under similar working conditions. As far as pay differences were concerned Men on the same level were paid more relative to Women.5%
Pay Scale of Male and Female Employees
145 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0
Equal Pay scale
Discrimination in Pay Scale
In most of the banks pay scale is based on job position. according to sources were relatively more capable and hardworking. However. who.• Equal Pay to both genders
The Equal Pay Act requires that equal wages be paid to men and women who perform jobs that require substantially equal skill. According to my survey I didn’t found any differences in pay scale in foreign banks but in local banks men were paid more than women and there was a lot of discrimination in regard to pay scale. and responsibility.
vacations. incentives. bonuses.
Gender Biasness in Benfits and perks for Male and female Employees
150 100 50 0 52
148 Yes No
. and medical which are the benefits and perks given to employees are comparatively equal to both genders.• Gender biasness in benefits and perks to Male and Females
According to my Survey 148 of the people which makes 74% think that as for benefits and perks are concerned gender biasness is not involved rest 52 people which makes 26% thought that discrimination does take place in regard to benefits and perks to male and females are concerned. Reason behind this is that paid leaves. Loans which are granted to employees at lower interest than market are given to males easily as compared to women because there is a perception that female could leave the bank whenever they want because of family issues. It is basically given on the seniority basis.
They should work more professionally to change the mindset or culture of glass ceiling.• Glass ceiling used for not permitting women to secure higher position in Banks
157 people responded in a positive manner and stated that there was no culture of Glass ceiling in their relative banks which restricts female employees to secure higher positions in an organization that makes 78%% and 43 employees which makes 22% stated that Glass ceiling was used in their banks and Males were dominating in every department of the Bank. which consistently persist in Pakistani banking sector. Yes glass ceiling does exist but only women can change this concept of this glass ceiling by their performance and they should keep a balance between their work commitments and family commitments and none of these factors should over lap each other. This type of glass ceiling should be broken and only females can break it because it’s a male dominated society therefore male doesn’t want females to lead them and to come at the top therefore measures should
. To remove glass ceiling women have to prove themselves by working hard and they should have the desire and passion to reach to the top-level position. Concept of Glass Ceiling in the Bank
Education has come to the aid of women here because now the concept is changing as to only men should be the heads rather many people believe that organizations operating under a women head works far better.
” Women have to prove to their questioning male counterparts that they have risen to these positions not on the basis attractiveness but on their genuine brilliance and competence. that women may be good for routine work. It is presumed that their family will not permit them. Such discriminatory and biased opinions will of course be more prevalent in the under-developed societies
. you need men. but to lead and manage organizations. In addition of an "attractive" female is sure to increase the attention and attract the clients. Thus image of the professional female has been stereotyping this belief in nearly allmanagerial ranks .e.be taken by females by continuous hard work and commitment only then they can overcome this barrier.i. They should at least be given the right to choose. The minute designations like "Public Relations" and "Client Executives" are attached to women the sly and suggestive look on men's face tells the story about how the male mind works. females are not considered for overseas postings. This is especially true when women working in the marketing field are perceived as trying to sell themselves to sell the product. Employee stated “Nothing major but a general observation.
corporate. Gender mainstreaming is a strategy for making the concerns of women and men and their collective and individual experiences an integral dimension of the design. and economics and decision-making bodies to yield long-term transformation of society.• Recruitment of employees of one gender to those of other
There were several different answers to this question but most people were of the view that recruitment of one gender to other may depend on the education. implementation and evaluation of policies and programs in all aspects so that they benefit equally.
. skills needed and work environment as well as appearance of the employee. education. Intellectual capabilities also play an important role in recruitment process. Males could work better in stress full conditions as compared to women because they could meet short deadlines and can take more challenging work than women. credits more men are hired because of heavy work load and perception is that males have more accuracy than females. soft spoken and understanding therefore female are hired in such cases on the other hand in Analysis departments such as treasury. Women’s empowerment therefore needs to be made an integral part of broader issues such as health. job requirement. this is an important factor of discrimination because many females decision making was not valued as much as compared to male decision making. For example customers interacted with females at the front office or reception more comfortably and they are attracted to the treatment which females gives them because women are more polite. This makes gender mainstreaming critical to the success in Pakistan. his or her communication skills because every bank needs a well cultured and well dressed employee.
