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Social and Psychological Foundations

The outcomes that follow address social and psychological foundations of education. In constructing the outcomes, indicators, and
assessments proposed here, material from the following documents was incorporated:
NCATE Program Standards for Elementary Teacher Preparation
ACEI Elementary Education Program Standards
Council of Learned Societies in Education- Standards for Academic and Professional Instruction in Foundations in Education,
Educational Studies, and Educational Policy Studies
Maryland Essential Dimensions of Teaching
Knowledge, skills, and dispositions that are foundations of the profession of teaching are infused throughout the documents named
above. NCATE standards are the organizing framework, and ACEI Program standards are the outcomes. The indicators, assessment
types, and sample assessment tasks have been constructed to be foundational.

In constructing the material contained here, the following assumptions were made:
1. Knowledge and understanding of ALL concepts related to the foundations of teaching must be introduced during the first two
years of a four-year program leading to teacher certification. Though in many cases students= ability to work with these
concepts will be rudimentary, it is incumbent on faculty to introduce foundation material early and to provide opportunities for
students to demonstrate proficiency before they enter formal candidacy for teacher certification. The level of knowledge and
understanding required and the demand for application of that knowledge and understanding will distinguish pre-professional
from professional courses.

2. Many knowledge bases and foundational skills are prerequisites for competent demonstration of the knowledge and
understanding identified as foundational to the profession of teaching. While these prerequisites will be fulfilled in students=
general education curricula, teacher educators shall demonstrate to the education community and to the public that prerequisite
performance standards are met by persons recommended for candidacy for teacher education programs.

3. Knowledge and understanding foundational to the profession of teaching will be addressed in students= general education
curricula and appropriate introductory teacher education courses. Teacher education programs may find a variety of academic
and experiential configurations that convey and test the outcomes delineated here.

4. Though many modes of instruction are possible, one is essential. Teacher candidates must be given early, sequential exposure
to the practice of teaching. Fieldwork shall begin as early as involvement in education courses begins and will be an ongoing
and progressively demanding part of aspiring teachers= course of study.
Standard 1: Development, learning, and motivation--Candidates know, understand, and use the major concepts, principles, theories,
and research related to development of children and young adolescents to construct learning opportunities that support individual
students= development, acquisition of knowledge, and motivation.

Outcomes Indicators Assessment Types Sample Assessment Tasks

1.Teacher candidates will know a. Identify indicators of !Restricted response ! Complete a case study of a student.
and understand the social, development through questions ! Explain Piaget=s stages of development
physical, emotional, and observation. !Extended response ! Explain Erickson=s stages of development.
cognitive stages of development questions ! Discuss child development as it relates to
from infancy through b. Recognize developmental curriculum and materials
adolescence. level of child based on
observing child behavior, and
recognize importance of this !Written journal
issue in curriculum and !Oral presentation
instructional materials. !Case study/ simulation

2.Teacher candidates will know

c. Identify and explain the major Fieldwork: ! Compare and contrast Piaget=s and Vygotsky=s
the major approaches to
components of the major !Guided observations theories
(theories of) human learning.
approaches to learning. !Journals ! Identify and explain use of Skinner=s
!Research paper principles in a classroom

3. Teacher candidates will reflect d. Write and speak on how ! Describe how a discovery learning task
on the approaches to learning occurs in students and appropriate for third graders differs from a task
learning/teaching. in themselves appropriate for eight graders.

e. Recognize behaviors that

enhance and impede learning

f. Recognize behaviors that

indicate that learning has
Standard 1: Development, learning, and motivation --Continued

Outcomes Indicators Assessment Types Sample Assessment Tasks

4.Teacher candidates will g. Define and explain culture, ! Given a case study, explain how the needs
understand the impact of culture, privilege and oppression of a child in one circumstance differ from the
privilege, and oppression, as needs of a child in a different circumstance.
they influence personal growth h. Discuss how culture, privilege
and development. and oppression influence growth
and development.
5. Teacher candidates will relate i. Discuss culture, privilege and !Participate in a cultural ! Given an exercise or simulation, identify
culture, privilege and oppression oppression in relation to sensitivity exercise. culturally sensitive behaviors and explain.
to their impact on schooling, schooling, student performance
student performance and success and success
6. Teacher candidates will j. Discuss the role of family in ! Describe how siblings= behaviors in school
understand the important role of society. may be manifestations of their roles at home.
family in human development k. Discuss how individuals
and the variety of ways fulfill family roles.
individuals can organize to
fulfill these roles.
7. Teacher candidates will l. Reflect on personal ! Analyze a videotape of a motivational
understand basic theories of motivational patterns in relation activity.
motivation. to basic theories.
Standard 2a: Central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures of content -- Candidates know, understand, and use the central
concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures of content for students across the K-8 grades and can create meaningful learning experiences
that develop students competence in subject matter for various developmental level.

