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Increasing the power transfer capability of an ac transmission line

using a parallel small power dc link


J Rohan Lucas and H Jahan C Peiris
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka

ABSTRACT
To cause damping, PSS must provide an electrical
The paper presents a method of increasing the power torque on the rotor proportional to the speed variations.
transfer level of an ac transmission line by using a Additional damping is required under conditions of
parallel-small power dc link to improve the ac system weak transmission and heavy load; for example, when
small-signal stability. In order to demonstrate the attempting to transmit power over long transmission
validity of the proposed method, computer simulated lines from remote generating plants or over relatively
dynamic response of the parallel ac-dc power system weak ties between systems. Contingencies such as line
is compared with that of the ac system alone. In this outages, often precipitate such conditions. Hence,
study, the power flow in the small-power dc link is systems which normally have adequate damping can
modulated by adding an auxiliary signal to the often benefit from stabilizers during such abnormal
current reference of the rectifier firing angle conditions.
controller to improve the damping of power flow
oscillations in the ac transmission line. This The capability of an HVDC link to rapidly modulate the
modulation control signal is derived in response to power flow, in response to control signals, has been
the frequency oscillations in the rectifier end ac utilized for some time to improve the dynamic stability
system (rate of change of generator angle of AC/DC systems[4,5]. Studies [6-9] have also shown
oscillations). The simulations performed revealed that that modulation signals incorporated to converter
the use of a small-parallel dc link transferring about controls, that are derived in response to signals such as
2% of the normal ac power substantially increases the frequency deviation and rate of change of AC power
power transfer capability of the ac line. transmitted provide additional damping. For example;
(i) in the HVDC Intertie between Pacific North-West
and South-West regions of the United States, a
SYMBOLS modulation signal derived in response to the rate of
change of power in the parallel ac intertie is fed to the
R = Alpha order at rectifier
converter controls to improve the damping of low
= Damping Constant
frequency oscillations between the two regions [4,9],
R = Beta at rectifier
(ii) in the Eel River back-to-back HVDC system which
0 = Steady state Transmission angle
= Small change in Transmission angle
interconnects the Hydro Quebec system with the New
0 = Steady state angular frequency Brunswick system in Canada, a modulation signal
H = Inertia Constant derived based on the frequencies of both ac systems is
Idc meas = Measured Direct Current Idc fed to the converter controls to improve the dynamic
Idc ref = Reference value of Idc stability of the two systems [4] and (iii) in the CPA-
Idc = Idc modulation signal UPA (CU) HVDC system between North Dakota and
Ks = Synchronizing Coefficient Minneapolis in United States, a modulation signal
P ac = Small change in AC Power Transmitted derived in response to rectifier end ac system frequency
P dc = Small change in DC Control Power changes is fed to converter controls to provide damping
P m = Small change in Mechanical Power for disturbances in the North Dakota ac system [4].
V1, V2 = Bus bar voltages on AC line
Vdc0 = Nominal DC voltage Nevertheless, due to the high cost of converters, HVDC
X = Transmission system reactance transmission has been typically used for interconnecting
asynchronous ac systems and for economic transmission
of bulk power usually over long distances. However
1.0 INTRODUCTION due to the availability of low cost- low power
The automatic voltage regulators present in the converters at low voltage, the hvdc schemes of low
generating units in power systems could have an capacity at low voltage may now be used to improve
adverse effect on system small-signal stability. Hence, the dynamic stability of existing AC systems. Moreover,
poorly damped oscillations of low frequency can occur such a DC line can be implemented using the same
which often persist for long periods of time and can towers utilized for parallel AC transmission since the
sometimes limit the power transfer capability[1]. size/weight of the conductors are less due to the small
Power system stabilizers (PSS) have been widely power capacity of the DC link. Hence, such a damping
utilized to improve damping of these oscillations, improvement scheme would be economically feasible.
through modulation of the generator excitation [2,3].

