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Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump

Maintenance and Application Guide

Technical Report

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and Technology REPORT SUMMARY

Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump


Maintenance and Application Guide
This guide provides technical information on the understanding and
maintenance of deep draft vertical centrifugal pumps. It can help
utilities identify and address pump problems thus eliminating costly
downtime and improving plant availability.

BACKGROUND All nuclear power plants use a number of large vertical


centrifugal pumps in critical systems. Deep draft vertical centrifugal pumps
provide maintenance personnel a particularly difficult challenge because of their
INTEREST CATEGORIES operating environment and large size. Operability can be affected by pump
design, the effects of the intake structure, and water quality. A utility survey
conducted by the Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center (NMAC) identified a
Maintenance practices need for a comprehensive guide providing a quick reference for deep draft
Nuclear plant operating and vertical centrifugal pump predictive and preventive maintenance.
maintenance
Engineering and technical
support OBJECTIVE To provide guidance on the maintenance and troubleshooting of
deep draft vertical centrifugal pumps.

APPROACH A project team collected and compiled available industry data on


KEYWORDS the maintenance and troubleshooting of deep draft vertical centrifugal pumps. A
document review committee (DRC) of utility representatives and industry
experts reviewed and commented on the draft report. The final document
Maintenance incorporates their comments and suggestions.
Pumps
RESULTS This guide presents technical information on the understanding and
maintenance of deep draft vertical centrifugal pumps. It provides an overview of
the circulating water system including the specific components of the intake
structure and the deep draft vertical centrifugal pumps that provide the motive
force for the circulating water system. It covers the troubleshooting of vertical
centrifugal pumps in the areas of high vibration, loss of performance, and high
bearing temperatures. It also includes a discussion of the proper techniques
needed to conduct a comprehensive inspection of vertical centrifugal pumps
and the corresponding repair activities.
Appendix A to this guide provides an extensive discussion and illustrations of
the design process for a new pump and sump installation. Other appendices
provide a general introduction to vibration analysis, a summary of a methodol-
ogy used to troubleshoot structural resonant vibration problems, and case
histories which are used to identify and modify a poor sump design.

EPRI PERSPECTIVE The scope of this guide covers the pump, its application
in the circulating water system, and the intake structure design and mainte-
nance. Although the guide primarily focuses on deep draft vertical centrifugal

EPRI NP-7413s Electric Power Research Institute April 1994


pumps, many aspects of this guide can be applied to all vertical
centrifugal pumps. Related EPRI research includes TR-100855.

PROJECT
RP281 4-44
EPRI Project Manager: Kenneth F. Barry
Nuclear Power Division
Contractors: Hydro Engineering Services Incorporated

For further information on EPRI research programs, call


EPRI Technical Information Specialists (415) 855-2411.
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump
Maintenance and Application Guide

NP-7413

Research Project 2814-44

Final Report
April, 1994

Prepared by:

Hydro Engineering Services Incorporated


3563 Driftwood Place
Bethlehem, PA 18017

Principal Investigator
M. Mancini

Prepared for

Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center


1300 Harris Boulevard
Charlotte, North Carolina 28262

Operated by
Electric Power Research Institute
3412 Hillview Avenue
Palo Alto, California 94304

EPRI Project Manager


K.F. Barry

Nuclear Power Division


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EPRI, ANY MEMBER OF EPRI, AND COSPONSOR, THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW, NOR ANY
PERSON ACTING ON BEHALF OF ANY OF THEM:

(A) MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WHATSOEVER, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, (I) WITH
RESPECT TO THE USE OF ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM
DISCLOSED IN THIS REPORT, INCLUDING MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE, OR (II) THAT SUCH USE DOES NOT INFRINGE ON OR INTERFERE WITH PRIVATELY OWNED
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ANY PARTICULAR USER'S CIRCUMSTANCE; OR

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POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES) RESULTING FROM YOU SELECTION OR USE OF THIS REPORT OR ANY
INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHODS, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS REPORT.

ORGANIZATION(S) THAT PREPARED THIS REPORT:

HYDRO ENGINEERING SERVICES INCORPORATED

Price: $10,000.00

ORDERING INFORMATION
Requests for copies of this report should be directed to the Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center (NMAC), 1300
Harris Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28262, (800) 356-7448. There is no charge for reports requested by EPRI member
utilities.

Electric Power Research Institute and EPRI are registered service marks of Electric Power Research Institute, Inc.

C o p y r i g h t 1994 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.


EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

Abstract
This comprehensive guide provides guidance on the understanding and maintenance of
deep draft vertical centrifugal pumps. It can be used to help utilities diagnose perceived
problems, limit deterioration, and prevent complete failure. It provides technical
information on all types and sizes of vertical centrifugal pumps. The guide contains a
discussion of design and operating issues which influence pump/component performance,
reliability, and/or availability. It also addresses issues which may force shutdown of pumps.
It can help utilities identify and address pump problems, thus improving plant availability.

The primary focus of this guide is on deep draft vertical centrifugal pumps, but some
aspects of this guide are applicable to all vertical centrifugal pumps.

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Acknowledgments
Special thanks are extended to the following companies and individuals:
Bently Nevada Corporation, especially Don Bently and Jim Sasso, for their input
towards the vibration monitoring and equipment section (Appendix B)

Structural Dynamics Research Corporation (SDRC), especially Paul Caito, for


providing information on computer aided test and analysis for the determination and
elimination of structural resonance conditions (Appendix C)

ENSR Consulting and Engineering, especially Charles "Chick" Sweeney, for their
assistance on sump design and slump model testing (Appendix D)

Johnston Pump Company, especially Herman Gruetink, for providing past


experiences on vertical condenser cooling water applications

Hydro Incorporated, especially David Allard, George Harris, Diedrick Brinkman,


and Jim Shaffer for their contribution and support towards the repair and
troubleshooting sections

Charles Stauffer of Stauffer and Associates and James Sottosanto of Hydro


Engineering Services for their support m all areas of the document preparation

Dr. Elemer Makay of Energy Research and Consultants Corporation for the years of
guidance and support

In addition, NMAC and Hydro Engineering would like to thank the following people for
their extensive review and comments on this report.

John Forsman Northern States Power

Will Gates Southern Nuclear

Ted Johnson Northeast Utilities

Harry LeBlanc Entergy

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Table of Contents

Section 1.0 Introduction 1-1

Section 2.0 Technical Descriptions 2-1


2.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 2-1
2.2 Circulating System Classfications...................................................... 2-1
2.2.1 Once-Through Systems ............................................................... 2-1
2.2.2 Closed-Loop Systems.................................................................. 2-3
2.3 Circulating System Components ........................................................ 2-4
2.3.1 Intake System .............................................................................. 2-4
2.3.2 Circulating Water Pumps............................................................. 2-9

Section 3.0 Common Field Problems 3-1


3.1 Vibration ................................................................................................ 3-1
3.1.1 Unbalance.................................................................................... 3-1
3.1.2 Misalignment................................................................................ 3-2
3.1.3 Mechanical Looseness ................................................................ 3-3
3.1.4 Insufficient Damping at the Bearings ........................................... 3-3
3.1.5 Resonance................................................................................... 3-4
3.1.6 Hydraulic Instability...................................................................... 3-5
3.1.7 Sump Induced Vibration .............................................................. 3-6
3.1.8 Vibration Testing and Analysis .................................................... 3-7
3.2 Loss of Performance............................................................................ 3-7
3.2.1 Head Variation ............................................................................. 3-7
3.2.2 High Motor Amps ......................................................................... 3-9
3.2.3 Performance Testing Techniques................................................ 3-9

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3.3 High Bearing Temperatures............................................................... 3-13
3.3.1 High Axial Thrust Loads............................................................. 3-13
3.3.2 Misalignment.............................................................................. 3-14
3.3.3 High Vibration ............................................................................ 3-15

Section 4.0 Component Inspection and Repair 4-1


4.1 Shaft ..................................................................................................... 4-1

4.1.1 Surface/Subsurface Cracks ......................................................... 4-1


4.1.2 Shaft Bow..................................................................................... 4-2
4.1.3 Damage to Threads ..................................................................... 4-4
4.1.4 Loss of Integrity of Material Deposition ....................................... 4-5
4.1.5 Fretting ........................................................................................ 4-5
4.1.6 Damage to Keyways .................................................................... 4-6
4.1.7 Perpendicularity of Shaft End Faces ........................................... 4-6
4.2 Bearings ................................................................................................ 4-7

4.3 Wear Components ................................................................................ 4-8

4.4 Impellers.............................................................................................. 4-10

4.4.1 Surface and/or Subsurface Cracks ............................................ 4-11


4.4.2 Cavitation Damage .................................................................... 4-11
4.4.3 Separation Damage ................................................................... 4-12
4.4.4 Inspection .................................................................................. 4-13
4.4.5 Suction Recirculation Damage .................................................. 4-14
4.4.6 Fretting/Galling of Bores............................................................ 4-14
4.4.7 Broken Shrouds or Vanes.......................................................... 4-14
4.5 Stationary Parts .................................................................................. 4-15

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4.5.1 Surface Cracks .......................................................................... 4-15
4.5.2 Erosion....................................................................................... 4-15
4.5.3 Alignment Fits ............................................................................ 4-16
4.6 Hardware ............................................................................................. 4-17
Appendix A General Pump Design and Application
Guide A-1
A.1 General Overview .................................................................................A-1
A.2 System Curve........................................................................................A-1
A.3 Pump Selection.....................................................................................A-4
A.3.1 Hydraulic Requirements .............................................................. A-4
A.3.2 Pump Length................................................................................ A-5
A.3.3 Specific Speed........................................................................... A-12
A.3.4 Modelling Equations .................................................................. A-12
A.3.5 Affinity Laws............................................................................... A-14
A.3.6 Moody Equation......................................................................... A-17
A.4 Pump Curves.......................................................................................A-19
A.4.1 Performance .............................................................................. A-19
A.5 Motors..................................................................................................A-23
A.5.1 Horsepower ............................................................................... A-23
A.5.2 Speed-Torque Diagram ............................................................. A-23
A.5.3 Reduced Voltage Starting.......................................................... A-24
A.5.4 Axial Thrust................................................................................ A-25
A.5.5 Starting and Stopping Procedures............................................. A-26
A.5.6 Karman-Knapp Diagrams (Reverse Runaway Speed) .............. A-27

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A.6 Pump Configuration ...........................................................................A-30
A.6.1 Above Ground vs. Below Ground Discharge .......................... A-30
A.6.2 Pull-out vs Non-Pull-out Construction ..................................... A-31
A.7 Component Design.............................................................................A-33
A.7.1 Suction Bell ............................................................................. A-34
A.7.2 Impeller ................................................................................... A-38
A.7.3 Back Wear Rings .................................................................... A-40
A.7.4 Impeller Attachment ................................................................ A-41
A.7.5 Bowl ........................................................................................ A-43
A.7.6 Shaft/Bearing System ............................................................. A-43
A.7.7 Line Shaft/Line Shaft Couplings.............................................. A-49
A.7.8 Bearings.................................................................................. A-51
A.7.9 Bearing Lubrication System .................................................... A-53
A.7.10 Shaft Enclosing Tube.............................................................. A-54
A.7.11 Column.................................................................................... A-55
A.7.12 Discharge Elbow ..................................................................... A-58
A.7.13 Stuffing Box............................................................................. A-59
A.7.14 Drive Coupling ........................................................................ A-60
A.8 Materials of Construction ..................................................................A-61
A.8.1 Erosion and Cavitation Resistance ......................................... A-61
A.8.2 Corrosion ................................................................................ A-63
A.8.3 First, Repair, and Replacement Costs .................................... A-65

Appendix B - Vibration Analysis and Mounting B-1


B.1 General Overview .................................................................................B-1

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B.2 Typical Malfunctions and Failure Modes............................................B-3
B.3 Basic Vibration Principles ...................................................................B-5
B.3.1 Basic Parameters......................................................................... B-5
B.3.2 Vibration Measurements .............................................................. B-7
B.4 Vibration Transducer Selection.........................................................B-13
B.4.1 Selection Factors ....................................................................... B-13
B.4.2 Transducer Types...................................................................... B-13
B.4.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Specific Transducers ......... B-16
B.5 Monitoring Recommendations ..........................................................B-18
B.5.1 Special Considerations.............................................................. B-18
B.6 Evaluation and Diagnostics Information ..........................................B-19
B.7 Data Display, Presentation and Analysis .........................................B-20
B.7.1 Cascade and Waterfall Plots ..................................................... B-20
B.7.2 Bode and Polar Plots ................................................................. B-21
B.7.3 Shaft Centerline Position Plot.................................................... B-23
B.7.4 Overall Amplitude Plot ............................................................... B-23
B.8 System Inspection and Maintenance ................................................B-24
B.8.1 Visual Inspection ....................................................................... B-25
B.8.2 Verification of Transducer Operation......................................... B-25
B.8.3 Instrument Calibration................................................................ B-25
B.9 Case History - Dynamic of a Vertical Pump .....................................B-25
B.9.1 Introduction ................................................................................ B-25
B.9.2 Machine Description .................................................................. B-26
B.9.3 Transducer Selection................................................................. B-27

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B.9.4 Static Testing ............................................................................. B-27
B.9.5 Field Testing .............................................................................. B-28
B.9.6 Imbalance .................................................................................. B-28
B.9.7 Misaligned Response Testing ................................................... B-30
B.9.8 Hydraulic Response Testing...................................................... B-32
B.9.9 Summary.................................................................................... B-32

Appendix C Troubleshooting of Vibration Problems in Vertical


Condenser Cooling Water Pumps Using Computer-
Aided Test, Analysis, and Design Techniques C-1
C.1 General Overview .................................................................................C-1
C.2 Background...........................................................................................C-2
C.3 Creating an Analytical Model.............................................................C-10
C.3.1 Testing .......................................................................................C-12
C.3.2 Analytical Modeling....................................................................C-13
C.3.3 Correlation .................................................................................C-14
C.3.4 Evaluating Design Modifications Using the Correlation
Analytical Model ........................................................................C-16
C.4 Case History........................................................................................C-17
C.4.1 Background................................................................................C-17
C.4.2 Modal Testing ............................................................................C-18
C.4.3 FEM Model Construction and Correlation..................................C-19
C.4.4 Design Modifications .................................................................C-22
C.4.5 Summary....................................................................................C-25

Appendix D Sump Design D-1

D.1 General Overview .................................................................................D-1

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D.2 Detrimental Effects of Poor Sump Design .........................................D-2
D.2.1 Approach Flow.............................................................................D-2
D.2.2 Effects of Approach Flow on Impeller Performance.....................D-3
D.2.3 Vortex Formation .........................................................................D-4
D.2.4 Debris Loading in Screen Systems..............................................D-4
D.2.5 Fish Protection.............................................................................D-5
D.2.6 Sediment Loading........................................................................D-5
D.3 Identifying Poor Sump Design.............................................................D-5
D.3.1 Field Testing ................................................................................D-5
D.3.2 Visual Observation ......................................................................D-6
D.3.3 Aural Observation ........................................................................D-6
D.3.4 Vibration Measurements ..............................................................D-6
D.3.5 Performance Measurements........................................................D-7
D.3.6 Laboratory Testing.......................................................................D-7
D.3.7 Model Scaling ..............................................................................D-8
D.3.8 Selection of Model Limits.............................................................D-8
D.3.9 Testing Program ........................................................................D-10
D.3.10Testing Procedures and Techniques .........................................D-10
D.3.11Acceptance Criteria ...................................................................D-11
D.4 Remedying Poor Sump Design .........................................................D-12
D.4.1 Introduction ................................................................................D-12
D.4.2 Modifying Approach Flow ..........................................................D-12
D.4.3 Changing Sump Relative Geometries........................................D-15
D.4.4 Sump Width ...............................................................................D-16

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D.4.5 Back Wall Clearance................................................................D-17
D.4.6 Bell to Floor Clearance.............................................................D-17
D.4.7 Minimum Vortex Submergence.................................................D-18
D.4.8 Localized Flow Guidance .........................................................D-20
D.4.9 Cones .......................................................................................D-20
D.4.10 Splitters ....................................................................................D-21
D.4.11 Fillets........................................................................................D-21
D.4.12 Formed Inlets ...........................................................................D-23
D.4.13 Grating Cages ..........................................................................D-23
D.4.14 Pump Design Modifications ......................................................D-23
D.4.15 Operational Constraints ...........................................................D-23
D.5 The Sump Design Process ................................................................D-24
D.5.1 Introduction...............................................................................D-24
D.5.2 Design Responsibility...............................................................D-24
D.5.3 Design Sequence .....................................................................D-24
D.5.4 Preliminary Selection of Pumps................................................D-25
D.5.5 Selection of Screens ................................................................D-25
D.5.6 Conceptual Layout of the Station .............................................D-25
D.5.7 Hydraulic Model Testing...........................................................D-26

D.6 Case History........................................................................................D-26


D.6.1 Case History No. 1 ...................................................................D-26
D.6.2 Case History No. 2 ...................................................................D-33
D.6.3 Case History No. 3 ...................................................................D-36
D.6.4 Case History No. 4 ...................................................................D-41

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D.6.5 Case History No. 5 ...................................................................D-44
D.6.6 Case History No. 6 ...................................................................D-46

Appendix E References E-1

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List of Figures
2.1 Once-Through System.......................................................................................... 2-2
2.2 Closed-Loop System ............................................................................................ 2-3
2.3 Typical Trash Rack ............................................................................................... 2-5
2.4 Typical Traveling Water Screen............................................................................ 2-6
2.5 Modified Through-Flow Traveling Water Screen................................................... 2-7
2.6 Fish-Bucket-Type Screen Basket Assembly ......................................................... 2-8
3.1 Gap B ................................................................................................................... 3-6
3.2 Rigid Adjustable Motor Drive Coupling ................................................................. 3-8
4.1 Shaft End Machined with Relief............................................................................ 4-7
4.2 Areas of Cavitation Damage................................................................................. 4-12
4.3 Cavitation Damage to Vane.................................................................................. 4-13
4.4 Anti-Stall Hump..................................................................................................... 4-13
A.1 Low-Head Siphon System .................................................................................... A-2
A.2 Medium-Head Siphon System .............................................................................. A-3
A.3 High-Head Siphon System.................................................................................... A-3
A.4 Above and Below Ground Discharge Piping......................................................... A-5
A.5 Oscillation of an Overhanging Ruler ..................................................................... A-6
A.6 NPSH Corrections for Elevation and Temperature ............................................... A-8
A.7 Individual, System, and Combined Pump Curves ................................................. A-10
A.8 Efficiency vs. Specific Speed (Impeller Shape) .................................................... A-13
A.9 Pump Curve for Example 5................................................................................... A-17
A.10 Curve Shape vs. Specific Speed .......................................................................... A-19
A.11 Regions of Stable Operation................................................................................. A-20
A.12 Three Paralleling Pump vs. System Curve ........................................................... A-20

