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Spring Identification for Portable Safety Relief Valves describes both theory and deployment of flat end springs in machinery; within the limits of Hook's Law. Also covered are requirements of ASME and ANSI for spring deployment in Safety Relief Valves. This topic will be of interest to engineers and inspection personnel of commercial facilities.

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PROBLEM BACKGROUND

Operational facilities should keep a design, selection, and service log for all Safety Relief Valves (SRV, RV)

used in the facility. One of the most important items included in the RV record is the spring number

identification for each RV. This number is required in all RV Authorization & Deployment Forms to verify the

RV safety and compliance.

Except for the small springs, each spring has an identification number punched on it. For springs with no

identification, manufacturers suggest replacement by a newly purchased spring. This means that every time a

valve is disassembled for repair or testing, the spring should be replaced. This arises from the fact that small

springs have no ID number stamping. Thus the spring cannot be identified by a shop techinician from a simple

visual inspection. Spring replacement at every service and test will be a costly exercise.

A concern of this matter lead to the development of a method for RV spring identification. This method

establishes a procedure which requires maintenance shops to take some additional RV's measurements. These

measurements are submitted to an engineer. He then must do a set of calculations to identify the spring number

of the deployed spring.

Many facilities have hundreds of portable RV's in service. A portable RV is a small size valve. They generally

have a threaded inlet and outlet. These RV's are commonly used for low relieving capacities with relatively

high pressures applications. Like all the RV types, each valve type has about 20 different springs that can be

fitted to it. The set pressure required for a specific valve is what fixes the required spring number. For each

spring can only service a small pressure range.

Except for springs of portable valves, spring numbers are usually punched on the top coils of the spring.

Portable RV's springs are so small and weak that punching their numbers on them could damage them. When

these springs are ordered, RV manufacturers send them in boxes with a label of their number. At any facility,

each individual spring is supposed to be tagged with its number. It can happen that the stock is mixed or the

tags are lost.

A more complicated problem appears when the RV is disassembled and repaired. When the technician come to

fill a RV Authorization Form he will not be able to truely identify the spring number. As a result, Inspection

should put the RV on HOLD until the spring validity can be positively confirmed.

This matter was discussed with Consolidated & Crosby, RV manufacturers. The discussion lead to one solution

which is to purchase a replacement spring for every unidentified spring. Such solution would raise the cost of

RV 's maintenance drastically. A cost estimate for one plant showed an annual material cost in the range of

$17,000 to $30,000. Even though, if a new spring was installed the same problem will be encountered again at

the next service. RVs should be routinely serviced and also at any pop off between scheduled service.

Here is a method of evaluating RV springs. The method determines the spring number based on measurement

of spring and nozzle dimensions. Also, an air pressure pop off series of test data must be gathered and used in

this method. The next section will explain the details of the measurements and procedure of the method.

Flow test runs are required to validate the Drag Coefficient value used to determine a minimum set pressure of

a RV for installation with a given spring.

1

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

PROCEDURE

Following is the procedure of spring verification of RV's. The procedure consists of two parts. The fist part

should be carried before the reassembly of the RV while the second part should be done next to the repair and

reassembly of the RV.

Part One:

While the RV is disassembled, Valve nozzle and spring dimensions need to be taken. These measurements

include the spring free length (Xf), outer diameter (Do), inner diameter (Di), wire diameter (d) and total

number of turns (N). Also, the nozzle bore diameter (Db) and outer diameter (Ds) should be measured.

Readings to 3 decimal points of an inch is expected. The attached figures show the location of each

measurement mentioned.

Part Two:

This part can not be done till the RV is prepared for pressure testing. This means that valve was insured for no

leak as done in every regular repair procedure. Then, RV is to be tested on the Pressure Test Stand available.

Test is started by screwing the compression screw till it touches the spring then the lock nut is tightened. Next,

RV is popped and the popping pressure is recorded as well as the "compression screw" position (X).

Compression screw position is measured from the top of the screw to the top surface of the lock nut. If the

compression screw was just tightened to touch the spring, the popping pressure should not exceed 25 psig. If

so, compression screw measurement will be designated as "Initial Position" (Xo). Then, screw is tightened for

about 0.05 inches more and popped again. The same step is repeated for at least 4 times and the readings are

recorded.