Increasing the power transfer capability of an ac transmission line using a parallel small power dc link 1
Transactions of the IEE Sri Lanka, vol 3, No 2, Apr 2001, p52-55 J R Lucas, H J C Peiris
Idc
P
The use of a low power low voltage DC link to R R
improve the ac system small-signal stability and +
Idc meas + +
consequently to increase the power transfer in a I
Idc ref
parallel high voltage-high power AC line is
demonstrated in this paper. Modeling and Simulation of
Fig. 2 - Rectifier Control
the system and controllers in this study is done with the
EMTDC/ PSCAD transient simulation program. 2 H d
2
Pm Pac Pdc = (1)
2.0 SYSTEM MODEL 0 d t 2
The active power transfer can be written as in (2).
Fig. 1 shows the simplified single line diagram of the
ac-dc system considered in this study. V1V 2
Pac cos 0 = K s . (2 )
Infinite X
Bus
If the DC power is controlled proportional to the rate of
change of the variation of the transmission angle
Fault (frequency deviation of the rectifier end ac system),
and the mechanical power input assumed constant
during the dynamic condition, the conditions as given in
(3) and (4) can be obtained.
d
Inverter
Pdc = (3)
Rectifier
control control
dt
Pm 0 (4)
Fig 1 - Single line diagram of the parallel AC/DC system
The governing equation for small changes may thus be
The model represents the rectifier side ac system with a written as in (5).
synchronous generator equipped with an excitation 2 H d 2 d
2 + + K s . = 0
system and a governor-turbine (IEEE Type SCRX (5)
Exciter and IEEE Type 2 Hydro Governor & Turbine
0 d t dt
models [10]). The inverter side ac system is assumed to
be larger in rating compared to the rectifier end ac 4.0 CONTROLLER DESIGN
system. The rectifier control in normal operation works
in the constant current mode. The inverter in normal The controller to obtain the necessary damping of the
operation works in the constant gamma control mode AC system is designed considering the critical damping
and has incorporated in it a constant current control to condition. Thus can be given as in equation (6).
cater for the condition when the rectifier has to operate 8Ks H
at the minimum alpha limit during transient and dynamic = (6)
conditions. 0
The nominal values of the ac system are 220 kV and 50 Equation (3) can be re-written in terms of the controlled
Hz. The ac transmission line is 200 km long and change in DC current as in (7).
nominal rating is 500 MW. The controls used in the DC Pdc d
system are primarily those of the CIGRE Benchmark
I dc = I dc = (7)
Vdc0 Vdc0 d t
model [10] modified to suit the reduced voltage (20 kV)
and power (5 MW). This control is implemented as shown in Fig. 3.

d Gain
3.0 CONTROL STRATEGY
Noise
d t /Vdc0 dc
Filter
The proposed method increases system damping and
consequently the power transfer capability of the AC Fig. 3 - Proposed Modulation Controller
system by modulating the power transfer in DC line in In the modified controller for the rectifier, the signal fed
response to the rate of change of generator angle to the P-I controller has, in addition to the error of the
oscillations (frequency oscillations in the rectifier end DC current signal, a signal proportional to the
ac system). This is realised by adding a suitably derivative of the angle to improve the dynamic stability.
derived modulation signal to the current reference of the A noise filter is incorporated to eliminate high
rectifier firing angle controller (Fig. 2). frequency components interfering with the dynamic
The generator-AC system behavior (linearised for control signal. A limiter is used to prevent the signal
small signals) is governed by the swing equation (1). assuming unrealistically large values during transients.

Increasing the power transfer capability of an ac transmission line using a parallel small power dc link 2
Transactions of the IEE Sri Lanka, vol 3, No 2, Apr 2001, p52-55 J R Lucas, H J C Peiris
5.0 SIMULATION RESULTS
In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the 20

Control Signal (pu)


proposed controller, the system responses with and
without the dc scheme are observed. 10

0
Figure 4 shows the system responses when a line-to-
ground fault of 60 ms duration is occurred at the middle -10
of the ac transmission line. Response without the dc
-20
scheme (curves NC) and with the dc scheme (curves
0 2 4 6 8 10
WC) are observed.
Time (s)
Figures 4 (a), (b) and (c) give the variation of generator (a)
speed (rectifier end ac system frequency), real power
transfer in the ac transmission line and the reactive
power transfer in the ac transmission line, respectively. 10

Pdc (MW)
It can be observed that, the system becomes unstable
when the dc link with the corresponding modulation
control scheme is not in operation. This is due to the 5
poor damping of the oscillations. It can also be
observed that, the addition of the dc scheme improves
0
the damping of oscillations thus stabilizing the system
0 2 4 6 8 10
response. Time (s)
NC WC (b)
1.03 20
Speed (pu)

1.02
Qdc (MVAr)

10
1.01
1
0
0.99
0 2 4 6 8 10 -10
Time (s) 0 2 4 6 8 10
(a) Time (s)
600
(c)
450
Pac (MW)

300 150

150 120
90
rec

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 60
Time (s) 30
(b) 0
550 0 2 4 6 8 10
Qac (MVAr)