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A.13 Pump vs. System Curve ....................................................................................... A-22

A.14 Typical Speed vs. Torque Diagram....................................................................... A-24

A.15 Karman Knapp Diagram ....................................................................................... A-27

A.16 Reverse Speed vs. Specific Speed ...................................................................... A-28

A.17 Above Ground Discharge vs. Below Ground Discharge ....................................... A-30

A.18 Pull Out vs. Non-Pull Out ...................................................................................... A-31

A.19 Bottom, Mid, and Top Seat Construction .............................................................. A-32

A.20 Pump Assembly.................................................................................................... A-33

A.21 Pump Bell profile................................................................................................... A-34

A.22 Suction Bell Umbrella............................................................................................ A-35

A.23 Recommended Sump Dimension Outlines ........................................................... A-37

A.24 Suction Bell with and w/o Bottom Bearing ............................................................ A-38

A.25 Open and Enclosed Impeller Design .................................................................... A-39

A.26 Back Wear Rings.................................................................................................. A-40

A.27 Impeller to Shaft Attachment Methods.................................................................. A-42

A.28 Shaft Coupling Designs ........................................................................................ A-50

A.29 Discharge Elbow Types ........................................................................................ A-58

A.30 Galvanic Series in Seawater................................................................................. A-66

B.1 Freedom System Motion....................................................................................... B-5

B.2 Mass Position at Any Point in Time....................................................................... B-6

B.3 Velocity Frequency ............................................................................................... B-8

B.4 In-Phase Vibration ................................................................................................ B-9

B.5 Out-of-Phase Vibration ......................................................................................... B-9

B.6 Amplitude vs. Time Plot ........................................................................................ B-10

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List of Figures (continued)


B.7 Orbital Presentation .............................................................................................. B-11

B.8 Frequency Domain ............................................................................................... B-12

B.9 Proximity Probe .................................................................................................... B-14

B.10 Velocity Transducer .............................................................................................. B-15

B.11 Accelerometer....................................................................................................... B-16

B.12 Cascade Plot ........................................................................................................ B-20

B.13 Waterfall Plot ........................................................................................................ B-21

B.14 Bode Plot .............................................................................................................. B-22


B.15 Polar Representation of Bode Plot ....................................................................... B-22
B.16 Shaft Centerline Position Plot ............................................................................... B-23
B.17 Overall Amplitude Plot .......................................................................................... B-24
B.18 Outline Drawing of Case History Pump................................................................. B-26
B.19 Submersible Proximity Probe Design.................................................................... B-27
B.20 Results of Case History Testing............................................................................ B-28
B.21 Case History Orbit Plots........................................................................................ B-29
B.22 Case History Time Base Plots .............................................................................. B-30
B.23 Case History Orbit Plots (in B Location) ............................................................. B-31
B.24 Case History Time Base Plots (in B Location) .................................................... B-31
C.1 Simple Single Degree of Freedom System ........................................................... C-3
C.2 Transfer Function Plot .......................................................................................... C-4
C.3 Graphical Relation of Stiffness, Mass and Damping with
Respect of Stiffness Modification.......................................................................... C-6

C.4 Effects of Stiffness Modification............................................................................ C-9

C.5 Effects of Mass Modification ................................................................................. C-9


C.6 Effects of Damping Modification ........................................................................... C-10

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List of Figures (Continued)


C.7 Methodology Flow Chart ....................................................................................... C-11

C.8 Modes Shapes of Simply Supported Shaft ........................................................... C-12

C.9 Transfer Function.................................................................................................. C-13

C.10 1st Mode Shape of Case History Model................................................................ C-18

C.11 2nd Mode Shape of Case History Model .............................................................. C-18

C.12 Drive Point Transfer Function at Top of Motor ...................................................... C-19

C.13 Isometric View of Model........................................................................................ C-20

C.14 Analysis Mode Shape 1 ........................................................................................ C-20


C.15 Analysis Mode Shape 2 ........................................................................................ C-20
C.16 Analysis Mode Shape 3 ........................................................................................ C-21
C.17 Analysis Mode Shape 4 ........................................................................................ C-21
C.18 Drive Point Transfer Functions ............................................................................. C-22
C.19 Design Modifications............................................................................................. C-23
C.20 Design Modifications............................................................................................. C-23
C.21 Analysis Mode Shape 1, Modified Design............................................................. C-24
C.22 Analysis Mode Shape 2, Modified Design............................................................. C-24
C.23 Drive Point Transfer Function - Modified Design .................................................. C-25
D.1 Impact of Pre-rotation on Impeller Approach Velocity Vectors.............................. D-2

D.2 Velocity and Energy Profile at a Section Through a Vortex .................................. D-3
D.3 Example of Circulation Pattern in a Sump Due to Approach Channel and
Training Wall Layout............................................................................................. D-13
D.4 Example of Guide Wall and Piers Improving Approach Flow Velocity
Distribution............................................................................................................ D-13

D.5 T Shaped Flow Diffusers Used to Straighten Flow Entering a Sump or


Pump Bay ............................................................................................................. D-14

D.6 Perforated Plate Flow Baffling at the Entrance to Individual Pump Bays.............. D-15

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List of Figures (continued)


D.7 Relative Geometry of A Sump .............................................................................. D-17

D.8 Example of a Curtain Wall Used to Dissipate Surface Vortices ............................ D-19

D.9 Example of Grating Used to Dissipate Surface Vortices....................................... D-19

D.10 Layout of Flow Guidance Near a Pump ................................................................ D-20

D.11 Example of a Formed Inlet.................................................................................... D-22

D.12 Example of a Formed Inlet.................................................................................... D-22

D.13 Sump Design Process Case History - Site Plan ................................................... D-27

D.14 Sump Design Process Case History - Initial Conceptual Design .......................... D-29

D.15 Sump Design Process Case History - Final Conceptual Design ........................... D-30

D.16 Case History No. 1 - Initial Sump Layout .............................................................. D-31

D.17 Case History No. 1 - Cone Profiles ....................................................................... D-32

D.18 Case History No. 2 - Initial Sump Layout .............................................................. D-34

D.19 Case History No. 2 - Propose Sump Modifications ............................................... D-35

D.20 Case History No. 2 - Baffle Plate Cone Modifications........................................... D-36

D.21 Case History No. 3 - Initial Intake Design ............................................................. D-37

D.22 Case History No. 3 - Initial Sump Layout .............................................................. D-38

D.23 Case History No. 3 - Sump Modification Details ................................................... D-39

D.24 Case History No. 3 - Intake Plan........................................................................... D-40

D.25 Case History No. 4 - Initial Sump Layout .............................................................. D-41

D.26 Case History No. 4 - Sump Modifications ............................................................. D-42

D.27 Case History No. 4 - Sump Modification Details ................................................... D-43

D.28 Case History No. 5 - Initial Sump Layout .............................................................. D-44

D.29 Case History No. 5 - Sump Modifications ............................................................. D-45

D.30 Case History No. 6 - Site Modifications................................................................. D-46

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List of Figures (continued)


D.31 Case History No. 6 - Initial Intake Layout.............................................................. D-47

D.32 Case History No. 6 - Sump Modifications ............................................................. D-49

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List of Tables
Table A.1 Frequency Ranges of Mechanical and Hydraulic Forces ................................ A-6

Table A.2 Shaft Material Properties ................................................................................. A-45

Table A.3 Typical Bearing Diametrical Clearance............................................................ A-52

Table A.4 Typical Bearing L/D Ratios .............................................................................. A-52

Table A.5 Typical Shaft Enclosing Tube Data ................................................................. A-54

Table A.6 Discharge Elbow Head Loss ........................................................................... A-59

Table A.7 Material Erosion Properties ............................................................................. A-62

Table A.8 Typical Velocities Through Pump Components............................................... A-63

Table A.9 Typical Pump Materials of Construction .......................................................... A-67

Table B.1 Transducer Advantages and Disadvantages................................................... B-17

Table B.2 Monitoring Recommendations ......................................................................... B-18

Table B.3 Monitoring Recommendations - Scaled Down................................................. B-18

Table B.4 Rotor Natural Frequencies .............................................................................. B-29

Table D.1 Basic Sump Dimension Based on Pump Bell Diameter................................... D-16

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1.0 Introduction
Deep draft vertical centrifugal pumps (also referred to as circulating water pumps and
condenser cooling water pumps) provide many challenges to maintenance personnel. In
developing a guide for these pumps it became clear that the pump design, the effects of the
intake structure, and water quality can all significantly influence the overall operability of
the pumps. Hence the scope of this guide covers the pump, its application in the circulating
water system and the intake structure design and maintenance. While the primary focus
has been on deep draft vertical centrifugal pumps, some aspects of this guide can be applied
to all vertical centrifugal pumps.

Chapter 2.0, Technical Descriptions, covers an overview of the circulating water system.
This includes the specific components of the intake structure and the deep draft vertical
centrifugal pumps that provide the motive force for the circulating water system. This
chapter provides a comprehensive background for the new system engineer and an excellent
review for those with system experience.

Chapter 3.0, Common Field Problems, covers the troubleshooting of these pumps in three
basic areas; high vibration, loss of performance, and high bearing temperatures. This
chapter can be applied to many other centrifugal pumps and should be considered as a
general vertical centrifugal pump troubleshooting guide.

Chapter 4.0, Component Inspection and Repair, covers the proper techniques to conduct a
comprehensive inspection and the corresponding repair activities. While this section was
written for deep draft vertical centrifugal pumps in circulating water service, the scope can
be applied to other centrifugal pumps. This section covers shafts, bearings, wear
components, impellers, stationary components, and other hardware.

Appendix A, General Pump Design and Application Guide, covers the design process for a
new pump and sump installation. This process will be very informative to both the system
engineer and maintenance engineer in providing a better understanding of the factors that
can affect the pump performance and reliability.

Appendix B, Vibration Analysis and Monitoring, provides a general introduction to


vibration analysis. The appendix also provides recommendations for proper probe type
selection and placement. These recommendations are applicable to most vertical
centrifugal pump applications.

Appendix C, Troubleshooting Vibration Problems in Vertical Condenser Cooling Water


Pumps Using Computer Aided Test, Analysis, and Design Techniques, provides a summary
of a methodology used to troubleshoot structural resonant vibration problems in deep draft
vertical centrifugal pumps.

Appendix D, Sump Design and Analysis, covers the detrimental effects of poor sump design,
how to identify a poor design, and finally ways to modify an existing sump to alleviate these
problems.

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2.0 Technical Descriptions


This maintenance guide covers the maintenance, troubleshooting, and application of deep
draft vertical centrifugal pumps. These pumps are typically used in circulating water
systems as the primary cooling source for the power plant's main condensers. Because
these pumps are susceptible to detrimental affects from other components in the circulating
water system, this technical description section will cover those components that may affect
the operation and maintenance of deep draft vertical centrifugal pumps.

2.1 Introduction
The circulating-water system supplies cooling water to the turbine condensers and thus
rejects heat from the steam cycle to the environment. The system may also provide lesser
amounts of auxiliary cooling water for various functions throughout the plant.

The circulating system must effectively reject heat from the plant to the environment but
at the same time conform to thermal-discharge regulations. The circulating water system
performance is vital to the power plant's efficiency. A condenser operating at the lowest
temperature possible results in maximum turbine work, maximum cycle efficiency and
minimum heat rejection. Hence a good heat-rejection system makes its own job easier.

2.2 Circulating System Classifications


2.2.1 Once-through Systems
A once-through system takes its suction from a natural body of water such as a lake, river
or ocean and pumps it through the condenser where it removes heat from the condensing
steam and then discharges back to the source. A once through cooling system is,
thermodynamically, the most efficient means of heat rejection. It typically uses the lowest-
temperature heat sink available to the power plant.

Figure 2-1 shows the basic layout of this type of system. The intake structure provides a
controlled flow of water to the circulating water pumps. The circulating water pumps
provide the motive power for the circulating water to pass through the condenser. The size
and number of circulating water pumps depends on the heat rejection requirements of the
plant.

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Figure 2.1
Once-Through System

The pump discharge is directed and controlled into the condensers typically through an
arrangement of piping and valves depending on He condenser arrangement. Tone
circulating water passes through the condenser tubs and cools the condensate and then
passes bad to the discharge structures There are generally three methods of Barge:

2.2.1.1 Surface Discharge

In a surface discharge, the circulating water is released in a relatively thin layer on the
surface of the original body of water. The resulting plume is cooled by evaporation to the
atmosphere and mixing with the cooler water below.

2.2.1.2 Submerged Discharge


In a submerged discharge, the circulating water is released as a buoyant jet below the
surface of the water body. The jet mixes with the cooler water, and heat is eventually
dissipated by evaporation from the nurture.

2.2.1.3 Diffuser Discharge

In a diffuser discharge, the water is let out through a number of nozzles from a long pipe
submerged across the flowing system, such as across a river. The jets may point upstream
to promote more rapid mixing. Again the heat rejection is accomplished by evaporation
from the mixture.

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2.2.2 Closed-Loop Systems


In some instances the use of a once-through system is not possible and a closed-loop system
is used. This will typically occur when water is scarce or when environmental regulations
limit the utilization of surface waters or its temperature rise.

A closed-loop system typically consists of a cooling device, circulating water pumps, and the
condenser. This is shown in Figure 2-2. A source for makeup water is still needed for this
system, but the overall water requirements are much less than that of a once-through
system.

Figure 2.2
Closed-Loop System

There are several types of cooling devices available for a closed loop system:

2.2.2.1 Cooling Towers


Cooling towers can be a wet-type, dry-type or a combination of the two. The majority of
those in use are wet-type. Wet-cooling towers dissipate plant rejected heat to the
environment by the addition of sensible heat to the air and the evaporation of a portion of
the recirculation water itself.

The basic operation of a cooling tower provides heat transfer between the circulating water
and the atmosphere. This is done by showering or spraying the circulating water into the
path of a moving air mass. The water's surface area is increased through the use of a

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lattice work of slats called fill or packing. The water cascades down through the fill driven
by gravity and collects in a basin at the bottom of the cooling tower.

The air is driven by mechanical or natural means. In a mechanical draft cooling tower the
air is moved by forced or induced draft fans. Natural draft air flow uses no fans but relies
upon the natural driving pressure caused by the difference m density between the cool
outside air and the hot, humid air inside. In order to achieve the desired air flow, natural
draft towers are typically very tall. Natural draft cooling towers are typically built with a
hyperbolic vertical profile and hence, are called hyperbolic towers. The hyperbolic profile
has been found to offer superior strength and the greatest resistance to outside wind
loading and has little to do with inside air flow.

The direction that the air flows through the fill determines whether the tower is classified
as counter-flow (water moves down and air moves up through the fill) or cross-flow (water
moves down and air moves horizontally through the fill).

2.2.2.2 Spray Ponds

Spray ponds rely upon the winds that blow across the ponds to cool fine sprays of water by
evaporation.

2.2.2.3 Spray Canals

Spray canals operate similarly to spray ponds except that the water is sprayed into larger
droplets to minimize the drift loss that occurs when water droplets are carried beyond the
pond surface by the wind.

2.2.2.4 Cooling Lakes

Cooling lakes depend upon being cooled naturally by evaporation and radiation of the
thermal energy. They are the least efficient and hence require the greatest acreage, but
they also require the least mechanical equipment.

2.2.2.5 Combination Systems


Any of the above systems can be combined to deal with certain situations. A cooling tower
can be used with an open system to minimize the temperature differential before
discharging back to the environment.

2.3 Circulating System Components


2.3.1 Intake System
2.3.1.1 Intake Structure
The intake structure's sole purpose is to provide clean water with proper hydraulic
properties to the circulating water pumps. If it fails in this purpose, due to either design
problems or unforeseen environmental issues, the result can be pump failure. A large
number of circulating water pump failures can be attributed to problems with the sump

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and not the fault of the pump's design or manufacture. This is discussed in more detail in
Appendix D.

The intake system starts with a skimmer wall that assists on obtaining cooler water from
the water source in a once-through system. The intake structure is located on the land end
of the intake channel and is constructed of reinforced concrete.

2.3.1.2 Trash Racks

Trash Racks are typically the first line of defense to prevent debris from entering the
circulating water system. Trash Racks (Figure 2-3) consist of vertical bars mounted close
together with a raking mechanism that removes the debris as it accumulates.

The spacing of the bars should be such that items which may damage the pump will not
pass through. This is generally dictated by the size of the circulating pump. A general rule
is to space the bars at 50% of the largest sphere that the pump can handle.

The arrangement of the bars and the rate of the raking mechanism both affect the head
loss that occurs across the rack. During times of heavy trash load, the velocity of the water
that does pass will be higher and can affect the turbulence and velocity in the intake
structure itself.

F igure 2.3
Typical Trash Rack

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2.3.1.3 Traveling Water Screens

Traveling water screens are typically located downstream from the bar racks and filter out
trash of a much smaller size. This is accomplished by using a smaller mesh size than the
bar racks and by continuously moving and cleaning the screens. This allows the removal of
trash that is smaller than the pump's requirements and takes into consideration the size of
other components in the circulating system such as condenser tubes or spray nozzles.

Figure 2-4 shows a typical traveling water screen. A traveling water screen consists of
multiple assemblies with screen panels. The screen has a typical opening of 3/8 in. x 3/8
in., which is cleaned by jet spray nozzles into a trash trough at the top of the screen
mechanism.

