Blood tests & normal range

A blood test is when a sample of blood is taken for testing in a laboratory. types of medical test. For example, a blood test can be used to:
• • •

assess your general state of health

confirm the presence of a bacterial or viral infection functioning

see how well certain organs, such as the liver and kidneys, are


Blood is pumped around the body by the heart. It supplies oxygen to the body’s organs, muscles and tissues, and removes carbon dioxide. The blood that circulates around the body contains many different substances. About 40% of the blood’s volume is made up of blood cells. There are three types of blood cell:

red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs and transport it around the body white blood cells form part of the body’s immune system and platelets are cells that help the blood to clot (thicken) when you cut yourself

The remaining 60% of blood is made up of plasma. Plasma mainly consists glucose and salt.

Uses of blood tests

Blood tests are very useful for a number of reasons, which are described below.


Assessing organs

As blood circulates through your body’s organs, it is very sensitive to any changes or damage to the organs. For example, if your liver becomes damaged, it will release certain enzymes into the blood, which can be detected using a blood test.


of water, but also contains proteins and chemicals, such as hormones,


help defend the body against infection

Na e

ya m

Blood tests have a wide range of uses and are one of the most common

Checking for infection As blood plays an important part in the immune system’s defence against infection, changes in the make-up of blood can provide important clues For example, certain viruses, such as HIV, will cause your immune system to produce special proteins called antibodies. By checking the blood for infection has occurred. certain types of antibody, it is possible to confirm (or rule out) whether an

Measuring oxygen and carbon dioxide

As blood is the body’s oxygen supply system, testing can provide important your lungs).

For example, the volume of oxygen and carbon dioxide in your blood can be measured. This is one method of determining how well your lungs are working.

Genetic testing

Blood tests are a convenient way to obtain a DNA sample for genetic testing and screening. For example, blood tests can be used to diagnose causes internal bodily secretions to become thick and sticky, interfering with the function of certain organs, such as the lungs). genetic conditions, such as cystic fibrosis (a genetic disorder that

Types of blood test

Some widely used blood tests are described below.

Full blood count (FBC)

A full blood count (FBC) is probably the most widely used blood test. It is used to assess your general state of health and to screen for certain

measured. with your health.

conditions, such as anaemia.

During an FBC, a small sample of blood will be taken from a vein in your arm. The amount of different types of blood cells in the sample will be On its own, an FBC cannot usually provide a definitive diagnosis of a condition, but it can provide important ‘clues’ about possible problems



Na e

information about possible respiratory conditions (conditions that affect

ya m

about possible infections.

A low red blood cell count may be due toanaemia (iron deficiency), which has a number of possible causes, including internal bleeding or a poor diet. A high red blood cell count may be due to an underlying lung or kidney disease. A low white blood cell count may be due to problems with your bone marrow, such as a viral infection of your bone marrow or cancer of the bone marrow, such as leukaemia.

A high white blood cell count usually suggests that you have an infection somewhere in your body. A low platelet count may be due to a viral infection, such

as rubella (german measles), or an autoimmune condition (where the immune system attacks healthy tissue), such as lupus(inflammation in the body’s tissues).

A high platelet count may be due to inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis (pain and inflammation of the joints), or a problem with your spleen, such as a ruptured (split) spleen. The spleen is an organ that removes damaged blood cells from your blood.

An electrolyte test is used to measure the levels of electrolytes in your blood. This is sometimes known as your electrolyte balance. Electrolytes are minerals that are found in the body. They have a number of important functions, including:

• • •

There are three main electrolytes that can be measured with an electrolyte sodium

Raised or lowered levels of any of these electrolytes can have a number of possible causes.

• •

helping to move nutrients into cells (and waste products out of helping to maintain a healthy water balance in your body helping to stabilise levels of acid and alkali in your body

potassium chloride


Electrolyte test

Na e

ya m

A raised sodium level (hypernatremia) could be the result of dehydration, kidney disease or persistent diarrhoea. A low sodium level (hyponatremia) could be the result of poorly controlled diabetes, liver disease, a lack of sodium in your diet or pneumonia. Some types of medication can also

lower your sodium level, such as carbamazepine (used to treat epilepsy) and sertraline (sometimes used to treat depression).

A raised potassium level (hyperkalemia) could be the results of kidney failure. A type of medication used to treat high blood levels. pressure, known as an ACE inhibitor, can also raise potassium A low potassium level (hypokalemia) could be the result of heavy sweating or persistent vomiting or diarrhoea. A raised chloride level (hyperchloremia) could be the result of some types of kidney disease, diarrhoea or overactive parathyroid glands (glands that are found in your neck and help to regulate the amount of calcium in your body). A decreased chloride level (hypochloremia) could be the result of heavy sweating, vomiting and some types of kidney disease.

A blood glucose test is used to help diagnose diabetes and to monitor the health of people who have had a diagnosis of diabetes confirmed. Diabetes develops either because the body cannot produce enough insulin that the body uses to convert glucose (sugar) into energy. People with diabetes often have high levels of glucose in their blood. Reducing the glucose levels is an important part of the treatment of diabetes. This is because if the blood glucose levels become too high, a range of serious complications, such as kidney disease or nerve damage,

may occur.

Therefore, most people with diabetes will need regular blood glucose tests. Small blood glucose test kits are available for use at home. These only require a small ‘pin prick’ of blood for testing. Some types of blood glucose test require you not to eat anything for several hours before the test. Your GP or diabetes care team can tell you whether this is the case.


or because the insulin does not work in the right way. Insulin is a hormone


Blood glucose test

Na e

ya m

then searching the sample for the suspected genetic mutation. such asHIV. If you have a viral or a bacterial infection or you have developed an to the infection or allergy. your immune system will produce specific antibodies in response The ELISA test involves taking a small blood sample and checking to see whether it contains the associated antibody. allergy. Genetic conditions that can be diagnosed using a gene test include: nid • diabetes • • kidney failure persistent vomiting ha Na e ya m whether you have an infection. The test involves extracting a sample of DNA from your blood. such as . A gene test is used when healthcare professionals suspect that a specific genetic mutation may be responsible for a person’s symptoms. Blood gas test A blood gas test is used to check two things: • • the balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in your blood the balance of acid and alkali in your blood (the pH balance) An imbalance in either of these can be caused by: • • problems with your respiratory system problems with your metabolism (the chemical reactions that are used by the body to break down food into energy) Respiratory causes of an imbalance could be: • • • pneumonia chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) hyperventilation Metabolic causes of an imbalance could be: Genetic testing Ma Gene test Some widely used types of genetic testing are described below. or a specific allergy.ELISA test An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test can be used to check a peanut allergy.