400 Time (s)


(d)
250

100
Figure 5: Response of DC scheme variables to the
0 2 4 6 8 10
line-to-ground fault for 60 ms duration at the
Time (s) middle of the ac transmission line
(c)
Figure 4: Comparison of system responses with and 6.0 CONCLUSIONS
without the dc scheme
Figures 5 (a), (b), (c) and (d) give the modulation A novel DC concept to improve the dynamic stability of
control signal added to the current reference of the an AC Power System has been presented. In order to
rectifier firing angle control scheme, power flow in the demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach,
dc link, reactive power flow in the dc link and the dynamic response of the parallel ac-dc power system
rectifier firing angle, respectively (when the dc scheme has been compared with that of the ac system alone. It
is in operation) with the same disturbance. It can be has been demonstrated through simulations (using
observed that, there are no operational problems due to EMTDC/PSCAD transient simulation software) that, a
the modulation of the dc power (through the modulation very small amount of modulated DC power (about 2%
of the rectifier firing angle) to improve the small-signal of the AC power transfer) can greatly enhance the
stability of the system. dynamic stability of the AC system.
Increasing the power transfer capability of an ac transmission line using a parallel small power dc link 3
Transactions of the IEE Sri Lanka, vol 3, No 2, Apr 2001, p52-55 J R Lucas, H J C Peiris
The approach may also be adapted to damp out sub- 8) Hsu, Y. and Wang, L., Damping of a Parallel
synchronous resonance oscillations, which are AC-DC Power System using PID Power System
otherwise not possible to remove through slow dynamic Stabilizers and Rectifier Current Regulators,
controllers such as PSS. Work is presently being IEEE Trans on Energy Conversion, Vol. 3, No. 3,
continued in these areas. Sept 1988, pp 540-547.
7.0 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 9) Cresap, R.L. and Mittelstadt, W.A., Small-signal
modulation of the Pacific HVDC intertie, IEEE
The Authors wish to acknowledge Professor John T Trans on PAS, Vol. 95, 1976, pp 536-541.
Boys, Dr Nalin C Pahalawaththa and Dr Udaya D
Annakkage of the University of Auckland, New Zealand 10) EMTDC/PSCAD Users Manual, Manitoba
for their valuable suggestions with regard to the work HVDC Research Centre, Canada, 1994.
reported in this paper.
8.0 REFERENCES APPENDIX
1) Larsen, E. V. and Swann, D. A., Applying Power System Parameters:
System Stabilizers, Part I, II & III, IEEE Trans., Synchronous Generator
Vol. PAS-100, No. 6, June 1981, pp 3017-3046. H = 4.0 s, Xp = 0.130 pu, Xd = 0.92 pu, Xd = 0.30 pu,
Xd=0.22pu, Xq = 0.22 pu, Xq = 0.22 pu, Ra is neglected
2) Schleif, F. R., Hunkins, H. D., Martin, G.E. and (0.00001 pu), Tdo = 5.2 s, Tdo =0.0234 s, Tqo=0.029 s
Hatton, E. E., Excitation control to improve Vbase = 7.967 kV, Sbase = 500 MVA
power system stability, IEEE Trans., Vol. PAS- Generator Exciter Model (IEEE Type SCRX)
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1994, pp 658-664. s, T6 = 0.4 s, Ts = 0.05 s, C1 = 4.8 s/pu, C2 = 0.1 s,
C3 = 0.04 pu/s, C5 = 0.0, C6 = 1.0 s, Tmax = 0.95
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Pohl, R. V., Dynamic Performance de de
Characteristics of North American HVDC
Systems for Transient and Dynamic Stability d d
Evaluations, IEEE Committee Report, IEEE
S he
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3364.
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Hunt, J. R., Burton, R. S. and Fletcher, D. E.,
Enhancement of AC/DC System Performance by re (radius of earth conductors)=5.525mm, de=5m, he=35m,
Modulation of a Proposed Multiterminal DC Rdc,e=2.865/km, r (radius of line conductors)=20.35
System in the Southwestern U.S., IEEE Trans on mm, d=10m, h=30m, Rdc=0.032/km, S =457.2mm, Sag
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links, IEE Proc. Gener. Transm. Distrib., Vol. 10 MVA, x=0.18 pu, 13.8/9 kV (rectifier transformer),
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Converters
7) To, K. W. V., David, A. K. and Hammad, A. E., Vdc nom = 20 kV, Idc nom = 250 A, Pdc nom = 5 MW
A Robust Co-ordinated Control Scheme for
Rmin= 5, Rmax= 150, Imin= 30, Imax=110, Imin=15
HVDC Transmission with Parallel AC Systems,
Additional Rectifier Control
IEEE Trans on Power Delivery, Vol. 9, No. 3,
Noise filter T = 0.01 s, Gain = 5 pu, limits = -1 to 1 pu
July 1994, pp 1710-1716.

Increasing the power transfer capability of an ac transmission line using a parallel small power dc link 4
Transactions of the IEE Sri Lanka, vol 3, No 2, Apr 2001, p52-55 J R Lucas, H J C Peiris