Figure 2.4
Typical Traveling Water Screen

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Modified designs include mechanisms for the protection of fish life. Figure 2-5 shows the
general layout of a traveling water screen that has been modified to provide a safe travel
path for fish small enough to pass through the bar rack but too big for the screen mesh size
of the traveling screen. Figure 2-6 shows a closeup of the individual screen assemblies.

Figure 2.5
Modified Through-Flow Traveling Water Screen

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Figure 2.6
Fish-Bucket-Type Screen Basket Assembly, Salem CWS
(Source: Public Service Electric and Gas Company, 1984)

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2.3.2 Circulating Water Pumps


The circulating water pumps deliver a large volume of water at relatively low head. The
pumps are typically single-stage, mixed flow designs and can be oriented either vertically or
horizontally.

Vertical designs are designated wet-pit pumps since these models take suction directly from
an open pit. The pump impeller is overhung and the pump thrust is usually taken by the
motor thrust bearings through a rigid coupling.

Please refer to Appendix A for a more detailed explanation on application guidelines and
helpful examples.

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3.0 Common Field Problems

When attempting to "cure" a field problem, it is important to ascertain its root cause(s).
This requires a dialogue between "the pump" and "the analyst" to define the nature and
severity of the problem. Pumps have their own language to communicate normal or
abnormal operation. It is the analyst's responsibility to understand the subtle nuances of
this foreign language so that the information is processed correctly in establishing the
proper conclusions. The principal dialects of the pump language are:

Vibration Waveforms
Performance
Bearing Temperature

Common field problems result in a change from standard in one or more of the above
categories leading to high vibration, increase or decrease in performance, and/or a rise in
bearing temperature. Proper investigative work in curing the problem requires:

Obtaining complete data


Understanding correlation between data and probable causes
Continued exploration to precipitate the root cause(s)
Modifying design or operation to remove or mitigate the root cause(s)

This section discusses common field problems of condenser cooling water pumps as they
relate to the measurable parameters provided by the equipment - vibration, performance,
and bearing temperature; provides guidance on how to pinpoint the actual root cause(s) of
the problem; and suggests solutions for its remedy.

3.1 Vibration
Vibration analysis provides the greatest diagnostic information to the analyst. It is the
"blood work" in the pumps physical exam. A complete discussion of vibration diagnostics
and monitoring is provided in Appendix B.

Various factors affect both the occurrence and severity of vibration. These include:

Unbalance
Misalignment
Mechanical Looseness
Resonance
Hydraulic Instability
Sump Induced Vibration

3.1.1 Unbalance

Some degree of unbalance is always present in pump parts. Normally all major rotating
parts are dynamically balanced during manufacture or repair. Little vibration should be
experienced in new or recently repaired pumps unless the work was not properly

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accomplished. Unbalance can, however, increase as the pump is operated, usually as a


result of:

Component material loss or damage


Bowing of the shaft

Material loss or damage can be due to several factors including:

Abrasive solids m the liquid


Corrosive attack by contaminants m the liquid
Cavitation/separation damage of hydraulic components
Foreign objects passing through the pump

Regardless of the cause, vibration due to unbalance occurs at a frequency corresponding to


1x (one times rotational speed) with the primary amplitude in the radial direction.

In order to correct rotor unbalance, the pump must be removed and the major rotating
parts balanced to acceptable limits. MIL-S-167 (Military specification) and API-610
(American Petroleum Institute specification) generally concur that the maximum
acceptable residual unbalance is 4xW/N; where W is the rotor weight (lbs), and N is the
rotor speed (rpm). For high energy pumps such as the vertical condenser cooling water
pump, it is recommended that the impeller be statically and dynamically balanced so that
the maximum residual unbalance does not exceed 1xW/N.

If the fundamental cause of the unbalance is from damage during operation, the problem
will continue to return unless the source of the problem is removed.

3.1.2 Misalignment
Some small amount of misalignment will always be present in a system. Provided the
alignment is within normal limits, little vibration should be experienced due to initial
misalignment. If, however, the proper alignment at the various shaft couplings is not
accomplished during assembly and installation, significant vibrations may be experienced.

Vibrations due to misalignment exhibit themselves in the frequency domain at 1x and its
harmonics (2x, 3x, etc.). The harmonics are not really vibrations at those frequencies, but a
response of the digital signal process when motion is restricted.

Vibrations due to misalignment can only be cured by removing the pump and inspecting:

Dimensional clearance and concentricity of alignment fits


Perpendicularity of alignment faces to the shaft axis
Parallelism of the alignment faces to each other

Attention should be paid to the rabbet fits locating the shaft bearings. Parts which do not
assist in alignment based on the results of the inspection must either be repaired, replaced
or redesigned as required.

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3.1.3 Mechanical Looseness

Another cause of vibration in condenser cooling pumps is mechanical looseness. This can
result from:

Rabbet fits being or becoming loose


Loose or inadequate bolting at one or more connections
Looseness at the pump foundation joint (due to improper or broken grouting)
Lack of crush between the bearing and its support
Increased clearance between the bearing and journal

Looseness of the rotating element with respect to stationary components exhibits itself as
harmonics of running speed (1x, 2x, 3x, etc.) when lightly loaded. It is not uncommon to
also see harmonics at running speed; i.e., 1x, 2x, etc. The harmonics are once again
due to digital signal processing of the sine wave being "clipped" when the loose parts hit
against the limit of their movement. In addition to harmonics, looseness can be detected by
a decrease in amplitude at higher load.

Highest amplitudes are normally found at 1x and 2x when caused by looseness between the
pump and foundation. The vibration may be high in both radial and axial directions.

In order to reduce or eliminate vibration due to mechanical looseness, the looseness must be
eliminated. To accomplish this the pump must be removed and all fits inspected to ensure
proper fit. All bolting must be checked to ensure tightness. Parts which are loose must
either be repaired, replaced or redesigned as required. If the vibration after rework
remains unchanged, it is an indication that the bolting design is inadequate. In this case
the bolting must be redesigned to provide additional strength.

3.1.4 Insufficient Damping at the Bearings


Insufficient damping can result from:

Improper bearing design


Excessive bearing clearance

Vertical condenser cooling water pump radial bearings are lightly loaded. A decrease in the
damping will aggravate this situation and result in a vibration at approximately x. It is
caused by the bearing riding up on its high pressure wedge and falling to the other side.
This phenomenon is worsened with increased bearing clearance.

A reduction in damping will also affect the shaft critical speed. In the extreme, the effect
would be the same as having no bearing present since with extreme wear the bearing
provides no support for the shaft.

The first inspection should be to check the bearing clearance. If the clearances are within
design tolerances, then a new bearing design may be appropriate. An upgraded design may
consider:

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Closer bearing clearance


Axial grooves
Pressure dam
Lobed journals
Tilting pads

If the high vibration is a result of bearing wear, a simple replacement of the bearing may be
sufficient. If the bearing wear recurs too quickly, replacement bearings of different
material may be required. Also, the addition of, or modification to, a clean water flush
system may be needed to increase bearing life.

3.1.5 Resonance
If any pump internal or external forcing frequency approximately coincides with the
natural frequency of the rotor or any component/assembly, the vibration amplitude will
.
increase. The magnitude of this increase is dependent on the pump or rotor damping. The
coincidence of forcing and natural frequency is called resonance. Under resonant
conditions, a very small exciting input force can, and most often will, result in a very large
and potentially damaging vibration amplitude which requires immediate action to correct.

The correction of resonance problems is seldom easy and frequently requires sophisticated
techniques (See Appendix C). There are only two ways to eliminate a resonant condition:
change the exciting frequency or alter the natural frequency. Usually the exciting
frequency cannot be eliminated, so the resonant natural frequency must be changed.

In order to reduce vibration amplitude to suitable levels the natural frequency should be at
least 25% above or below the exciting frequency. As noted in Appendix A, the shaft critical
speed should be at least 60% above the operating speed. Methods used to modify the
resonant frequency vary with the component design.

For example, there are several ways to increase the natural frequency of the line shaft:

Increase the shaft diameter


Decrease the bearing spacing
Change the shaft material (increase Young's Modulus, E)

Naturally, any combination of the above may be used concurrently.

The modifications required for a column pipe are totally different. The natural frequency of
this component can be altered by:

Changing the wall thickness of the pipe


Adding full length ribs
Changing the length

Again, a combination of these corrections can be used to effect the change to the natural
frequency. Note that adding ribs can only increase the natural frequency. Changing the
thickness and length can either increase or decrease the natural frequency (increased
thickness and decreased length will increase the natural frequency).

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3.1.6 Hydraulic Instability

Any hydraulic instability in the pump or system will be reflected in the operating vibration
levels of the pump. These include

Cavitation due to insufficient NPSHA


Flow separation at the impeller inlet
Recirculation at the impeller outlet and casing inlet
Impact loading of the exiting impeller flow on the stationary casing vanes
Flow separation at the discharge elbow
Operation in the unstable portion of the pump curve
Hydraulic resonances in the piping system

The frequency range for hydraulic instability varies with the cause and is categorized
below:

Cavitation: Broadband vibration in the 3-5kHz range


Flow separation/recirculation: 4-10 Hz and 0.55x to 0.90x
Impact loading: Vane pass frequency
Hydraulic resonance: Discharge pipe natural frequency

Hydraulic instability due to flow separation/recirculation results in subsynchronous


vibrations which can be extremely damaging to the pump and must be identified and
corrected. Unfortunately, this type of hydraulic instability is often confused with the
conditions previously described for insufficiently damped bearings since both events are
closely associated on the frequency spectrum.

Flow separation in the impeller eye results in cavitation damage to either the visible
(suction) or non-visible (pressure) side of the blade. This phenomenon can be lessened or
eliminated by redesigning the inlet vane profile to include an Anti-stall hump (see Section
4.4.4).

Impact loading is a result of having a too-tight Gap "B" (Figure 3.1). Gap B is defined by:

D3 - D2
Gap B = 3.1
D2

where: D2 = Impeller exit diameter


D3 = Bowl inlet diameter

The remedy is to increase Gap B to an acceptable design without affecting the head
recovery of the bowl.

Flow separation damage at the discharge elbow can be fixed by including flow splitter(s) in
the elbow to remove the stall condition at the turn.

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Figure 3.1
Gap B

3.1.7 Sump Induced Vibration


Sump induced vibrations can result from many factors. This subject is covered in depth in
Appendix D. Normally, sump induced vibrations result from the improper relationship of
pump position and sump geometry, and/or poor sump inlet conditions (including trash rack
and/or screen design).

Sump problems frequently result in the formation of surface and/or subsurface vortices.
The vibrations caused by vortices will appear at vane passing frequency and multiples
thereof. Other random vibrations will be prevalent due to other sump induced hydraulic
instabilities.

Since vibrations due to vortexing can be damaging, it is imperative that the cause be
identified and corrected. The best way to achieve stable flow in the sump for all operating
conditions is to perform a sump model test. Models of this type permit many inexpensive
modifications to be made to determine the most effective correction at the lowest possible
cost.

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3.1.8 Vibration Testing and Analysis


In order to properly qualify and quantify pump vibrations, it is necessary to use one of the
various vibration analyzers that are on the market. New or recently repaired pumps
should be vibration tested as soon after installation as possible. It is important during this
testing that the pump be operating in a normal fashion; without cavitation or separation;
with uniform, non-vortexing flow in the sump; and with the pump producing a total head
equal to the specified design head.

This initial test record should be retained as a reference to trend all future readings. The
cause of any abnormally high vibration readings found during this initial testing should be
identified and corrected as necessary. Frequently, the change of vibration levels with time
is more significant than the initial levels. Higher vibrations can be accommodated if there
is no increase in levels over a long period of time and there is no other indication of damage
to bearings or increase in noise level.

For further discussion of vibration testing and analysis, refer to Appendix B.

3.2 Loss of Performance


3.2.1 Head Variation
Pump performance may indicate either pump or system problems. As shown in Figure A.7,
pumps always operate at the intersection of the pump and system resistance curves. If a
new pump does not provide the proper flow rate, either the pump furnished or the hydraulic
conditions specified were incorrect.

Frequently, incorrectly specified hydraulic conditions result from extreme conservatism in


the determination of the system head. Use of friction factors for old pipe and safety factors
are the most common culprits. This is compounded by the fact that Hydraulic Institute
standards do not allow a negative tolerance on delivered performance; but allow up to 10%
higher flow or 5% higher head, whichever is greater.

If the actual flow is too high, the impeller can be remachined to obtain design conditions.
Depending on the specific speed (Ns) of the design, this remachining may be a decrease in
the outside diameter for lower Ns designs or a change in the vane length on higher Ns
designs.

Far less often, the pump has too little flow at initial start-up as a result of the system head
being higher than specified. Increased output of the pump can be achieved by:

Underfiling the impeller vane (the amount of flow increase depends on the specific
speed of the pump and impeller exit angle, 2 )
Reducing system friction losses
Purchasing a new impeller
Purchasing a new pump

Care must be taken so that any changes to the pump hydraulics will not result in a pump
horsepower requirement which exceeds the motor rating.

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Prior to any modification to the pump, the system should be checked to ensure that the
pump discharge valve is fully open. If the problem exists with only one plump, the discharge
valve and piping should be examined to ensure no blockage.

One of the main problems with condenser cooling water pumps is performance degradation
over time. This can be observed by monitoring:

Discharge pressure variation


Motor amps
Pressure drop across the condenser

Once again, the system should be checked to ensure that changes in performance are not
due to partially closed discharge valves or partially plugged condenser tubes.

Changes to pump output due to the pump itself can be caused by:

Changes in operation affecting inlet flow conditions (see Appendix D)


Increased impeller to shroud clearance
Increased hydraulic friction due to erosion/corrosion of the hydraulic passages
Component damage, including impeller or bowl cavitation

The impeller to shroud clearance can be checked without dismantling the unit through use
of the rigid adjustable coupling. Poor inlet conditions can sometimes be visually observed;
however, more often than not, this situation requires model testing. All other inspections
require pump removal and disassembly.

The rigid adustable motor drive coupling is comprised of basically four (4) elements (See
Figure 3.2).

Figure 3.2
Rigid Adjustable Motor Drive Coupling

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The top half coupling hub mounted on the motor shaft


The bottom half coupling hub mounted on the pump shaft
A nut used to adjust the vertical position of the rotor, mounted on the pump shaft
Through bolts and nuts to connect the coupling halves

When checking the pump setting 1,most of the through bolts are disassembled. A few bolts
are left in place to ease the pump rotor down onto the impeller shroud. A feeler gage is
employed between the adjustable nut and the top half coupling hub to determine what the
running clearance is between the impeller and shroud. If the recorded clearance is not
within design standards, the vertical position of the rotor may be adjusted by turning the
coupling nut in the appropriate direction to either lift or lower the rotor the calculated
distance. The coupling halves are then re-connected by installing and tightening all
through bolts.

Poor inlet conditions can sometimes be visually observed; however, more often than not,
this situation requires model testing. All other inspections require pump removal and
disassembly.

3.2.2 High Motor Amps

Higher specific speed pump designs have different shaped curves than the other centrifugal
pumps used in power plants. Higher Ns pump curves have several distinct features:

The head vs. capacity curve is steep


The head vs. capacity curve usually contains an unstable region
The horsepower vs capacity curve rises to shut-off

Rising motor amps is directly related to increased pump horsepower, and can result from:

Operation at lower flow rates


Increased motor thrust bearing friction due to higher axial loads at lower flow rates
Internal rubbing
Packing adjusted too tightly

If any, or a combination of these items is sufficiently large, the current drawn by the motor
will exceed the nameplate rating and may cause the motor to trip offline due to overload.

3.2.3 Performance Testing Techniques

Soon after installation, any new pump should be performance tested to provide a base line
for comparison with future tests. If this is to be used for acceptance of the pump(s), the
testing must be performed in accordance with a recognized standard such as Hydraulic
Institute Standards.

Various items of data must be recorded using calibrated instruments. The readings to be
taken are:

1 The setting is defined as the vertical lift (or clearance) of the impeller off of the shroud.

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Discharge pressure
Sump liquid level below discharge
Flow in GPM using a venturi, nozzle or orifice
Liquid temperature
Horsepower draw of the motor

Discharge pressure must be recorded using a calibrated pressure gage or transducer. It is


important that steady flow conditions exist at the point of measurement. It is also
important that the connection to the pipe does not affect the flow past the connection. Refer
to the Hydraulic Institute Standards for proper pipe taps.

The pressure reading must be converted to feet of cold (60 F) water with a specific gravity
of 1.0 referred to the centerline of the pump discharge.

During operation the liquid level in the sump must be determined and referred to the
centerline of the discharge.

Total head is defined as the reading of the discharge gauge in feet, plus the velocity head in
the pipe at the gauge connection in feet, plus the vertical distance from the gauge center to
the free water level in the sump in ft.

Pd x 2.31 Vd2
TH = + + (Zd -Z w) 3.2
S.G 2g

where: g = Gravitational constant (32.2 ft/sec 2)


Pd = Discharge pressure reading (psig)
S.G. = Specific gravity of the liquid, (1.0 for fresh water and cooling tower;
1.03 for seawater)
Vd = Liquid velocity at discharge gage connection determined from
Equation 3.3 (ft/sec)
Zd = Distance from the discharge gage connection to the impeller
centerline (ft)
Zw = Distance from the free water level to the impeller centerline (ft)

The velocity head at the discharge gage is calculated per Equation 3.3:

0.321xQ 0.321xQ
Vd = = 3.3
Dd 2
Ad
( )
4

where: Ad = Inside area of the discharge pipe at the gage connection (in 2)
Dd = Inside diameter of discharge pipe at the gage connection (in)
GPM = Discharge flow rate (gpm)
.321 = Conversion factor from gpm/in 2 to ft/sec

As such, Equation 3.2 can be rewritten as:

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Flow may be determined by installing a venturi, nozzle, or plate orifice in the discharge
piping A weir may also be used downstream of the condenser in the return channel to the
river or lake source. These types of flow measurement devices are stable over long periods
of time provided the throat area is not subjected to erosion or corrosion. The use of stainless
steel will normally aid to resist attack. From time to time the diameter of the throat area
should be accurately measured using a micrometer and the dimension compared to the as-
new measurement. Wear to the throat can be detected before test readings are significantly
affected. The original supplier of the device may be able to supply a modified constant for a
slightly worn throat area which will allow continued use of the device.