Outcomes Indicators Assessment Types Sample Assessment Tasks

1. Teacher candidates will know !Multiple choice tests ! Make a computer search of the definitions of
a. Define curriculum
what curriculum is and identify !Restricted response curriculum. Order the definitions according to
the social, cultural, historical, and questions self-generated criteria.
philosophical influences that b. Explain the social, cultural, !Extended response
effect the development and historical, and philosophical questions
change of curriculum. factors and how they influence !Web research
curriculum !Research papers
2. Teacher candidates will c. Construct appropriate ! Write an affective objective for a lesson on
understand the construction of objectives for given specific Fieldwork: weather for third graders.
curriculum as responsive to students. !Guided observations
developmental, cultural, and !Journals
social needs of children. d. Identify and explain the
different domains of

e. Write objectives specific to

the cognitive, affective, and
behavioral domains..
3. Teacher candidates will know g. Identify approaches to ! Explain methods used in a ninth grade
that there are different teaching such as cooperative language arts class.
approaches to and methods of learning, direct instruction, etc.
4. Teacher candidates will h. Identify the type of teaching ! Identify and describe types of teaching
recognize that there are different being employed in a field strategies you observed.
approaches to teaching and that experience
materials and objectives are
specific to the approach selected. i. Identify materials that are
specific to a particular approach.
Standard 2a: Central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures of content -- Continued

Outcomes Indicators Assessment Types Sample Assessment Tasks

5. Teacher candidates will be able j. Use tools of fundamental ! Design a study to be conducted during a
to conduct basic educational research class period.
k. Engage in a research activity

6. Teacher candidates will recognize l. Discriminate among various ! Explain what distinguishes a refereed journal
valid sources of educational educational sources. from an educational newsletter

m. Name and explain the roles !Multiple choice tests ! Identify and discuss the roles of the teacher
7. Teacher candidates will know
of teachers !Restricted and Extended that you observed.
and understand the roles of
elementary school teachers. response questions
n. Identify and evaluate the
appropriateness of those roles Fieldwork:
!Responses to guided
!Responses to case studies,
Standard 2i: Connections across the curriculum -- Candidates must know, understand, and use the connections among concepts,
procedures, and applications from content areas to motivate elementary students, build understanding, and encourage the application
of knowledge, skills, tools, and ideas to real world issues

Outcomes for this standard are either met in the second sixty hours of teacher preparation or are addressed under other standards.

Standard 3a: Integrating and applying knowledge for instruction -- Candidates plan and implement instruction based on knowledge
of students, learning theory, subject matter, curricular goals and community.

Outcomes Indicators Assessment Types Sample Assessment Tasks

1. Teacher candidates will reflect a. Recognize how learning !Check lists ! Candidates will role play behaviors that
on the approaches to occurs in students and in !Role playing enhance and impede learning
learning/teaching themselves. !Restricted response
b. Identify behaviors of students !Extended response
and of professionals, which questions
enhance learning and impede
learning. Field Work
!Guided observation
c. Identify behaviors that !Journals
indicate that learning has
occurred and justify behaviors
Standard 3a: Integrating and applying knowledge for instruction -- Continued

Outcomes Indicators Assessment Types Sample Assessment Tasks

2. Teacher candidates will relate d. Name and explain major ! Identify and explain appropriate uses of
principles and practices of group principles and practices used in homogeneous and heterogeneous groups.
dynamics to educational practices group dynamics ! Role play appropriate teacher response to
students who impede group progress.
e. Recognize similarities and
differences in uses of group
dynamic principles and practices
to those of educational principles
and practices

f. Demonstrate use of group

dynamics principles.
3. Teacher candidates will g. Name major categories of ! Explain methods for assessment of an
!Restricted response
possess knowledge of exceptionalities (special needs) in LEP student who exhibits behavior that is
exceptionalities and individual learning- including learning alternately aggressive and withdrawn
!Extended response questions
differences and understand how disabilities, visual and perceptual
!Multiple choice
culture and experience affect difficulties, and special physical or
these. mental challenges
!Research reviews
!Class discussion
h. Recognize the multiplicity of
individual differences among
!Research papers
students- including learning styles,
strengths, needs, and worldview.
Field Work
i. Recognize research and/or ! Guided observations
theories on how culture and !Reflection papers
experience affect responses to
exceptionalities and individual
differences among students

j. List current standardized

instruments that determine
exceptionalities and individual

Some outcomes related to this

standard are applicable to the
Standard 3b: Adaptation to diverse students -- Candidates understand how elementary students differ in their development and
approaches to learning, and create instructional opportunities that are adapted to diverse students.

Outcomes Indicators Assessment Types Sample Assessment Tasks

1. Teacher candidates will a. Define justice, social equality, !Analysis of case studies ! Interview of community member about
specify how issues such as etc. !Discussion their educational experiences.
justice, social equality, !Role playing
concentrations of power, class b. Explain how class differences, !Debates
differences, race and ethnic race, and language impact !Interviews
relations, language and literacy, learning !Letters to the editor from a
or family and community theorist
organization relate to teaching c. Describe accommodations
and schools. teachers may make for
differences in language and

Fieldwork: ! Write a letter to the editor of the

2. Teacher candidates will d. Explain educational issues Washington Post commenting on the recent
!observe in schools with
identify contemporary education portrayed in the media education article and write from the
contrasting philosophies or
issues. perspective of a theorist discussed in this
with student bodies with
different societal challenges class.
3. Teacher candidates will e. Explain how Dewey, Piaget,
related issues to their historical, Vygotsky, Skinner, and Bandura !Extended constructed
social, cultural, philosophical, would react to a current issue in responses
education antecedents or analyze education.
the historical, social, cultural, !Reflective journals
philosophical, and educational
antecedents in relation to
contemporary issues.
Standard 3c: Development of critical thinking, problem solving and performance skills -- Candidates understand and use a variety
of teaching strategies that encourage elementary students= development of critical thinking, problem solving, and performance skills.

