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Chng 1: Gii thiu v SCADA

1.1 Tng quan chung v SCADA:


a. nh ngha:
SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) l h thng iu khin
gim st v thu thp d liu. iu khin y l iu khin mt cch gim
st. SCADA khc vi cc h thng iu khin DCS ch, cc h DCS l mt
h thng iu khin phn tn trn mng din rng v c ch iu khin c
giao cho c cc phn t cp di, trong khi h thng SCADA thin v gim
st v thu thp d liu trn mng tp trung, mi thao tc ln h u di s
iu khin ca trung tm.
b. Chc nng v vai tr:
Mi h thng sn xut cng nghip thng c t chc theo nhiu cp qun
l. Mi cp c nhim v o lng, thu thp v iu khin gim st ring ln
tng i tng c th ca h thng. Chnh v th vic SCADA cho mt h
thng sn xut cng nghip cng c phn ra tng cp SCADA c th, tu
vo quy m ca tng cp m c nhng yu cu c th khc nhau song ni
chung mi cp SCADA l phi thc hin nhng dch v sau:
Thu thp s liu t xa (qua ng truyn s liu) cc s liu v sn xut
v t chc vic lu tr trong nhiu loi c s s liu (s liu v lch s
sn xut, v s kin thao tc, v bo ng).
iu khin v gim st h sn xut trn c s cc d liu thu thp
c.
Thc hin cng tc truyn thng s liu trong v ra ngoi h (c/vit
s liu PLC/RTU, tr li cc bn tin yu cu t cp trn v s liu, v
thao tc h).
Nhn chung SCADA l m s kt hp gia phn cng v phn mm theo m
phng thc truyn thng no t ng ho vic qun l gim st, iu
khin cho mt i tng cng nghip. V ta nhn thy rng xu th t ng ho
l mt xu th khng th trnh khi do vy vic p dng bi ton SCADA l
mt vic lm tt yu nu chng ta khng mun tt hu trong sn xut. Vai tr
ca n l rt r dng, SCADA gip ta thu thp rt chnh xc v h thng t
c th a ra cc quyt nh ng n v h, ng thi ta cng d dng trong
cng tc iu khin v ra quyt nh. Vic lm ny s gim ng k vic chi
ph v vn nhn lc, v vn hnh iu ny gp phn ng k trong vic
gim gi thnh sn phm, tng sc cnh tranh.
1.2 Cc ng dng vo thc t v so snh li th vi h c:
Cc h thng SCADA c dng cho h thng in, h thng xe la, nh my
nc sch, trm x l nc sch, hng hi
H thng SCADA ca ngnh in Vit nam hin nay c chia thnh ba cp:
cp quc gia, cp Bc Trung Nam v cp tnh. Khi h thng tr thnh phc tp
hn, c th s c cp huyn. Trung tm iu quc gia theo di v iu
khin cc nh my pht in, cc ng dy/trm 500kV v cc ng
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dy/trm 220kV ln. Ba trung tm iu min theo di v iu khin cc
ng dy/trm 220kV v cc ng dy/trm 110kV ln trong khu vc
mnh. Cc trung tm iu cp tnh theo di v iu khin h thng phn
phi in trong khu vc ca mnh.
Cc h thng SCADA dng RTU ngy cng c thay th bi PLC, trong h
SCADA cho h thng iu in cp quc gia hay min cng ang ngy
cng i theo xu th ny.
Vic xy dng cc h thng SCADA dng PLC s em li cc li th sau:
Kinh ph s thp hn nhiu.
Cc h iu khin c c nhiu t, bng, kho, nt n Do chng rt
cng knh, chim nhiu din tch.Ngoi ra cn rt kh khn trong vic
lp t, kim nh, vn hnh, gim st, bo dng. Tuy nhin cng vic
ny s rt n gin nu chng ta s dng h SCADA dng PLC.
Cc k s Vit Nam d tip cm vi cng ngh PLC hn v do kh
nng thit k, nng cp v lm ch cng ngh d dng hn.
Mua thit b d dng hn.
D bo dng v thay th cc thit b.
c bit vi h SCADA th vic thu thp, lu tr, bo co, thng k,
phn tch h thng rt d dng.
Cc h thng SCADA s tr nn n gin hn v ph bin hn trong
tng lai bi l cc thit b trong lnh vc t ng ho ang ngay cng
pht trin mnh.

Hnh 1:
1.3 Kt cu ca mt h SCADA
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Ni mt cch n gin, h thng SCADA c ba phn: Cc PC phng iu
khin trung tm, cc RTU( remote terminal unit) hay PLC(programable logic
controller) cc trm xa v thit b thng tin kt ni hai phn trn vi
nhau.
Kt cu phn mm ca phn PC phng iu khin trung tm c th hin
trong bng Hnh 1. Chng ta s thy cc chc nng ca cc PC ca h thng
SCADA tng t nh phn HMI ca h thng DCS: Hin th, iu khin t
phng iu khin trung tm, thu thp d liu, qun l cc s liu, qun l bo
ng, bo co.
Cc h thng SCADA c chy trn mi trng DOS, VMS hay UNIX. Cc h
thng mi hn chy trn nn ca Windows, Linux.

Thit k giao
din
Thit k giao
din
Th vin sn
c

Mi
trng
pht trin
SCADA
Lp chng trnh
Thit k vo
ra

HMI
th
Hin th cnh bo
Kho cha cc
Active X
ActiveX iu khin
ng
dng th 3
SCADA Client
TCP/IP
Chuyn i thnh cc dng CSDL c kt ni dng ODBC
Qun l vo ra
I/O server/OPC

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Qun l v x l d liu theo thi gian thc
D liu chng trnh
D liu thi gian thc
D liu bo ng
D liu qu trnh
D liu lu tr
SQL
SCADA Server
PLC
RTU

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Hnh 2: Kin trc phn mm Client/Server ca h SCADA

a. SCADA Server
SCADA Sever chnh l my Server ca h thng SCADA trung tm c
ni vi cc RTU hay PLC. Trong cu trc phn mm my ch Server c
chc nng thu thp, chia s d liu vi cc my Client thng qua mang
Ethernet v gi mnh lnh t cc Client trc tip n cc b iu khin.V
vy trn cc my Server thng c dng ci t cc phn mm pht
trin (development), thit lp cu hnh truyn thng kt ni vi thit b
hin trng.
b. SCADA Client
SCADA Client gm cc my tnh cng nghip c ni vi my Server
bng mng Ethernet. Cc my tnh ny s c ci cc phn mm giao
din ngi my (Human Machine Interface) kt ni vi d liu ca my
Server hin th hoc iu khin. T l cc my Client nay s thu thp

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cc trng thi v iu khin cc b controller gin tip thng qua my
Server. Mi quan h gia cc Client v Server do cc k s lp trnh thit
lp, tu thuc vo phn mm cng nghip c s dng trong h SCADA.
c. PLC- RTU
RTU c nh ngha l mt thit b c iu khin bng b vi x l, c
kh nng x l cc u vo ra theo thi gian thc, thu thp s liu v bo
ng, bo co v SCADA Server, v thi hnh cc lnh ca SCADA Server.
Theo truyn thng, h thng SCADA thng s dng cc thit b RTU.
Nhng ngy nay, vi s pht trin ca PLC, cc nh tch hp h thng thch
dng PLC thay v RTU cho vic thit k cho nhiu h thng SCADA.
Cc RTU v cc PLC c ni vi cc I/O ti cc trm. Cc u vo, qua
RTU hay PLC cho cc thit b SCADA phng iu khin trung tm bit
trng thi ca h thng ti hin trng.Thit b SCADA c th iu khin
bng cch thao tc u ra, cng nh qua cc RTU hayPLC.
Nh vy, RTU v PLC l thit b c trc tip ni vi I/O v trung tm
iu khin tn hiu.