Personal liking may be another factor for discrimination between men and women employees.
Discrimination Cases in Local Working Environment
140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Yes No 75 Yes No 125
The reason for discrimination is the perception of head of the department that females are weaker than males and males could do more work as compared to women for example they could do late sittings for completing as much work as they can. which is 62. in practice men are more equal than women are. and the traditional male-dominant society of Pakistan has done very little to meaningfully empower women.5% and 75 employees were of the view that discrimination cases does not prevails in Banking environment which makes 37. However. Males think that there is no need to give more decision-making power to females to handle affairs of the banks. which tends to become an important factor why discriminations take place. The low social status of women because of the customs of largely feudal and tribal culture pose the biggest barrier in the way of women's involvement in an organization. mainly because they perceive females to have less
.5%. The other reason for discrimination is lack of education of females. The reality gives a picture where women rarely appear in positions of power. Low-participation of women are culturally and socially determined traits.• Discrimination cases in local working environment
125 people said Discrimination cases does take place in local working environment. The constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan gives equal rights to both men and women.
there is no other serious problem about working with men.”
. so they may start messaging and calling you and saying weird things which can be classified as discrimination. “Since there are so many men. security and human dignity. and just 2 of us women. In order to increase female autonomy and empowerment. Discrimination of genders can be reduced by increasing female education and by providing extra facilities to female workers like skill training facilities and transport facilities. employees relate. Apart from this. This will have important implications keeping in view the increased Women must be given the chance to work themselves and to support their families through creation of decent employment opportunities that help them secure productive and remunerative work in conditions of freedom. it seems quite awkward. Moreover.knowledge. Also some men tend to get excited about working with women. Promoting decent work as a fundamental instrument in the global quest for gender equality will go a long way in raising incomes and opportunities for women to support their families. there is a need to encourage the role of females in decision-making and to discourage the stereotyped thinking among males and females within the society.
42% are married. 9% are divorced or separated.• Effect of Marital Status for employment promotion
110 people were of the view that marital status does affect employment promotion opportunities that makes 55% and 90 employees believed that marital status does not affect employment promotion opportunities. which makes 45%
Effect of M arital Status for Employment Promotion
No 45% Yes 55%
According to my survey I came across to know that 49% women working in Banks are single or engaged.
.89 employee have their views that Co workers treat both genders equally which makes 44.5% but 111 employees were of the view that different treatment was given by co workers to male and females in Banking environment which makes 55.5%.Marital status of Women in the Banks Divorced or Seperated 9% Single or engaged 49% Married 42%
Single or engaged Married Divorced or Seperated
In most of the Banks marital status did effected chances for employment promotion like single women are usually more preferred for promotion because they are young and they could be employed at the front office or reception while married women are also employed but they are given less opportunities for promotion because there is an uncertainty that if they will have children they would leave the job.
• Treatment of Co workers in regard to males and females
In my survey I took views of many employees and I got to know that in some banks Co workers do treat male and females in a different manner.
• Effect of Gender biasness in Delegation of Authority
155 employees think that gender biasness does play an important part in delegation of Authority.5%. Men were usually polite with female workers as compared to male workers and also men tried to impress female by their work further more I came across many stories of male employees flirting with their female coworkers inside the Bank. which makes 22.5% and 45 employees think that gender biasness has no role in delegation of authority. which makes 77.
.Treatment of Co-workers to both Male and Female Employees
111 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Yes No 89
According to my research I found out that Co-workers attitude towards females was better than Co-workers attitude towards male.
5% and 71 employees think that same working hours are allotted to Male and females which makes 35.Role of Gender Biasness in Delegation of Authority
The reason for gender biasness in delegation of authority is that Pakistan has a male dominated society. Lack of education and lack of earning power makes these societies wish for male off spring since they can share the economic burden of the family. the female member is perceived as an economic burden.
