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M.Tech (Power System)
What Makes Wind
Global Wind Patterns
History of Wind Energy
Why Wind Energy
Renewable Electric Capacity Worldwide
Modern Wind Turbines
How does a Wind Turbine work
Mathematical Expression Governing Wind
Wind Turbine Generators (WTGs)
Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG)
Grid Connection
What is Wind?
Heat from the sun causes convection in the atmosphere, meaning the heated air
rises. These currents create zones of high and low air pressure within the
atmosphere. As the heated air rises, it creates a low pressure zone near the
ground. Air from surrounding cooler areas rushes in to balance the pressure.
These horizontal pressure differences account for the ambient wind and more
intense storm wind.

Wind is a form of Solar Energy

The sun heats the Earths surface at varying rates

The air above the warmer areas heats up, becomes less dense and rises.

Cooler air from adjacent higher-pressure areas moves to the lower-

pressure areas.

That movement = wind


Global Wind Patterns

Prevailing winds are caused by the temperature differences between the Earths
poles and its equatorial regions, as well as Earths rotation. The Earths
atmosphere has several very large and steady prevailing patterns, such as the
polar easterlies and the northeast trade winds. Winds are named based on the
direction they originate from. In North America, one of the prevailing dominant
wind paths track in an arc from the prairies to the Great Lakes and the eastern
seaboard this wind travels in a westerly direction.
Wind energy is also affected by other factors. Air currents move faster and more
consistently at higher altitudesthink of the blustery conditions at the tops of tall
buildings or on mountain tops. Similarly, wind tends to gather energy when it
moves unimpeded over longer distances, which is why very flat regions, such as
the prairies, tend to be highly exposed to intense winds.

History of Wind Energy

5000 BC - The history of wind energy is certainly long, beginning thousands of
years ago. It is estimated that as early as 5000 B.C. sail boats were in use on the
Nile as boatmen realized the power of the wind.
500-900 AD - The first windmills were developed in Persia for pumping water
and grinding grain.
About 1300 - The first horizontal-axis windmills appeared in Western Europe.
1850s - Daniel Halladay and John Burnham worked to build and sell the
Halladay Windmill, which was designed for the American West. It had an open
tower design and thin wooden blades. They also started the U.S. Wind Engine
Late 1880s - Thomas O. Perry conducted over 5,000 wind experiments trying to
build a better windmill. He invented the mathematical windmill, which used
gears to reduce the rotational speed of the blades. This design had greater lifting
power, smoother pumping action, and could operate in lighter winds. Perry
started the Aermotor Company with LaVerne Noyes.
The development of steel blades made windmills more efficient. Six million
windmills sprang up across America as settlers moved west. Homesteaders
purchased windmills from catalogs, traveling salesman, or they built their own.
Mills were used to pump water, shell corn, saw wood, and mill grain.
1888 - Charles F. Brush used the first large windmill to generate electricity in
Cleveland, Ohio. Windmills that produce electricity started to be called "wind
turbines." In later years, General Electric acquired Brush's company, Brush
Electric Co.
2004 - Electricity from wind generation cost 3 - 4.5 cents per kilowatt-hour.
2011 - Wind power provided 12.8 percent of the renewable energy consumed in
the U.S. In the U.S., wind power produced enough electricity on average to
power the equivalent of over 10 million homes.


28,082 MW (OCT 2016)

In 2015, the (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy) set the target for Wind
Power generation capacity by the year 2022 at 60,000 MW

Why Wind Energy?

Wind energy is a renewable source of energy, and is considered renewable because it is
derived from the sun and is capable of being replenished on a reasonable time scale.Although
wind is a zero emissions electrical generation option, there are emissions in the construction
and development of wind projectsconcrete, transportation of components, etc.

Clean, zero emissions (NOx, SO2, CO, CO2 ,Air quality, water quality Climate

Reduce fossil fuel dependence(Energy independence)

Domestic energynational security
Renewable(No fuel-price volatility)

Renewable Electric Capacity Worldwide

Wind energy is one of the fastest growing energy resources in the
world. For the last five years it has been growing at a rate of 24-32%.

Modern Wind Turbines

Turbines can be categorized into two classes based on the
orientation of the rotor
Vertical axis Horizontal axis

Small (<10 kW)

Remote Applications
(e.g., water pumping,
Telecom sites, ice making)
Large (250 kW-2+ MW)
Central Station Wind Farms
Distributed Power
Intermediate(10-250 kW) Schools
Village Power
Hybrid Systems
Distributed Power


Wind turbines operate on a simple principle. The energy in the wind turns two
or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main
shaft, which spins a generator to create electricity. So how do wind turbines
make electricity? Simply stated, a wind turbine works the opposite of a fan.
Instead of using electricity to make wind, like a fan, wind turbines use wind to
make electricity. The wind turns the blades, which spin a shaft, which connects
to a generator and makes electricity. Wind is a form of solar energy and is a
result of the uneven heating of the atmosphere by the sun, the irregularities of
the earth's surface, and the rotation of the earth. Wind flow patterns and speeds
vary greatly across the United States and are modified by bodies of water,
vegetation, and differences in terrain. Humans use this wind flow, or motion
energy, for many purposes: sailing, flying a kite, and even generating

Mathematical Expression Governing Wind Power


Velocity of air
1 3 We know that for given length of blades, A is
P= constant and so is the air mass density .

wind power (wind speed)3

At sea level, = 1.2 Kg/ 3 . Therefore

POWER = (1.2) 3

= 0.6 3 = POWER DENSITY IN watts/ 2 .