Once again, it is important to locate the flow measuring device so it will not be adversely
affected by non-uniform flow conditions preceding and/or following the meter. It is
recommended that these type of meters be located m accordance with Hydraulic Institute
Standards to achieve accurate results.

For a venturi the distances ahead of the meter vary between one (1) and twelve (12) pipe
diameters while for nozzles and orifices the range is from six(6) to forty (40) pipe diameters.
Distances after the meter vary from zero (0) to six (6) pipe diameters.

When the flow is measured using a weir, Hydraulic Institute Standards recommend a
rectangular sharp crested weir with smooth vertical crest walls, complete with end
contraction suppressed. Values for the proper coefficients may be found in the latest
Hydraulic Institute Standards. Other configurations may be used for weirs provided there
is a way to determine the proper coefficient. Note that a weir can only be used in an open
channel return. Weirs cannot be used for cooling tower arrangements.

Liquid temperature near the pump must be determined so that the proper specific gravity
can be used in calculating performance. Temperature is usually checked m the sump as
close to the pump as practical using a standard thermometer. Temperature may also be
determined using a thermocouple well in the discharge pipe or elbow.

The horsepower draw of the motor must also be determined. The most accurate method to
accomplish this is to secure kilowatt readings with a polyphase wattmeter connected to the
motor leads at the motor conduit box. Connecting at this point prevents inclusion of
erroneous data (including lights, heaters or other electrical loads) that are not related to the
motor load. A curve of brake horsepower vs. input kilowatts must be prepared using
information from the motor manufacturer concerning the motor efficiency at 1/2 load, 3/4
load, full load and 1.15 load if the motor furnished has a service factor greater than 1.0.
Note that actual test data should be used in lieu of calculated data when available.

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3.5

where: BHP = Output brake horsepower


Em = Motor efficiency
KW = Input kilowatts to motor

After calculating the information, the data can be plotted so that the brake horsepower can
be determined at any input kilowatt value.

If the power factor is known, it is also possible to determine the brake horsepower using the
power factor, volts between each pair of legs and the amps in each leg. This information
will produce the input kilowatts to the motor:

3.6

3.7

3.8

where: E = Average volts


I = Average amps
PF = Power factor

The brake horsepower must be calculated an accordance with Equation 3.5 using the motor
efficiencies at various loads.

Even if a polyphase wattmeter is used for determining the kilowatts during routine pump
performance test, it is advisable to also record the volts and amps. These latter figures are
normally available at the motor control panel during operation. Early indications of
changing motor loads are always available without performing a complete pump
performance test.

A series of data points may be taken by closing the discharge valve part way. At each
discharge valve setting it is necessary to obtain simultaneous data for flow in GPM,
discharge pressure, water level m the sump and kilowatt input to the motor. After the test
is completed, the results can be correlated to baseline data to analyze any degradation in
performance.

If desired the pump efficiency can also be determined from Equation 3.9

Q x TH
Ep = 3.9
39.60 x BHP

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where Ep = Pump efficiency


Q = Flow (gpm)
TH = Total dynamic head (ft)
S.G. = Liquid specific gravity
BHP = Output brake horsepower
3960 = Conversion factor from (gpm-ft)/bhp to a dimensionless quantity

3.3 High Bearing Temperatures


In general high bearing temperatures are a result of high static or dynamic loads exerted
on the bearing. The primary sources for theses high loads are:

High axial thrust load


Misalignment
High vibration

3.3.1 High Axial Thrust Loads

High bearing temperatures can result from axial thrust loads under the following
conditions:

Operation at higher heads than specified


Error in calculation of axial thrust
Improper bearing selection m motor
Improper bearing lubrication

The operating head can be determined with relative ease by determining discharge
pressure at the discharge pipe, measuring pump flow and surveying the water level m the
sump. If the total head is higher and flow is lower than specified, some or all of the
following modification may need to be made:

Modify the system to a lower friction loss


Replace the pump with a new impeller
Design and manufacture a higher head impeller
Obtain a new pump with higher performance

The first check is to insure that all valves in the system are wide open. Watching the
discharge gage during start-up will indicate if a siphon is established for a once-through
system. For proper operation of this type system, the discharge pressure will first increase
to higher than normal values and then decrease after the siphon becomes effective. If the
pressure does not decrease, it is a sign of a non-functioning siphon.

If insufficient velocity at the high point in the piping is the problem, there are two ways to
increase this velocity. Reduce the diameter of the pipe or use multiple pumps to supply the
additional flow rate required.

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If the siphon is not the problem, the only way to reduce the head is to reduce the friction
losses in the piping. This requires larger pipe or more direct piping runs with fewer
fittings.

If the valves are all open, the siphon has been established, and the piping cannot be
modified, then the pump must be modified in one of the following ways to obtain the
required flow:

The impeller can be underfiled


A larger impeller of the same design can be furnished if the existing impeller
diameter or vane length has been reduced
A higher specific speed impeller can be furnished to provide additional flow at the
same head
In the extreme case, a new pump to deliver the higher performance can be supplied

Depending on the impeller size and design this can mean anything from a new untrimmed
impeller similar to that originally furnished, to a new higher head impeller for the same
pump or in the extreme case a new pump with higher performance. The manufacturer can
help determine the most economical option based on the actual head required by the
installation.

If operating heads are not significantly higher than specified, then the original information
furnished to the motor manufacturer must be reviewed for accuracy. The operating axial
thrust load must be recalculated to determine correct magnitude. Then the motor
manufacturer should be contacted to verify the bearing capacity for the lubricating medium
utilized in the motor.

If the bearings run at normal temperatures when new and the high temperatures are only
experienced after an extended period of pump operation, the most likely cause is increased
clearance at the back wear rings if the pump is so fitted. As noted previously, wear to the
back rings results in increased axial thrust at the impeller which m the extreme will cause
the bearing to be overloaded with resultant heat generation. If worn back rings are the
cause of the high bearing temperatures, the condition will continue until the pump is pulled
and the wear ring clearance is restored to new.

3.3.2 Misalignment
Another possible cause of high bearing temperatures is shaft misalignment at the coupling
between the pump and motor. Misalignment may cause significantly higher bearing loads
in the radial direction and result in overloads on the bearing. In order to determine if
misalignment is the cause, the coupling must be disconnected and the alignment checked
and corrected as necessary to meet the limits specified in the operating and maintenance
manual furnished with the pump.

The amount of performance gain is relative to the design specific speed of the impeller. This
information can be supplied by the original equipment manufacturer.

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3.3.3 High Vibration

In addition to causing higher loads on the bearing(s), misalignment may also cause high
vibration levels. Whatever the cause of the high vibration, the effect of the vibration is high
dynamic loads on the bearings. This in turn causes the bearing temperatures to be high.
The only way to lower the bearing temperature is to find and remove the cause of the high
vibration.

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4.0 Component Inspection and Repair


This section contains standard guidelines to perform a quality inspection and repair of all
major and minor condenser cooling water pump components. It is organized by component
part and for each pump component, key problem areas, quality inspection procedures and
repair m e thods are detailed. Inspection procedures and repair methods use ASME,
NAVSHIPS, and D.O.D. standards.

4.1 Shaft
Key problem areas to uncover while inspecting the shaft include:

Surface and/or subsurface cracks


Shaft bow
Damage to threads
Loss of integrity of any material deposition (e.g., chrome plating; carbon steel
overlay)
Fretting (at any shaft diameter)
Damage to keyways
Perpendicularity of shaft end faces
Indication of previous welding or straightening activities

4.1.1 Surface/Subsurface Cracks


Surface and/or subsurface cracks in a shaft result from:

Material defects
Poor manufacturing (especially m threaded areas)
Impact loading
Fatigue loading

The following inspections should be completed to detect shaft discontinuities:

Surface and near-to-surface cracks: Wet magnetic particle inspection (MT) entire
length in conformance with ASME Section V, Subsection A, Article 7
Surface cracks with non-magnetic material: Dye penetrant (PT) inspection
Deep subsurface cracks: Ultrasonic inspection (UT) entire length m conformance
with ASME Section V, Subsection A, Article 4
Acceptance criteria for any linear indication (crack) is detailed m the ASME Sections
referenced above, and is dependent on the location of the crack, length, and depth. The
following rules apply:
Welding is not an acceptable repair procedure
Linear indications at all stress risers (thread roots, shaft undercuts/radii) are cause
for rejection
No metallizing is allowed m keyways

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Cracks discovered in non-critical areas (shaft major diameters, bearing journals, stuffing
box area) can be repaired by undercutting and plating per one of the following methods:

Hard chrome plate in conformance with D.O.D. STD-2182 (S.H.)


Maximum radial deposition is .025". (Section 4.1.4)

Nickel and copper lamination m conformance with NAV SHIPS 0900-038-6010


Lamination thickness can exceed .030". Maximum lamination thickness is a
function of the design stress level m the effected area.

A full NDE via liquid penetrant (PT) or magnetic particle (MT) inspection is required after
undercutting or grinding to prove complete removal of the discontinuity.

4.1.2 Shaft Bow


Bowing of the shaft can be caused by any one or combination of the following events:

Non-parallel stack up of stationary components


Depending on the severity of this situation, a permanent mechanical set can be
developed
Large localized forces and heat build-up due to contact between rotating and
stationary components 1
Coupling mis-alignment
Non-plumbness
Material returning to former shape (memory) after previous unsuccessful
mechanical straightening

A shaft bow will exhibit itself as high vibration in the radial plane (horizontal) at a
frequency of "lX" (one times running speed). The top and bottom pump vibration readings
will be in phase. Note that there may be some difficulty m securing the appropriate
readings at the bottom since it is normally under water.

If large "lX" readings (as described above) are captured during field vibration testing, it is
recommended that the degree of shaft motion be obtained by one of the following methods:

Take shaft vibration levels using a fishtail (shaft stick).


Measure total indicated runout (T.I.R.) along the entire shaft length with each
section of shaft

For obtaining the T.I.R. of the shaft:

1 Incidents leading to this occurrence include:


(1) High rotor vibration
(2) Excitation of a stationary component natural frequency
(3) Loss of water flush lubrication

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Set each shaft on precision granite V-blocks.


Establish the coupling keyway as a reference.
Measure the T.I.R. at every change m diameter, at 90 intervals for each location.
Measure the T.I.R. at one foot intervals for the entire length of the shaft, at 90
intervals for each location.

The maximum allowed T.I.R. is 0.0005" per foot over the entire length of the shaft.

Shafts that exhibit larger runout than 0.0005" per foot may be straightened using heat or
mechanical techniques if the shaft material does not have a memory. Materials with a
memory return to their original shape following straightening after a short period of time.
Raw material supplier(s) must be consulted to determine which materials can be suitably
straightened. If the material cannot be straightened, the shaft must be rejected, and a new
shaft manufactured from a bar of proper material equal to or superior to the original shaft
material.

Previous attempts at mechanically straightening shafts can result in the shaft re-assuming
its previous bow after being subjected to load. A good way to detect mechanical
straightening is to look for blunt chisel marks in shaft radiuses or keyways.

The following are causes for shaft bow due to non-parallel stack-up of faces:

Split ring faces which are not machined perpendicular to the shaft axis.
Impellers which are not machined with the faces perpendicular to their bores.

Split ring faces and impeller hubs should be inspected to insure perpendicularity to the
shaft axis within 0.001".

Non-conformance to this criterion should result in remachining of the impeller hub face
and either re-machining or remanufacture of new split rings.

Note that it is highly recommended that these bowl assemblies be assembled vertically. In
this way gravity helps to secure the proper alignment of the various parts. Horizontal
assembly results m the parts going off all in one direction within the dimensional tolerances
in the alignment fits.

Shaft discoloration is an excellent determination of localized heating. The shaft should be


visually inspected over its entire length for any discoloration. Mating components should
be inspected for metal displacement where shaft discoloration exists. Small circular
discolored spots are due to heat straightening the shafting and are not covered by these
comments.

Loss of water flush lubrication to the line shaft and/or bowl bearings and subsequent
running dry is a prime candidate for shaft discoloration at the bearings.

Discoloration at the stuffing box is normally a result of overtightening the packing. This
results in a loss of cooling water flow in this area. Shaft vibration can cause the packing to
wear excessively. (Since the stuffing box area is adjacent to the line shaft, the stuffing box

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bushing is the first component to come in contact with the shaft.) Over tightening the
packing will not correct shaft vibration problems.

4.1.3 Damage to Threads

Damage to the threads can be caused by:

Poor machining
Overtightening of the nut
Axial reverse thrusting
Worn internal thread(s) on nut(s) and/or coupling(s)

Visual inspection m conjunction with use of a pitch gauge can help identify effect and cause.

Inspection of the nut internal threads will reveal any non-conformity in this area.

Damage to threads in the coupling area is uncommon except for:

Galling during assembly and disassembly


Non-compatibility of material
(Dissimilar materials must be used when one material has a tendency to gall.)
Poor manufacture (improper thread forms; either shaft or nut)

Repair of threads requires:

Recutting the threads with new pitch diameter


Manufacturing a new nut to suit (Class 2 fit)

Cracks detected In threads are cause for rejecting the shaft.

Sloppy workmanship can result m the leading and exit edges of the threads being
manufactured to a knife's edge. Assembly of the nut tends to break the sharp edge
initiating a crack which can eventually propagate to shaft failure. These edges should be
chased back, ground and polished to the full width of the thread.

Discovery of cracks in threads requires repair or replacement of the shaft. The shaft can be
remachined by cutting the threads undersize and making special parts to replace the
mating part.

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4.1.4 Loss of Integrity of Material Deposition

All areas having material deposition (chrome or hard nickel plating) should be inspected to
assure its integrity. A plating thickness gauge is to be used to record deposition thickness
at each location.

Areas requiring build-up through material deposition should comply with the following
procedures:

0.003" to 0.025" on the shaft or shaft sleeve journals


0.003" to 0.025" on repairs

Chrome plating of the shaft journals should not exceed 0.010" on the radius. For
applications where greater build-up is required, copper should be electro-deposited via
brush plating to provide a diameter to within .010" of design. The copper is cylindrically
ground, and hard nickel (not chrome) is plated onto the copper to provide the design
diameter. (Chrome plating onto the copper will corrode the copper substrate.)

Areas of material deposition should also be examined for roundness and surface finish.

Lack of roundness can result from:

Poor finish with cylindrical grinder causing flat spots


Loss of bond
Loss of lubrication

Metal chipping and flaking is cause for clean-up and re-application of the metal deposit.

4.1.5 Fretting
Fretting of components is caused by looseness.

The entire shaft length should be visually inspected to detect fretting. Areas where fretting
is common include:

Impeller split-ring groove(s)


Thrust collar shoulder (motor)
Coupling fit or taper
Impeller fit diameter

Fretting at the impeller split-ring groove results from:

Loose impeller
Dimensional non-conformance of split-ring to design standards

Fretting at the thrust collar shoulder results from:

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Loose thrust collar


Insufficient tightening of thrust collar cap screws
Axial thrust reversals

Fretting at the coupling fit stems from:

Insufficient pull-up of the coupling to the required engagement length if a taper fit is
used
Loose key
Coupling unbalance
Poor fit-up of coupling lock nut thread
Loose coupling fit if straight fit is used

Repair of shafts due to fretting requires:

Machining the shaft to remove all material displacement


Hard metal plating
Grinding
Dye-penetrant inspection of the repaired area

4.1.6 Damage to Keyways


Damage to Keyways is caused by looseness. Damage appears as either nicks or material
displacement.

All keyways should be visually inspected for acceptability.

The keyways should also be examined to ensure that they are machined parallel to the
shaft axis.

Where material displacement is noticeable, the relationship of the component to the fit-up
of its key should be examined.

As mentioned previously, no metallizing is acceptable m the keyways.

Repair of keyways requires:

Re-cutting an oversize keyway


Manufacturing a step key to be compatible with the new shaft keyway and existing
component keyway

4.1.7 Perpendicularity of Shaft End Faces

It is important that the end faces of all shafting is perpendicular to the shaft axis since
these faces strongly affect alignment. If the perpendicularity exceeds 0.001", the end of the
shaft must be remachined to achieve this limit. Frequently the ends of the shaft are
machined with a relief as shown in Figure 4.1 to assist in achieving this requirement.

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Figure 4.1
Shaft End Machined with a Relief

4.2 Bearings
Key problem areas to uncover while inspecting bearings:

Increased clearance between the bearing(s) and shaft


Fit of the bearings in the respective housings
Improper bearing design clearances
Concentricity of bearing housing bores to alignment rabbets

A full inspection of the bearings should be part of every maintenance inspection, especially
if shaft wear or discoloration is detected at bearing location.

Loss of the bearing effectiveness can be caused by:

Loss of water flush supply or pressure


Hydraulic instability
Poor bearing design

The bearing inspection starts with a visual inspection of the inside and outside diameters of
the bearings for:

Wear beyond acceptable dimensions


One sided wear
Evidence of spinning of the bearing m the housing

The bearing clearance should be examined to confirm compliance to OEM design standards.
The bearing clearance should be 0.003" to 0.004" per inch of shaft diameter at the bearing.

The outer diameter of the bearings and the inner diameter of the bearing housing where the
bearings seat should be measured to record the fit. The bearings should be assembled with

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an interference fit of 0.001"-0.003" to prevent movement of the bearing. The housing bore
should be concentric to the alignment rabbet within 0.003".

Since the pump bearings are lightly loaded, this type of bearing may experience a
phenomena called water whip which acts at half rotational frequency. Cutless rubber
bearings will not experience this because the axial grooves prevent it.

Although repair of metal bearings is possible, it is normally less expensive to replace any
bearings that are worn beyond design tolerances. If the bearing is of poor design, a new
bearing of proper design is recommended.

4.3 Wear Components


The wear components consist of:

Bowl Wear Rings (if furnished)


Impeller Wear Rings (if furnished)
Stuffing Box Bushing
Liner or Shroud (if furnished)
Shaft sleeves (if furnished)
Bearings

Key problem areas to uncover while inspecting wear components include:

Surface and subsurface cracking (all components)


Increased running clearances (all components)
Rubbing and/or galling (all components)
Increase of wear ring clearances
Concentricity of bores and turns (all components)

Surface and/or subsurface cracks in wear components result from:

Material defects
Poor manufacturing
Impact loading
High radial vibration

MT or PT of the wear components should be completed to determine whether or not any


discontinuities exist:

Acceptance criteria for any linear indication (crack) is detailed in the ASME Section
referenced above, and is dependent on the location of the crack, length, and depth.