• Working hours for both genders
129 employees had the perception that males had more extended hours work than females which makes 64. When it comes to the top management ranks there will be little incidence of female dominance. In the underdeveloped countries where the historical role of women is confined to the four walls of the parents or husband's house. women are in minority and are only considered competent for certain routine lower management positions.5%.
secondly women have family issues in context of coming home late therefore in many banks women are allowed to go home early but men have extended work hours because they don’t have the issue of going home late.Different Working Hours for Opposite Sex
140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Yes No 71 129
According to my survey Different working hours for men and women is because of transport problems for women which is a major issue. 38
• Equal training opportunities to both genders
182 employees thinks that there is an equal training opportunities for both Male and females in Banking sector which makes 91% and 18 employees think that both male and females doesn’t get equal training opportunities which makes 9%.
The reason for equal training opportunities is that both men and women have to work in the same environment.
• Client Attitude towards Males and Females
.Equal Training Opportunities for both Genders
200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 182
18 Yes No
Equal training opportunities are given to both female and male employees whether it is Management training program. on job Training or different training program to enhance the skills of workers. Therefore both are given equal training opportunities in order to reduce errors made by employees. they both have to interact with same type of clients and they both have to analyze risk related to the lending and borrowing of money by the bank.
According to my survey 156 people were of the view that Clients attitude towards male and female are different which makes up to 78% and 44 employees thought that there was no difference of attitude of Clients towards male or females which makes 22%. Clients were more polite towards women employees as compared to male employees it is due to our culture in which more respect is given to women. which were not liked by female employees. Some clients also passed flirty comments to the female employees and tried to make friends with them.
• Leaves for men and women
Difference of Client's attitude towards Male and Female Employees
Yes 78% 22% No
Client attitude difference was seen in Banking sector. and many female employees of banks had the same complaint.
if a woman becomes pregnant. or can make one without being "unduly burdened.
More Leaves for Women than Men
180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Yes No 33 Yes No 167
Banks have a number of responsibilities to female employees who become pregnant.
• Appropriate Actions to overcome gender discrimination
.My study stated that 167 employee were of the view that women got more days off than man considering special circumstances like maternity leaves which makes 83.5% and 33 employees was of the opinion that both genders gets equal days off which makes 16. For instance.5%." Banks requires that if any female employee who plans to take a pregnancy leave should give the Bank reasonable notice of the date the leave will start and how long it is expected to last. the Bank must transfer her to another position if it has one. and with the advice of her doctor asks for a position that is less strenuous or hazardous.
Strict rules and regulations on discrimination should be followed with harsh punishments. Such issues need to be solved at an early stage to avoid any kind of unforeseen event. and communicate the pros of no discrimination and the cons of discrimination. Ali Dossa. It is inevitable for them to identify. There should be surprise visits by top management or people assigned who would look into such discrimination cases The organization should implement rules and behaviors that all employees are expected to follow. Such policies should be mentioned in the rules and regulations as well as in the employment contract. then it would be 3 or 4 genders. “In my opinion the management should look into the matter and consult the employees who are being made the target. This will make them realize the seriousness of the issue and will enable them to get rid of it Anonymous employees from Faysal Bank Ltd. Heads of department should realize and build such environment where equality prevails and they should change their approach and work more professionally by treating everyone in the working environment equally. Top management should keep an open door policy where people discriminated against can complain”. “Talk to your employees and tell them that you respect both genders. rules and roles for men and women both. Training and punishments might help establish the grounds expected to be followed. They are considered as social gatekeepers and are entitled to certain privileges by virtue of their superior duties.” An anonymous employee.
. Top management should set an example and eliminate all activities and procedures. Discriminatory behavior should be penalized. in most cases women. Give employees lectures on the topic. Habib Metropolitan Bank.