Attached is a "RV Spring Verification Data Sheet", see appendix A. Measurements of both parts of the method

described above are to be filled in this sheet. Later, this sheet will be the basis of the calculations and analysis

in the next section.

Springs used in RV's are usually "Helical Compression Springs". The characteristics of these springs are

measured by what is known as "Spring Rate" or "Spring Constant" (Ks). This constant determines the force (F)

required to displace the spring a distance (dX).

Appendix B shows the detailed description and derivations done to set the method of spring identification.

Method described was tested and proved to a good accuracy for Consolidated RV types 1970, 1975C and

1990C. However, to generalize the method to verify springs for any valve type, flow tests are required to

measure Drag coefficient (CD) and Effective Coefficient of Discharge (Kd). These constants are functions of

the valve shape and testing the valve flow should give an accurate measure of them. By doing that it will be

possible to generate a synthetic spring table for any RV type. This means that for any spring installed in any

RV type, performing a set of calculations will reveal the maximum and the minimum set pressure that the

spring can hold.

2

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

APPENDIX A

MEASUREMENT

AND

CALCULATIONS

SHEETS

3

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

Using RV spring measurement data filled in "RV Spring Verification data Sheet", perform the

following calculations to fill "RV Spring Verification Calculations Sheets":

1) Determine valve critical dimensions (Bore Area, Nozzle Outer Area and Lift)

3) Determine Spring Constant Ks using equation B1 and B2 page 2. Ks calculated using B1 is more accurate,

but both results should be close.

4) Calculate the maximum compression allowed using equation B3. Use Ks calculated by B1.

6) If possible use Pmax calculated by equation B5 to fill the comparison of table page 3, otherwise go to step

7. A quick guess of the spring number can be made by observing the differences in the table. The spring

number corresponding to the smaller difference is the most probable spring number.

8) If the spring number was not identified in step 6, it can be estimated by comparing the spring range

calculated by equations B4 and B6 to the ranges available in the Manufacturer's Spring Charts. Select the

spring number with the closest range. Also, from the Manufacturer's Charts find the required spring number

according to the RV type and its set pressure. Use these results to fill the table in page 4.

9) Draw your conclusions based on the last table. The optimum result will be identifying of a spring number

identical to the required, but a different spring number can be acceptable if close. If the spring numbers did not

match, compare the spring range calculated to the set pressure required. If the set pressure falls roughly midway

between the maximum and the minimum pressures, this spring number will be a safe spring to be used for this

set pressure.

4

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

RV B NO.

RV TYPE

SPRING DIMENSIONS

Spring outer dia. (Do)

Spring inner dia. (Di)

Spring wire dia. (d)

N1 N2

N3 N4

Average N

RV NOZZLE MEASUREMENT

Nozzle outer dia. (Ds)

RV TEST DATA

Po = Xo =

# Pressure Compression

(psi) (inches)

1

2

3

4

5

5

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

RV B NO.

RV TYPE

Calculation of RV Dimensions

As = Ds2/4

As = in2

Ab = Db2/4

Ab = in2

dXL = Db2/4Ds

dXL = in

Calculate Fs, dXc, Fs*dXc and dXc2 for every set of data measured. Fill the table below with the results.

Fs = P*As

dXc = Xo - Compression

1 Po= Xo= 0 0 0

2

3

4

5

6

SUM ()

m=

6

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

RV B NO.

( )( )-( )( )

mFsdXc - FsdXc

Ks = Equation B1 Ks =

mdXc2 - (dXc)2 Substitute next, ( )( )-( )2

Ks = lb/in

G(d)4 ( *106)( )4

Ks = Equation B2 Ks =

8N(Do-d)3 Substitute next, 8( )( - )3

MATERIAL G (psi)

Ks = lb/in

Alloy & Carbon Steel 11.5*106

Stainless Steel 10.6*106

Brass 5.0*106

Aluminum 4.0*106

1)Calculation of Maximum Pressure per ASME VIII:

dXc(max) = inch

Maximum Pressure Allowed:

Pmax = psig

7

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

RV B NO.