By counting the chromosomes (each cell should have 23 pairs of chromosomes) and by checking their shape. is a more general test person’s symptoms may be caused by a gene-related problem but they do not know which gene is responsible. such as: • • • Ma Genetic screening may also be offered to people who are thought to be at risk of developing a genetic condition. also known as karyotyping. it may be possible to detect genetic abnormalities. This allows the person who is carrying out the test to examine the chromosomes directly. genetic screening is carried out during pregnancy (antenatal screening) to check for some of the most common genetic conditions.• haemophilia : a condition that affects the blood’s ability to clot (thicken) cystic fibrosis: a condition that causes a build-up of sticky mucus in the lungs sickle cell anaemia: a condition that causes a shortage of normal red blood cells • • • polycystic kidney disease: a condition that causes cysts to develop inside the kidneys Chromosome testing Chromosome testing. Chromosomes are coils of DNA that are found in every cell. to test children who have physical or developmental problems that have no apparent cause • • for couples who have experienced repeatedmiscarriages (usually three or more in a row) Genetic screening Genetic screening is similar to gene testing except that it is used in people who have no obvious symptoms. For example. if your brother or sister developed a genetic condition in later life. For example. Chromosome testing involves taking a blood sample and examining one of the blood cells under a powerful microscope. It is used when healthcare professionals suspect that a ya m . such as Huntington's nid Down's syndrome sickle cell anaemia thalassaemia ha Chromosome testing is often used: Na e than a gene test.

This is because it is important that anyone who receives blood is given blood that matches their blood group. A B AB O The first antigen. for example there is a history of sickle cell anaemia in your family. Blood typing is also used during pregnancy as there is a small risk that the unborn child may have a different blood group from the mother. known as the ABO antigen. A number of genetic conditions. if you have a combination of the AB antigen and the Rhd + ha types: Na e is determined by two specialised proteins. . Your blood group found on the surface of your red blood cells. you may want to find out whether there is a risk that you could also develop the condition. your blood type would be AB+. your immune Ma system may attack the red blood cells.disease. known as the Rhesus antigen. which could lead to potentially lifethreatening complications. If you were given blood that did not match your blood group. This is known rhesus disease. comes in four possible types: • • • • The second antigen. your partner may want to be screened to determine whether there is a risk Blood typing A blood typing test is used to identify your blood group. can only be If there is a chance that you have one copy of the mutated gene. Blood typing is used before a blood transfusion is given (or before you provide blood for donation). For antigen. such as sickle cell anaemia. This could lead to the mother's immune system attacking the baby’s red blood cells. you and of giving birth to a child with the condition. which are ya m passed on to a child if both parents have a copy of the genetic mutation. known as antigens. comes in two possible Rhesus positive (which is usually shortened to Rhd+) Rhesus negative (which is usually shortened to Rhd-) • • Your blood type is based on the combination of both antigens. nid example.

example. Before having the test. treatment options include: making lifestyle changes. If the test identifies high cholesterol levels. such as reducing the amount of fat in your diet nid having high blood pressure (hypertension) ha • being diagnosed with coronary heart disease. extra . you may be asked not to eat for 12 hours (which usually includes the period when you are asleep at night). stroke or mini- Na e ya m If testing reveals that there is a risk of rhesus disease developing. Blood cholesterol testing is usually recommended if you have one or more risk factors that increase your chances of developing a cardiovascular disease (CVD).Rhesus disease can sometimes develop if the mother's blood group is Rhdand the father's is Rh+. or leg artery disease • • • being over 40 years of age being obese If you are unsure whether you would benefit from having a blood cholesterol test. or by pricking your finger. either using a needle and a syringe. a blood transfusion can be given to the baby when it is still in the Blood cholesterol test Cholesterol is a fatty substance that is known as a lipid. blood typing tests are used during the routine screening programme in pregnancy. For womb to increase the number of red blood cells. such as a stroke or heart attack. precautions can be taken to safeguard the health of your baby. ask your GP for advice. Your GP or practice nurse can carry out the blood test and will take a blood sample. As a result. created by the liver from the fatty foods in your diet and is vital for the Having an excessively high level of lipids in your blood (hyperlipidemia) can have a serious effect on your health because it increases your risk of having a heart attack or stroke. A cardiovascular disease is a disease that affects the normal flow of blood through the body. This will ensure that all Ma • food is completely digested and will not affect the outcome of the test. It is mostly normal functioning of the body. The risk factors for developing a CVD include: stroke. Blood cholesterol levels are measured with a simple blood test.

levels of proteins that the liver produces to keep the body healthy ya m . to reduce your cholesterol level Liver function test A liver function test is a type of blood test that is used to help diagnose certain liver conditions. Blood culture A blood culture is a test to check whether there is a bacterial infection of the blood (septicaemia). At the same begin to drop. it is possible to build up a reasonably accurate picture of how well the liver is functioning. such as: • • • hepatitis (infection of the liver) cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) alcoholic liver disease (liver damage and related loss of function which is caused by excessive alcohol consumption) When the liver is damaged. Septicaemia is potentially very dangerous because.• taking medication. By measuring the levels of these enzymes and proteins. such as statins. A blood culture involves taking a small sample of blood from a vein in your arm and from another part of your body. How a blood test is performed Ma Taking a blood sample A blood test usually involves taking a blood sample from a blood vessel in your arm. if the infection spreads throughout the blood. The arm is a convenient part of the body to use because it can be nid ha Na e time. known as culturing). it releases enzymes into the blood. This is known as septic shock and it can be fatal. it can trigger a massive drop in blood pressure. Two blood samples are needed in case one is accidentally contaminated by the bacteria that live on your skin. If there are any traces of bacteria in your blood. Both samples are introduced to nutrients that are designed to encourage the growth of bacteria (a process culturing should allow the person carrying out the test to identify them.

For some tests. although this is not always necessary. If you do not like needles and injections. depending on Ma specialist counselling to help you deal with your results. but it should not be painful. such as HIV. After the blood sample has been taken. A needle attached to a syringe or to a special blood collecting container is pushed into the vein. and you will be told when and how you will be given them. tell the person who is taking the sample so they can make you more comfortable. It will then be sent to a laboratory where it will what is being checked. you will be offered be examined under a microscope or tested with chemicals. When the sample has been taken. you may choose to take a trusted friend or relative with you. A tight band (tourniquet) is usually put around your upper arm. the doctor or nurse may need to wipe the area with an antiseptic wipe. If you are worried about the outcome of a test. it will be put into a bottle and labelled with your name. where the veins are relatively close to the surface. temporarily slowing down the flow of blood out of the arm. Sometimes. This squeezes the arm. This makes it easier for a blood sample to be taken. the needle will be removed. lie down. You may feel a slight pricking sensation as the needle goes in. The usual place for a sample is the inside of the elbow or wrist. GPs and nurses are used to shortening the names of tests. Before taking the sample. How do I understand my test results? It can sometimes be worrying when you have to have tests done. If you feel faint. and causing the vein to swell with blood. before the sample is taken. nid ha Na e ya m The child's hand will be anaesthetised (numbed) with a special cream . Blood samples from children are usually taken from the back of the hand. not knowing what the abbreviations stand for when you get your test results can be really frustrating. but this can make it confusing for you. And. The syringe is used to draw out a sample of your blood. Pressure is applied to the tiny break in the skin for a few minutes using a cotton wool pad to stop the bleeding and to prevent bruising.easily uncovered. The results are sent back to the hospital or to your GP. A plaster may then be put After the test on the small wound to keep it clean and prevent infection. receiving results can be stressful and upsetting.