Chrome or hard nickel plating is an acceptable repair procedure for the materials used on
these parts. In addition, restoration of wear components out of tolerance may be
accomplished by weld repair if the base material is weldable. It is often less expensive to
purchase new components than to machine, PT, weld, stress-relieve, machine, and final PT
the damaged piece.

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It is recommended that all new wear components (impellers are not considered wear
components) be manufactured from appropriate materials based on the liquid pumped and
the other materials used in the pump. Unless the material furnished in the pump has
proven inadequate, the same material should be used for new parts.

Running clearances between all mating components should be recorded. Recommended


design clearances for these sizes and types of pumps are:

Mating Components Design Clearance


Case Wear Ring to Impeller Hub 0.001"
Bearing to shaft 0.003" to 0.004"

Increased internal leakage and loss of pump efficiency results from increased clearances at
the wear rings. It is recommended that the inexpensive wear rings be replaced or repaired
when the actual clearance exceeds 150% of the upper design limit.

Increased clearance at the bearings will result in increased amplitude of vibration. As the
bearing clearance increases the rotor stiffness decreases. With excessive clearance, the
rotor first critical will approach the pump operating speed, amplifying the existing vibration
to much larger values.

Journal sleeves when used at the bearings may also wear. For this reason the bearings or
journal sleeves should be replaced or repaired when the actual clearance exceeds 120 % of
the upper design limit.

Wear to the stuffing box shaft sleeve of relatively small depth grooves will create a situation
where it will be impossible to maintain packing adjustment. The groove rapidly destroys
the packing and excessive leakage results. If any grooving of the sleeve at the packing is
discovered, the sleeve should be replaced or repaired.

There are situations when wear components come into contact with each other. When this
occurs, material transfer from rubbing and/or galling takes place between two similar
metals coming into contact. This material transfer takes on the appearance of grooving of
the component having the smooth surface. Observation of the "grooving" pattern is helpful
in determining the cause of contact. The five pattern types of grooving most often
encountered are:

(1) Localized on stationary


(2) Localized on rotating
(3) Circumferential on stationary (full 360)
(4) Circumferential on rotating (full 360)
(5) Random

All clearances are diametrical. Bearing clearances are shown in inches per inch of shaft diameter,
while ring clearances are shown in inches per inch of wear ring diameter. Wear ring clearance
should be at least 1.5 times the bearing clearance.

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The following are conditions when wear components come into contact with their associated
wear pattern:

Condition Wear Pattern


Localized - Idealized - Circumferential Circumferential Random
Stationary Rotating - Stationary - Rotating
Static bow in the shaft X X
Dynamic Bow in the X X
Shaft (operating at any
mode of a shaft critical
speed)
Loss of flush water flow X X
or pressure
Non-concentric l
X X
stationary component
High vibration caused by X
Pump imbalance
Cavitation/separation X
Hydraulic instability X
Component looseness X X
Loose bearing X
Cracked shaft X

In addition to the above inspections for wear components, individual elements should be
further examined as follows:

Bowl ring turn to bowl


Impeller ring turn to impeller
Shaft sleeve to shaft
Bearing to housing
Bowl ring concentricity
Impeller ring concentricity
Shaft sleeve concentricity
Bearing concentricity

Discrepancies found in the fits or parts concentricity are repaired through welding and
remachining when feasible. Otherwise, the part must be re-manufactured.

4.4 Impellers
Key problem areas to uncover while inspecting the impellers include:

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Surface and/or subsurface cracks


Cavitation damage
Recirculation damage
Chrome plating of impeller hubs
Fretting/galling of bores
Broken shrouds
Broken vanes

4.4.1 Surface and/or Subsurface Cracks

If the impellers are made of magnetic material, the magnetic particle (MT) of all impellers
should be completed in accordance with ASME Section V, Subsection A, Article 7. If the
impellers are made from non-magnetic material, the PT of all impellers should be
completed. Note that PT will pick up surface cracks only; if it is necessary to pick up
subsurface irregularities, radiographic testing (RT) is required.

All linear indications shall be removed by grinding with post PT or MT inspection to assure
100% clean-up.

The impeller shall be weld-repaired m accordance with an appropriate weld procedure.


Steel and stainless steel may be weld repaired using the following procedure:
Anneal impellers prior to welding
Analyze base material to determine chemical content
Weld the impeller in accordance with ASME Section W qualifications, providing
sufficient material build-up to restore the affected area to original design
specifications
Perform MT inspection or dye penetrant PT inspection in accordance with ASME
and ASTM standards to ensure weld integrity
Post-weld heat treat to re-establish mechanical properties if originaly required for
the material
Machine impeller to re-establish original design standards
Individually balance each impeller using MIL-S-167 as guidance - maximum
residual unbalance, 1W/N
Bronze impellers can be weld repaired provided the indications are relatively minor and do
not cover an extended portion of the surface. Cast iron is normally welded using a nickel
rod. Bronze is repaired using various bronze rods based on the composition of the base
metal. If the extent of the indications are too great, then the impeller must be replaced.

Cracks are often found in the edges of square impeller keyways. To eliminate the stress
concentration factor in this area, a generous radius should be provided on both sides of the
keyway.

4.4.2 Cavitation Damage

Cavitation occurs in the impeller inlet area.

Cavitation damage is a result of the formation and collapse of vapor bubbles on the impeller
vanes. Cavitation damage occurs when the pressure in the impeller is sufficient to cause

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collapse of the vapor bubbles. In some cases this pressure increase does not occur until the
liquid has exited the impeller and entered the bowl. In this case the cavitation damage
occurs in the bowl rather than in the impeller. The damage appears as heavy pitting and is
normally found:
On the visible (suction side) of the vane (see Figure 4.2)
Along the root of the impeller vane and hub
In the bowl vane (see Figure 4.2)
Cavitation occurs when the system NPSH available at the suction drops below the NPSH
required by the pump. Although this is usually not the case during normal operation, the
pump may experience this problem when the traveling screens or trash racks are extremely
full of trash and the level in the sump is significantly below normal.

Figure 4.2
Areas of Cavitation Damage

4.4.3 Separation Damage

Separation damage occurs in the inlet area of the impeller and is a result of the formation
and collapse of vapor bubbles on the impeller inlet vanes. Separation occurs because the
flow rate is significantly higher or lower than the design flow (best efficiency point). This
results in a large mismatch between the flow incidence and impeller vane angle leading to
recirculation as the flow separates from the blade. The recirculation creates a region where
the liquid pressure falls below the vapor pressure. Under this condition cavitation bubbles
can form and collapse on the blade causing considerable damage. The damage appears as
heavy pitting and is found either on non-visible (pressure) side or the visible (suction) side
of the vane (see Figure 4.3).

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Figure 4.3
Cavitation Damage to Vane

4.4.4. Inspection

Inspection for cavitation and/or separation damage is both visual (suction, or visible side of
the inlet blades) and "by touch" (pressure, or non-visible side). The "feel" of
separation/cavitation damage is "rough", as would be expected from heavy pitting.

Repair of cavitation/separation damage is through hand grinding and welding, and follows
the same procedure described in "surface and/or subsurface cracks", (Section 4.4.1)

Impeller inlet designs can be modified to reduce the damage caused by fluid separation.
This is accomplished by reshaping the impeller vane geometry (via welding) to include an
"anti-stall hump". The anti-stall hump is a build-up of the impeller inlet (see Figure 4.4).
With the anti-stall hump, the impeller vane geometry is more compatible with the flow
incidence angle occurring at loads for which the unit is mostly operated. Note that this
modification can only be used if the flow rate is consistently hgiher than the flow at best
efficiency point.

Figure 4.4
Anti-Stall Hump

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4.4.5 Suction Recirculation Damage

Suction recirculation occurs in the impeller inlet at flow rates of 50% to 75% of the best
efficiency point. Damage from suction recirculation occurs in both the impeller inlet area
and the comparable area of the suction bell. This phenomena can be corrected by:

Increasing the flow rate to at least 80% of best efficiency flow


Furnishing a lower flow rate impeller or pump
Modifying the impeller inlet

The simplest cure is to furnish a lower capacity impeller (if there is such a design available)
for the installed pump. If such an impeller is not available, a modification shown in Figure
4.4 illustrates a possible correction. This involves installing a ring in the impeller eye with
an interference fit to prevent rotation of the ring. This approach allows for later removal of
the ring if the required flow rate is increased. The ring prevents the recirculation area from
propagating out of the impeller and, therefore, prevents the damage.

4.4.6 Fretting/Galling of Bores

The bores of all impellers should be visually inspected to detect fretting or galling. Repair
of impeller bores depends on the extent of damage and the material of the impeller.

For radial damage less than .010", the bore of bronze impellers may be refurbished via hard
nickel plating. For cast iron or carbon steel chrome plating may be used to refurbish the
impeller bores. For stainless steel impellers the bore may be welded using the proper weld
rod. Cast iron and carbon steel may also be repaired by welding. When welding is used the
impeller must be post weld heat treated as required by the base metal specification.

4.4.7 Broken Shrouds and Vanes


Broken impeller shrouds and/or vanes usually result from large forces associated with
foreign material passing through the pump. This happens despite the use of trash racks
and traveling screens.

Depending on the material of the impeller this type of damage can be repaired by welding
the broken pieces back into the impeller. If the pieces have been lost the shape can be
recreated by welding and reshaping of the part to resemble the original part if the material
is weldable. If the impeller is made of bronze material the welding should be kept to a
minimum; large magnitude welding is not recommended for bronze. After the repair is
completed balance each impeller using MIL-S-167 as guidance. Acceptance criteria for
residual unbalance is given by:

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where:

U = Residual unbalance (oz-in)


W = Impeller weight (lb)
N = Pump speed (rpm)

4.5 Stationary Parts


The stationary parts have similar problems, criteria etc. and include the following parts:

Bowl
Shroud or Liner
Column Pipe
Suction Bell Enclosing Tube
Discharge Elbow
Packing Box
Couplings
Motor high ring base

Key problem areas to uncover while inspecting the stationary parts include:

Surface cracks
Erosion
Alignment fits
Complete non-conformance to tolerances

4.5.1 Surface Cracks


Areas most prone to surface cracks are:

Bowl vanes at both inlet and exit


Suction bell ribs (if so furnished)
Machined sealing faces

All stationary parts should be MT or PT inspected depending on the material of the part, to
discover any linear indications. Use hand held mirrors to visually examine the vane
passageways as necessary.

Any cracks in the stationary parts should be completely excavated by machining and/or
grinding. The effected areas are to be examined again (PT) to ensure 100% clean-up.

4.5.2 Erosion

'The suction bell, shroud or liner, and bowl should be visually inspected to detect any
erosion. Areas most prone to erosion are:

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Suction bell ribs


Bowl vane passageway
The inside of the bell or shroud where the impeller runs

In order to properly inspect for erosion the following procedure may be required:

Bead blast to remove all scale


Liquid penetrant inspect for any discontinuities
Visually inspect for erosion

Repair of erosion damage may be done provided the material is weldable or the erosion
damage is minor in nature. Parts must be inspected using PT after weld repair. Heat
treatment must be performed if the base material specifications so require.

4.5.3 Alignment Fits

The important alignment fits to be inspected and documented are as follows:

Concentricity of alignment fits, end to end


Concentricity of bearing fits to alignment fits
Perpendicularity of faces to alignment fits
Parallelism of faces, end to end

Since alignment is important to the proper running of the pump, all dimensions affecting
alignment must be measured and documented. The following are suggested tolerances for
various alignment affecting parameters:

Parameter Tolerance

Rabbet fit tolerance 0.002" to 0.005"


Concentricity, end to end 0.003"
Concentricity, bearing to rabbet 0.003"
Perpendicularity, face to rabbet 0.002"
Parallelism, face to face 0.002"

If the parts do not conform to these tolerances, appropriate repair must be accomplished.
This may consist of remachining to secure these tolerances or may require weld repair or
plating prior to remachining the parts. The degree of non-conformance, the direction of the
non-conformance and the size of the parts to be repaired will determine the required repair
method.

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4.6 Hardware

Hardware items include:

Studs
Bolts
Capscrews
Nuts
Washers

All hardware items should be inspected for acceptability for reuse as follows:

Bolts Studs and Cap screws

1. Visual inspection
Thread condition
Head condition
2. Thread check with a pitch gauge
3. PT to find cracks

Nuts and Washers

1. Visual inspection
Thread condition
Surface condition
2. Thread check with a pitch gauge
3. PT to find cracks

If any deviations are found during this inspection, the respective part(s) must be scrapped
and replaced with parts made of the same material and dimensions. Repair is not
permitted on these parts.

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Appending A general Pump Design and Application Guide


A.1 General Overview
This section is organized as if a pump designer were told to design a line of pumps to
handle the condenser cooling water service. The first task would be to determine the
envelope of hydraulics which the pumps would be required to deliver. Next, prototypes
would be established from which to model. The prototype design would take into
consideration reliability, performance, and initial cost. There would be choices to be made,
with pros and cons for each choice. Each scenario would be evaluated, optimizing on the
application and operational requirements.

A.2 System Curve


A pump always operates at the intersection of the pump curve and the system curve.
Therefore, a full understanding of the various types of condenser cooling water pump
systems is the first step.

Condenser cooling water pump applications have been traditionally segmented in three
groups:

Low-Head Siphon System: Where the pumps take suction from a river or lake
supplied basin, discharge through the condenser and back to the cooling water
source; and where the relative height between the condenser and minimum water
level of the source is less than 28 feet. (Figure A-1)

Medium-Head Siphon System: The same as the low-head siphon system except the
relative height between the condenser and minimum water level of the source is
greater than 28 feet. For this application a water box is constructed downstream of
the condenser at an elevation equal to or less than 28 feet above the minimum
water level of the source to take full advantage of siphon head recovery. (Figure A-
2)

High-Head, Cooling Tower System: Pumps take suction from the cooling tower
basin, discharge through the condenser and up the natural or forced draft cooling
tower, at which point the cooling water naturally cascades back to the cooling tower
basin. This is a closed system not capable of siphon recovery. (Figure A-3)

Next, the system resistance curve is developed. The system resistance head (Hsys) for
condenser cooling water pump applications consists of:

1) The elevation difference between the water level in the sump (Z1) and the top
of the condenser water box (Z 2 ); plus
2) The friction loss m the piping, valves, fittings, and condenser (h f );
3) Less the siphon recovery (hs).

Hsys= (Z2 - Z1) + hf - hs A.1

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Siphon recovery is only applicable for once-thru systems. The system head for cooling
tower applications is the elevation difference between the cooling water basin and the spray
headers, plus the friction drop m the piping system and condenser.

Hsys,tower = (Z2 - Z1 ) + h f A.2

Siphon recovery for once-thru systems cannot exceed the elevation difference (Z2- Z1)- The
maximum siphon head recovery is limited by the equation:

A.3

where: h s,max = Maximum siphon head recovery (ft)

Pa = Atmospheric pressure (lb/ft)


Pv = Vapor pressure of the liquid (lb/ft)
Pg = Liquid density (lb/ft)
V = Liquid velocity at the highest point m the
system (ft/sec)
g = Gravitational constant 32.17 ft/sec
hf = Friction loss between suction and the hightest
point in the system (ft)

For condenser cooling water systems, hS,max is typically 28 ft.


The system curves for the three groups can now be defined.
Low-Head Siphon System:
Once this system is primed, a natural siphon alleviates the necessity for the
pump to overcome static height resistance. As such, the system curve is
comprised solely of the system friction.
Hsys,low-head = H A.4
f

(Z2 - Z1 ) - hS = 0 A.5

Figure A.1
Low-Head Siphon System

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Medium-Head Siphon System:


For this system, the static component of the system curve is equal to the
elevation difference from the top of the condenser water box to the water level,
minus the siphon recovery ( 28 ft.). This static component will be greater at low
water level than at normal or high water level.

Figure A.2
Medium-Head Siphon System

Head-Head Cooling Tower System:

Due to the physical size of cooling towers, the static component of the system curve is large.
Since the system is closed and not much circulating water is lost to evaporation, there is
not much disparity between the low water level and high water level in the cooling tower
basin.

Figure A.3
High-Head Siphon System

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A.3 Pump Selection


Now that the system is understood, the designer determines the pump specific speed and
suction specific speed models by developing the hydraulic envelope that the full line of
pumps must deliver, and establishing the pump speed which will fulfill both system and
reliability concerns.

A.3.1 Hydraulic Requirements

Condenser cooling water pumps are required to deliver sufficient flow to condense the
steam exiting the low pressure turbine in order to create a vacuum. Typical condenser
cooling water pump installations have either two 50%; three 33 1/3%; or four 25% pumps
operating in parallel. The number of pumps is decided by the Architect/Engineer who
considers the total cost of the equipment and sump as well as plant availability given the
possibility of catastrophic failure of one or more pumping units.

The mass flow is determined by the size of the generating unit. The pump flow depends on
how many pumps are operating. Flows delivered by the pump range from 20,000 to 300,000
gpm.

Total Mass Flow


Design Flow (Ea. Pump) =
No. of Identical Pumps

Heads developed by the pump are determined by the system resistance, which is naturally
a function of which system the pumps are applied (low-head, medium-head, or cooling
tower). Design heads range from 26 to 120 feet. Once-thru systems require less head than
cooling tower applications since the system benefits from the previously mentioned siphon
head recovery of up to 28 feet.

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A.3.2 Pump Length

One of the more important goals m the design of vertical condenser cooling water pumps is
to minimize the overall pump length. The reasons for this are to:

Decrease the number of critical reed frequencies which can be excited by external
hydraulic or mechanical forces, and
Reduce the number of water lubricated column bearings.