2) Calculation of Maximum Pressure by Known RV Type Constants(C2):

If your RV is available in the table below, use the previous Equation to calculate Pmax.

RV TYPE C2

1970C (1") 1.0

Pmax = psig 1975C 1.28

1990C 1.73

1990xls 2.2

By refering to Mnufacturer's Spring Tables you can compare Pmax you calculated to the closest two maximum

pressures it falls between.

Difference = Pmax(calculated) - Pmax(from the table)

(from table) Spring Number

Upper Pmax

Lower Pmax

CD: is the coefficient of drag. Its value varies according to the flow conditions. An average value of 3.55 is

often used.

Minimum Pressure of Liquids:

KsdXLAD

Pmin =

K1CDAb2 - AsAD

KsdXLAs ( )( )( )

Pmin = Equation B6 Pmin =

K1CDAb2 - As2 ( )( )( )2 - ( )2

K1=0.479(Kd/0.62)2 for Non-Certified Liquid Flow.

8

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

RV B NO.

For cases which involve Consolidated RV's, API has allowed the RV manufacturer to use Kd specific to their

RV, and these are listed below.

Kd for Consolidated RV

CASE Kd

1990 and ASME VIII for Certified Liquid Flow 0.669

API Certified Liquid Flow 0.744

1990 and API for Non-Certified Liquid Flow 0.62

Pmin = psig

KsdXLAD-8.6CDAb2

Pmin =

0.64CDAb2 - AsAD

KsdXLAD-8.6CDAb2 ( )( )( )-8.6( )( )2

Pmin = Equation Pmin =

0.64CDAb2 - As2 B7 ( )( )( )2 - ( )2

Pmin = psig

Number Number

Spring No.

Spring Range

CONCLUSION:

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

9

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

APPENDIX B

DETAILED CALCULATIONS

OF

SPRING RANGE & SPRING NO.

10

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

FIGURE 1

SPRING COORDINATES

dXc dXc

Xf-Xk

Xf Xs

Xc

Xk

dX

FREE SPRING FULL SET SPRING SET SPRING WITH

COMPRESSION NO LIFT FULL LIFT

Fs Force of spring exerted on the disk. (lbf)

Ks Spring constant. (lbf / inch)

P RV set pressure. (psig)

As Disk area affected by the set pressure, see figure 4. (inch2)

Ds Outer diameter of nozzle. (inch)

Xf Free spring length. (inch)

XK Fully compressed spring length (XK=Nd). (inch)

Xs Spring length when valve relieves at full lift. (inch)

dXC Change in spring length to achieve set pressure. (inch)

dXL Change in spring length to achieve full disk lift. (inch)

dXc Difference in fully compressed spring length and the spring length at full disk lift relieving condition.

(inch)

N Number of spring turns.

d Wire diameter. (inch)

A Constant relating maximum travel to the available travel.

C1 Fraction required by ASME VIII to be between 0.8 & 1.0.(1)

C2 Constant relating maximum set pressure of a spring to its constant.

By inspecting the above conditions and spring coordinates,

it may be written for position "D", Figure 1 as:

Xf = Xs + dXc + dXL

Define dXs = (Xs - XK) then Xs = XK + dXs

11

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

(Xf - XK) = dXs + dXc + dXL

To maintain spring linearity with force; F=KsX, it is required that dXs = fraction of (Xf -XK)

or A(Xf - XK).

(Xf - XK) = A(Xf - XK) + dXc +XL

ASME VIII requires that "the spring shall be designed so that the full lift spring compression ,(dXc + dXL),

shall be no greater than 80% of the nominal spring deflection"(1).

for a particular spring and RV type, dXL, As, Xf & XK will remain constant so we can say

For future reference C2 will be called the "RV Type Constant". So,

The next section will discussed the determination of spring rate Ks.

12

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

The free body diagram of the static forces on a closed nozzle gives the following:

FIGURE 2

STATIC DISK FREE-BODY DIAGRAM

force

Fspring=KsdXc

Fb=PbackA

F2

F1

C3

friction

Ws+d dX1 dX2

spring compression

Ff=PsetAs

STATIC FORCES:

The static force exerted on the disk in a closed position by the fluid inside the nozzle is

Ff = Pset*As = PsetDs2/4

Fup - Fdown = 0

Fdown = Fspring + Weight of spring disk + Friction of disk lip + Net forces of back pressure.