This test is often used if you have high blood pressure. Most women between the ages of 25-64 have a cervical screening test every 3-5 years.liver function tests.intravenous pyelogram. or heart disease. This is an electrical recording of your heart. . or your practice nurse. MSU . These are blood tests to check that your liver is working properly. which causes you to have fewer red blood cells than normal.electrocardiogram.blood pressure.this is a blood test that measures your recent average blood glucose level.If you are not sure about something regarding a test. ha Na e women that can detect Down's syndrome (a disorder which affects a ya m Some commonly used test abbreviations are explained below. If you have a reading of 90/60 or less. or hypotension). It is used in the treatment of diabetes. cystic fibrosis (a genetic disorder which affects the lungs).chorionic villus sampling. This is a blood test that is used to determine your general health and to identify conditions such as anaemia. hCG test . and they will be happy to explain. It is taken halfway through the stream of urine. just ask your GP. will explain how it is done. This is an X-ray study of your urinary system. RBC means red blood cell count. • CVS . you have high blood pressure (HBP. • • Ma • nid blood test. and WBC means white blood cell count. and other foetal disorders.mid-stream specimen of urine. A sample of cells from your cervix is taken to test for pre-cancerous cells. for example. • HbA1c test . LFTs . This is a test available to pregnant child's physical and mental development). It is usually written as one number over another.full blood count. you have low blood pressure (LBP. • ECG or EKG . • BP . if you have a reading of 140/90 or more. or hypertension).this is another name for the cervical screening test. but sometimes can also include a • • IVP . • FBC . or practice nurse. This is a urine test used to check for urine infections. PAP . Your GP. It is usually involves taking a urine sample.this is the medical name for a pregnancy test.

Normal range is Male: 12-300 ng/mL – Female: 12-150 ng/mL – nanograms per milliliter o Ma • nid inside of your body.magnetic resonance imaging scan. body's blood chemistry to assess fluid and mineral levels.B12 is a vitamin. The test will show how well your kidneys are working Ferritin – A protein – This is to check the levels are correct as they are important for red blood cell production. This scan takes a series of X-rays of your body at slightly different angles.low density lipoprotein/high density lipoprotein. The different types of white cells in adults are: ha refer to the two types of cholesterol that are found in the blood.dilatation and curettage. sodium. This is a blood test that can detect prostate disorders. It helps a may become anaemic. and then joins them together to produce very detailed images of the inside of your body.thyroid function tests. • TIBC . You Na e • B12 . This scan uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed pictures of the • • • STI . including prostate cancer (a cancer that only affects men). • CT scan or CAT scan .total iron-binding capacity. Albumin – This is the main protein which is in blood. • • MRI scan . you ya m TFTs . potassium and chloride.sexually transmitted infection. If you do not have enough of this vitamin.prostate specific antigen. low levels can indicate certain types of chronic illnesses such as liver disorders Elecs / U&E’s – Urea and Electrolytes – This is done to assess your Electrolyte (minerals) levels There are three main electrolytes that can be measured with an electrolyte test. • thyroid gland is working properly.• PSA . • D&C . These are blood tests to check that your . LDL/HDL . This is a surgical procedure to obtain tissue from the lining of the uterus.urea and electrolytes. and the levels of iron stored in your body.computerised tomography scan. This is a blood test that looks at your doctor to understand how your kidneys and metabolism (energy levels) are working. • U&Es . This is a blood test is used to detect anaemia and other blood disorders. These may see these abbreviations if you have a blood test to measure your blood cholesterol level.

It is also used to monitor progress o LDL – Low density lipoprotein -Cholesterol – this is the “bad” cholesterol – it is protein which carries cholesterol to the arteries and blood vessels causing build up and blockages this can cause a heart attack or stroke Magnesium – a deficiency in this basic element of the blood can be due to difficulties with absorption which can be due to medication.Alanine aminotransferase – This is an enzyme and the test is performed to check to see if you have a liver problem Amylase – This is an enzyme and if the levels are raised this may indicate a problem possibly pancreatitis (the pancreas is important for secreting enzymes for digestion and regulating blood sugar levels with the hormone insulin) (BNP) Beta-Natriuretic Peptide – This can be done to check fluid in your lungs and for deteriorating heart disease (BUN) Blood Urea Nitrogen . High levels may be due to kidney failure o • • ALT. viscosity. If it is low it can indicate liver failure amongst other conditions B12 and Folate – This is done to diagnose the cause of anaemia or nerve damage.Neuropathy Calcium –Is found in bone and blood calcium is tested to monitor how much is circulating and affecting conditions of the heart.o (HCT) Haematocrit –This is a measure of thickness. Normal levels are HbA1c of 6% or less . of red blood cell content called packed cell volume PCV of your blood • • LDH – Lactate Dehydrogenase –This is an enzyme if the levels are raised this can indicate damage to cells and tissue.This test is performed to assess the levels which if raised may indicate renal function impairment. intestinal problems or heart disease. nerves and kidneys as well as bones and teeth Card Enz –Cardiac Enzymes – This test is performed when a heart attack is suspected Chol – Cholesterol – This is to test if you have heart disease or circulatory problems this is a common test which is offered to people who have family history of high blood pressure or if you are over 50 years old – high levels need to be treated as otherwise you may be at risk of heart disease or a stroke Chloride – This is important for nerve and muscle function and distinct variations may indicate disease • • • • • • Ma • nid ha Na e ya m (HbA1c) -Haemoglobin A1c -This measures the glycated haemoglobin which is where the glucose has attached it self to red blood it is often used to measure your management of your diabetes.

8-5.5-6. such as anaemia.0-3. liver and heart function if this is raised it may indicate that disease is affecting these organs Globulin .0-7.40-0.8 x 1012/L o Haematocrit adult males is 0.02-0.05-0. and the normal Na e ya m • ESR – Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate – This screens for infection and monitors inflammation.4 x 109/L Lymphocytes: 1.5 x 1012/L adult females 3.• Creatinine –This is a waste product and high levels can possibly indicate further tests will need to be undertaken to rule out poor kidney function • • FBC – Full blood count – This is done to check your general health and to screen for disorders.5-16.37-0. infection.0-10.50 g/dL adult females 11.1 x 109/L o • Ma • • FSH – Follicle Stimulation Hormone – This is done to check your pituitary gland which regulates the hormones.50 adult females 0. along with the trigger for your ovaries to prepare to release an egg GGT – This is an enzyme which is utilized in muscle.2-1. Normal results are Men under 50 years old: less than 15 mm/hr -Men over 50 years old: less than 20 mm/hr – Women under 50 years old: less than 20 mm/hr -Women over 50 years old: less than 30 mm/hr .5×109/L Platelet count for adults is 150-450 x 109/L ha MCH (Mean cell haemoglobin) range for adults is 27-32 pg. and nutrition Normal levels are: o Haemoglobin adult males 13.5 x 109/L Monocytes: 0.0 x 109/L The different types of white cells in adults are: Basophils: 0.5-17.5 g/dL o Red cell count adult males is 4. It is important nid Eosinophils: 0.0 x 109/L Neutrophils:2.These are proteins you will need to prepare for the test by not eating for four hours prior to the blood being taken.47 o o MCV (Mean cell volume) range for adults is 76-100 fL o o o MCHC (Mean cell haemoglobin concentration) range is 31-36 g/L White cell count for adults is 4.