Mr. unless you have homosexuals and lesbians working for you too. Banks should keep checks on employees to ensure that discriminatory practices do not prevail in the bank. understand and analyze the socially determined discriminations.Men are perceived as the masters of women's destiny in a Pakistani society and they assume a critical role and sensitive responsibility in changing the face of a difficult situation. which discriminate against any sex. Citi Bank. Employees must learn to respect each other and work amicably Gender discrimination needs to be taken seriously before it leads to severe discrimination cases.
” Ms. Meezan Bank “Escalate to top management or HR” Anonymous employees. HSBC: “Have better gender ratios. Syed Habib Ahmed. thus employees should be made aware of their rights and the appropriate authorities to approach if they ever come across such situations. harassment. Stricter punishment for petty
.” Mr. Fahad Jafferi. Gender discrimination is a term that many people are not aware of.. UBL.” “More educated employees. “Such discrimination can be overcome by delegating the tasks equally to female and male employees.” Ms. “Education is the key to eliminate gender inequality” Ms Syed Raza. UBL. Sana Zafir. Bank Alfalah Ltd. MCB.” An anonymous employee. “Hiring more women to improve ratios. Habib Metropolitan Bank. MCB.“Level of discrimination can only be eradicated if equal opportunities are provided to both genders to prove their abilities. “Tougher consequences should be set if one is found guilty of such an act. There should be guidelines set within every organization.” An anonymous employee.” Mr. “Education of men is more in higher management therefore women must be educated equally to men to compete with them and then only they can come to the higher positions in banks and eliminate discrimination. Fatima Mariam.
Dr. a Press Conference of Women across the globe was held. Governance. Pakistan had also established the First Women’s Bank. had been set up to provide micro-credit to the poor. said that: “Women’s empowerment was vital for achieving the Millennium Goals. She also held the position of Director. Prior to her appointment as SBP Governor. Akhtar had been serving the Asian Development Bank (ADB) as its Director General. “special schemes had also been launched to provide poor women access to micro-credit to help them start businesses. first woman appointed after fourteen previous governors since the bank’s inception in July. “Pass on the discrimination as to the seniors involving HR to remove the obstacle" Ms Sumayra Ali. Earlier. However.” Ms Tabita Zafar. A special lending institution. 2004. she was Deputy Director General of the Department. of the World Bank.” The representative of Pakistan. Nilofer Bakhtiar. 1948. needed to reach that goal. therefore. Karen Mason. which could best be described as “of the women. ABN AMRO. contrary to the normal employment practices followed in the country. Southeast Asia Department since January.
Solutions And Recommendations
. reported to have said that: “The Pakistani Government is carrying out an ambitious program of economic empowerment of women. was appointed the governor of the State Bank of Pakistan at the start of this year. In the conference. Dr. women’s productivity was necessary for economic development and. Providing economic opportunities to women was among the priorities of the program.“Social attitudes towards women in all aspects of life need to be addressed and a positive attitude towards gender equality needs to be engendered in the mindset of the population.Shamshad Akhtar. The most obvious reason for her selection is her vast experience in the corporate side. by the women and for the women”. Finance and Trade Division for East and Central Asia Department of ADB. the Khushhali Bank. In terms of reducing poverty. She is the.” According to her. ABN AMRO “Heads of department should realize and build such environment where equality prevails and stricter policies and harsh punishments for the culprits”
As far as the banking sector is concerned.
Although its impact becomes evident over a decade or two. The conflict of ‘gender discrimination’ is a long term issue. Formulating a law is not the solution of the problem.
Media plays an important role in bringing about change in society. Laws which have already been made are comprehensive. The messages that are played and replayed through media go a long way in determining the mindsets of the reader. The Portrayal of Women in Media lasted for five years. It aimed at sensitizing media professionals of the PTV and members of private media houses to end stereotype images on the screen. and there’s no one tool which can bring a change in status quo. One such project initiated and funded by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) was in partnership with the country's state-controlled television. regional and international organizations should plan and execute these laws in collaboration with the local governments. mass media can play a vital role in bringing awareness among the general public. the Pakistan Television or PTV. i. ending in 2002. audience and viewer. Further. Social reforms of the societies by inviting the leaders of the societies at a bigger arena can also help to resolve the conflict. situations and occurrences that reinforce the extent to which gender inequality is prevalent in our society. I came across many incidents.e. Education is a powerful tool that can empower women and help them compete with men in the labor market for better jobs. yet it is an effective tool if used wisely to combat poverty and discrimination. These cases were quite disturbing. The challenge of gender discrimination has been on the agenda of various organizations over the years who have tried to spread awareness an empower women so as to reduce their dependency on the male of the family and provide for themselves. instead domestic. This has seen the realization and implementation of gendersensitizing projects in various sectors within Pakistan. This campaign should not be kept on the shoulders of the government of the country. Need is there to put them in practice and then evaluating the performance of the law.