Client
Client
Lu tr
Server
D liu
Server
Controller
Controller
D liu
Server
Controller
Controller
Ethernet

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Hnh 3: Kin trc phn cng Client/Server ca h SCADA

1.4Phn cng v phn mm ca h SCADA:


a. Phn cng
Tu thuc vo tng hng ch to, cc h SCADA s mang mt s c im
khc nhau, tuy nhin ni chung phn cng ca h SCADA s gm nhng
phn sau:
My tnh PC vi cc dch v truyn thng chun v cc chng trnh
giao din ho c thit k sn.
Cc b iu khin logic c kh nng lp trnh PLC (Programmable
Logic Controller).
Cc transmitter/RTU s thng minh.
Card mng v h thng cp ni i theo phc v cho qu trnh thu tht v
iu khin.
b. Phn mm
Phn mm ca SCADA l mt chng trnh thc hin cc nhim v c
th ca mt h SCADA. Phn mm phi c kh nng thu thp d liu
theo thi gian thc v c kh nng iu khin p ng cc yu cu k
thut ca h thng. Ngoi ra, phn mm SCADA phi c kh nng kt
ni mng, chng hn nh Internet hay Ethernet, c th chuuyn cc
bo co di nhiu hnh thc khc nhau, nh dng bng thng k, dng
biu hay dng th.
1.5Truyn tin trong h SCADA
a. Cc dng truyn tin trong h SCADA
Ngoi vic s dng cc my tnh cng nghip, cc Server, thit b mng
phng theo di trung tm. Mt b phn khng th thiu c trong h
thng SCADA l h thng truyn tin. N lin quan n tnh n nh v s
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chnh xc ca h thng. V vy, mt h truyn tin c chntng mt h
SCADA phi tho mn cc tiu chun nh: gii tc truyn, giao thc
truyn thng, truyn ng b hay d b, khong cch a l H thng
truyn tin c chn phi tng thch vi thit b trng v my ch Server.
Mt s thit b c th s dng c truyn d liu trong h SCADA nh
sau: Modem RDT (Radio Data Technology) ca Anh quc c cc loi
truyn sng Radio, v tuyn; cc thit b thu pht sng ca Motorola, cc b
RTU, GPS. Tu theo m hnh, phm vi ca tng h SCADA m ta p dng
tng loi thit b trn s pht huy ht tnh nng tc dng ca n.
H thng SCADA cp quc gia v min dng cc RTU c thit k c
bit cho ngnh in (theo tiu chun IEEE v IEC, c kh nng chu c
nhiu in t). Cc thit b RTU thng minh vi cc trung tm iu
qua th tc truyn tin IEC-870-5-101. Ngoi ra, vi nhiu h SCADA dng
PLC dng th tc truyn tin l Profibus.

Bng di y tng kt li cc dng truyn tin thng dng trong h


SCADA:

Truyn tin Kiu truyn tin Tiu chun thng dng


My ch vi IDE hin Khng ng b kiu RS-485
trng multidrop
PLC thu thp vi IDE Khng ng b kiu RS-485
hin trng multidrop
My ch vi my d ng b kiu multidrop Ethernet
phngDMS, EMS,
DTS
My ch vi SCADA Khng ng b kiu RS-232 + ti ba, modem
cp trn singledrop Hay Ratio 450Hz
SCADA vi cc ng Bn tin qua b nh DDE (Dynamic Data
dng khc Exchange)
SCADA vi cc th c/vit th vin DLL(Dynamic Link
vin Library)
SCADA vi cc h Qun l cc ca s Windows
iu hnh
SCADA vi my in Song song, ni tip RS- 232, ASII
b. Truyn tin s
c. Truyn tin hin trng
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1.6 Nhng yu cu chung v mt h SCADA
a. Nhng yu cu chung v phn cng:
My tnh PC dng thu thp v iu khin phi mang tnh ph thng
v c kh nng giao tip tt vi cc hng thit b phn cng khc nhau.
C h iu hnh a nhim c kh nng m rng v giao tip d dng
vi cc phn mm v phn cng khc.

b. Nhng yu cu chung v phn mm:


C kh nng tng thch vi cc giao thc (Protocol) thng dng.
D dng thit k v nng cp khi cn thit.
c. V dch v SCADA:
C kh nng thu thp, lu tr, s dng s liu c t nht trong mt
nm.
Cung cp s giao tip v giao din d dng cho ngi s dng v vn
hnh. D dng cho ng dng hin th s v th trong gim st
cng nh in bo co.
Gip thao tc iu khin t xa d dng, tuy nhin vn phi bo m
thao tc iu khin bng tay.
d. Yu cu v gi thnh v chi ph lp t phi r, hp l.

Cc trm in 220kV trong li in Vit Nam nm 2005


Cc trm Ch cc i Ch cc tiu
220kV khu P (MW) Q (MVAr) P (MW) Q (MVAr)
vc min Bc
Yn Bi 50,7 -2,2 30,8 1,8
Thi Nguyn 50,3 -18,2 33,5 -8,0
Bc Giang 55,4 -2,3 19,1 -47,4
Qung Ninh 53,4 96,5 1,2 63,6
Sc Sn 174,2 57,4 123,2 71,0
Vit Tr 102,7 72,0 47,6 0,4
Trng Bch 21,2 -100,4 10,0 -58,9
Ph Li (pha 255,8 148,0 87,8 29,1
110kV)
Vt Cch 71,7 8,6 36,3 -21,9
Hi Phng 110,2 97,4 53,3 44,1
Ph Ni 101,1 72,6 69,8 81,0
Mai ng 185,6 73,3 107,0 -39,0
H ng 414,0 262,4 96,8 32,4
Chm 410,4 230,0 79,2 40,4
Xun Mai 87,6 28,0 30,7 34,3
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Thanh Ho 164,1 43,7 32,9 33,3
Ninh Bnh 147,6 -24,4 44,0 17,2
Nam nh 99,0 44,7 41,0 77,5
Thi Bnh 106,0 64,0 20,9 -50,3
Nghi Sn 77,6 29,6 12,6 -38,0
Vinh 89,2 8,8 48,6 9,8
H Tnh 111,0 18,2 15,1 -58,5
ng Hi 60,2 37,0 25,0 11,6
Hu 98,4 88,7 45,4 13,3
Ho Khnh 74,9 -9,8 53,8 -0,4
Nng 152,5 104,4 66,1 40,9
Dc Si 101,0 98,5 38,2 3,8
Lliku 73,2 47,3 29,4 9,6
Qui Nhn 98,0 52,8 70,9 41,1
Krongbuk 59,2 39,9 28,6 9,6
Nha Trang 97,4 38,4 49,2 17,0
a Nhim 89,4 56,2 39,7 19,0
i Ninh 22,6 3,0 6,3 -13,1