The results will help with the diagnosis of immunoglobulin disorders • (HGB) – Haemoglobin – This is a protein and transports oxygen around the body and is usually performed to assess anaemia if too low or heart disease if too high • • • • Hepatitis B – This is done to see if the vaccine against hep B has produced an immunity or to monitor the course of the liver damage Hepatitis C – Is performed to assess if you have this viral disease which inflames the liver Hepatitis D – Delta agent -people who have this have Hepatitis B infection already. If you have diabetes you can monitor your own levels The ideal values are: 4 to 7mmol/l before meals : less than 10mmol/l 90 minutes after a meal : around 8mmol/l at bedtime .1 if you are high risk the values will be different Na e Hepatitis A – This is performed to see if you have the infective hepatitis A virus (Hav) which affects the liver and to monitor your recovery process ya m • Glucose – This checks the levels of plasma glucose in your discuss with your doctor any medication you are taking prior to the test.Rheumatoid Factor – This is a protein found in the blood when rheumatoid arthritis is suspected – however some people have naturally raised levels with no rheumatoid disease present Sodium –This is part of your electrolyte levels.9 -1. For an initial reading you may have to fast (stop eating) for up to 12 hours/ over night before the bloods are taken. It can make the whole situation worse for a patient if not picked up • • • • PT – Prothrombin time – this is performed to check how well your blood thinning(anti-coagulants) medicine is working (RBC) – Red Blood Cell count – Low levels of these cells which carry oxygen around your body can indicate Anaemia RF . The normal range is INR of 0.Total iron binding capacity this is a blood test which is used to detect anaemia liver function and other blood disorders Ma • • nid Phosphorus -This is a mineral and vital for muscle and nerve functionality conditions can be affected if levels are either too high or too low ha • INR – International Normalised Ratio – This is to test your blood clotting mechanisms for people who take anti-coagulants (blood thinning medicine) like Warfarin. These levels affect the kidneys and adrenal glands if levels are high or low it can be indicative of disease TIBC .

.1-0. Normal levels are Total bilirubin-0. meanwhile the conversion id 10 ng/dl = 0. after much cajoling and explaining that you'd like to at least be an informed partner in your own goshdarn health care. Ma nid ha Na e ya m Total Bilirubin – This is the waste product of red blood cells it is what gives your faeces the brown colour.35 nmol/l Level With Me. If the levels are high it puts you at an increased risk of a stroke or heart disease. Doc… How Long Have I Got? A Comprehensive Look at Lab Tests by C. you still can't figure out what half the tests are for and whether or not those abnormal values are anything to worry about.this relates to your energy levels Triglycerides – this is a form of fat. Trouble explains every part of a blood test with normal values. quite right so I will convert them when I get time.0 mmol/l WBC – White Cell Count – This is performed when you may have an infection or an allergic reaction to something . and the friggin' doctor or his nurses are guarding the results as if they're state secrets.• • Total Protein – this is to measure all the proteins in your blood. Indirect bilirubin-0. To measure these levels accurately you will need to fast (not eat) for up to 12 hours before bloods are taken. If levels are raised yellowing of the skin occurs and c be an indication of liver disease. it is also performed to monitor treatment you may be having • • • Blood Test Results Explained with Normal Values Big cut & paste from steroid. These fats should not exceed 2. as much as you've been posturing about how you've had more than a smattering of medical education. Direct bilirubin-0. Your doctor will be primarily looking for indications of liver or kidney disorders TFT – Thyroid function test – To test for levels of TSH – Thyroid Stimulation Hormone this shows if the thyroid is under active or over active.3mgs/dl. However. fantastic bit of info for those who get bloodwork done. Mars has pointed out the units are US units and NOT SI units.3-1.7mgs/dl .2-0. they begrudgingly give you a copy of your lab tests. Colston You just had some blood work done.0mgs/dl.

Oh and don't forget VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) which can be extremely worrisome. That way. if there's only one range given. In other words. The total cholesterol to HDL ratio is also important. You should have less than 30 mg/dl in order to not be considered at risk for heart disease. you'll have something more to go on in assessing your health other than your family doctor saying. a quick remonder: your HDL should be 35 or higher. The values I'll be listing are merely averages and the ranges may vary slightly from laboratory to laboratory. it applies to both men and women. ha These lipoproteins should look rather familiar to most of you. and what the typical ranges are for normal humans. and total to HDL ratio should be below 3.One note. Triglycerides levels can be increased if food or alcohol is consumed 12 to 24 hours prior to the blood draw and this is the reason why you're asked to fast for 12-14 nid Nevertheless. A high level of triglycerides is also a risk factor for heart disease as well. Na e ya m Well. I went in to detail about this particular subject — as well as how to improve your lipid profile — in my article "Bad Blood". in the following article. before I get started. Also. though." . what it tells you. Lipid Panel — Used to determine possible risk for coronary and vascular disease. HDL/LDL and Total Cholesterol On a side note. Ma Triglycerides Triglycerides are simply a form of fat that exists in the bloodstream.5. I'll include why it's performed. but the fact is that having extremely low cholesterol levels is actually indicative of severe liver disease. "Well. HDL is simply the "good" lipoprotein that acts as a scavenger molecule and prevents a buildup of material. They're transported by two other culprits. LDL is the "bad" lipoprotein which collects in arterial walls and causes blockage or a reduction in blood flow. LDL below 130. I'm going to go over each of the most common tests. these few values are a little worrisome. heart disease. VLDL and LDL. but you'll probably be okay. I'm sure some of you are wishing that you had abnormally low plasma cholesterol levels (as if it's something to brag about).

old male 40-163 mg/dl Adult Male 40-160 mg/dl 16-19 yr.6-8. taking folic acid (about 400-800 mcg. A good number of lifters should be concerned with this value as homocysteine levels rise with anabolic steroid usage.5-7.8-11.1 umol/L Males age 30-59 6. high levels may cause you to have a heart attack.3-11. In other words. Na e ya m . this test isn't always ordered by the doctor. Normal ranges: Males and Females age 0-30 4.9 umol/L nid ha Unfortunately.2 umol/L Ma Females age 30-59 4.9 umol/L >59 years of age 5. old female 40-128 mg/dl Adult Female 35-135 mg/dl Homocysteine Luckily. It should be. Here are the normal ranges for healthy humans. Homocysteine is formed in the metabolism of the dietary amino acid methionine.hours from food and abstain from alcohol for 24 hours. The problem is that it's a strong risk factor for atherosclerosis.) as well as taking a good amount of all B vitamins in general will go a long way in terms of preventing a rise in levels of homocysteine. 16-19 yr.

