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# Appendix C: Salient Pole Theory of Synchronous Machines

C-1. A 480-V 200-kVA 0.8-PF-lagging 60-Hz four-pole Y-connected synchronous generator has a direct-axis
reactance of 0.25 , a quadrature-axis reactance of 0.18 , and an armature resistance of 0.03 .
Friction, windage, and stray losses may be assumed negligible. The generators open-circuit characteristic
is given by Figure P5-1.
(a) How much field current is required to make VT equal to 480 V when the generator is running at no
load?
(b) What is the internal generated voltage of this machine when it is operating at rated conditions? How
does this value of E A compare to that of Problem 5-2b?
(c) What fraction of this generators full-load power is due to the reluctance torque of the rotor?

SOLUTION
(a) If the no-load terminal voltage is 480 V, the required field current can be read directly from the open-
circuit characteristic. It is 4.55 A.
(b) At rated conditions, the line and phase current in this generator is
P 200 kVA
IA = IL = = = 240.6 A at an angle of 36.87
3 VL 3 (480 V )

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E A = V + RA I A + jX q I A
EA = 2770 + (0.03 )(240.6 36.87 A ) + j (0.18 )(240.6 36.87 A )
EA = 3105.61 V
Therefore, the torque angle is 5.61. The direct-axis current is
I d = I A sin ( + ) 90
I d = (240.6 A ) sin (42.48) 84.4
I d = 162.5 84.4 A
The quadrature-axis current is
I q = I A cos( + )
I q = (240.6 A ) cos(42.48) 5.61
I q = 177.4 5.61 A
Therefore, the internal generated voltage of the machine is
E A = V + R A I A + jX d I d + jX q I q
E A = 2770 + (0.03)(240.6 36.87) + j (0.25)(162.5 84.4 ) + j (0.18)(177.45.61 )
E A = 3225.61 V
E A is approximately the same magnitude here as in Problem 5-2b, but the angle is about 2.2 different.
(c) The power supplied by this machine is given by the equation

3V E A 3V2 X d X q
P= sin + sin 2
Xd 2 X d X q
3(277 )(322) 3(277) 0.25 0.18
2
P= sin 5.61 + sin 11.22
0.25 2 (0.25)(0.18)
P = 104.6 kW + 34.8 kW = 139.4 kW
The cylindrical rotor term is 104.6 kW, and the reluctance term is 34.8 kW, so the reluctance torque
accounts for about 25% of the power in this generator.
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C-2. A 14-pole Y-connected three-phase water-turbine-driven generator is rated at 120 MVA, 13.2 kV, 0.8 PF
lagging, and 60 Hz. Its direct-axis reactance is 0.62 and its quadrature- axis reactance is 0.40 . All
rotational losses may be neglected.
(a) What internal generated voltage would be required for this generator to operate at the rated conditions?
(b) What is the voltage regulation of this generator at the rated conditions?
(c) Sketch the power-versus-torque-angle curve for this generator. At what angle is the power of the
generator maximum?
(d) How does the maximum power out of this generator compare to the maximum power available if it
were of cylindrical rotor construction?

SOLUTION
(a) At rated conditions, the line and phase current in this generator is
P 120 MVA
IA = IL = = = 5249 A at an angle of 36.87
3 VL 3 (13.2 kV )

EA = V + RA I A + jX q I A
EA = 76210 + 0 + j (0.40 )(5249 36.87 A )
EA = 903810.7 V
Therefore, the torque angle is 10.7. The direct-axis current is
I d = I A sin ( + ) 90
I d = (5249 A ) sin (47.57) 79.3
I d = 3874 79.3 A
The quadrature-axis current is
I q = I A cos( + )
I q = (5249 A ) cos(47.57) 10.7
I q = 3541 10.7 A
Therefore, the internal generated voltage of the machine is
E A = V + RA I A + jX d I d + jX q I q
E A = 76210 + 0 + j (0.62 )(3874 79.3) + j (0.40)(354110.7 )
E A = 989010.7 V
(b) The voltage regulation of this generator is
Vnl Vfl 9890 7621
100% = 100% = 29.8%
Vfl 7621
(c) The power supplied by this machine is given by the equation

3V E A 3V2 X d X q
P= sin + sin 2
Xd 2 X d X q

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3(7621)(9890) 3(7621) 0.62 0.40
2
P= sin + sin 2
0.62 2 (0.62 )(0.40 )
P = 364.7 sin + 77.3 sin 2 MW
A plot of power supplied as a function of torque angle is shown below:

The peak power occurs at an angle of 70.6, and the maximum power that the generator can supply is
392.4 MW.
(d) If this generator were non-salient, PMAX would occur when = 90, and PMAX would be 364.7 MW.
Therefore, the salient-pole generator has a higher maximum power than an equivalent non-salint pole
generator.
C-3. Suppose that a salient-pole machine is to be used as a motor.
(a) Sketch the phasor diagram of a salient-pole synchronous machine used as a motor.
(b) Write the equations describing the voltages and currents in this motor.
(c) Prove that the torque angle between E A and V on this motor is given by

I A X q cos - I A R A sin
= tan -1
V + I A X q sin + I A R A cos

SOLUTION

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