Cc trm 220kV Ch cc i Ch cc tiu


khu vc min P (MW) Q (MVAr) P (MW) Q (MVAr)
Nam
Bo Lc 74,9 39,9 26,9 10,6
Hm Thun 48,1 29,8 18,0 18,9
Long Bnh 206,6 115,6 121,8 28,6
Long Thnh 118,0 -52,6 69,6 13,2
Tr An 36,2 9,6 29,4 18,6
Si Gn 323,0 355,4 113,4 -252,3
Bnh Ho 216,0 157,8 116,6 154,4
Tn nh 69,2 8,5 64,4 79,9
Hc Mn 251,4 183,6 164,4 147,8
Ct Li 235,6 173,2 141,2 120,6
Tao n 278,0 105,0 193,0 153,6
Ph Lm 251,0 15,4 192,2 179,4
Nam Si Gn 83,2 4,6 77,8 74,6
Nh B 173,2 219,8 157,2 -95,0
Cai Ly 123,2 57,6 54,2 -94,5

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M Tho 111,7 21,4 58,1 29,5
Ph M 119,8 244,6 107,5 147,8
B Ra 4,6 -67,1 14,8 -67,1
Vng Tu 31,6 -11,1 17,6 -44,6
Vnh Long 65,0 -14,0 67,0 59,6
Tr Nc 44, 0 13,3 69,1 0,9
Tht Nt 46,6 -43,8 49,0 30,8
Rch Gi 90,0 -10,2 80,8 27,6
Bc Liu 67,1 27,0 45,4 6,9
Kin Lng 31,8 -12,2 13,2 -45,2
Chu c 67,6 14,0 12,9 -30,5
T Keo 189,5 96,5 82,4 -48,0
ng dng trong cng tc iu h thng in Vit Nam
Qu trnh pht trin ca cng ngh iu khin h thng in:
T nhng nm 1970, h thng my tnh c ng dng rng ri
trong cc trung tm iu h thng in ln trn th gii. Lc u, h thng
my tnh phc v vic qun l k thut, qun l cc d liu, cc thit b trn
h thng in v phc v vic tnh ton cc bi ton ri rc, n l. Dn dn
cc phn mm chuyn dng phc v qun l, iu hnh h thng in c ra
i.
Vo u nhng nm 1980,, hu ht cc trung tm iu khin ca cc h
thng in ln trn th gii c trang b H thng thu thp d liu v
gim st iu khin gi tt l SCADA. Chc nng c bn ca h thng
SCADA l thu nhn t ng, x l cc d liu, hin th trn mn hnh bng s
cc tn hiu thi gian thc ca cc phn t trn h thng in nh: tn s,
in p cc im nt, thng s vn hnh (cng sut tc dng, cng sut phn
khng, dng in, in p, nhit , p lc du) ca cc thit b (my pht
in, my bin p, ng dy in). N hin th trng thi lm vic ca tt
c cc thit b ng ct, tng gim nc phn p ca my bin p gip cho
cc k s iu hnh h thng in iu khin t xa, theo di, gim st s lm
vic ca ton b h thng in.
Nguyn l lm vic ca h thng SCADA:
Khi cc thit b ang vn hnh vi phm cc gii hn cho php ca cc
thng s k thut hoc b s c, h thng t ng a ra cc tn hiu cnh bo
dng chung, ci; hin th ni dung s kin cnh bo bng nhng dng lnh
theo mu sc v nhp nhy, iu ny gip cho cc k s iu hnh h thng
in c nhng hnh ng ng x kp thi a cc thit b tr li trng thi
vn hnh bnh thng hoc a cc thit b d phng vo hot ng thay th
nhm m bo cho h thng in vn lm vic trng thi n nh v kinh t.
Tt c cc s kin xy ra i vi cc thit b trn h thng in, i vi
cc ch vn hnh h thng in u c lu tr t ng theo trt t thi
gian, c chnh xc n tng mili giy(ms), c th truy xut khi cn thit
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di dng cc bng biu, th gip cho qu trnh x l v phn tch s c
c chnh xc.
H thng SCADA cho php cc k s iu hnh c th thc hin cc
thao tc, iu khin cc thit b t xa nh khi ng hay ngng cc t my
pht in, thay i cng sut theo yu cu, ng ct cc thit b, iu chnh
nc in p ca cc my bin p Kh nng ny cho php gim bt nhn lc,
tin ti c th xo b ch ngi trc vn hnh cc trm in, cc nh
my. Cc thit b lm vic hon ton t ng, c iu khin t xa t cc
trung tm iu .
T thp k 90 tr li y, cc h thng tch hp thu thp d liu v iu
khin gim st c ng dng v pht trin rng ri. Chc nng c bn ca h
thng SCADA tch hp l n c trang b thm nhiu phn mm ng dng
khc h tr trong vic t ng ly cc d liu thi gian thc ca h thng, a
vo tnh ton v cho ra kt qu bng cc lnh iu khin trc tip ln mt phn
thit b ca h thng in hoc a ra cc khuyn co c th cho cc k s
iu hnh thc hin nhm m bo s lm vic ca h thng in c n
nh, an ton v kinh t nht.
Cc phn mm ng dng thng thng i km l:
- iu khin pht in t ng (AGC: Automatic Generation Control).
- iu kinh t (ED: Economic Dispatch).
- Phn tch ch t bin (CA: Contingency Analysis).
- nh gi trng thi (SE: State Estimation).
- Tnh ton tro lu cng sut (DLF: Dispatch Load Flow).
- Ti u ho tro lu cng sut (OPF: Optimal Power Flow).
- D bo ph ti (LF: Load Forecast).
- Lp k hoch vn hnh (GP: Generation Planning).