000/mm3 Neutrophils 2. or a rotten diet. "Six Feet Under. Na e ya m . stress. a bacterial infection.000 cells per mm3 RBC (Red Blood Cell) These blood cells also called erythrocytes and their primary function is to carry oxygen (via the hemoglobin contained in each RBC) to various tissues as well as giving our blood that cool "red" color. This is because androgens increase EPO (erythropoietin) production which in turn increases RBC count and thus elevates blood volume. Normal ranges: 4.500-11. Both severe trauma and bacterial infections. Unlike WBC. a fluctuation in the number of these types of cells can be an indicator of things like infections and disease states dealing with immunity. can cause an increase in the number of these cells. cancer. A decrease in the number of these cells can result in anemia which could stem from dietary insufficiencies. Essentially their job is phagocytosis. Having a low number of neutrophils can be indicative of a viral infection.The Hemo Profile These are various tests that examine a number of components of your blood and look for any abnormalities that could be indicative of serious diseases that may result in you being an extra in the HBO show. An increase in number can occur when androgens are used." WBC Total (White Blood Cell) Also referred to as leukocytes. which is the process of killing and digesting bacteria that cause infection. This is essentially why some androgens are better Ma nid Normal ranges: ha This is one type of white blood cell that's in circulation for only a very short time.500-8. etc. RBC survive in peripheral blood circulation for approximately 120 days. as well as inflammatory or metabolic disorders and even stress.

congestive heart failure.000-5. An increase in percentage may be indicative of congenital heart disease. hemorrhage. leukemia.100." Anyhow. sickle cell anemia. Being at high altitudes. diarrhea. or the use of androgens. etc. etc.000 cells/uL Adult Female 4. A decrease in levels may be indicative of anemia. the danger in this could be an increase in blood pressure or a stroke. Molecules of this are found within each red blood cell.than others at increasing "vascularity. pregnancy. Normal ranges: Adult Male 4. sever burns.5 g/dl ha Hemoglobin is what serves as a carrier for both oxygen and carbon dioxide transportation. rheumatoid arthritis.000-6. hyperthyroidism. burns. nid Males and females 6-18 years 10-15.200. kidney disease. lymphoma. sever hemorrhage. Androgen-using lifters who have high values should consider making modifications to their stack and/or immediately donating some blood. cirrhosis.400. or dehydration. An increase in hemoglobin can be an indicator of congenital heart disease. dehydration.000 cells/uL Hemoglobin Normal ranges: Adult Males 14-18 g/dl Adult Females 12-16 g/dl Hematocrit Ma The hematocrit is used to measure the percentage of the total blood volume that's made up of red blood cells. cancer. A decrease in number can be a sign of anemia.700. can cause an increase as well. Na e ya m .

malnutrition. a sucking knife wound to the chest. Normal ranges: Adult Male 80-100 fL Adult Female 79-98 fL 12-18 year olds 78-100 fL Ma Normal ranges: MCH (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin) The MCH is the weight of hemoglobin present in the average red blood cell. nid ha Na e ya m . The MCV is the size or volume of the average red blood cell. A decrease in MCV would then indicate that the RBC's are abnormally large(or macrocytic). When an increase is noted. that would indicate abnormally small RBC (microcytic). Normal ranges: Male and Females age 6-18 years 32-44% Adult Men 42-52% Adult Women 37-47% MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume) This is one of three red blood cell indices used to check for abnormalities. and this may be indicative of a vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency as well as liver disease. This is yet another way to assess whether some sort of anemia or deficiency is present. and this may be an indicator of iron deficiency anemia or thalassemia. etc.

A decrease in number is an indicator of iron deficiency. It's used in order to help classify certain types of anemia. An increase in RDW can be indicative of iron deficiency anemia. thalassemia. and to see if some of the red blood cells need their suits tailored. vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anemia.2% nid RDW (Red Cell Distribution Width) ha Na e The MCHC is the measurement of the amount of hemoglobin present in the average red blood cell as compared to its size. An increase is sometimes seen after androgen use.7-14.12-18 year old 35-45 pg Adult Male 26-34 pg Adult Female 26-34 pg MCHC (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration) Normal ranges: 12-18 year old 31-37 g/dl Adult Male 31-37 g/dl Adult Female 30-36 g/dl The RDW is an indicator of the variation in red blood cell size. ya m . lead poisoning.7-14. and diseases like sickle cell anemia.2% Adult Female 11. Ma Normal ranges: Adult Male 11. etc.

they can determine whether there's a bacterial or parasitic infection. severe trauma and bacterial infections. An increase can be indicative of a malignant disorder. ha Na e ya m . and even stress can cause an increase in the number of these cells. leukemia. etc.Platelets Platelets or thrombocytes are essential for your body's ability to form blood clots and thus stop bleeding.000/mm3 (Most commonly displayed in SI units of 150-400 x 10(9th)/L ABS (Differential Count) Neutrophils Ma Percentile Range: 55-70% As explained previously. A decrease can be indicative of much more. etc. They're measured in order to assess the likelihood of certain disorders or diseases.000/mm3 (Most commonly displayed in SI units of 150-400 x 10(9th)/L Adult 150. iron deficiency anemia. a low number of these cells can indicate a viral infection. on the other side of the spectrum. Using this. metabolic disorders. Normal ranges: Child 150. anything above 1 million/mm3 would be considered a critical value and should warrant concern and/or giving second thoughts as to whether you should purchase a lifetime subscription to Muscle Media. a bacterial infection.000-400. etc. or a deficient diet. On a side note for these ranges. including things like infection. rheumatoid arthritis. nid The differential count measures the percentage of each type of leukocyte or white blood cell present in the same specimen. various types of anemia.000-400. Also. as well as immune reactions. as well as inflammatory disorders.

the kidneys will conserve water and when the sodium concentration is low. it can be deduced that either an allergic response has occurred or a parasite has taken up residence in your shorts. These types of cells don't increase in response to viral or bacterial infections so if an increased count is noted. When sodium in the blood rises. are present in the event of an allergic reaction as well as when a parasite is present. Monocytes are similar to neutrophils but are produced more rapidly and stay in the system for a longer period of time. Percentile Range: Basophils 0. T cells are involved in immune reactions and B cells are involved in antibody production. Percentile Range: Lymphocytes 20-40% Monocytes 2-8% Ma Sodium Selected Clinical Values This cation (an ion with a postive charge) is mainly found in extracellular spaces and is responsible for maintaining a balance of water in the body. eosinophils. The main job of lymphocytes in general is to fight off — Bruce Lee style — bacterial and viral infections. the kidneys conserve sodium and excrete nid ha Na e ya m .Basophils These cells.5-1% Eosinophils 1-4% Lymphocytes and Monocytes Lymphocytes can be divided in to two different types of cells: T cells and B cells. and in particular.

congestive heart failure. Its purpose it is to maintain electrical neutrality with sodium. excessive sweating. Ma Normal range: Adult 98-106 mEq/L nid ha Normal range: Na e ya m water. chronic renal insufficiency. vomiting. acidosis. licorice consumption. aldosterone-inhibiting diuretics. etc. infection. Cushing's syndrome. cystic fibrosis. etc. excessive water intake. It also serves as a buffer in order to maintain the pH balance of the blood.Normal range: Adults 136-145 mEq/L Potassium On the other side of the spectrum. Cushing's syndrome. etc. you have the most important intracellular cation. diarrhea. Anabolic steroids will lead to an increased level of sodium as well. Addison's disease. Decreased levels can result from a deficient diet. surgery. Increased levels can be an indicator of excessive dietary intake. etc. diarrhea or vomiting. Chloride typically accompanies sodium and thus the causes for change are essentially the same. . forgetting to drink for a week. dehydration. Decreased levels can be indicative of a deficient dietary intake. Adults 3. a crushing injury to tissues. diuretics. burns. trauma. acute renal failure. Increased levels can result from excessive dietary intake. burns. insulin use.5-5 mEq/L Chloride This is the major extracellular anion (an ion carrying a negative charge).