Assuming no back pressure

Fup = Pset*Anormal = Ppopping Ds2/4

Rearranging the equation Fup - Fdown will give

By popping the valve at different set pressures. The constant forces of spring weight and friction may be

eliminated to find the spring constant.

(IV)

Ks = (P2-P1)Ds2/(4(dXs2-dXs1))

In summary, Equation (IV) the slope of popping pressure to spring compression times orifice area can be used

to find the spring rate.

13

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

dXL is the minimum lift required to assure valve does not operate with restricted flow. Restricted flow means a

valve does not reach the relieving flow capacity required by the specifying engineer of a RV at a stated over

pressure, accumulation.

FIGURE 3

NOZZLE AND DISK COORDINATES

SPRING

WASHERS

SPRING

DISK

Ds

Db

dX

Fluid NOZZLE

Flow

Ab

OPEN NOZZLE CLOSE NOZZLE WITH NOZZLE WITH OPEN

DISK SEATED DISK LIFTED

dXL Db2/(4Ds)

Since Ds Db.

14

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

So, minimum lift require to supply a non restricted flow out of the valve can be approximated to:

TABLE 1

Summary of Valve Major Dimensions for Portable RV

RV MODEL Ab Ds As LIFT = Ab/(Ds)

(in2) (in) (in2) (in)

1970 (3/4") 0.126 0.576 0.260 0.070

1970 (1") 0.226 0.576 0.260 0.125

1970 (1 1/2",2") 0.522 0.854 0.572 0.195

1975 (1/2",3/4") 0.110 0.389 0.119 0.090

1990/1995 HP 0.110 0.392 0.121 0.089

1993/1996 0.292 0.684 0.367 0.136

1997 0.442 0.854 0.573 0.165

1998 0.754 1.000 0.785 0.240

3999 0.019 0.178 0.025 0.034

1994 H/HP 0.126 0.430 0.145 0.093

1996 H 0.226 0.556 0.243 0.129

15

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

The dynamic forces acting on the RV disk are considered next to determine the minimum set pressure of a

given spring in a given RV.

FIGURE 4

DYNAMIC SPRING CONDITIONS

Fspring=Ks(dXc+dXL)

D

As

Ws+d

fluid

flow

Ab

Fup= Drag force of

Relieving fluid

m Flow rate of fluid through nozzle (lb/sec)

d Fluid density at the disk holder (lb/ft3)

FD Force of drag (lb) which is the force component

parallel to the relative approach velocity, exerted

on the body by the moving fluid.

CD Coefficient of drag which is the momentum force

imparted on a normal projected area for a velocity

head of 1.

AD Projected area on a plane normal to the flow. (in2)

DD Diameter of the projected area on the plane normal

to the flow. (in)

Fluid velocity. (ft/sec)

g Constant of gravity = 32.2 (lbf/lbm)*(ft/sec2)

SG Specific Gravity of the fluid (SG= f / 62.4)

Ab Nozzle bore diameter. (in)

Acc Accumulation in percentage.

As Disk area affected by the set pressure. (in2)

16

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

Fup - Fdown = 0

If Fup FDown then full lift will be exceeded and under no circumstance will lift be a limiting factor. However,

as previously mentioned, lift plus spring compression is limited by ASME requirement i.e. The spring

maximum set pressure. The minimum spring pressure will be determined so as to achieve full lift under

flowing condition of the fluid at the RV nozzle.

= 4m/(dDD2)

= m/(dAD2) then

2 = m2/(d2AD2) (VIII)

FD = [m2/(d2AD2)](CDdAD)(1/2g)

FD = m2CD/(dAD2g) = m2CD/(2gd)(4/DD2)/(144in2/ft2)

FD = 5.69CDm2/(2dDD2) (IX)

17

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

liquid density can be expressed in term of the specific gravity using the following relation

= 62.4SG

The case of Liquids and Gases will be considered next. API equation will be used to relate the flow rate to the

set (popping) pressure, required to deliver full lift.