Critical Reed Frequency


The critical reed frequency refers to all orders of natural resonance of a cantilevered
structure. For vertical pumps, there are critical reed frequencies for:
The cantilevered structure above the pump mounting (motor support, and motor),
and
The cantilevered structure below the mounting (outer column, casing, and suction
bell).
The discharge head is part of either the above or below cantilevered structure depending on
whether the discharge piping is above or below ground. (Figure A.4)

Figure A.4
Above and Below Ground Discharge Piping

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Note that the critical reed frequency pertains to stationary components. This discussion
does not concern the critical speed(s) of the rotating element.

By reducing the overall length of these overhung structures, not only are the number of
critical frequencies reduced, but the frequencies themselves are of higher magnitude -
hopefully out of the frequency range of normally occurring hydraulic and mechanical forces.

Table A.1

FREQUENCY RANGES OF MECHANICAL AND HYDRAULIC FORCES


Frequency
Mechanical Forces
Rotor Unbalance 1 x RPM
Bearing Instability 0.5 x RPM
Coupling Misalignment 2 x RPM
Piping Resonance System Critical
Structural Resonance Component Critical
Hydraulic Forces
Vane Passing Pulsations N x RPM
Hydraulic Instability 0.6 to 0.9 x RPM

Note 1 N is the number of impeller vanes

A good example of critical reed frequency can be described by the plucking of a ruler which
is rigidly bound to a desk at one end. If the ruler is plucked with its total length overhung,
the amplitude of the oscillation will be large, and the frequency of its oscillation slow. As
less and less of the ruler's length is allowed to overhang, the amplitudes will decrease and
the frequencies will increase.

Figure Ads
Oscillation of an Overhanging Ruler

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D et er m i na tio n of s tr uc tu r al n atu r al r es o n an ces ( cr it ica l re ed f r eq u en cie s ) c an b e


ac co m p li s he d b y d et ail ed a n aly s is an d tes t in g th r o ug h f in it e el em e nt m o de ls . T h is is
ex pla ine d in dep th in A p pe nd ix B .

T o m in i m i ze t he pu m p l en g th , i t is i m p o r tan t t o u n d er s ta n d w h at es t ab li s h es th is c r ite r io n .
T h e pu m p len g th is a f un ctio n o f bo th :
S ub m e rg en ce r eq ui re d to s u p pr es s v or tex in g .
N P S H a va ila bl e to p r ev en t ca vi tat io n.
S in ce b o th c on d iti on s m u s t s im u lt an eo us l y b e s a tis f ie d, th e m in im um p u m p l en gt h ca n b e
d et er m i n ed by s at is f y in g th e s u b m e r ge n ce r eq u ir e m en t a n d t he n s e tt in g th e p u m p s pe ed s o
t h at t h e N P S H r e q u ir ed i s le s s t h an t h e N P S H av a il a bl e t h r o u gh o u t th e e n ti r e p u m p
o pe rat in g ra ng e fr o m m in im u m fl ow to r u n- ou t.
S u b m e r ge n ce
T h e ru le o f thu m b fo r th e q u ant ity o f s ub m e rg en ce req u ire d to p rev en t s ur fac e v o rte xi ng is
th at th ere s ho ul d be at leas t 1 f oo t o f s ub m e rg enc e o ve r the s u ctio n bel l f or e ach f oo t-p er -
s eco nd vel ocity at the bell inl et.
A.6
S > V1
w here: S = S u bm erg ence (ft. of w ater)
Vi = I nlet velocity (ft/s ec)
W it h ou t th is r eq ui re d h ea d, a vo r tex p ul lin g a ir c o ns t an tly in to t h e im p el ler s u cti on w ill
oc cu r . T h i s c on d it io n i s s y n o ny m ou s to w ha t h ap p en s w he n d r ain in g w ate r i n a s i nk or
b at ht u b . T h e w a te r l ev e l w i ll d i m i n is h u n ti l s u ch p o in t t h at th e h e ad ab o v e t h e d ra in i s no t
s uf f ici en t to p r ev en t vo r tex ln g , at w h ic h p oi nt a ir s p ir al in g in to th e dr ai n is q ui te
noticeab le.
T h e inl et v elo city i s eq ual to t he fl ow e nte rin g th e s u ctio n be ll d iv ide d by th e s uct ion b ell
cr oss- se ctio nal ar ea.
A .7

A .8

w h er e : V 1 = Inlet velocity (ft/s ec)


Q = Flow (gpm )
D b e ll = S uct io n be ll di am e ter ( in .)
0.321 = C on versio n f actor fro m g pm /in to ft/s ec.
T y pi cal v alu es fo r in le t v el oci ty ce nt er ar o un d 7 -9 ft/ s ec, w h ic h m ea ns th at th e pu m p len gt h
m u s t be s u ch tha t th e s uc tio n b ell i s lo ca ted at lea s t 7- 9 f eet b el ow th e m i ni m u m w ate r lev el
in th e s u m p .

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NPSHA vs NPSHR

T h e p u m p le n gt h h a s no w b ee n s e t to s a tis fy th e s u b m e r ge n ce r eq u i re m e nt s ; n ex t t h e
N P S H a va il ab le ( N P S H A ) m us t be gr ea te r th a n t he N P S H re q ui r ed b y th e p u m p (N P S H R )
o ve r it s e nt ir e o pe ra tin g r an g e.

T h e N P S H A at t he p u m p im pe ll er e ye i s eq ua l to th e b ar om et ri c pr e s s ur e ac ti ng on th e
w a ter sur fa ce p lu s t he el ev ati on d if f er en ce fr o m th e w ate r lev el t o th e im p el ler e ye , an d ca n
b e c alcul ated fr om E q uatio n A .9 .

A .9

w h ere: X = D ist ance o f th e im pel ler ey e abo ve th e


s uction bell (f t.)
Ce = E lev ation C orr ectio n ( ft.)
Ct = T em pe ra tur e C or re ctio n ( ft .)

T he d is tan ce f ro m the im pe ller e ye to t he b ott om o f th e su ct ion b el l i s ap pr o xim ate ly 1.0 f t


f o r s m al ler p um ps an d u p to 4 .0 ft f or t he lar g er m o d els .

F ig u r e A .6
N P S H C o rr e ctio n s fo r E lev a tio n a n d T e m p e ra tu re

T h e N P S H A m ust be g r ea ter th an th e N P S H R at sp ec if ie d r u no u t co n d iti on s.

T h e N P S H R a t ru n ou t is o b tain e d b y p lo tti ng th e co m b in ed p u m p cu rv es o pp o s ite t he


s ys t em cu r ve . F ro m th is p lo t, t he f lo w a nd co rr es p o nd in g N P S H R fo r e ach p u m p c an b e
de ter m in ed fo r d iff er en t syste m op er ati on s .

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E xam p le 1 :
G iv en a t hr ee ( 3) , 3 3 1 /3% pu m p ing s ys tem , w h at is th e N P SH r eq ui re d a t r u n ou t
w h en ( a ) on e p um p, a n d ( b) tw o p u m ps a r e op er a ti ng . T h e in d ivid u a l p u m p
cha ra cteristic cu rve a nd system cu rve a re sho w n in F igu re A . 7.
Step 1- P lot th e com bined p um p / system curve.

Step 2- F r om th e in ter s ection o f th e a pp licab le co m bin ed pu m p a nd s ys tem cu rves ,


de ter m in e th e in d ivid u al p u m p fl ow r a te s a t o ne a nd tw o p um p r un o ut .

Step 3: F in d th e co rre sp on di ng N P SH R val ues at these flo w ra tes.

Sin ce s uf ficient coo lin g w ater is r equ ir ed t o m a inta in the pr es s ur e d ro p acr o ss t he


con den se r, it is un us u al for a p um p to be des ig ned fo r "o ne- pu m p r un ou t" con diti ons on a
thr ee ( 3)) 33 1 /3% or fo ur (4 ), 25 % co nd ens er coo ling w a ter pu m p ing s ystem . A s s uch,
th e S p ecif ied r u n ou t co nd iti on s " w ou ld b e ba s ed o n t w o ( 2 ) pu m p r u no u t. I n E xa m p le 1,
the p um p le ng th w o u ld be d eter m in ed by s a tis fyin g bo th :
1) T h e N P S H r eq uir e d at "t w o -p um p r u no ut" (3 4 ft) .
2) T h e sub m erge nce requ ir ed to pr ev ent vo rte xing a t the tw o -p um p ru no ut flo w .
K n ow in g th e m in im um s u bm er g en ce r eq ui r ed to pr ev en t v or te xin g a nd the N P S H
req ui r ed at sp ecifi ed run o ut, t he m ax im um pu m p s pe ed ca n be o bta in ed w hic h
w ill s ati sfy bo th th es e r equ ir em en ts ov er the entir e p um p op era ting r an ge.

S uctio n S pecif ic S peed


T h e fo rm u la fo r su ctio n speci fic speed i s us ed t o calcu late thi s m ax im u m sp eed .

A .10

w here: = S uctio n sp ecific speed (dim ensionless)


= P u m p S pe ed , r pm
= Pu m p flo w to each im peller ey e, gp m (F or
s in gl e s u ct ion im p el ler s , th is ref er s t o th e
entir e p um p f low ; fo r d ou ble s uctio n
im pell ers , o ne- half of th e p um p flo w is
us ed . V e r tic al w e t- p it p u m p s h av e s in g le
su ction im p ellers .)
NPSHR N P S H r eq u ire d b y th e pu m p (f t.)
S u cti on s p ec ifi c s p eed is a d im e ns io n les s par am eter w hic h pu m p des i gn er s u s e as
a b en ch m ar k to pr ed ict im pe ller s uct io n be ha vi or . S u ctio n s p eci fic s p eed m u s t b e
c alcu lat ed at th e pu m p 's b est eff ici en cy p oin t ba sed o n its m ax im u m w he el
d ia m ete r.
V ert ical w et- pit p um p s a re de si gn ed w ith r elat ive ly hig h s u ctio n s peci fic s pe eds .
S s = 1 1,50 0

A-9
EPRI Licensed Material
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F ig u re A .7
I n d iv id u a l, S ys te m , a n d C o m b in e d P u m p C u r v es

A s t he suc tio n spe cif ic sp ee d inc rea ses, so do es th e i m pe ller in let ey e are a. T h e lar ger are a
m a k es th e p u m p m o r e s u s c ep ti bl e to in l et s e pa r ati o n a s t h e p um p o p er a tes f u r th er aw a y
fr o m i ts b est ef fic ien cy p oin t (s u ch as w ha t o ccu r s d ur ing red u ced lo ad o pe rat io n) . T h is is
n ot a n is s u e fo r c on d en s er c oo li ng w ate r p um ps s in ce t he p u m p o p er ate s at o r n ea r it s b es t
ef fici ency f or an y p lant lo ad. L o w er d esign su ctio n sp ecif ic speed t hr esho lds are em p loy ed
fo r p um ps w hic h ha ve a lar ge r an ge o f op er atio n , s uch a s b oi ler f eed a nd c on de ns ate p um ps .

A-10
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

S in ce p u m p ra ng eab ility i s n ot a fact or , pu m p d es ig ner s ch o os e the h igh su cti on s p ecif ic


s pe ed to allo w a h ig h er p um p s pe ed , th us re du cin g th e s ize an d c os t o f th e p u m p a nd m ot or .

I n th e p as t, m an y d es ig n s pe cif icat ion s fo r co nd en s er co o lin g w ate r pu m p s r eq ui red


ad h er en ce to F ig u re s 5 8 t hr o ug h 6 0 o f t he 1 2 th ed iti on of th e H yd r au lic I n s tit u te
S t an d ar d s . T h es e ch ar ts d e fi n e th e p u m p m in im u m s u b m e r ge n ce a s a f u nc ti o n o f to ta l
h ead re qu ir ed an d p u m p s pe cif ic s p ee d. T h es e o b s ol ete d ch ar ts w e re b as e d o n u lt ra -
co ns er vativ e su ctio n s pecif ic sp eed d es ign s o f b etw een 7 50 0 to 85 00 . N ot on ly di d s tr ict
ad h er en ce to t he s e ch ar ts r esu lt i n lo n ge r, l ess co ns e rv ati ve p u m p d es i gn s ; b ut m or e
ex pe ns iv e equ ip m en t an d fab r icate d sum p cost s.

K n ow in g th e p um p d esig n flo w , su ctio n speci fic speed , an d N P S H R , the pu m p spe ed can b e


calcu lated :

A .11

E x am p le 2:

G iven a p um p des ig n flow o f 1 30 ,0 00 gp m a t a n i ns tal latio n 10 00 ft. ab ov e s ea


le vel an d a w at er te m per a tu r e o f 10 0 F , c alc ula te th e m a xim u m p u m p s pee d.
T h e pu m p im p ell er is 2 .5 ft. a b ov e the s u cti on bel l. T h e s uct io n be ll di am e ter is
85" .

Th e inlet velo city = .40 85 x 13 0,00 0/8 5 = 7.35 ft/s ec


L et s ub m erg e nc e (S ) = 7. 5 ft .

F rom the ch ar ts (F ig ure A .6):


C e = 1 .2 5f t
C t = 0.7 5 ft

N P S H a v a il = 3 2 .5 - 2 .5 - 1 .2 5 - 0 .7 5 + 7 . 5 = 3 5 .5 fit
3/4 1/2
R P M max = ( 11 ,5 00 x35 .5 )/1 30 ,0 00 ) = 4 64

Th e n ear es t m oto r in ducti on s peed is 44 0 rp m .

T he pu m p cha ra cter is tic cu r ve w ou ld be d r aw n at t he o per a ting s pee d o f 4 40 r pm ,


a nd th e N P SH requ ir ed at sp ecifi ed ru n- ou t w ou ld be ch ecked to en su re it do es
not exceed 35.5 ft.

O nc e th e d es ig n er h a s d et er m in ed th e m a xi m u m p um p s p ee d, th e ap p ro p ri ate s pe cif ic
sp eed ( N s ) im peller can be selected to m eet b oth:

1 . H y d r a u l ic r eq u i r e m e n t s , an d
2 . In te n d ed o p e ratio n

A-11
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A.3.3 Specific Speed


T h e pu m p sp ecif ic spee d, li ke suc tion sp eci fic spe ed, i s a di m en si on less p ar am et er, a nd is
v ali d on ly a t t he p um p 's b es t ef fic ien cy p oi nt b as ed o n th e m ax im u m im p ell er w he el.

A .1 2

E xa m p le 3 :

T h e pu m p in exa m ple 2 h as the fo llo w in g h ydr a uli c p ar a m eter s at be st eff icien cy


p o in t ba s ed on th e m ax im u m w h eel d ia m et er :

Q = 1 30 ,0 00 g pm H = 85 ft N = 4 4 0 rp m

C a lculate the pum p des ign s pecific sp eed.

1/2
N S = 4 4 0 x 1 3 0, 0 0 0 1 /8 5 3/4 = 5 6 6 7

P u m p d esig ne rs us e sp ecif ic spe ed as a u n it to d efi ne g eom etr ical ly sim i lar i m pe ller d esig n s .
T he hi gh er th e sp eci fic sp eed , the less rad ial th e exi t f lo w .

T her e is a lso a co rr elat ion b et w e en m a xim um ef f icien cy a nd sp eci fic sp eed . S in ce con d ens e r
c oo l in g w a ter pu m ps a re h ig h en er g y p u m p s , t he d e s ig ne r s t ri ve s to o b ta in t h e hi g he s t
ef ficien cy possible . F ig ure A .8 pr edicts p um p ef ficien cy as a fu nctio n of specifi c speed .
( K eep in m ind th at co nd en s er c oo lin g w at er p um ps ty p ical ly h av e flo w s gr eat er th an 1 0 ,0 0 0
gpm ).

P um p m a nu f act ur er s h av e de ve lop ed s ev era l s pec if ic s pe ed m od els to m eet t he d if fe ren t


he ad r eq ui rem en ts o f l ow an d m ed iu m h ead o n ce- th ro ug h sy stem s as w ell a s co o lin g to w er
ap pli catio n s.

O n ce th e m o de l is d es i gn ed a nd t es ted , t he d es ig ne r d eve lo ps a co m p lete li ne o f p um ps to


m eet v ar y in g p la nt si ze r eq ui re m en ts b y m ean s of co ns t an t he ad m o de lli ng .

A.3.4 Modelling Equations


D u e to th e lar g e f lo w s o f co n de ns er coo li ng w a ter p u m ps , m an y p um p m an u fac tu rer s do n o t
h av e th e f ac ili tie s t o te s t fu ll -s c al e pr o to ty pe s a t d es ig n c on d iti o ns . T h e hy d ra u lic
c orr ectn es s o f thes e larg e vo lum e p um p s is k ey ed of f of ex tens iv e t es ting o f the m o del
h av ing t he sam e desig n spe cifi c sp eed .

A-12
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

F i g u r e A .8
E ffic ien c y vs . S p e cific S p ee d (Im p e ller S h a p e)

T h e go ve rn in g eq u atio n s u s ed t o pr ed ict p ro to ty pe p er fo r m an ce ar e:

A .13

A .14

A .15

A-13
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

w here:
Q = C a pacit y
H = T ota l D evelo ped H ead
N = S peed
T = T h ru s t
R = M odel ratio s ize; s ize of pr ototy pe d ivided by size of
m o del

a nd s u bs cr ip ts " p" an d "m " ref er to p r oto ty pe an d m o de l, re sp ect ive ly.

S i nce co ns ta nt he ad m o del lin g is u s ed fo r co nd en s er co olin g w ate r pu m p ap pl icati on s, the


ab ov e equ ations s im p lify to:

A .16

A .17

A .18

A .19

A ll lin ear d im en si ons of the pr oto typ e w ill i ncre ase by a facto r equ al to th e m o del ratio , R .,
in co m p ar is o n to t he s am e di m en s io ns of its m o de l. C om po n en t t hi ckn es s e s w il l eith er
r em ain u nc h an g ed o r ch an g e b as ed o n m ate r ial s tr en g th a n d f o rc e cr it er ia .

A lth ou g h the m o de l a nd pr oto ty pe p um p s h av e t he s am e de si gn s p ecif ic s peed , th e t ota l


h ead de ve lo pe d b y th e m o d el p um p is r ar ely th e s am e a s t he s y s te m he ad r eq u ir ed to be
d eve lop ed b y the p ro tot yp e. A s s u ch, b ef or e c on s tan t h ead m od ellin g can b e em p loy ed , the
h ea d o f t he m o d el m u s t b e a lte r ed t o m at ch t h e he ad re q ui re d b y t h e p ro to t yp e. T h is i s
acco m pl ish ed by m ean s o f th e p um p af fin ity law s .