liver disease. This is why BUN is a good indicator of both liver and kidney function. the end product is urea which is formed in the liver and excreted from the bloodstream via the kidneys. Na e ya m . and starvation. etc. congestive hear failure. metabolic acidosis. shock. and starvation. excessive protein ingestion. insulinoma. emphysema. Causes of a nid ha The amount of glucose in the blood after a prolonged period of fasting (1214 hours) is used to determine whether a person is in a hypoglycemic (low blood glucose) or hyperglycemic (high blood glucose) state. starvation. etc. Both can be indicators of serious conditions. corticosteroid therapy. metabolic alkalosis. acr*****ly. insulin overdose. Normal range: Adults 23-30 mEq/L Glucose Normal range: Adult Male 65-120 mg/dl Adult Female 65-120 mg/dl BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) Ma This test measures the amount of urea nitrogen that's present in the blood. Increased levels can stem from shock. Increased levels can be indicative of severe diarrhea. Decreased levels can be indicative of kidney failure. excessive protein catabolism. chronic renal failure. myocardial infarction. sepsis. When protein is metabolized. vomiting. Increased levels can be indicative of diabetes mellitus. Increased levels could also mean that you're a plant. renal disease.Carbon Dioxide The CO2 content is used to evaluate the pH of the blood as well as aid in evaluation of electrolyte levels. dehydration. starvation. Cushing's syndrome. acute stress. renal failure. burns. etc. Decreased levels could be indicative of hypothyroidism.

volume depletion. So.2 mg/dl Adult Female 0. hypotension. while increasing creatinine levels. and in some cases. Decreased levels can be indicative of debilitation.decrease in levels can be liver failure. this easily explains why creatine has been accused of causing kidney damage. Since creatinine levels are used to measure the functioning of the kidneys. when you ingest large amounts of beef or other meats that have high levels of creatine in them. Also. pregnancy. overhydration.6-1. negative nitrogen balance via malnutrition. the more muscle mass you have. etc.5-1. ha Na e Creatinine is a byproduct of creatine phosphate. we need to remember that these tests are only indicators of functioning and thus outside drugs and supplements can influence them and give false results. This is why creatine. you can increase creatinine levels as well. acute tubular necrosis. a nid However. as creatine may do. though. gastrointestinal bleeding. dehydration. Generally speaking. as well as acr*****ly. congestive heart failure. reduced renal blood flow (stemming from shock. does not cause renal damage or impair function. increased levels are indicative of urinary tract obstruction.1 mg/dl Ma BUN/Creatinine Ratio A high ratio may be found in states of shock. the higher the creatine levels and therefore the higher the levels of creatinine. and decreased muscle mass via disease or some other cause. dehydration. atherosclerosis). Normal range: Adults 10-20 mg/dl Creatinine Normal range: Adult Male 0. the chemical used in contraction of skeletal muscle. since it naturally results in an increase in creatinine levels. ya m .

Increased levels can stem from hyperparathyroidism. Increased globulin levels can result from inflammatory diseases. prolonged immobilization. Adult 9-10. pancreatitis. inflammatory diseases. enzymes. Keep in mind. etc. hypercholesterolemia (high nid ha Normal range: Na e ya m catabolic state. pregnancy. overhydration. etc. vitamin D deficiency. severe liver disease. hyperthyroidism. though. Albumin is synthesized by the liver and as such is used as an indicator of liver function. pregnancy. while decreased albumin levels can result from malnutrition. Measuring the levels of these two proteins is also an indicator of nutritional status. malnutrition. Globulins are the building blocks of your body's antibodies. . ketosis. drugs and other constituents of the blood. rickets. A low ratio can be indicative of a low protein diet. acr*****ly. It functions to transport hormones. when used in the same sentence as hamburger or hotdog. Increased albumin levels can result from dehydration. that the term BUN. and alkalosis. metastatic tumor to the bone. etc. you'll likely have a higher ratio and this is nothing to worry about. An important thing to note again is that with a high protein diet. liver disease. Decreased levels can stem from renal failure. usually means something else entirely.Normal range: Adult 6-25 Calcium Calcium is measured in order to assess the function of the parathyroid and calcium metabolism. malabsorption.5 mg/dl Liver Function Total Protein Ma This measures the total level of albumin and globulin in the body. It's also important to note that anabolic steroids can also increase calcium levels. lymphoma.

ha Na e ya m . Normal range: Adult Total Protein: 6.8-2. and insulin can all increase protein levels.3 g/dl Albumin: 3. anabolic steroids. growth hormone. diuretics. Decreased globulin levels can result from hyperthyroidism. Drugs that may increase bilirubin include oral anabolic steroids (17-AA). extensive liver metastasis. iron deficiency anemia. pernicious anemia.0 mg/dl Ma Alkaline Phosphatase This enzyme is found in very high concentrations in the liver and for this reason is used as an indicator of liver stress or damage. morphine.3-3. sickle cell anemia. and rheumatoid arthritis.0 Bilirubin Normal range: Total Bilirubin for Adult 0. malnutrition.cholesterol). which is formed in the liver. healing fracture. liver tumor. normal bones of growing children. codeine. etc.4 g/dl Albumin/Globulin Ratio: Adult 0. As another important side note. cirrhosis. pregnancy. Drugs that may decrease levels are barbiturates and caffeine. contraceptives. as well as infections. antibiotics. scurvy nid Bilirubin is one of the many constituents of bile. Increased levels can stem from cirrhosis. hepatitis.4-8. etc. Non-drug induced increased levels can be indicative of gallstones. and cholestasis from certain drugs.3-1.5-5 g/dl Globulin: 2. Decreased levels can stem from hypothyroidism. An increase in levels of bilirubin can be indicative of liver stress or damage/inflammation. and immune deficiencies or disorders. liver dysfunction. sepsis. malnutrition.

Injury or disease of the liver will result in an increase in levels of ALT. for the most part. beriberi. and renal dialysis. trauma to striated muscle (via weight training). diabetic ketoacidosis. and shock. but this isn't as accurate.(vitamin C deficiency) and excess vitamin B ingestion. As a side note. it's a rather accurate diagnostic tool. previously known as SGPT) This is yet another enzyme that is found in high levels within the liver. myocardial infarction. Increased levels can be indicative of hepatitis. hepatic tumor. Normal range: 16-21 years 30-200 U/L Adult 30-120 U/L AST (Aspartate Aminotransferase. The AST then enters blood circulation and an elevation can be seen. mononucleosis. as well as heat stroke. as well as severe burns. liver disease. that because lesser quantities are found in skeletal muscle. When the liver is damaged or inflamed. cirrhosis. It may also be used to see if heart disease is a possibility as well. giving a false indicator for liver disease. previously known as SGOT) Normal range: ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase. and jaundice. I should note however. cholestasis. Increased levels can be indicative of heart disease. skeletal muscle disease or injuries. AST levels can rise to a very high level (20 times the normal value). pregnancy. Na e ya m . Weight training causes damage to muscle tissue and thus could slightly elevate these levels. hepatotoxic drugs. there could be a weight-training induced increase . antibiotics can cause an increase in the enzyme levels. Still. This happens because AST is released when the cells of that particular organ (liver) are lysed. Ma nid Adult 0-35 U/L (Females may have slightly lower levels) ha This is yet another enzyme that's used to determine if there's damage or stress to the liver. hepatic necrosis. Decreased levels can be indicative of acute kidney disease.