.During our research.
Unaware and ill-informed women have been vulnerable targets of mistreatment and bias.
it was also grotesque and insensitive. A few years ago. media has also played an effective role in convincing people to send their daughters to schools. yet the situation remains dramatic especially in the villages and small towns where almost 70 per cent of the country's population resides.Likewise attempts have been made to develop a sensitized code of ethics for the print media.
Gender Sensitive Code Of Ethics
A gender sensitive code of ethics for the print media was the subject of the regional conference held somewhat recently in Islamabad organized by UKS.g. What they discussed at the forum highlights those countries in the region face a situation similar to the one in Pakistan. advertising has been used as an effective tool of communication by the government and the private sector to support awareness campaigns e. Delegates from neighboring countries including Bangladesh. The need is especially felt when the print media plays upon images and stories that not only portray and reinforce the stereotypes. As if that was not enough. Nepal. Afghanistan and Sri Lanka had been invited to present a picture of their countries and share their views on how a gender-sensitized code of ethics could be created. A particular case constantly reminds one of how the print media can play a negative role. a young woman was murdered brutally in Islamabad. a research. but are also gender discriminatory.
. resource and publication center on women and media. The portrayal and reporting of the case was not only gender-biased. Certain newspapers made it a point to assassinate the victim's character in a manner that justified the crime. some of the newspapers printed the picture of the slaughtered head.
Levels and types of education provide entry to occupations and professions. married with children or divorced because their earning are more necessary to support a family. human resource and in core finance departments mostly men were placed. Though Bank’s discrimination in hiring and pay has been discouraged. Continuous efforts are going on to reduce the discrimination of genders and banks have been successful to a certain extent. increase in the first half of 80's and is on the decline in the 90s and 2000. Our Society has the perception that women should not work and remain at houses.Conclusion
Analysis shows a high degree of gender inequality in Pakistan. Women with good education background were hired in banks and were placed in core departments of the bank but still they were less in number than men. in marketing department. which I usually found in local banks but in foreign banks there was no difference in pay scale and both male and female employees were earning equally Education is frequently seen as preparation for the labor force. punishment of discrimination acts and other measures that can promote gender equality in the country. Women remain less likely than men to be active in the labor force and an average 25% of females are employed in banks. elimination of glass ceiling. In the end. Despite this gender inequality still persists in the banking sector. differences in experience were also responsible for differences in Men and women’s pay Potential measure should be taken by the government to change the regulatory framework to encourage women’s participation in Banks like elimination of wage differentials and implementing equal pay act. efforts by the top management are being made to curtail it by keeping eye on the employees to ensure that discriminatory practices do not prevail in the banks and also by communicating to employees and telling them about the consequences of inequality of gender because women’s productivity is necessary for economic development. I would like to say that though gender discrimination does exists in the banking sector of Pakistan. this perception should change and more education should be provided to women so that they could compete with men and a culture should be built in which both genders should be treated and respected equally. Today many women work in banks. On the whole gender Inequality has decreased in the 70's. Thus. Education and occupational differences remained in the bank such as most of the women were working as secretaries. This is largely a consequence of inequality in labor force participation rate followed by literacy rate and school participation rate. In some banks there was a different pay scale for men and women with same educational background. whether they are single.
com www.hec.gov.com http://www.com/ http--www.References
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • http://www.com.2006 Behavior In Organization.discriminationattorney.pk/htmls/journal_lib/JCR/List_of_Journals.