Based on API, Equation for certified liquid flow(3); with 10% accumulation

_

A = (Q/38KdKwKv) [SG/P1-P2]

Q Flow rate in gallon per minute = GPM.

Kd Effective coefficient of discharge. For a preliminary sizing estimation, a discharge coefficient of

0.65 can be used.

Kw Correction factor due to back pressure. If the back pressure = atm., Kw = 1.

Kv Correction factor due to viscosity.

P1 Over pressure = (1+Accumulation)Pset.

P2 Back pressure.

Kv = Kw = 1 and Kd = 0.65

24.7(Kd/0.65)

_

Ab = (GPM/24.7) [SG/((1+Acc/100)Pset - Pb)]

_

GPM = 24.7Ab [((1+Acc/100)Pset - Pb)/SG]

Accumulation = 10 %

18

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

_ _

GPM = 24.7Ab [(1.1Pset - Pb)]/ SG 500SG gpm = lb/hr

_ _

lb/hr = 24.7(500)SGAb [1.1Pset]/ SG lb/hr (hr/3600sec) = lb/sec

_ _

lb/sec = 24.7(500)Ab SG [1.1Pset]/3600

_

Collecting the constants gives: (24.7*500* 1.1)/3600 = 3.6

_

m = 3.6Ab [SGPset]

_

m2 = {3.6Ab [SGPset]}2 = 12.96Ab2SGPset Note=12.96=12.96(Kd/0.65)2

Collecting constants gives: (5.69*12.96)/(2*62.4)=0.591 or 0.591(Kd/0.65)2

SG cancels away

(XII)

Pmin = KsdXL/[0.464CDAb2/AD - As] Certified Liquid Flow i.e. Acc=10%

Note 0.464 0.464(Kd/0.65)2

This equation gives the minimum set pressure required for liquids to achieve full lift. Therefore, the minimum

set pressure is based on the valve dimensions, spring rate and liquid viscosity.

19

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

Based on API Equation for non-certified liquid flow (4); with 25% accumulation:

_

A = (Q/38KdKwKvKp) [SG/1.25P-Pb]

A Required effective discharge area = Ab

Q Flow rate in gallon per minute = GPM

Kd Effective coefficient of discharge. For a preliminary

Sizing estimation, a discharge coefficient of 0.62 can

be used

Kw Correction factor due to back pressure. If the back pressure = atm. , Kw = 1.

Kv Correction factor due to viscosity.

Kp Correction factor due to over pressure. At 25% Accumulation, Kp = 1.

P Set pressure = Pmin = Pset.

Pb Back pressure.

Kv = Kw = Kp = 1 and Kd = 0.62

Collecting the constants gives: 38KdKwKvKp = 38*0.062*1*1*1 = 23.56

If any correction in the value of Kd is later needed, 23.56 could be replaced by

23.56(Kd/0.62)

_

Ab = (GPM/23.56) [[SG/(1.25Pset - Pb)]

_ _

GPM = 23.56Ab [1.25Pset - Pb)]/ SG and 500SG gpm = lb/hr

Assuming no back pressure; Pb = 0

_ _

lb/hr = 23.56(500)SGAb [1.25Pset]/ SG lb/hr (1hr/3600sec) = lb/sec

_ _

lb/sec = 23.56(500) SGAb [1.25Pset]/3600

_

Collecting the constants gives: (23.56*500* 1.25)/3600 = 3.66

_

m = 3.66Ab [SGPset]

_

m2 = {3.66Ab [SGPset]}2 = 13.4Ab2SGPset Note=12.96=13.4(Kd/0.62)2

Pmin = (1/As)[5.69CD{13.38Ab2SGPset}/(2*62.4SGDD2) - KsdXL]

Note that Pset = Pmin

Collecting the constants gives: (5.69*13.38)/(2*62.4) = 0.61 or 0.61(Kd/0.62)2

Pmin = (1/As)[0.61CDAb2SGPmin]/(SGDD2) - KsdXL]

20

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

AsPmin = [0.479CDAb2Pmin/AD - KsdXL] Collecting Pmin from both sides.

Pmin[0.479CDAb2/AD - As] = KsdXL

(XII)

Pmin = KsdXL/[0.479CDAb2/AD - As] Non-Certified Liquid Flow i.e. Acc=25%

Note 0.469 0.479(Kd/0.62)2

Based on API (RP 521) equation 4.3.2.1.2 for gas flow through nozzle under critical conditions(6):

_

A = (W/CgP1KdKb)( [ZT/M] )

A Required effective discharge area = Ab

W Required flow rate in lb/hr

Cg Coefficient determined from an expression

of the ratio of the specific heats of the gas at

standard conditions.

Kd Effective coefficient of discharge. Kd = 0.975.

Kb Capacity correction factor due to back pressure.

P1 = Set Pressure + Over Pressure + Atmospheric Pressure = Pacc

T Relieving temperature.

Z Compressibility factor.

_

W = AbCgKbKdPacc [M/(ZT)]

Kb = 1, Kd = 0.975 and Cg = 315

Collecting constants gives: Kb*Kd*Cg = 1*0.975*315 = 307

Let W = lb/hr = m

_

m = lb/hr = 307 Ab Pacc [M/(ZT)]

Changing to lb/sec

m2 = [307 Ab Pacc/3600]2[M/(ZT)]

m2 = (307/3600)2(Ab2Pacc2)M/(ZT)

m2 = [(307/3600)2(Ab2Pacc2)M/(ZT)]

Substituting into equation (X), {5.69CDm2/(2dDD2) - Ks(dXc + dXL) = 0}

21

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

5.69(10.73)(307/3600)2CD(Ab2Pacc2)/(2PdDD2) - Ks(dXc + dXL) = 0

Since the valve relieves under critical conditions, a ratio between Pd and Pacc is defined. Figures 27 and 30 of

API RP-520 show that for Kw to be 1, Pd must be less than 0.3*Pacc or Pd = 0.3*Pacc, psia(6).

Collecting the constants gives: 5.69(10.73)(307/3600)2/(2*0.3) = 0.74

0.74CDAb2Pacc/DD2 - Ks(dXc + dXL) = 0 (XIIII)

Since Ks*dXc= Pset*As and Pacc = (Acc+1)/100*Pset + 14.7

Substituting into equation (VIIII)

0.74CDAb2[Pset(Acc+1)/100 + 14.7]/DD2 - Pset*As = KsdXL

Let accumulation = 10%, then (Acc+1)/100 = 1.1

0.74CDAb2[1.1Pset + 14.7]/DD2 - Pset*As = KsdXL

0.74(1.1)CDAb2Pset/DD2 + (14.7)0.74CDAb2/DD2 - Pset*As = KsdXL

Collecting constants gives: 0.74(1.1) = 0.81 and (14.7)0.74 = 10.9

0.81CDAb2Pset/DD2 + 10.9CDAb2/DD2 - Pset*As = KsdXL Collecting Pset from both sides gives:

Pset(0.81CDAb2/DD2- As) + 10.9CDAb2/DD2 = KsdXL

Rearranging the equation gives:

Pset = (KsdXLAD - 8.6CDAb2)/(0.64CDAb2 - AsAD)

Note that Pset = Pmin

This equation gives the spring rate for gases, accuracy may be improved if Cg for the specific gas is used. The

minimum pressure for gases will always be less than that of liquids when all dimensional factors are the same.

This due to the subtraction term atop the denominator

22

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

A quick estimation of spring rate may be obtained by the Wahl equation for springs(7):

Do Spring outer diameter (inch)

G Bulk Modulus of Rigidity = E/[2(1+)]. (psi)

E: Modulus of Elasticity. (psi)

: Poison's Ratio.

Table 2 gives G values of different materials.

Table 2

Modulus of Rigidity

MATERIAL G (psi) MATERIAL G (psi)

Carbon Steel 11 5*106 Inconel 11 0*106

Alloy Steel 11 5*106 Monel 9 5*106

Brass 5 1*106 Bronze 5 5*106

Aluminum 3 8*106 Stainless Steel 10 6*106

For carbon and alloy spring material of RV's it is recommended to use a value of G = 11.5*106.

The next equation estimates the amount of compression needed to set the RV to its set pressure.

Figure 5 compares the 2 calculations method of Ks determination. The less dependable method would be the

Wahl Equation, Eq. XVI, because of the uncertainty introduced by estimating G, as given in Table 2.

However, the Wahl Equation for Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel springs is generally accurate when compared to

Ks as measured by the popping test outlined in section I.2, appendix B. Generally, the Wahl equation result is

within 10-20% of the measured Ks.

23

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

FIGURE 5

800

CALC' D BY WAHL EQN PARITY LINE

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

MEASURED Ks BY POPPING TEST, #/INCH

24

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

APPENDIX C

EXTRA DISCUSSION

OF

THEORIES

25

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

Discussion of Theories:

SECTION ONE:

Equation (III) shows that ASME limits to the maximum set pressure a particular spring can take. This

maximum pressure is proportional to the spring constant Ks. It also shows that the maximum pressure of a

spring installed in a certain RV is related to the spring constant by a simple constant "C2". C2 is a function of

the valve orifice and the spring free and compressed lengths.

FIGURE 6

Ks= C2* Pmax of spring charts

1600.0

1200.0

1000.0

800.0

600.0

400.0

200.0

0.0

AC-14 AA-14 AA-15 AA-16 AA-17 AA-18 A-19 A-21 A-23 A-25 A-26

SPRING NUMBER

The valve dimensions can only allow springs with suitable dimensions to fit in. So, springs manufactured for a

specific RV type will almost have the same dimensions. Hence, we can say that every RV type has a constant

"C2" that relates the maximum pressure of a spring to the spring rate. This relationship has been proved for

Consolidated 1975C & 1990C RV types, as shown by the above Graph. The data of this graph shows the

calculated spring rate from the maximum set pressures of the spring as listed in the Consolidated spring tables

(8). Since the spring rate for identical springs are identical, the use of separate constants should give identical

spring rates, as shown by the graph. The C1 factor used for this graph was 1.38 for the 1975C and 1.73 for the

1990C valve. The AB25 spring did not have a listed pressure for use in the 1975C valve. The points where the

deviation begins are for the larger springs which have spring identification markings and are not important to

this discussion..

Additional investigation has shown that Consolidated does not use the full spring travel allowed by the ASME

code. The amount of spring compression allowed in a given RV is determined by the length of the valves'

spring compression screw. The travel of most set screws are limited to approximately 50% of the ASME

allowed travel but this may vary depending upon a particular RV and spring. The effect of limiting this travel

to 50% is that twice as many springs are required for a given RV body.

One valve manufacturer replied that the limited travel is due to considerations of keeping the spring coils in a

parallel position at the maximum set pressure. The graph below shows the results of a survey for 23 various

springs evaluated in portable RV's.

26

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

FIGURE 7

SET PRESSURE, 23 SPRINGS/2 MANUF'S

10

9

8

7 SURVEY RESULTS

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

5% 15% 25% 35% 45% 55% 65% 75% 85% 95%

% of ASME TRAVEL AT MAX SPRING PRESSURE

The majority of springs surveyed limited the travel to about 50% of the ASME travel. However the limits were

between 35% and 85%.

SECTION TWO:

Analysis of Impulse Turbine is the best illustration of why CD must have a maximum value, limited by

conservation of momentum. If CD is greater than the value of the momentum a perpetual motion machine

could be conceived. The power gain is limited only by the upper limit of CD. However, the 2nd law of

thermodynamics does not allow such perpetual motion machine.

The Impulse Turbine:

FIGURE 8

FLUID FLOW THOUGH IMPULSE TURBINE NOZZLE

V2

27

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

Note that the fluid jet contours remain constant for an incompressible fluid, hence the scalar value of V1=V2=V,

allowing the following substitution:

Noting that Q=VA, "A" being the area of the nozzle: F = AV1V1(1-Cos)/g and equating to the drag force

allows for solution of CD:

CD = 2(1-Cos)

For =90, Cos = 0 CD(max) = 2

In practice, the velocity used for such analysis is based on the jet area which set the velocity into the wheel

rather than working with the force vectors determined by the normals in the X direction. Therefore, AD can be

set to As.