Let us construct a chart relating the wind speed to the power density and the
output of the wind turbine assuming 30% efficiency of the turbine as shown in
the following table

Wind speed Wind speed Power Density Turbine

KMPH m/s watts/ output 30%
1 0.278 0.013 0.004
10 2.778 12.860 3.858
25 6.944 200.939 60.282
50 13.889 1607.510 482.253
75 20.833 5425.347 1627.604
100 27.778 12860.082 3858.204

The following plot gives the relationship between wind speed in

KMPH and the power density
Wind Turbine Generators (WTGs)

Wind turbine components:

wind turbine runs at low speed (0.5 Hz)

Mechanical drive train includes a gear box

(converts low speed of turbine to high speed of generator)

Types of generators

induction generator
synchronous generator

doubly fed induction generator

WTG ratings range from 25 kW to 3 MW

Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG)

Most doubly-fed induction generators in industry today are used to generate

electrical power in large (power-utility scale) wind turbines. This is primarily
due to the many advantages doubly-fed induction generators offer over other
types of generators in applications where the mechanical power provided by the
prime mover driving the generator varies greatly (e.g., wind blowing at variable
speed on the bladed rotor of a wind turbine). To better understand the
advantages of using doubly-fed induction generators to generate electrical
power in wind turbines, however, it is important to know a little about large-size
wind turbines.

Doubly fed electrical generators are similar to AC electrical generators, but

have additional features which allow them to run at speeds slightly above or
below their natural synchronous speed. This is useful for large variable speed
wind turbines, because wind speed can change suddenly. When a gust of wind
hits a wind turbine, the blades try to speed up, but a synchronous generator is
locked to the speed of the power grid and cannot speed up. So large forces are
developed in the hub, gearbox, and generator as the power grid pushes back.
This causes wear and damage to the mechanism. If the turbine is allowed to
speed up immediately when hit by a wind gust, the stresses are lower and the
power from the wind gust is converted to useful electricity.
One approach to allowing wind turbine speed to vary is to accept whatever
frequency the generator produces, convert it to DC, and then convert it to AC at
the desired output frequency using an inverter. This is common for small house
and farm wind turbines. But the inverters required for megawatt-scale wind
turbines are large and expensive.
Doubly fed generators are one solution to this problem. Instead of the
usual field winding fed with DC, and an armature winding where the generated
electricity comes out, there are two three-phase windings, one stationary and
one rotating, both separately connected to equipment outside the generator.
Thus the term "doubly fed".
One winding is directly connected to the output, and produces 3-phase AC
power at the desired grid frequency. The other winding (traditionally called the
field, but here both windings can be outputs) is connected to 3-phase AC power
at variable frequency. This input power is adjusted in frequency and phase to
compensate for changes in speed of the turbine.
Adjusting the frequency and phase requires an AC to DC to AC converter. This
is usually constructed from very large IGBT semiconductors. The converter is
bidirectional, and can pass power in either direction. Power can flow from this
winding as well as from the output winding.

A wind power plant equipped with doubly fed induction generators

connected to a transmission system
Normal Mode Operation
The normal mode operation is described below:

1) For wind speed smaller than the nominal

Rotor side converter (RSC) controls the speed of the generator to follow
the maximum energy extraction (speed is variable) and the power factor.
The blade pitch angle control is set to 0 (maximum energy capture).
Grid side controller regulates the DC link voltage between the two
converters in a fixed point.

2) For wind speed greater than the nominal

Rotor side converter (RSC) controls the speed of the generator to a fixed
The blade pitch angle is controlled to limit the energy capture from the
wind in order to do not overcome the generator nominal characteristic.
Grid side converter (GSC) regulates the DC link voltage between the two

inductors are required to develop the voltage.

The starting reference is the grid voltage Vgrid. .
The current Ig* proportional to the grid voltage is fed through a
differentiator giving dIg*/dt
This is equivalent to a value given in equation (3). Multiplying this value
by L gives (VinvVgrid).
Adding this to Vgridtaken directly from the grid gives Vinv.
This is compared to the actual Vinvmeasured at the output of the inverter.
If the error is zero, then the voltage across the grid and the voltage at the
output of the inverter are same and hence can be connected to each other.
If there is an error signal then the controller changes the duty cycle of
PWM such that the error signal becomes zero.
After this project I understand the working of wind turbine with DFIG or
doubly fed induction generator and its working and how we can connect the
wind turbine with the grid.

1. Wind Generation (
3. Development of Wind Energy in India INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of
RENEWABLE ENERGY RESEARCH Deepak Sangroya et al., Vol.5, No.1, 2015
4. Characteristics of Wind Turbine Generators for Wind Power Plants IEEE PES Wind
Plant Collector System Design Working Group
5. Doubly Fed Induction Generator and Conventional Synchronous Generator Based
Power Plants: Operation during Grid Fault M. B. C. Salles1, A. P. Grilo2 and J. R.
Cardoso1 LMAG - Laboratory of Applied Electromagnetism PEA - Polytechnic
School - University of So Paulo - Brazil