42 nmol/l Age 17-18 300-1200 ng/dl 10. which are found in the testicles. just as some background info.5. (Some more than others.5 . or hanging around with Chris Shugart.5 -42 nmol/l Ma Female Age 19-40 300-950 ng/dl 10. Women also have a small amount of Testosterone in their body as well. about 95% of the circulating Testosterone in a man's body is formed by the Leydig cells.4 . total Testosterone: Male Age 14 <1200 ng/dl <42nmol/l Age 15-16 100-1200 ng/dl 3.33 nmol/l Over 40 240-950 ng/dl 8.Normal range: Adult 4-36 U/L Endocrine Function Testosterone (Free and Total) Nomal range. which accounts for the bearded ladies you see at the circus. ya m .33 nmol/l nid ha Na e This is of course the hormone that you should all be extremely familiar with as it's the name of this here magazine! Anyhow.) This is from a very small amount of Testosterone secreted by the ovaries and the adrenal gland (in which the majority is made from the adrenal conversion of androstenedione to Testosterone via 17-beta HSD).

stress.7 .2. the hypothalamus — which secretes LH-RH (luteinizing hormone releasing hormone) — could also be the culprit. If the problem is secondary.8 nmol/l Normal range. precocious puberty. Of course.3 IU/L nid ha Na e ya m . as well as perhaps both the hypothalamus and the pituitary. Decreased levels can be indicative of pituitary failure. and malnutrition.6 IU/L Luteal phase: 0. Increased levels can be indicative of hypogonadism. or whether it's the pituitary gland not secreting enough LH (secondary). Normal ranges: Adult Male 1.24-7.Age 17-18 20-120 ng/dl 0. hypothalamic failure.3 IU/L Postmenopausal: 14. then there's a better chance for improvement with drug therapy. and pituitary adenoma.9-56.7 . Measuring LH can be very useful in terms of determining whether a hypogonadic state (low Testosterone) is caused by the testicles not being responsive despite high or normal LH levels (primary).4.68-15 IU/L Ovulatory phase: 21. then things like clomiphene and hCG really won't help.8 IU/L Ma Adult Female Follicular phase: 1. free Testosterone: Male 50-210 pg/ml LH (Luteinizing Hormone) LH is a glycoprotein that's secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and is responsible for signaling the leydig cells to produce Testosterone.2-52. If it's a case of the testicles not being responsive to LH.2 nmol/l Over 18 20-80 ng/dl 0.61-16.

Also. if your levels of estradiol are rather high. So. pregnancy. Drugs that may increase T3 levels include estrogen and oral contraceptives. Normal ranges: Adult Male 10-50 pg/ml Thyroid (T3. Increased levels can be indicative of Graves disease. protein malnutrition. As a male it's very important to get your levels of this hormone checked for the above reasons. Increased estradiol levels can be indicative of a testicular tumor. hepatic cirrhosis. etc. Cushing's syndrome. you can bet your ass that you'll be hypogonadal as well. it's the primary estrogen that's responsible for the negative feedback loop which suppresses endogenous Testosterone production. and liver diseases. acute thyroiditis. kidney failure. adrenal tumor. TSH) T3 (Triiodothyronine) Ma Normal ranges: 16-20 years old T3 is the more metabolically active hormone out of T4 and T3. etc. nid ha Adult Female Follicular phase: 20-350 pg/ml Midcycle peak: 150-750 pg/ml Luteal phase: 30-450 pg/ml Postmenopausal: 20 pg/ml or less Na e ya m . hyperthyroidism. Drugs that may decrease T3 levels include anabolic steroids/androgens as well as propanolol (a beta adrenergic blocker) and high dosages of salicylates. gynecomastia. necrosis of the liver. T4 Total and Free.Estradiol With this being the most potent of the estrogens. hypertrophy of adipose tissue. hepatitis. I'm sure you're all aware that it can be responsible for things like water retention. cirrhosis. Decreased levels can be indicative of hypothyroidism. When levels are below normal it's generally safe to assume that the individual is suffering from hypothyroidism. and perhaps even prostate hypertrophy and tumors.

Drugs that increase of decrease T3 will. An increase indicates a hyperthyroid state and a decrease indicates a hypothyroid state.8-2. methadone. Cushing's syndrome.8 nmol/L T4 (Thyroxine) Normal ranges: Adult Male 4-12 ug/dl or 51-154 nmol/L Adult Female 5-12 ug/dl or 64-154 nmol/L Free T4 or Thyroxine Ma Normal ranges: 0.4 nmol/L Over 50 40-180 ng/dl or 0. ya m . Increased levels are indicative of the same things as T3 and a decrease can be indicative of protein depleted states. and propanolol.80-210 ng/dl 20-50 years 75-220 ng/dl or 1.2-3. Drugs that decrease it are furosemide.6-2. do the same with T4. this test is a far better indicator of the thyroid status of the patient. aspirin. in most cases. Drugs that increase free T4 are heparin. It too is rather reliable but free thyroxine levels should be assessed as well. and rifampicin. kidney failure. iodine insufficiency. danazol.8 ng/dl or 10-36 pmol/L TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) Measuring the level of TSH can be very helpful in terms of determining if nid Since only 1-5% of the total amount of T4 is actually free and useable. Increased and decreased levels are indicative of the same possible diseases and states that are seen with T4 and T3. and cirrhosis. ha Na e T4 is just another indicator of whether or not someone is in a hypo or hyperthyroid state.

but wait. check out my article "The Thyroid Handbook. Hell. etc. or an infarction. hyperthyroidism. Increased TSH is indicative of thyroiditis. some type of trauma. hypothyroidism. If TSH levels are high. and pituitary hypofunction. Decreased levels are indicative of hypothyroidism (pituitary dysfunction). you may even impress your doctor. this is the same guy who thinks walking for 20 minutes is plenty of exercise for the day! Na e ya m the problem resides with the thyroid itself or the pituitary gland. potassium iodide and TSH itself." Conclusion Ma nid ha Hopefully this article will help to shed some light on the questions you have or may have in the future in regards to a blood test. . Normal ranges: Adult 2-10 uU/ml or 2-10 mU/L For more info on the thyroid in general. heparin. T3. it's the hypothalamus or pituitary gland that has something wrong with it.Drugs that can increase levels of TSH include lithium. dopamine. and congenital cretinism. Drugs that may decrease TSH are aspirin. The problem could be a tumor. then it's merely the thyroid gland not responding for some reason but if TSH levels are low. Now perhaps you can truly rest assured after viewing things yourself.