A.3.5 Affinity Laws

T he p um p a ffini ty law s are:

A .2 0

A .21

A .22

A .2 3

A-14
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

E xa m ple 4:

T h e p um p m o del fo r th e p ro to type p um p d efine d in E xa m ples 2 & 3 h as a sp ecif ic


s pe e d o f 5 6 7 0. T he p u m p 's h y dr a u li c c o n di t io n s a t i t s b es t ef f ic ie n cy p o in t an d
maximum Wheel impeller are:

Q m = 35 ,0 0 0g pm
H m = 66 fit
N m = 70 0 r pm

T he im p eller o uter dia m eter is 2 9".

U s e th e a ffin ity la w s a nd m o del ling e qu atio ns to det er m i ne the p ro to type im pe ller


s iz e a nd p u m p r u nn in g sp eed g iven c on den s er co ol ing w ate r h ydr a ulic
requ ir em ents of 130 ,000 gpm @ 85 ft.

T h e fi rs t s tep is to ch an ge th e m o del pu m p h ea d to m a tch th e r eq uir ed p r oto typ e


h ea d of 85 f t. us in g th e a ffin ity la w s .

N ext, s t ill u si ng the a ffi nit y l aw s , d eter m i ne th e flo w a nd s p eed at th is new he ad .

N o w , u s e th e m o de llin g equ at ion s to d eter m in e t he m od el ra tio a nd p um p s p eed .

S in ce t he pr ot otyp e pu m p s p eed m at ches a m o to r in du ctio n s p eed , the m od ellin g is


c o m p le te .

T he pr ototype pum p im peller dia m eter w ill b e 29" x 1 .80 9 = 52 .46" .

I n E x am p le 4, i f the p ro to ty pe spe ed d id n ot co rr ela te w i th a m o to r spee d, t w o op tio ns ar e


ava ilable.

1) C ho ose a dif fe ren t sp eci fic sp eed m o de l a nd star t aga in.


2 ) C h oo s e t he clo s es t m oto r s pe ed an d dev elo p th e c om p let e p um p hy dr au lic cur v e
u s in g th e a f fi n it y l aw s at t h at s p ee d . O b t ai n t h e r e qu i r ed s y s te m h y d r au l ic s b y
c u tti ng th e im pe ll er d ia m e ter an d /o r o pe r ati ng sli gh tl y aw ay f r om th e pu m p's b est
e ff icien cy p oin t. ( N ote : A f fin ity L a w s fo llo w th e s am e ru les su bs t itut ing i m pe ller
O .D . for pum p sp eed.)

A-15
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E xam p le 5:

T h e p er for m an ce cur ve for the m od el p um p u se d i n E xam p le 4 is sh ow n in F ig ur e


A .9 . D eterm in e th e im p ell er d ia m eter an d pu m p ru nn ing sp eed for a pr o to typ e t o
d eliver 13 5,000 g pm @ 85 ft. D ra w the p erfor m ance curve fo r the pr oto type pum p
a t its m axi m um w h ee l d ia m eter an d d esig n d iam e ter t o m eet th e requ ir ed
h ydr au lic co nditi ons .

S inc e th e re qu ir ed hea d is s til l 8 6 ft., t he m od el p um p s ' h yd ra u l ic p a ra m e te rs a t


th is h ead a r e th e sa m e a s in E xa m ple 4 :

Sinc e the pr ototy pe pu m p 's ru nn in g sp e e d do e s m a tc h a m o to r indu c tion


speed, th e next high er m otor indu ction speed is selected fo r the pum p op era ting
sp ee d.

N p = 44 0 r p m

C ho os ing a high er s peed w ill cau se the head a nd flow cha ra cter istic s of th e p um p
to incr ea se accor din g to the affinity law s acr os s the en tire ra ng e. T her efor e th e
d evelop ed h ead at 1 35 ,00 0 g pm w ill no lon ger be 85 ft. but 89 fit (a s can be seen
o n the p erfor m anc e curse). In o rd er to red uce the hea d to th e desired valu e, the
i m p elle r O .D . m us t be tr im m ed .

H ead a nd flo w var y to th e s a m e pr o po rt ion s w ith ch an ges in i m p eller O .D . a s th ey


do for ch anges in p um p s peed; i.e.

Si nce th e sp eed w as i ncrea sed (4 40 /4 31 rpm ) , the im p eller dia m eter m u st be


decrea sed by this sam e am ou nt to a chieve t he d esired hyd r aulics.

D p = 53.4 5 x (4 31 /44 0) = 52.35"

A-16
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

F ig u r e A . 9
P u m p C u r v e fo r E xa m p le 5

A.3.6 Moody Equation


T h e p ro to ty pe p um p w ill ha ve s om ew ha t h ig he r eff ici enc y th an its m o de l g iv en th e
pr op o rti on all y sm all er fr ict ion al an d b ear ing losses. E xp ect ed f ield e ff icie ncy is u s ua lly
calc ul ated u s in g an a dap ta tio n of t he M o od y f or m u la (d ev elo pe d pr im ari ly f or t he h yd ra uli c
tu r b in e in d u s t ry ) .

A .24

A-17
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

w here:
= P um p E ff iciency
D p /Dm = R ( M odel R at io)

E x am p le 6

A pr o to ty p e pu m p h a s a m a xim um im p el ler d ia m et er of 5 4 " . T h e m o de l pu m p ha s


a bes t efficien cy of 88 .0 % at its m a xim um im pelle r dia m eter o f 2 9" . C a lcu late th e
expected incr eas e in the p roto type p um p efficiency u sing M o ody.

Th e m odel r atio is :

T he u tili ty en gi nee r s ho ul d be cau tio n ed co nc ern in g s eve ral f acto r s in vo lv in g bo th th e


M oo dy eq ua tio n and m od el tes tin g m g en era l.

A s can be seen fr om th e M o od y equ atio n, th e p ro toty pe pu m p ef ficie ncy ( p ) w i ll in cre as e as


the m od el r atio (Dp /D m) in cr eas es . H o w ev er , it is m o re b en efi cial to ke ep Dm to D p as clo s e
to u nit y as p o ss i ble to ins u re h yd r aul ic cor r ectn es s o f th e pr ot oty p e.

A ls o, b y hi gh ly p oli s hin g th e m od el pu m p 's im pell er an d cas in g v ane s, t he p um p


m an u fa ctu r er ca n r eal ize an in cr ease d m o d el ef fi cie nc y w h ich can b e tr an sla ted in to an
ev en h ig h er p ro to ty p e ef fi cie nc y. T h e pr ot ot yp e w il l no t ac hi ev e th ese sam e h ig h
eff icien cies, ho w ever , since th e co m p on ents w i ll n ot see o r m ain tain th is d egr ee o f sur face
sm oo thn es s.

It i s f o r th es e r ea s on s th at H y d ra ul ic I ns t itu te d i s co ur ag es th e u s e of M o od y i n ev al u ati ng
con den se r c ool ing w ater p um p p erf orm ance.

C a re s h ou ld a ls o b e tak en w hen re vi ew in g m o d el pu m p pe rf o rm a nc e th at th e m o del p u m p i s


te s te d a s a co m p le te u n it an d no t ju st a n i m p e ll er an d cas in g . T h e la tt er ex c lu d es e n tr an c e
an d ex it lo sses asso cia ted w ith t he p u m p su cti on be ll an d d isch ar g e h ea d, th ere by sho w in g
an in accu r ately h ig he r ef fici enc y an d he ad.

A-18
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

A.4 Pump Curves

A.4.1 Performance
P u m p m an uf actu r ers n or m al ly h ave 2 o r 3 s p eci fic s p eed d es ig n s f or a g iv en h ead r an ge .
T he hi gh er s p ecif ic s pe ed m o de l w i ll del ive r m o re fl ow at the s am e h ead and sp eed . T h is
r es u lts in a s m all er m od el r ati o; a nd , th er ef o re, a s m al ler , li gh te r, m or e co m p et itiv e
o ffe rin g .

A s t he pu m p specif ic sp eed in crea se s, h ow ev er, th ere ex is ts a gr eater de gr ee o f low flo w


i ns ta bi lity an d f low r ecir cu la tio n at th e im pe ller ey e. I t is t hi s lo w - fl ow in s tab ili ty w h ich
c au s es a n in f lect io n p oi nt , an d ev en tu al " kn ee" i n th e p um p p erf o rm an ce m a p w it h
i n c r e a s in g N s.

F ig u r e A .1 0
C u rv e S h a p e v s. S p e c ific S p e ed

T he p um p de s ign er m us t w ei gh t he b ene fit s o f r edu ced co st v er s us th e p o s si bi lity o f


o p er at io n al p r o b lem s d ue to an u n s t ab le r e gi o n i n t he p u m p c ur v e. O p er at io n in t h e
u n s ta bl e re g io n ca n c au s e p um p s u r g in g w i th r es u l tin g h i gh vi b ra tio n an d c om po n en t
d am ag e ( m a in ly b ear in g an d s e al s ). T h e u n s tab l e re g io n i s a ny zo n e o n t he p u m p
p er f o rm an ce c ur v e w h er e th e re i s in ad eq u ate he ad ri se.

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F ig u r e A . 1 1
R e g i o n s o f S t a b le O p e r a t i o n

T o d et er m i ne i f th e p u m p i s o p er at in g m it s s tab le r eg io n , t he t ot al p ar al lel p u m p cu rv e
m u st be p l ot ted ag ain s t t he sy ste m cu r ve . A l l pu m p s w il l op er at e o nl y w h er e th ese t w o
cur ve s in ter s ect .

F or e xam pl e; gi ven th ree ( 3) , 3 3 1 /3 % cap aci ty p um ps op er ati ng in p ara llel a nd i nt ers e ctin g
th e s ys t em cu r ve a t 4 20 ,00 0 g p m @ 4 5 f t. an d as s um in g th at a ll p u m p s a re e qu al ly s h ar in g
load, th en each p um p is deliv erin g 1 40 ,00 0 gpm @ 45 ft.

F ig u r e A . 1 2
T h r ee P a r a lle lin g P u m p v s . S y s te m C u rv e

A-20
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

T h e in d iv id u al p u m p p er f or m an ce c u rv e m u s t th en b e ch ec k ed t o a s s u re th at o p er at io n at
t his fl ow and hea d is in a r eg ion w h er e:

1 ) T h e re is ad e q u ate h e a d rise , a n d
2 ) T h e h e a d is b e lo w th e h e a d a t th e in fle ctio n p o in t o n th e c u rv e

T h ese ar e th e m e ch an is m s w h ic h ca n ca us e p u m p sur g in g .

T h e m a jo r r easo n t ha t th e un sta bl e re gi on s of th e p u m p cu rv e d o n ot a dv er s el y af f ect p um p


p e rf o r m an c e is th at th e p um p o p er at es n ea r it s be s t ef f ic ien c y p o in t at a ll l oa d s . T h i s
en ab le s t he p u m p de s ig ne r to s et a h ig h co n tin u o us m i ni m u m f lo w v al ue . R eco m m en d ed
m in im u m f low s fo r con den s er coo lin g w ater p um p s ar e n or m ally 8 0- 85 % of t he pu m p's b es t
efficiency poin t.

T h e in fl ecti on po in t do es n ot h av e a neg at iv e im p act o n p u m p p er fo r m an ce d ur in g u ni t


s ta rt - up . N o r m a l s y s t em s ta r t- u p r e qu i r es o n e p u m p to c om e o n li n e. T h e p u m p w i ll r un
o u t u n til its i n di vi d ua l p u m p cu r ve i n te rs e ct s t h e s y s te m cu r v e. T h e m o m en tu m o f th e
p u m p ach i ev in g ru n ou t c ar r ie s it t hr o u gh th e r e gi o n o f i n s ta bi li ty . A s t h e o th er p um p s i n
th e s y s t em a re br o u gh t o n lin e , th e y a re p u m pi n g ag a in s t th e s y s t em p r es s ur e p r od u ce d b y
th e s i n gl e p u m p . T h is s y s te m p r es s u r e i s l es s t ha n t h e d es i gn h ea d; an d , o n ce a g ain , ea ch
p u m p w ill i ni tia lly go to r u n o ut w i th i ts m o m e nt um c ar ry in g it p as t its in f lec tio n po in t. A s
ea ch p um p is b ro u gh t o n lin e, th e syste m he ad w i ll ev en tu all y in cr ease t o th e de sig n h ead .

( It is , ho w ev er , im po r tan t to e ns u re t ha t t he i nf lec tio n -p o in t h ea d d oe s n ot c or r es po n d to th e


h e ad r eq u ir e d t o pr i m e a o n ce -t h r u s y s t em . U n ti l th e s y s te m i s pr i m e d , t h e p u m p m u s t
o ver co m e th e f u ll st atic h eig ht d if fer en ce be tw een t he lo w w at er le vel an d co n den ser w at er
b ox w itho ut benef it o f s ip hon h ead r ecov ery .)

A l th ou g h th er e i s n or m a lly s u f fi cien t m ar g in b etw e en th e d es ig n h ead a nd i nf le ctio n -p oi nt -


h ea d , tw o fa cto r s w or k s i m u lta n eo us l y as th e p la nt a nd pu m ps ag e to de cr ea s e th is m ar g in :

1) T h e fr icti on c om p o nen t of the sy stem cu rv e inc rea ses w it h tim e a s d isch arg e pip in g
w e ars an d sca les.

2) T h e p um p head -c apac ity cu rv e d ro op s as hy dr au lic com po nen ts er od e/c or ro de.

I t is f or th is r ea s on th at s o m e u til iti es an d ar ch ite ct/ en gi ne er s s p ec if y co nt in uo u s ly r is i ng


he ad cu rv es f or c on den s er co ol ing w a ter s er vic e. (A s pr evi ou s ly m en tio ne d, th is
r eq u ir em e nt w i ll ad d co s t to the p u m p in g eq u ip m en t an d s u m p ex cav ati on s in ce th e lo w er
specif ic sp eed pu m p w i ll b e a slo w er, lar ger un it.)

K n ow i ng th e eff ec ts of pu m p an d p lan t ag in g, pu m p de s ig ne rs an d p lan t en g in eer s


in co r po r ate m ar gi ns in t he p u m p pe rf o rm an ce an d p lan t sy stem cu rv es, r esp ec tiv el y.
H y d ra u lic In s t it ut e al lo w s - 5 % o f r a ted h ea d u n d er 5 0 0 fe et a t r at ed c ap a cit y . N o r m a ll y,
t he p u m p d es ig n er w i ll p ro vi de t hi s ad d iti on al h ead to p ro v id e fo r p um p w ea r in th e f u tu re .

T h e p um p can o pera te at m ultip le flow rates if the sys te m h e a d is a bo ve th e h e a d a t th e inflec tio n


p oint, c rea ting the p ossib ility for pu m p su rg in g (see Figu re A .13).

A-21
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

T h eref o re, if t he de si gn co nd iti on s ar e 1 40 ,0 0 0 gp m a t 4 5 ft ., th e pu m p w ill pr ob ab ly de liv er


14 0,0 00 gp m at 46 -47 ft w hen new .

C o n ver s ely , th e p lan t en gin eer r eal izes th at the p ipi ng c oef fi cien t of f ri ctio n w ill in cr eas e in
ti m e , t hu s in c re as i n g t he s y s te m h ead . H e w i ll t h er ef o re s p eci f y t he re q ui r ed pu m p
hy d rau lic s b as ed o n fr ict ion fac tor s o f "o ld " pi pe p lus s om e m arg in . T h is i s d on e s o th at the
co nd en s er co oli ng w a ter p um ps do n o t l im it o ve ral l p lan t pr od u ctio n m tim e b y n ot
pr o vi di ng su f fi cien t co o lin g w at er . T h e s pe cif ied hea d ca n be 5 - 10 % g r eate r th an t he h ead
r eq u ir ed w h en t h e p lan t i s n e w .

T h e n ot ef f ect o f t hi s co n s er va tis m i s t ha t th e pu m p s w ill r un - ou t, or op er at e to th e r ig ht o f


it s b es t e ff ic ien cy po in t f ro m s ta rt -u p an d u nt il s u ch t im e t h at d es ig n f ac to rs b ui lt in to th e
p um p a n d s y s te m ar e r ea li ze d.

S in ce t he p u m p i m p el ler s ha ve l ar ge e ye a re as , o p er ati on aw ay fr o m th e p um p's b es t


ef f ic ien c y p o in t c an re s u lt i n s e p ar at io n /ca v ita ti o n d am ag e. T h i s i s d ue to m is m at ch i ng o f
th e f lo w - in cid enc e an g le t o the b lad e in let g eom etry , cau sin g flo w r ecir cu latio n in th e
im p elle r eye an d lo cali zed p ressur e exc ur si on s b elow th e f lui d vap or p re s su re o n the in let
blade.

F ig u r e A . 1 3
P u m p v s . S y st em C u rv e

A-22
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

A.5 Motors
O nc e th e d es i gn er h as es t ab lis h e d th e p u m p 's pe rf o r m an c e cu rv e a nd h as pr e di cte d i ts
op er at io n u n de r r u na w ay co nd it io n s , it i s tim e to e s ta bl is h t h e in fo r m a tio n n e ces s a ry to
in ter f ace w i th t h e dr iv er .

T h e im po r ta nt c ri te ri a re qu i re d to p ro p er ly s ele ct a m ot o r ar e:

D es ign ( Sy nc hro no us or In du ctio n)


H o rs e po w er (O v er th e E n tir e O p er ati n g R an ge )
S peed
S ta r ti n g a n d O p er a ti ng T o r qu e s
A x ia l T h r u s t ( S t ea d y -S ta te a n d T r an s i en t )
S tar ti n g an d N or m al V o lt ag e
M axi m u m R e ve rs e R un aw a y S p eed

A.5.1 Horsepower

T h e m ot or brak e ho rsepo w er (B H P ) req uired is ob tai ne d fro m th e eq uat io n:

A .25

B y p lott ing th e head v s. cap acity an d effici ency v s. capa city cu rv es fro m sh ut-off to run o ut,
brak e h o rse po w e rs ca n b e ca lcu l ate d o v er t he en tire o p erati n g ran ge ex cep t a t shu t -o ff
w he re th e d en om in at o r b ec om es in d et erm in a te as t he effi ci en cy ap pro ac he s zero . In
ge ne ral , th e b ra ke h o rse po w er at sh ut-o ff in crease s w i th i nc re asin g sp eci fi c spe ed . (T h e
B H P at shu t-o ff for a 67 00 N s d esi gn can b e 2 20 % of d esign B H P).