.pk/default.com/glass_ceiling.asp http://www.workplacefairness. Second Generation Reforms. Baron.genderdiscrimination.brooklaw.jsp?section_idv=1 http://www.ca/en/ev-69006-201-1-DO_TOPIC.asp?page=story_8-4-2005_pg3_5 Dawn.shtml http://www.spdc.html http://www.pk/divisions/women-developmentdivision/media/06chp5.financialnews-us.dailytimes.edu-students-journals-bjlp-jlp13ii_borgida.pdf www.sedc.idrc.ibp.org/WomenItop.com.pba.org/index. Understanding And Managing The Human Side Of work by Jerald Greenberg and Robert A.shtml http://www.infochangeindia.pakistan.com.shtml http://www. PDF.com www.discriminationattorney.pk/articledetails.php http://sachet.discriminationattorney.htm http://www.com/pregnanc.pk Briefing Paper.pk/home/resources/research_material/research_gender_06.php?id=52147 http://www.pdf http://www.onlinenews.gov.org.com www.com/sex.
Women. In The Company Of Women. • Socio-Economic Indicator by gender: A Regional Comparison for Pakistan (Naushaba Khatoon)
. Aluetta .C. “Advancing Gender Equality. From Concept to Action” The World Bank.• • • • • •
US Department of Labor (1992) Employment and Earnings Vol. (Amartya Sen) • Gender inequality in developing countries (Aisha Ghaus-Pasha)
• Social Development in Pakistan. Sex stereotypes and their effects in the workplace. Journal Of Social Behavior. “The New Yorker”. World Institute for Developing Economic Research. Annual Review.” Development in Practice: Towards Gender Equality. and Development: A Study of Women Capabilities. Social Policy and Development Center. Bureau of National Affairs (Employees Relations Weekly) “Gender Inequality and Theories of Justice”. 39 Glass Ceiling Commission (1995) Good for Business: Making Full Use Of The Nations Human Capital Heilman. Culture. • World Bank. Washington D. Karachi • The World Bank.
5 1:2 1:3 ___________
The current head of the department is male or female? □ □ Male Female
3 Have you ever been subjected to any sort of discrimination in your workplace.APPENDIX Gender inequality in Banking Sector (Questionnaire)
Name (Optional) Organization: Department: Designation Age Gender ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ □ Male □ Female
1 What is the ratio of males to females in your department? □ □ □ □ Other 2 1:1 1:1. or if you know of any discriminatory acts that took place in your presence please state ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 50
Do you think that your organization culture supports glass ceilings? (If Yes/No why?)
□ Yes □ No ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ _ 7 In your opinion. effort. what are the most obvious benefits to prefer recruiting employees of one gender to those of the other? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____
. do you think gender bias is involved? □ Yes □ No 6 Glass ceiling is a term used when female employees are not permitted to secure higher position in an organization. and responsibility Do you think that this Act is followed in your organization? (Yes or No please state your views) □
Yes □ No ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ___ 5 As for fringe benefits and perks are concerned.____________________________________________________________________ _____
The Equal Pay Act requires that equal wages be paid to men and women who perform jobs that require substantially equal skill.
regardless of gender. please specify how? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ___
11 Does gender bias play a role in delegation of authority?
□ Yes □ No
12 Are different working hours allotted to you relative to people of the opposite sex?
□ Yes □ No
13 Are there equal training opportunities for everyone. at your bank?
□ Yes □ No
14 Is there a difference between clients’ attitudes towards males and females?
□ Yes 52
Do you think discrimination cases prevail in the local working environment? (If yes why)
□ Yes □ No ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ __
9 Does marital status affect opportunities for employment promotion in your management?
□ Yes □ No
10 Do your co-workers treat you the same way as they treat people of the opposite sex at your work place?
□ Yes □ No If no.
like maternity leave?
□ Yes □ No
16 If gender discrimination is actually found in an organization.□ No
15 On average. do women get more days off than men. then what do you think is the appropriate solution to overcome such obstacles? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________
. considering special circumstances.