000-10. Automated machines rapidly count the cell types.Specialized Blood Tests          Complete Blood Count (CBC) White Cells Such things as exercise. and stress can temporarily elevate the white cell count.000. Blood consists of these components suspended in a thick. Red Cells Ma   Normal values for the red cell count vary with gender. cold. Males normally have values around 5-6 million per microliter.6 million red cells per microliter. and platelets.General Blood Tests   Complete Blood Count (CBC) Chemistry Panels Part 2 .6-5. Na e Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR or Sedrate) Rheumatoid Factor (RF) HLA B27 Typing Antinuclear Antibody (ANA) C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Lupus Erythematosus (LE) Test Anti-CCP Anti-DNA and Anti-Sm Complement ya m .Blood Tests For Evaluating Arthritis Part 1 . nid The white cell count is normally between 5. colorless fluid called plasma. Females have a lower normal range at 3. white blood cells. ha The complete blood count is a test of red blood cells. Increased values suggest inflammation or infection.

Whileanemia may accompany inflammatory arthritis it may be caused by other things such as blood loss or iron deficiency. ha The percent and absolute number of each type of white blood cell is called the differential.000.Test Your Knowledge nid Neutrophils are increased in bacterial infections and acute inflammation. MCHC are red cell indices which indicate the size and hemoglobin content of individual red cells.Hemoglobin / Hematocrit Hemoglobin. Normal for females is 12-16 g/dl. Decreased values are indicative of anemia. The MCV. Differential     Inflammation Ma The process of inflammation can cause changes in the blood count. is also measured in a complete blood count. Basophils. Generally. Na e ya m . the white cell count may go up. These indices give clues as to the probable cause of an existing anemia. Platelets Platelets are components which are important in clot formation. Monocytes are increased in chronic infections and eosinphils are increased in allergies. The hematocrit measures the percent of total blood volume which is red cells. Lymphocytes are increased in viral infections. which are generally 1 or 2% do not usually increase.  Inflammation . Many medications used in the treatment of arthritis can decrease the platelet count or affect platelet function. and the platelet count may be elevated.000-400. and the normal value for females is 36-48%. The red cell count may go down. Normal values range from 150. MCH. the iron containing component of red cells which carries oxygen. Only when other causes have been ruled out can a doctor interpret blood abnormalities as a sign of inflammation. the hemoglobin times 3 equals the hematocrit. The normal hemoglobin value for males is 13-18 g/dl. Normal value for males is 40-55%.

Creatinine is a waste product found in the blood. "the CHEM-20 is a group of 20 chemical tests performed on serum (the portion of blood without cells). Usually. Since inflammation can be caused by conditions other than arthritis. the higher concentration of RF. 80% of RA patients have RF in their blood. Inflammation increases the rate significantly.M. chloride. When inflammation occurs the body produces proteins in the blood which make the red cells clump together. the more severe therheumatoid arthritis. the result could be negative and retesting should be considered at a later date. RF can take many months to show up in a patients blood. potassium. Uric acid is another test of the blood chemistry panel which.Chemistry Panels The chemistry panels are a series of tests which are used to evaluate overall health.  Blood Tests Used To Monitor Arthritis Treatments  Liver Panel Blood Tests Checks For Toxicity    Rheumatoid Factor (RF) Ma Rheumatoid factor is an antibody found in unusually large amounts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. For healthy individuals. ha Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) Na e ya m . Heavier cell aggregates fall faster than normal red cells.D. Certain arthritis drugs can affect kidney function too. the sedrate test alone is not diagnostic. if elevated." The tests also include heart risk indicators. the normal rate is up to 20 millimeters in one hour.. Electrolytes are ionized salts in blood or tissue fluids (ions are atoms or molecules that carry an electrical charge). a patient with a high creatinine level may have a problem with the kidneys. according to A. There are also patients with all the signs and symptoms of RA but are nid The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is a test which involves placing a blood sample in a tube and determining how fast the red blood cells settle to the bottom in one hour. diabetes indicators. If tested too early in the course of the disease. may be indicative of gout. For example. Certain types of inflammatory arthritis can affect kidney function. as well as tests for: kidney function liver function thyroid function For example. Electrolytes in the body include sodium.A. and many others. Rheumatoid factor was discovered in the 1940's and became a significant diagnostic tool in the field of rheumatology.

A high result serves as a general indication of acute inflammation. What has been found is that this genetic marker is present in some forms of arthritis. Lupus Erythematosus (LE) The LE cell test is not commonly performed anymore. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Ma As a blood test. such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.  Over 95% of patients with lupus have a positive ANA test. doctors can utilize the CRP test to assess the effectiveness of a specific arthritis treatment and monitor periods of disease flareup. Under a microscope the abnormal antibodies can be seen binding to the nuclei. though usually in these cases. A substance containing fluorescent dye is added which binds to the antibodies. Antinuclear Antibody (ANA) ANA (antinuclear antibody) test is performed to help detect certain rheumatic diseases. Na e ya m HLA Typing . or command center. Other criteria must be involved in definitive diagnosis. Its initial discovery opened up the whole field of antinuclear antibodies though. White blood cells may be typed for the presence of HLA-B27. These antibodies are called antinuclear antibodies and are tested for by placing a patient's blood serum on a microscope slide containing cells with visible nuclei. In cases of inflammatory rheumatic diseases. CRP is not specific. the amount is lower. ha Patients with other diseases also can have positive ANA tests. This test is common in medical centers because it is needed for transplants. especially lupus. chiefly ankylosing spondylitis and Reiter's syndrome. RF can occur in response to inflammatory of infectious diseases other than RA.Patients with certain diseases.  50% of rheumatoid arthritis patients are positive for ANA. Some doctors suspect another disease masquerading as RA in these cases. make antibodies to the nucleus. Only 50% of nid C-Reactive Protein measures the concentration in blood serum of a special type of protein produced in the liver that is present during episodes of acute inflammation or infection.seronegative for RF. of the body's cells.

The system produces factors which help destroy bacteria. These antibodies also occur only in lupus patients. It is a useful diagnostic tool since it is unusual to find these antibodies in people who do not have lupus. Lupus patients often show decreased levels of total complement. The complement test may be helpful in tracking the disease activity of a lupus patient. another substance in the cell's nucleus. ha Na e Lupus patients have antibodies to the heredity material DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).lupus patients are found to have positive LE tests. These proteins are inactive until an antibody binds to an antigen and activates the complement system. Complement Related Resources . These reactions consume complement and leave depressed levels indicative of immune complex formation. and combat invaders with white cells.Test Your Knowledge Blood Tests Used To Monitor Arthritis Treatments nid The complement system is a complex set of blood proteins which are part of the body's defense system. Anti-CCP Anti-CCP (anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody) is a new and exciting blood test to help doctors confirm a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.Blood Tests For Arthritis    Ma Laboratory Blood Tests / Diagnosis Of Arthritis Lab Tests . The test is also a good monitoring tool since the levels of anti-DNA rise and fall with disease activity. Anti-DNA and Anti-Sm Lupus patients also have antibodies to Sm. ya m . Therefore the test does not identify 50% of patients as having the disease. The test is not particularly useful in monitoring disease activity however.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful