You are on page 1of 3


The slab which resists the entire/major part of applied load by bending only in one direction.

If slab is supported on all four sides and R = (Shorter side / Longer side) < 0.5

Slabs having supports on less than four sides can be designed as one-way.

Two edge supported slab is always one-way.

Cantilever slab is always one-way.

Main steel is only provided parallel to span

One-way slab is designed as singly reinforced rectangular section.

h(min) for the slab is different compared with the beams

L = Effective Span:Lesser of the following: L= Ln + h/2 + h/2 (OR) Ln + h

Bar Spacing Cover for Slabs

0.3 x h (local practice is 2 x h)

450 mm (local practice is 300 mm)
(158300/fy) -2.5Cc

Distribution, Temperature & Shrinkage Steel for Slabs (ACI-318-7.12)

Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement is required at right angle to main

reinforcement to minimize cracking and to tie the structure together to ensure its
acting as assumed in design.
Top and bottom reinforcements are both effective in controlling the cracks.

s (max) shall be lesser of : 5 x h (field practice is 2 x h) (OR) 450 mm (field practice is 2 x h)

Minimum Steel for Slabs

Same as the distribution steel : 0.2% of Area of Slab = 0.002X 1000 X Thickness

Design Procedure for One-Way Slab

1. Check whether the slab is one-way or two-way.

2. Calculate hmin and round it to higher 10mm multiple.
a. Not less than 110 mm for rooms
b. Not less than 75 mm for sunshades.
3. Calculate dead load acting on the slab.
Dead Load = Load per unit area x 1m width.
4. Calculate live load acting on the slab.
Live load = Load per unit area x 1m width.
5. Calculate total factored load per unit strip (kN/m)
6. Calculate the moments either directly (simply supported) or by using coefficient for
continuous slabs
7. Calculate effective depth. Analysis and Design of Slabs
d = h (20 + () db)
db = 10, 13, 15 generally used
8. Check that d dmin
9. Calculate As required for 1m width
10. Calculate minimum/distribution/temperature & shrinkage steel
11. Select diameter and spacing for main steel.
12. Check the spacing for max. and min. spacing smin 90mm
If spacing is less than minimum increase the diameter of bar
13. For continuous slabs, curtail or bent up the +ve steel.
For -ve steel see how much steel is already available. Provide remaining amount of
14. Calculate the amount of distribution steel. Decide its dia. & spacing like main steel.
15. Check the slab for shear.
v Vc Vu
16. Carry out detailing and show results on the drawings.
17. Prepare bar bending schedule, if required.

Approximate Steel for Estimate

Approximate amount of steel in slab = 0.07 kg/mm/m2

If slab thickness = 100 mm
Steel = 0.07 x 100 = 7kg /m2

Slab resting on walls or sufficiently deep and rigid beams on all sides. Other options are column
supported slab e.g. Flat slab, waffle slab

Two-way slabs have two way bending unlike one-way slab.

Design Methods

1. ACI co-efficient method 2. Direct design method

3. Equivalent frame method 4. Finite element method


1. In two-way slabs shorter direction strip carry greater percentage of load.

2. Steel will be more in shorter direction. Shorter direction steel will be placed near the
outer edge to get more d means more lever arm to get more flexural capacity.

ACI Co-efficient Method

Unit width strip is taken in both directions. The strip is designed separately for +ve and ve

C depends upon the end conditions of slab and the aspect ratio

Three tables are available for C

Dead load positive moment

Live load positive moment

-ve moment

M+ coefficients are increased by 25 % and M- coefficients are reduced by 10 % to get the result
closer to accurate solution.

Minimum Depth of 2-Way Slab for Deflection Control

According to ACI-318-1963 hmin = (inner perimeter of slab panel)/180 90 mm