Khi qut v SCADA trm


1. SCADA trm v cc chc nng ca SCADA trm
SCADA trm l mt h thng t ng ho bng my tnh v s dng cc
transmitter/sensor thng minh gip vic gim st, thu thp s liu v iu
khin hot ng ca trm. Cu trc ch yu ca trm l gm: my tnh lm
nhim v thu thp, lu tr, hin th s liu v x l s liu iu khin trm,
kt ni thng tin vi cc thit b o lng v iu khin thng minh.
SCADA trm c cc chc nng c bn sau:
Thu thp s liu cc thanh ci ca trm bao gm b cc thng s(U, I, P,
Q) ca cc phn t v trng thi ca cc thit b trong trm(ch yu l
trng thi my ct, trng thi cu dao, in p trn thanh ci ).

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Thc hin cc lnh theo yu cu ca ngi iu hnh h thng v ngi
trc trm a ra hoc ca SCADA iu cp trn. Vic iu khin ch
yu l ng ct cc my ct v iu chnh tng gim nc phn p ca my
bin p.
Cung cp giao tip ngi - my vi ngi iu hnh hay ngi trc trm:
cc control pannel, cc bng mch m trn ta dng biu th cc thit
b, thng s gi y ta thay th bng giao tip bi mn hnh, chut, bn
phm. Giao din ngi my(HMI) ca SCADA trm cho php ngi
dng d dng hn trong vic gim st, thu thp d liu, iu khin, qun l
h thng v vn hnh trm.
Ghi nhn, qun l, lu gi lch s vn hnh trm, lch s cc s kin nh:
bo ng, s c; lu tr cc qu trnh thao tc trong h. iu ny s rt c
ch trong vic pht hin v s l khi c li xy ra.
Qun l c s d liu lch s ca trm phc v trong vic in bo co vi
cp trn, gi s liu ln SCADA iu cp trn.
C mt c ch t ng to v in cc bo cc khi cn thit.
C kh nng truyn thng vi cp trn nh: nhn lnh t cp trn a
xung v tin hnh gi cc bo co theo yu cu ca cp trn.
Truyn tin vi cp di ca SCADA trm l cc transmitter, sensor, c cu
chp hnh.
2. Cc kin trc ca SCADA trm
Hin nay cc thit b o lng v iu khin thng minh, cc transmitter s
hp b, cc RTU v cc PLC ang pht trin mnh v bt u c ng dng
ngay cng rng di hn trong hu ht cc ngnh cng nghip t cc khu ch
bin thc phm, ni cc nh my x nghip sn xut m dng nh trc y
khng my khi s dng n cc thit b t ng ho, cho n cc khu ch
xut, cc khu cng nghip. mt s nc tin tin, cc h thng SCADA s
dng RTU hay PLC ang ngy cng c pht trin. Tuy nhin xu hng
ngi ta ngy cng s dng PLC thay cho cc RTU cng ngy cng c a
chung hn. Rt nhiu phn mm SCADA ra i vi nhiu h tr hn cho
ngi thit k h thng, mt s sn phm, thit b ca nhiu hng nh
Wonderware, Siemens, Nari ra i v c a ra th trng.
Ni chung, chng ta c th phn cc sn phm ny thnh mt s kiu cu
trc sau:

Kiu kin trc PC/PLC RTU PC/PLC/Transmitter


SCADA trm s
H iu hnh Unix, Windows Unix, Windows Windows
H thu thp s PLC, transmitter RTU, transmitter PC , cc transmitter
liu analog, sensor analog, sensor s, cc sensor
Protocol Da trn Protocol RS - 232 RS - 485
truyn tin ca PLC
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Gi c Cao Trung bnh n Cao
cao
S dng Hin hnh Hin hnh Tng lai gn

a) Kin trc kiu PC/PLC: s dng PC vi PLC kt hp vi vic s dng


h iu hnh ca Unix hay Windows. N s dng cc b bin i, cc
transmitter analog, cc sensor thu thp s liu. Kiu kin trc ny ph hp
hn trong vic ng dng vo SCADA cho cc trm vi quy m nh.Tuy nhin
gi thnh s dng kh cao.
b) Kin trc kiu RTU: kiu kin trc ny da trn cc thit b u cui,
cc transmitter analog, cc sensor, cm bin. Cc thit b ny s thu thp trng
thi ca h thng v a v my tnh x l s liu v thng qua cc b
iu khin a xung c cu chp hnh. Kin trc da trn cc RTU thng
c ng dng trong vic SCADA trm vi quy m nh v va. u im ca
n l gi c r song vic lp t h thng v thit k l khng n gin. Trong
tng lai kiu ny s khng cn c s dng thng dng na.
c) Kin trc da trn PC/PLC/Transmitter s: Kiu kin trc ny vi my
PC c coi nh l my ch v cc Slave l cc PLC, cc transmitter s thng
minh. Cc PLC v cc transmitter s thng minh ny c ni vi nhau thnh
mt mng da trn chun truyn tin RS 485. My ch PC s lm nhim v
thu thp s liu, ra lnh iu khin, ghi nhn trng thi, thao tc vn hnh v
s c. PC l ni hin th cc giao din ngi - my v cng la ni qun l cc
c s d liu ca h thng. Kin trc kiu ny rt ph hp vi nhng trm c
quy m ln v ang ngy cng c s dng nhiu hn trong tng lai bi h
thng v quy m ca cc trm cng ngay cng phc tp.

3. Li ch ca vic s dng SCADA trm


SCADA trm s mang li nhng li ch to ln khi thit k, xy dng, vn
hnh, bo tr v nng cp trm khi cn m rng. c bit n tng cng thm
cht lng gim st, vn hnh v nng cao tnh tin cy ca h thng trm. Cc
li ch m SCADA trm mang li gm:
3.1 Li ch khi thit k v xy dng trm
Gim bt s lng cc thit b d phng.
Gim thiu h tng c s ca trm bao gm: ng cp tn hiu/ng dn
dy, cc t bng o lng, t bng iu khin v din tch nh iu hnh
trm.
D dng nng cp, m rng h thng iu trm.
3.2 Li ch khi vn hnh
T ng ghi nhn cc hot ng ghi nhn cc hot ng iu hnh trm
ca ngi trc trm cng nh cc lnh iu hnh ca cp trn.
C c s d liu vn hnh dng trong vic vn hnh, phn tch, tnh
ton vi h thng, iu khin thi gian thc.
14
Gim c s lng nhn cng vn hnh trm, hn na trn c s h
thng trm c t ng ho hon ton iu ny s trnh c ng k
nhng sai st do ngi cng nhn vn hnh trm.
3.3 Li ch trong bo tr h thng
C c s d liu v lch s vn hnh, lch s thao tc trm, cc bo
ng, thng tin v s c lun c sn trn h thng.
Cc thit b o c th c trc tip lp trnh v cc thng s cu hnh,
chn on, chnh nh h thng
D dng lp k k hoch bo tr thit b thng qua vic phn tch c s
s liu tnh trng hot ng ca thit b. Chi ph bo tr s gim do c s
liu c th v h thng.
S trm c qun l bng my tnh nn rt d dng trong vic xem
xt cng nh cp nht cc thay i m khng mt nhiu chi ph.
3.4 Tng cng tnh tin cy ca h thng
Giao din ngi - my thn thin vi gii thch r rng cng c ch
kim tra hot ng s gim thiu kh nng tho tc nhm, thao tc sai
ca ngi trc trm.
Tng s lng, cht lng v tin cy ca vic thu thp s liu.
Cung cp nhanh chng v chnh xc v lch s thao tc cng nh lch s
vn hnh trm c th a ra nhanh chng nhng quyt nh khi h
thng c s c xy ra hay l khi cn nng cp, bo tr h thng.
Trn c s c cc cnh bo sm s khin cho vic bo tr ng thi hn
s gim thiu ng k cc ri ro hng hc mang li.
Do vic thu thp s liu thi gian thc nn cho php thc hin nhanh
chng xc nh v x l tnh trng qu ti. Nhng khu vc b qu ti
ny s c nhanh chng b p bng h thng ngun cp d phng
khc; iu ny gim ng k thi gian b mt in do s c qua ti h
thng.

T chc ca SCADA trm


1. T chc ca SCADA
Theo yu cu ca h SCADA, chng ta nhn thy SCADA c cc c im
sau:

15
a) H thng va truyn tin, va tin hnh thu thp s liu, tnh ton, tin hnh
tng tc vi ngi dng v truyn tin vi cp trn trong tt c thi gian
thc.
b) H thng c nhiu tnh nng khc nhau. Mt s i hi vic tnh ton l rt
nhiu( v d nh vic lp cc bo co, phn tch h thng ) nhng mt s
cng vic li i hi tnh thi gian cht ch( cc h thng i hi tnh thi
gian thc cao nh l cc h thng thu thp s liu, truyn tin cp di,
cnh bo, bo ng).
c) Mt s tnh nng hot ng lin tc(v d nh: o, thu thp thng s h
thng, truyn tin) nhng mt s tnh nng li ch hot ng theo yu cu
hay nh k ri ngh( v d nh trong cng tc in bo co, lp bng biu ch
lm theo yu cu ca ngi dng ).
d) Mt s tnh nng bt buc phi c, mt s tnh nng khc th li l tu chn
ca ngi dng c th thm vo hay bt i m khng lm nh hng n
h thng.
Xut pht t cc c im trn, chng ti chia h SCADA trm thnh cc
i tng hot ng trong cc trng thng tin khc nhau. H SCADA trmd
thc hin trn mt my tnh c nhn PC n b x l, thc hin a chc nng,
a lung bng cch phn chia thi gian thc hin gia cc lung hot ng v
thc hin a tc v, a x l thc s cp transmitter s.
H thng SCADA trm ca chng ta c xy dng t cc i tng sau:
i tng cp trng l cc trasmitter s thng minh, cc b chuyn
i, cc sensor cm bin.
i tng thu thp.
i tng lp bo co( hin th v in n cc bo co).
i tng truyn tin vi cp trn.
i tng qun l c s s liu v lch s vn hnh, lch s s kin thao
tc, s c
i tng thit k cc trang hin th( gm cc thanh tc v tasbar, bus
bar).
i tng thit k bo co.
i tng lp cu hnh h thng.

2. La chn h iu hnh
Ngy nay k thut phn cng ca my tnh pht trin ht sc mnh m.
Nng lc ca cc my tnh th h mi ca Intel m in hnh l dng chp x
l h Pentium mang li bc nhy vt trong cng vic tnh ton, x l d
liu v phn tch h thng.
16
Giao din ho GUI( Graphical User Interface) cng ngy cng c hon
thin, gn vi ngi s dng hn. Vi h thng th vin ho khng l ca
Microsoft Windows vi cc giao tip ho chun to nn nhiu bc ngt
trong lnh vc thit k giao din.
Do my tnh PC l rt n gin, nh gn v tin cy l tuy khng bng cc
my tnh cng nghip nhng vi cng ngh in t hin nay cc my PC vn
p ng tt cc yu cu v x l cng nh tnh ton trong cc qu trnh cng
nghip. Trc y ngi ta hay dng trn h iu hnh truyn thng ca
Microsoft Windows l MS DOS, tuy h iu hnh DOS l kh n gin
song ngay nay vi quy m ca cc trm l rt ln v s cng vic phi thc
hin cng mt lc l rt cao v DOS khng p ng c iu ny. H iu
hnh Windows mang li mt s thay i ng k. Do vy chng ti quyt
nh chn vic pht trin b phn mm SCADA trm da trn h iu hnh
ca Microsoft Windows vi version Windows 2000/Windows XP vi cc l
do sau:

Microsoft Windows XP l mt h iu hnh thuc vo loi tin tin hin


nay, n h tr a chng trnh, a nng cng vi mt h thng bo mt
nghim ngt gip bo v ti nguyn ca h thng. Trong khi mt h SCADA
c rt nhiu chc nng, nhim v bao gm: hin th ho, to lp bo co,
qun l c s d liu, iu khin h thng trm, truyn tin Nu chng ta
da tt c cc chc nng ny vo trong mt chong trnh duy nht s lm
chng trnh tr nn rt phc tp, kh nng mc li l rt cao. Hn na vic
a tt c cc tc v vo cng mt chng trnh s rt kh khn trong cng tc
qun l cng nh trong cng tc iu khin h thng. Cn mt l do na l
mt s chc nng khng phi lc no cng c s dng mt cch thng
xuyn, lin tc v vy s khng to nn tnh hiu qu. Bi vy cch tt nht l
chia nh chng trnh ra thnh cc module nh vi cc tc v c lp, chc
nng ring bit chy trn mt h iu hnh a nhim h tr a nng.
Microsoft Windows XP c kh nng qun l b nh ln: kh nng nh
a ch trc tip 32bit ca Windows cho php nh a ch trc tip ti 4Gb
nh p ng yu cu ca mi b phn mm. Ngi lp trnh s khng
bao gi phi bn tm vi vic thiu b nh.
Microsoft Windows XP cung cp cho ngi dng mt phng thc
ng nht to giao tip ho mt cch d dng v thn thin. Bng cch
lp trnh thng nht khng ph thuc phn cng, ngi lp trnh s khng phi
bn tm n tnh tng thch gia cc h thng ho khc nhau. DOS l mt
h iu hnh da trn cc dng lnh, khng h tr ho trong lc SCADA
lm vic phn nhiu li l ho, vic ny khin ngi thit k h thng
SCADA phi t xy dng cc th vin ho cho chng trnh SCADA ca
mnh. y l mt vic lm rt kh khn i hi mt nhiu cng sc v tn
km. Trong khi y Windows li cung cp mt h thng cc phn t GUI chun
17
bao gm view, dialog box, push button, pop-up mennu v nhiu th vin khc
vic ny mang li cho ngi thit k h thng rt nhiu trong vic to ra
cc HMI thn thin v p mt m khng mt nhiu thi gian.
Microsoft Windows XP h tr mnh trong cc giao tip mng nh mng
ton cu Internet, Ethernet cng nghip, cc mng cc b LAN, WANN h
tr s dng modem, gip cho ngi lp trnh d dng to cc giao tip truyn
thng cn thit vi cng sc b ra l t nht.
Microsoft Windows XP h tr a phng tin( multimedia) gip ngi
lp trnh d dng thm vo cc m thanh v cc hnh nh chuyn ng khin
cho giao din HMI gn vi thc t hn.
Microsoft Windows XP ngoi vic s dng phn cng ca Intel ra
chng ta c th s dng phn cng ca nhiu hng phn cng khc nhau.

3. Trin khai xy dng b phn mm cho SCADA trm


H thng SCADA trm l mt h thng kh phc tp, bao gm nhiu tnh
nng, chc nng v nhim v khc nhau, c t chcdi dng mt tp hp
cc chng trnh hot ng c lin quan mt thit vi nhau. Mi module c
mt c im ring i hi ngi lp trnh phi c mt hiu bit nht nh v
lnh vc c th .
Vi mt s hiu bit v kinh nghim lm vic vi ngn ng C/C++, ti
quyt nh chn hng nghin cu, trin khai v thit k SCADA trm cho
trm in 110kV Sn Ty da trn vic s dng phn mm SCADA cng
nghip WinCC ca hng phn cng SIEMENS .
Phn thu thp d liu, iu khin gim st v hin th HMI c nhng yu
cu chnh sau:
Hin th cc trang mn hnh m t trm.
Thu thp cc s liu U, I, P, Q t cc transmitter s theo mt chu k t
trc tu theo yu cu c th ca h thng.
Hin th trng thi ca cc my ct, cu dao
Ghi nhn cc s kin qu p, qu dng, qu ti
Lu tr cc s liu gim st c vo b nh ca my dng khi bo
co vi cp trn hay dng lm ti liu khc phc li khi c s c.

Trm in v SCADA trm


18
1. SCADA trong h thng in lc
1.1 Cc cp qun l trong h thng in lc
Mc ch ca vic SCADA cho cc trm in trong h thng in lc Vit
Nam trc tin nhm p ng nhu cu v t ng ho v s ho h thng
in Vit Nam. N phn nh mt bc i tt yu ca vic hin i ho h
thng in, ng thi n cng phn nh trnh v kinh t-k thut ca li
in Vit Nam.
Bng di y tm tt s lc nhng cp qun l trong vic phn b in:
Cp qun l Ni dung qun l chnh
Pht v truyn ti in lc siu cao - Phng n phn pht P, Q trn
p 500kV xuyn quc gia ton lnh th quc gia.
- Qun l tn s, d phng n nh
tnh, ng ca h thng in quc
gia.
- Thu thp s liu, thao tc, bo v
rle, chn on, bo dng cc thit
b cao p.
Pht v truyn ti in n cc trm - Phng n phn b P, Q trn cc
trong mng cao p 220kV khu vc khu vc c th.
- Phn b in p 220kV cc trng
tm ti v d phng bo v ngun.
- Thu thp s liu, thao tc, bo v
rle, chn on hng hc v bo
dng thit b.
Phn phi v truyn ti in trong Pht b cng sut phn khng Q,
a bn cc mng 110kV phn b in p trn a bn.Thu
thp cc s liu, thao tc, bo v,
chn on v bo dng thit b.
Phn phi in xung mng 35kV Pht b cng sut phn khng Q.
tr xung iu khin in p trung p v xa
thi ti theo yu cu.Thu thp s liu,
bo v v bo dng h thng.
Cung cp in lc h p khu dn c Tin hnh cc thao tc ng ct, bo
v x nghip nh. v v bo dng h.
Qua trn chng ta nhn thy mt s iu:
- i vi mng siu cao p, vic tnh ton, x l s liu t a ra cc
lnh iu khin h thng i hi mt yu cu nghim ngt v tnh chnh xc
v kp thi trong vic ra quyt nh. Nhim v ny thuc v trung tm iu
quc gia A0. Cc trung tm phn phi in li cp min v khu vc khng
m ng c vic ny. Tuy nhin mt thc t tn ti l vic thu thp s
liu v iu khin thao tc ln h thng li t xa thuc lnh vc qun l ca
cc trm. Do vy, cc trung tm iu mun iu khin t xa th phi da v
19
mt h thng thng tin cng nghip tt nhn cc s liu t cp di a ln
v cc lnh cn thi hnh a xung cp di. Vic qun l phn phi cung cp
in cp cao p th thng giao cho cc trung tm iu min nm gi.
Cc trung tm ny cng tch cc tham gia vo vic gim st h thng v chia
s bt gnh nng iu khin ca SCADA iu cp trn.
- n cc trm, cc trm ny thc hin ton b cc tc v thu thp s liu h
thng, iu khin ti ca li v thc hin cc thao tc nhm n nh h
thng. Khi cc trm c t ng ho hon ton th vic gim st h thng v
iu khin li lc ny tr nn rt n gin. Khi SCADA iu cn iu
khin thao tc xung mt thit b pha cp di nh ng ct my ct no
th n ch cn gi mt bn tin xung trm. Ti trm thng qua cc PLC hay
cc RTU m thao tc c thc hin. Hay ngc li khi cn d liu v h
thng v trm th SCADA iu ch cn gi mt bn tin yu cu cc trm
gi s liu v h thng ln.
1.2 Cc loi hnh SCADA trong h thng in
Da vo cc phn tch bn trn ta ra hai loi hnh SCADA sau:
- SCADA iu
- SCADA trm
1.2.1 SCADA iu cp quc gia
y l mt trung tm mang tnh iu cp cao, mang tnh huyt mch ca
h thng in Vit Nam. N lm nhim v iu tit ton b in nng trn
li. SCADA iu quc gia gip cho vic phn b in nng thng sut
trn khp ba min. SCADA iu quc gia m ng cc nhim v sau:
- Thu thp cc s o, cc trng thi, tnh hnh ph ti t cc trung tm iu
min a ln.
- Trn c s cc s liu thu c tin hnh phn tch, nhn dng, nh gi
v a ra cc iu khin ti u cho h thng v phn b cng sut cng nh
n nh d phng trong li.
Thc cht trung tm SCADA iu quc gia khng trc tip lm nhim
v thu thp s liu v h thng v cng khng iu khin trc tip ln h
thng m ch thng qua cc trm pha di thu thp d liu v iu khin
h thng thng qua cc lnh di dng cc bn tin.

20
S v cp SCADA trong h thng in Vit Nam hnh v
1.2.2 SCADA iu cp min
Ti cc trung tm iu min, cc d liu v h thng c cc trm
gi ln, vi nhng phn tch v nh gi ca mnh cc trung tm ny a ra
cc quyt nh iu khin tc ng ln li nhm mt mc tiu nht nh l
n nh h thng. SCADA iu min l cp trung gian gia SCADA iu
quc gia v SCADA trm nn n c mt s nhim v c trng sau:
- Thu thp s liu t cc SCADA trm.
- Phn tch biu ph ti thu c, tin hnh nh gi v a ra cc
phng n iu v phn chia ph ti v n nh li.
Cc trung tm iu min ng vai tr quan trng v nh hng cho cc
SCADA trm trong vic iu tit cng sut ti v iu khin h thng.
1.2.3 SCADA trm
y l mt trung tm my tnh iu khin m tc ng trc tip n cht
lng trong li in v y l mt ni m cc tc ng iu khin trc tip
tc ng vo h thng in. Li in c th n nh v bn vng hay

21
khng ph thuc rt nhiu cc trung tm SCADA trm ny. Vy nhim v
ca SCADA trm l phi trc tip:
- Thao tc iu khin ln cc thit b ca h thng, cc my bin p
- Thu thp v gim st cc thng s v h thng.
- iu khin ng/ct nhm bo v h thng trong trng hp li gp
s c nh qu ti, chm chp
- a cc d liu v bo co vi SCADA cp trn phc v cho vic phn
tch, nh gi h thng khi cn khc phc s c hay nng cp h thng.
Mch thu thp s liu v iu khin c thit k bng:
- Mt PLC v cc module AI/AO, DI/DO.
- Mt b RTU vi cc transmitter analog.
- Mt b cc transmitter s thng minh.
SCADA trm c thit k cn c cc bus truyn tin phc v cho cc tc v
truyn thng sau:
- Mt bus truyn s liu, truyn lnh hin trng kiu RS-485 ni cc
PLC, cc RTU v cc transmitter s thng minh vi trung tm iu khin l
cc my tnh PC.
- Mt bus truyn tin theo kiu RS-323 giao tip truyn thng vi
SCADA iu cp trn.
Trung tm iu khin l cc my tnh PC, tu theo quy m ca trm m s
lng my c th l nhiu hay t. Vi mi trm tu vo mc i hi v
tin cy ca vic iu khin m ta c th lp cc my d phng. Cc trm
vi quy m nh ta c th ch cn dng mt my tnh PC tc cao, kh
nng x l nhanh v c dung lng b nh ln l c th m nhn vic ca
mt trung tm iu khin v gim st. Cn i vi cc trm ln v i hi
tnh an ton cao th ta nn dng mt my chuyn lm nhim v iu khin,
mt my PC khc th lm nhim v thu thp v gim st nu cn thit c th
dng thm mt my chuyn thc hin cc tc v v truyn thng.
2. Phng n kt cu hp l cho SCADA trm in
2.1 Mc tiu kt cu chung
Qua vic tm hiu v h SCADA trm ti mt s ni lp t v qua cc
ti liu hng dn v lp t SCADA trm, ti vic SCADA cho trm in
phi t mt s tiu ch sau:
V h phn mm SCADA:
- H phn mm SCADA phi l mt h phn mm a nng, a nhim, c
nhng knh truyn thng tng thch vi cc giao thc truyn thng ph dng
v phc v tt cc dch v cn c ca trm nh: in bo co, v th, biu
ph ti.
- H phn mm lp trnh SCADA phi d dng lp trnh, c tnh thuyt
minh r rng v d hc cng nh thun tin trong vic nng cp trm.
- H iu hnh dng trong cc my tnh ch phi l h iu hnh a
nhim, a nng, c kh nng giao tip thn thin vi ngi dng v c bit l

22
phi h tr tt h phn mm SCADA m ta ang dng xy dng SCADA
cho trm.
V phn cng:
- Cc thit b phc v trong vic x l s liu cng nh thu thp d liu
phi l cc thit b ph thngc th d dng thay th khi hng hc cng nh
khi c nhu cu nng cp m rng quy m trm.
- My ch phi l my c kh nng chu c mi trng lm vic khc
nghit ca trm in nh: ting n, bi, nhiu tp m, nhiu in trng
V dch v ca SCADA cn phi lm:
- Thu thp v lu tr dng trong trng hp c s c, thi gian lu tr
ti thiu phi l mt nm.
- Cung cp giao tip thn thin v d dng cho ngi iu khin trm nh
vic in bo co vi cp trn, c bit l cc cnh bo, bo ng khi c s c
- Gip thao tc iu khin c d dng nh ng ct my ct, tng gim
nc phn p my bin p nhng vn m bo thao tc iu khin ng ct
bng tay.
V chi ph: H gi thnh khi lp t h SCADA cho trm khng
c qu t gy tn km v c bit h phn mm SCADA phi l phn
mm ph dng, sn c trn th trng khng c l ca mt hng c quyn
no. Hn na, trong tng lai khi nng cp trm phi d dng trong vic tm
kim thit b cng nh phn mm thay th.
2.2 Phng n cho h SCADA trm in
SCADA trm in c nhim v tng i n gin:
- Gim st-iu khin.
- Thu thp d liu v cc thng s ca trm nh: I, P, Q trn cc my ct,
trng thi ca my ct v in p trn cc thanh ci.
- Chuyn cc s liu ln cho SCADA iu cp trn khi c yu cu.
V vy ta nn thit k mt SCADA trm in vi kt cu nh sau:
V thit b phn cng:
- My ch l mt my tnh PC Pentum 4 tc khong 2.8 GHz, a cng
khong 40Gb, mn hnh rng t nht l mn hnh 17inch, s dng h iu hnh
Windows 2000 hay Win XP.
- Thit b phc v cho cng tc o lng v iu khin l cc PLC vi
cc module vo ra s DI/DO v cc module vo ra tng t AI/AO, cng vi
b cc transmitter s thng minh phc v cho vic ly cc thng s P, I, Q.
- Truyn tin cng nghip gia my tnh PC master vi cc
PLC/transmitter slave theo chun RS-485 tc 19.2kbps tr ln v c trang
b cc protocol thng dng.
- Truyn tin gia my PC trm vi cp trn thng qua cng COM vi
chun truyn thng RS-232, tc phi t ti 9.6kbps.
V phn mm:

23
- Phn mm SCADA cng nghip phi c tnh a nhim, c nhiu tnh
nng dch v v c bit l phi d s dng, thn thin i vi ngi dng v
tng thch vi cc h iu hnh thng dng hin nay nh Windows, Linux...
- Cc dch v cung cp phi chc chn, thn thin v d hc cng nh d
s dng bao gm:
+ Thu thp, qun l, lu tr cc loi s liu lu v d khai thc cng
nh d tra cu khi cn.
+ Hin th s liu trn cc trang mn hnh, cc trang ca s, th, biu
phc v vic in bo co, pht cc bo ng.
+ Thao tc iu khin t xa d dng, an ton.
WinCC Mt chun mc xy dng HMI cho h thng SCADA
Ti sao phn mm cng nghip WinCC li c ng dng nhiu trong
cc h thng phc tp, nhiu chng loi thit b nh trong cc h thng
SCADA?
Mt trong nhng c trng ni bt ca cc sn phm phn mm cng
nghip ca SIEMENS l c th kt ni n nh vi hu ht cc b iu khin,
cc RTU v cc thit b truyn thng khc. C s d liu m, d lp trnh v
lun lun cp nht, iu ni ln rng nh thit k, ngi dng s c lp
hon ton vi thit b, thun li cho vic nng cp v trin khai d n. Di
y l cc thng tin c bn v phn mm cng nghip ca SIEMENS.
1. Tng qut
Giao din ngi my ca WinCC c thit k di dng ko th rt d
dng m t cc biu tng v i tng iu khin cc qu trnh cng
nghip. N cung cp cho cc k s lp trnh mt mi trng khai trin d
dng s dng v mt chc nng bao qut c th to ra cc th nghim
kim tra v trin khai mt cch nhanh chng nhng ng dng t ng ho
mnh m.
Phn mm WinCC l phn mm ng dng cho cc SCADA vi mt
giao din ngi my (HMI: Humman machine Interface) m v linh hot
m bo tnh linh ng trong thit k ng dng ca khch hng khi kt ni
n ph chc nng rng nht ca cc thit b t ng ho trong cng
nghip.
2. Tnh mnh m v linh hot
Phn mm WinCC HMI to cho ngi s dng kh nng v tnh linh hot
cao m giao din ngi v cc trnh ng dng ngy nay cn n. SIEMENS
u t nhiu cho nghin cu v pht trin m bo to ra cc sn
phm mi, mnh m v sng to. Kt qu l: cc doanh nghip c th tp
trung vo tin hnh cng vic sn xut kinh doanh ca mnh trong khi
cc k s vn c th tin hnh thit k, nng cp hay sa cha. Phn mm
WinCC cung cp cho ngi s dng mt mi trng pht trin linh hot v
cu trc a nng cho php to ra cc ng dng nhanh co bt k kch bn t
ng ho no. Phn mm WinCC trin khai thun li trn cc my tnh c

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nhn PC(Personal Computer) hay cc my tnh c nhn cng nghip
IPC(Industry Personal Computer) trn mt cu trc Server/Client phn tn.
3. Tnh d s dng
WinCC cho php ngi dng s dng nhanh chng to ra v trin khai biu
din bng ho cc qu trnh cng nghip theo tnh thi gian thc.
Giao din ho
Ngi s dng c th pht trin cc ho trong mi trng Windows, rt
nhiu cng c bao gm: cc thnh phn th chun, cc biu tng, cc
hnh nh dng bitmap v ActiveX controls. Mt th vin ho cao cp c
cha hng ngn cc hnh nh cc thit b cng nghip c cu hnh
trc, iu ny khin cho ngi s dng rt n gin trong vic a cc
hnh nh vao trong giao din ca mnh.
Trnh soan tho mnh
Ngi s dng c th nhanh chng trin khai cc trnh son tho nh lp
trnh bo co, thit k cc bo ng, cnh bo ngn nga cc li khi ang
chy(Runtime errors).
Kh nng kt ni cao
WinCC cho php ngi dng s dng lin kt thc vi bt k thit b iu
khin, t ng ho cng nghip no m thng qua cc I/O Server. Kh nng
giao tip vi hng sn phm th 3 l rt d dng chng hn nh cc iu
khin thng dng ca cc hng ln nh: Wonderware, Modicon, Alley-
Bradley, Square D

2. Cu trc-pht trin h thng v bo dng d dng


Tnh c lp
Cc ng dng ca WinCC c th c ci t trong mt mi trng c
lp_ mt may tnh PC. iu ny l rt hu ch i vi cc doanh nghip,
n v sn xut kinh doanh nh khng cn n nhiu trm iu hnh khc
nhau xem xt v iu khin cc qu trnh cng nghip m ch cn vi
mt my PC l c th lm c iu ny.
Server/Client
Cc ng dng ca WinCC c th c ci t vo mt mi trng ch
khch. Phng php ny tit kim c thi gian v tin bc cho doanh
nghip trong vic bo dng v qun l phn mm.
3. Cc c im v li ch
c thit k cho Windows 2000 v Win XP
Tnh bo mt cao: N cho php ngi qun l h thng c th ch
cho cc User ch c th truy cp v tham gia vo cc module c th nht nh
ca h thng. Chnh vic nay s han ch cc User trong phm vi trch nhim
v thm quyn ca mnh.
Cc tu chn quan st bo ng, cc c im ph v cc li ch:
Hiu bit v cc bo ng ca h thng v kh nng nhn bit chng mt
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cch kp thi c th tit kim thi ngng sn xut, vn hnh qu gi ca doanh
nghip. Ngi vn hnh cn phi xem xt cc bo ng v theo di nhng g
xut hin trong thi gian ton b qu trnh vn hnh gim thiu v gii
thch cc tn tht. Hn th na, ta khng nhng ch bit c cc bo ng,
cnh bo hin thi m cn th truy lc vo thng tin v lch s cc bo ng
na.iu ny gip ch rt nhiu trong vic khc phc cc s c.
Cc ci thin ca bo ng:
- Tha nhn cc bo ng: Chng ta c th thit k h thng bo ng
theo dng c iu kin hay bo ng c nh hng trc.
- Tnh linh hot ca bo ng: Cc bo ng c th c php hay b
cm trc tip hoc gin tip bng cch s dng cc tag cm bo ng di
s iu khin ton b ca cc chng trnh ng dng. Cm bo ng c th
c p dng vi cc loi bo ng n, cc tags hoc cc nhm cm
hin th thng tin bo ng trn mt nt quan st c th. S cm ton b h
thng c th ngn chn cc hot ng bo ng ti ngun.
- Thi gian pht bo ng: T khi s c tht xy ra cho n khi pht bo
ng thi gian ch tnh bng miligiy.
- C s d liu ca bo ng: Dng h qun l c s d liu ca
Microsoft SQL lu tr cc thng tin v h thng nh thao tc vn
hnh trong h, bo co. s c
4. Nhng yu cu i vi h thng khi s dng phn mm WinCC 6.0
- My tnh Pen III 733 Mhz
- 128 Mb of RAM
- 5 Kb tags
- 2 Gb free hard disk space
Tuy nhin tt nht nn s dng my tnh vi cu hnh sau:
- My tnh Pen IV 1.8Ghz tr ln.
- 256 Mb of RAM tr ln.
- H iu hnh ca Microsoft Windows 2000 professional hoc Microsoft
Windows XP SP1 hay SP2.
- H qun l c s d liu SQL 2000.

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