Outcomes Indicators Assessment Type Sample Assessment Task

1. Teacher candidates will engage a. Define, explain, give !Multiple choice tests !Devise five test questions in a content area
successfully in critical thinking examples of critical thinking, !Restricted /extended (your choice) that require critical thinking,
and problem solving in a variety problem solving, and response questions problem solving, and the demonstration of
of content areas. performance skills performance skills, and five questions which
Fieldwork: do not require these skills.
!Reports of guided
2. Teacher candidates will
recognize instructional practices
that enhance, or impede critical
thinking, problem solving, and
performance skills.

Standard 3d: Active engagement in learning -- Candidates use their knowledge and understanding of individual and group
motivation and behavior among students K-8 to foster active engagement in learning, self motivation, and positive social interaction
and to create supportive learning environments.

Outcomes Indicators Assessment Type Sample Assessment Task

1. Teacher candidates will engage a. Reports of group work and !portfolio entries !Evaluation form completed by various
in small group learning products of group work. instructors.
environments in a variety of
content areas in the first sixty
hours of coursework.
Standard 4a: Practices and behaviors developing career teachers -- Candidates understand and apply practices and behaviors that
are characteristic of developing career teachers.

Outcomes Indicators Assessment Type Sample Assessment Task

1. Teacher candidates will know a. Identify types such as !Multiple choice test ! Create two organizational charts for a
the alternative patterns of public/private, !Restricted and Extended school and compare them.
elementary school organization. primary/intermediate, charter, response questions
magnet !Role playing
!Graphic organizers
b. Explain how schools are !Journal
organized at micro level, i.e. !Log observations
principal, assistant principal, !Report on guided
department head, etc. observations
!Research paper
!Case Studies
!Class discussions/
2. Teacher candidates will know c. Name the personnel who ! Write a job description for various school
the various school personnel who should collaborate in personnel.
will be collaboratively involved instructional design for students
in lesson construction.
d. Define the basic roles of these
3. Teacher candidates will know e. Identify major figures in the ! Make a time line for American education.
the history of education. history of education

f. Identify major events in the

history of education
Standard 4a: Practices and behaviors developing career teachers Continued

Outcomes Indicators Assessment Type Sample Assessment Task

4. Teacher candidates will begin g. Write a detailed philosophy of ! Take written philosophy statement to two
developing a philosophy of education statement teachers for feedback; reflect on the feedback.
education and relate this to
purposes of education.
5. Teacher candidates will h. Explain how schools are ! Interview a corporate CEO and principal
understand schools as organized at the macro level, and note difference in perspective.
organizations. i.e., federal, state, and
6. Teacher candidates will i. Explain the influence of !Role play ! Role play parent-teacher conferences.
understand the important role of family on learning. !Class discussions
family in learning and will !Essay exams
recognize teachers= vital role in j. Articulate culturally competent !Research or reflection
creating a partnership with strategies for involving families papers
families. in enhancing student learning.
7. Teacher candidates will know k. Articulate laws that have !Guided observations ! Re-enact the Brown vs. Topeka Board of
fundamental/basic rudiments of shaped basic educational policy. !Journals Education case.
school law. !Interviews with teachers
l. Reference outstanding cases of
school law

8. Teacher candidates will know, m. Name and explain principles ! Role play a teacher/student discussion of
understand, and give reason for of ethics in teaching cheating.
the ethical standards of the
teaching profession. n. Identify ethical and unethical
teacher behaviors

o. Explain consequences of
unethical teacher behaviors
Standard 4a: Practices and behaviors developing career teachers --Continued

Outcomes Indicators Assessment Type Sample Assessment Task

9. Teacher candidates will know p. Discuss life-long learning and ! Create a life-learning journal.
and articulate the value of life- its effect on the quality of life
long learning
q. Identify and explain the value
of action research

Standard 4b: Reflection and evaluation -- Candidates are aware of and reflect on their practice in light of research on teaching and
resources available for professional learning; they continually evaluate the effects of their professional decisions and actions on
students, parents, and other professionals in the learning community and actively seek out opportunities to grow professionally.

Outcomes Indicators Assessment Type Sample Assessment Task

1. Teacher candidates will keep a a. portfolio

developmental portfolio that
will include reflections on their
developing schema of the
teaching profession.

Standard 5c: Collaboration with families -- Candidates know the importance of establishing and maintaining a positive collaborative
relationship with families to promote the intellectual, social, emotional, and physical growth of children.

Outcomes related to this standard are addressed under other standards.