Another example of hydro equipment which operates in a manor similar to the RV nozzle and disk is the Roto-

flow meter. The drag coefficient for the roto-meter has been extensively compiled allow accurate calculation of

fluid flow rates (11, 12). For the Roto-flow meter the fluid passes between an annular area formed by a weighted

disk and the containing conical wall. The force exerted by the fluid on the weighted disk moves the disk up or

down so as to indicate flow rate. The angle of momentum transfer, , would be between 900 and 450. Also

some allowance would need to be made for wall friction. The typical values of CD were found to range

between 1.45 and 0.30 for the roto-flow meter.

Another example of momentum transfer handled by the CD method is in liquid mixing applications11. For

mixing calculations the charts show CD is independent of Reynolds number for Reynold numbers greater than

10,000. In the high Reynolds number range the value of CD is dependent on the shape factor, a type of pseudo

. The validity of this type analysis is verified by checking the viscosity correction factor, Kv , for RV's. The

API listed value of Kv becomes independent of Reynold number at Reynolds numbers greater about 10,000.

Table 3 gives CD values for different flow conditions and body shapes in a free liquid streams.

TABLE 3

CD Values for Different Flow Conditions

BODY SHAPE CD REYNOLD

S NUMBER

Triangle Cyl. = 120o 2.0 104

Triangle Cyl. = 30o 1.8 105

Open Semi-Tube 2.3 4*104

28

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

For the conditions of Table 3 one may deduce the fluid free stream angle of momentum transfer to be about

900. The above analysis is valid only for liquids. For gases the Mach number is used in place of the Reynolds

number, and at Mach numbers greater than 1 the CD becomes more dependent on the shape factors.

The minimum set pressure of a spring is based on liquid conditions, except where specific spring tables are

developed for gases and steam.

Most RV designs are set-up to give of 180 to achieve maximum lift. The lift is somewhat variable by use of

adjustable blowdown collars. The design of these collars are to give maximum force reactions.

However the design of Atwood-Morrel safety relief valves are such that no blowdown collars are used. Instead

the gas impinges onto a flat disk, giving equal to 90.

MEASUREMENT OF Ks

The proposed method used for determination of the spring rate is a standard practice in the RV industry. Most

major RV suppliers provide a device which allows the set pressure of a RV to be checked without bringing the

pressure up to the full setting of the popping pressure. For Consolidated10 this device is called an On-site

Testing Device, model 1556. The operation principle is identical to the method of spring rate determination

outlined here-in. The results of this practice are considered accurate enough to guarantee the set pressures of

ASME I boilers.

29

SPRING IDENTIFICATION METHODFOR "PORTABLE RELIEF VALVES" by OP Armstrong P.E.

REFERENCES

1. ASME STANDARDS Excerpts from ASME code Section VIII - division 1 "Pressure Vessels", 1989

edition. paragraph UG 136 (a)(2), page 95.

3. API Recommended Practices 520 5th edition. "Sizing, Selection and Installation of Pressure Devices in

Refineries". Equation 4.5.1.9 for certified liquid flow, page 36.

4. API Recommended Practices 520 5th edition. "Sizing, Selection and Installation of Pressure Devices in

Refineries". Equation 4.6.12 for non-certified liquid flow, page 39.

5. API Recommended Practices 520 5th edition. "Sizing, Selection and Installation of Pressure Devices in

Refineries". Equation 4.3.2.1.2 for critical gas flow, page 27.

6. API Recommended Practices 520 5th edition. "Sizing, Selection and Installation of Pressure Devices in

Refineries". Figures 27 & 30, page 30 & 35.

8. Consolidated safety Relief Valves. "Spring Selection Charts". August 1990, pages R2-2 & R2-9,

Dresser Industries, Alexandria La.

10. Consolidated Maintenance and Installation Manual. Dresser Industries, Alexandria La.

12. McCable & Smith, Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, Mcgraw-Hill NYC pages, 234 - 239.

13. Armstrong, Otis P.E: Portable Safety Relief Valve Spring Identification, APOE/ICOPU-93-225, June/22/1993

30

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