T he B H P fo r h igh sp ecific spee d desig ns also d ecreases w i th in crea si ng flo w . T herefore, in


sizi n g a m o t or, t h e brak e h o rse po w e r sh o ul d b e co n sid ered at t he p u m p 's co n tin u ou s
m in im um flo w .

A.5.2 Speed-Torque Diagram


P um p re qu ir ed t or qu e (T ) in f t- lb f is ob tai ne d fr o m the e qu ati on :

R PM xB H P
T = A .26
5 250

It i s c us t om ar y to de ve lo p a s p eed v s . to r qu e d iag r am in or d er t o o bt ain bo th th e pu m p


s ta r ti ng a nd c on t in u o u s to r q ue r eq u ir e m e n ts . A s th e p um p is e ne r g iz ed , bo t h t h e s p e ed
an d he ad d ev elo p ed b y th e pu m p cha ng es un ti l t he d isch ar g e v al ve ac hi eve s i ts f u ll- op en
po s i ti o n a n d t h e p um p re ac h es s t ea d y- s t at e co n d it io n s . T h e h e ad v ar ia ti o n i s to t all y
de p en d en t o n t he s ys t em r e s is t an ce . T he s pe ed w il l va r y a cco r d in g t o t he pu m p's i ne r tia l
an d t o rq u e r eq u i re m e n ts . A ty p ic al s p e ed vs . to r q u e d ia gr a m is s h o w n in F ig u r e A .1 4 .
T h e to r qu e a t zer o rp m i s s i m p ly th e p um p a nd m o to r ro to r in er tia s an d s t ati c f ri cti on .

A-23
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

F ig u r e A .1 4
T y p ica l S p ee d v s. T or q u e D iag r a m

A.5.3 Reduced Voltage Starting

I t i s n o t un u s u al f or a p lan t to u nd er g o a r ed u ced v ol tag e s ta r t. T hi s t y pe o f p r ac tic e do es


n o t h av e an a dv e rs e a ff ec t on in d uc tio n m o to rs . H ow e v er , th e p um p d es i gn er m u s t b e
c au tio us w h en co n s id eri ng s yn ch ro n ou s t yp e dr iv er s s i nce t he re m u s t be s u f fic ien t av aila bl e
t or q ue t o al lo w t he m o to r to s y n ch r on iz e. S i nc e th e a v aila bl e to rq u e va ri es as th e vo lt ag e
s qu ar e d, an 80 % vo lt ag e s t ar t m e an s t h at o n ly 6 4 % t o rq u e is av a ila b le. P r ov id i ng th is
i nf o rm ati on be fo r eh an d to t he m ot or s up p lie r is es s en ti al.

A-24
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

A.5.4 Axial Thrust


S in ce m o s t ve rt ica l c on d en s er c oo li ng w ater pu m p s ar e de s ign ed w ith no th ru s t be ar in g,
th e m o t or b ea ri n g m u s t ca rr y al l o f t he pu m p/ d ri v er th r us t fo r b ot h s t ea d y- s t at e an d
tr an s ie n t co n di ti on s .

T h e to t al a x ia l th r u s t ta k es in t o a cc ou n t b o th s ta ti c an d d y na m i c f o rc es . T h e s tat ic fo r ce s
can b e app ro x im at ed b y co ns id er in g all m a jor r o tatin g co m p o nen t w eig ht s ; s h af t, im p el ler ,
an d d ri ve c ou p li ng . T he d y n am i c fo r ce is th e h y dr au li c ax ial th ru s t w h ich m u s t b e
calcu lated f or all op era ting c on ditio ns .

W h en s ele ct in g a m ot o r, it i s i m p o rt an t th a t th e p um p d es i g ne r a dv is e th e m o to r
m an u f act ur er o f cr it ica l th r us t in fo r m a tio n :

M ax im um m o m en ta ry a xi al d ow n th ru s t ( cal cu lat ed a t s h u t- of f )
M ax im u m co n tin uo u s ax ia l d o w n th ru s t (c alcu lat ed at d es ig n c on di tio ns )
M o m en ta r y u p t h ru s t ( oc cu r r in g at s ta r t- u p )

T he f ol lo w ing equ at ion s are u s ed t o de ter m in e th ese val ue s .

A .27

A .28

w h ere: F = A xi al thru st (lb )


H = T otal devel oped head (ft)
K = H y dra ul ic t hru st fac to r (co n sta n t)
= M at erial d en sit y (lb /i n)
TL = T o tal sh aft le ng th (in )
d = sh aft di am e ter (i n )
W imp = Im p eller w eig ht (lb )
W dc = D rive cou pling w eigh t (lb)

and t he su bs cr ip ts " s .o . " and "de s" ref er to s hu t-o ff and des ig n, res pecti vely.

T h e h y dr a ul ic t h ru s t f a cto r s v ar y b y de s ig n an d by m a n uf a ctu r er an d ar e a c ul m i n ati o n o f


test r e sul ts. It is re co m m en d ed th at t h ese v al u es be ob t ain ed f ro m t he O E M d ir ec tl y.

T h e m o m en ta r y u p th r u s t is d if f ic u lt t o c alc u la te. I t is r ec o m m en d ed th at t h e m o t or
m an uf act ur er s u p ply a m ech an ica l st op to li m it u pw ar d m ov em e nt ( to a m a xi m u m o f 1 /3 2
inc h) i n cas e o f hy d ra uli c s h o ck. T h e s t op s h ou ld be lu br ic ated a nd s i zed t o w ith s tan d 5 0%
of t he n o rm al, co nt in uo u s d o w n thr u s t. T hi s i s s h o w n in E q ua tio n A .2 9:

S om e E uro p e a n m a nu fac tu re rs inc lu d e a thru st b e a rin g in th eir p u m p s d irec tly b e low th e


coup ling and su bstitute a flex ible co uplin g in lieu o f the rigid cou plin g prov id ed o n m o st v e rtic al w e t-
pit design s.

A-25
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

A .29

A.5.5 Starting and Stopping Procedures

C o nd en ser co o lin g w ate r pu m p s a re co ns i der ed h ig h en er gy p u m p s d ue to the la rg e vo lu m e


o f w a ter t ha t i s d e li ve r ed . T h e p u m p s n o r m a ll y d is ch ar g e i n to an u nr e s tr ai n ed p ip in g
sy stem ex cep t fo r th e is ol atio n v alv es w h ich p r ov id e a m ean s o f tak in g th e p um ps on and of f
l in e . G i ve n t h e la rg e m as s f lo w r at e, th e m os t im po r ta n t cr it er io n fo r s ta rt in g an d s t o pp i ng
c o nd en s er co ol in g w at er p u m p s is to g r ad ua lly ch an ge t he s y s te m m o m e nt um . T h i s w o u ld
s u gg es t bo th a sl ow d is ch arg e valv e op eni ng an d clo s ing . H ow ev er , a s lo w o pen in g val ve
w ou ld r eq ui re t h e pu m p to o pe ra te n ea r s h ut - of f f o r a n ex te n de d ti m e p er io d . T he r e ar e tw o
p ro bl em s w ith s u ch pr actic e:

T h e pu m p w ill i nc ur s ev er e ro to r v ib r ati on du e to fl ow s ep ar at io n at t he i m p ell er


in l et
T he sh ut -o ff ho rs e po w er f ar ex cee ds th e m ot or r at ing , o ve rlo ad in g th e m o tor an d
e v en tu all y ta ki n g th e u ni t of f lin e

T he re fo re , th e id eal s tar ti ng and s to pp in g p ro ced u re f or con d en s er co o lin g w at er p um ps is a


f ast-o pe n, slo w - clo se system . T his can be acco m p lis hed u tiliz ing a tw o- s peed m o to r
o p er ato r. R ec om m en de d ra tes are 1 5 s eco n d op en in g, 6 0 s ec on d cl os in g . T h e m ot or c an b e
i n te rl oc k ed an d s t ar te d a n d s t op p ed at t h e in it ia l o pe n in g a n d f in al clo s i n g. I t is p re f er ab le
t o p r im e t he s y s te m p ri or to s t ar tin g t o a s s ur e n o v acu o u s s p ac es at h ig h p o in ts .
O v erlo adi ng th e m o tor f or s ho rt per iod s of tim e w ill pr es ent no p rob lem s for p um p s p ecifi c
s peed s below 8500 .

T h e m aj or d is a dv an ta ge w ith t w o- s p eed m o to r o p era to rs is th e la rg e in it ial co s t. A l es s


e xp ens iv e a lter nati ve is a sing le- sp eed o per ato r desig ne d fo r 4 5 seco nd o pen in g and cl os in g.
F o r t h is a rr a n g em en t , t h e s y s t em ca n b e p r i m e d o r u n p ri m ed . If u n p ri m ed , th e s ys te m
s h o u ld b e f ul ly o p en ed a nd ve nt ed . T h e m ot or in ter lo ck s ho u ld b e s et t o s ta rt a nd s to p
w he n th e v alv e r ea ch es 30 o pe n . T h is w il l cau s e t he p u m p to o p er ate i n r ev er s e r ot ati on
p r io r t o s ta rt in g i f an y o th e r p um p is o n l in e. I t is p r ef er ab le to ha v e th e m o to r d es i gn ed to
a cce pt o pe rat io n at m a xi m u m r ev er s e ro tat io n in l ieu o f an an ti- ro tat io n de vi ce.

S o m e p ra ctic al gu id elin es fo r s tar tin g an d s to p pin g in cl ud e:

A v o id star tin g an y clo s ed sy stem h avi ng v acu ou s sp ace s


A v o id o p er ati n g th e p um p a t s hu to f f
L o cat e t he d isch ar ge li ne su pp or t as clo s e t o th e pu m p a s p ossib le
I nc or p or at e tie r o ds w h en ev er e xp a ns i on jo in ts ar e us e d
A vo id check v alves in the sy stem
S p ecif y m o tor d ri ves to ha ve a m ini m um b rea k do w n tor qu e of 8 0% an d th e
c ap abi lity t o op er ate ov er lo ade d fo r u p to f ou r m in ut es

A-26
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

F ig u re A .15
K a r m a n K n a p p D ia g r a m

A.5 .6 K arm an -K n ap p D iag ram s (R ev erse R u na w ay S pe ed)


K ar m a n -K n ap p di ag r am s ar e f o ur - q ua dr an t p er f or m an ce c ur v es p lo tti n g f lo w as a fu n ct io n
of r pm w ith as s o ci ate d is o - h ead an d t or q u e va lu es . U s ua ll y, th e pu m p d es i gn er is o nl y
in t er e s t ed i n t h e f i r s t a n d th i r d q u a d r an t s w h e re th e u n it is a ct i n g l ik e a p u m p an d
tu rb in e, re s pec tiv ely .

A-27
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

T h e K a rm an - K n ap p di ag r am i s es p ec ia ll y im p o rt an t i n p r ed ic ti ng r ev er s e r o ta tio n u nd e r
r un a w a y c o nd i t io n s . S u ch s i t u at io n s in c lu d e :

S tar tin g a nd s t op p in g of a co nd en s er c oo lin g w a ter p u m p u n it w hi ch d is ch ar g es int o


a c om m on h ead er w h ile oth er co nd en ser co oli ng w at er pu m p s ar e on -li ne.

A n of f-l ine pu m p ( con n ected to a co m m o n disch ar ge hea der ) w ith a leak ing d isch arg e
valve.
T h e m ag n itu d e o f t h e r ev er s e r o ta tio n al s p eed is d et er m in ed b y in t er s ec ti ng th e z er o (0 )
to rq u e lin e w i th t he d if f er en tia l h ead act in g ac ro s s th e p um p.

T h e d iffe re n ti al he ad th a t t he pu m p s ee s is e qu a l to t he p re ssu re i n t h e d isc h arg e h ea d er


m in u s a ll f ri cti on al l os s es fr o m th e he ad er c on n ec tio n b ac k to th e pu m p. T h is in clu d es th e
he a d d r o p ac r o s s a p a rt i al c l os ed o r "a lm o s t -s ea te d " v a lv e .

F ig ur e A .16 gi ve s th e r ev er s e ro ta tin g s p eed as a pe rc en tag e o f th e no r m a l s p ee d b as ed on a


dif fe ren tia l h ead acr os s the p um p equ al to 8 0 % of d es ig n

Specific Speed (N )

F ig u r e A .1 6
R ev e r se S p e e d v s . S p ec ific S p ee d

A-28
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

T h e p um p d es ig ne r h as a c ho ic e of eith er de s ig nin g t he p u m p s h af t/b ea ri ng s ys te m to


acc ep t f u ll rev er s e r o tati ng c on di tio ns , o r p ro vi de an a nti -r ot atio n al dev ic e i n th e m ot or .
T h e fo r m er i s p re fe rab le sin ce an ti -r ot ati on al d evi ces can br eak leav in g th e p rim p
u np ro tec ted .

E x am p le 9 :

T hr ee (3 ), 33 1 /3 % cap aci ty p um p s a re r equ ir ed to d eli ve r a t ota l o f 3 39 ,0 0 0 gp m


o f w ate r a t 43 f t. T h es e h y dr au l ics c or r es p o nd to pu m p o p er at io n at th e b es t
e ff icie ncy p o int . T he p um ps are 8 9% eff icie nt , and a re d riv en b y 2 0- po le
i nd u ctio n m ot or s (3 5 0 rp m ) .

A l l th r ee p um p s a re o n lin e an d o p er at in g n o rm all y , u nt il p um p # 2 s uf f er s a
p o w er fa ilu r e an d t h e #2 d is ch ar g e v alv e f ai ls to clo s e. W i th o n ly pu m ps # 1 a nd
# 3 o pe rat ing , th e tot al he ad is 39 f t. T he fr ict io n lo ss of the p ip ing bet w een th e
p u m p d i s ch a rg e a n d t h e d is c h ar g e h ea d er is 4 f t. W h a t is t h e r ev e rs e r un a w ay
s p ee d o f p u m p # 2 ?

T h e s o lutio n f ollo w s this gen eral for m at:

S te p 1 . C al culat e th e sp ecif ic sp eed of th e o ff -li ne pu m p and f ind a K arm an-


K na pp d iag ra m rat ed f or th at sp ecif ic spe ed.

S te p 2 . D ete rm in e th e he ad av ai lab le d u ri ng re ve rs e r ot ati on as a p er ce nt ag e of


B E P he ad .

S tep 3 . U s in g th e K a rm an- K n app di agr am f in d th e int ers e ctio n o f th e


per cen tage he ad line an d t he "to rq ue = 0 " li ne.

T h e specific sp eed o f the off -line pum p can be calcu lated u sin g E q uation A .12 .
C onveniently, the s pecific speed is very clos e to 700 0, therefor e, Figur e A .1 4 can be
u s e d as t he K ar m a n- K n ap p d iag r am .

N e xt, the h ead ava ila ble at t he # 2 di scha rg e m u st b e d eter m in ed a nd exp r essed as
p er cent of B E P head .

w here: % H H ead r atio ( av ailab le h ead to h ead @ B E P )


HO O p er ati ng he ad ( H ead in d isch ar g e he ad er)
HL H ea d lo ss f ro m d isch ar ge h ead er to pu m p d isc har g e end
H BEP P um p h ead at b est ef ficien cy po int

A-29
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

B y u si ng F igu r e A .14 , th e in ter s ection o f th e % H cur ve an d the


"torq ue = 0" lin e yields the reverse speed a s a percent of nor m a l operating speed,
w h ic h i s 1 4 3 % T h is r ev er s e r o ta t io na l s p ee d i s :

A.6 Pump Configuration


N o w th at th e p u m p h y dr au li cs h av e be en e s tab li s he d , it is t im e f o r th e p um p d es i gn er to
co n si der pu m p co n fig ur ati on a nd co m p o nen t des i gn . T h e c on fi gu rat io n cho ice s f or a v ert ical
w et -p it p u m p de s ign i ncl ud e d is ch arg e loc atio n an d pu ll- ou t v s . no n p ull -o ut co ns tr uc tio n.

F ig u r e A .1 7
A b o ve G r o u n d D isc h a rg e v s. B e lo w G ro u n d D isc h a rg e

A.6.1 Above Ground vs. Below Ground Discharge


T h e dis ch arg e elbo w ca n be loc ated eith er ab ov e o r be low gr ou nd d epen d ing o n pla nt
d es ig n . T h es e c on f ig ur at io ns ar e s ho w n i n F ig u re A .1 7. A lth o ug h th is d eci s io n is o ut s id e
th e p um p de s ign er 's s p h ere o f in f lue nc e, th e ad va nta ge s o f b oth s ty les are d is cu s s ed .

A-30
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

A b o v e G r o u n d D isc h a r g e B e lo w G r o u n d D is ch a r g e
M ou nt ing fl oo r c an be si gni fican tly
E ase of assem bl y an d d isa ssem b ly
h i g h er
S h or te r p um p as s em bl y f or " m i ni m u m
le ng th " pu m p s F re eze pr ote ctio n of p um p

A s t he n am e im pl ies , a n ab ov e gr o un d d is ch ar ge i s lo cat ed a bo ve t he m o u nt ing fla ng e o f


th e p um p. In th is co n fi gu r at io n th e m ot or is m o u nt ed t o th e t op of th e di s ch ar g e elb o w .
T h e shaf t seal in g ar ea is also l oc ated in th e d isch ar ge el bo w .
If th e m o un ti ng flo o r is s ig n if ican tl y h ig he r th an the c on d en s er , th e di s ch ar ge i s n o rm all y
lo ca ted be lo w t he m o un ti ng fl an g e. T hi s r es u lt s i n a s i m p ler an d le s s ex pe ns i ve p ip i ng
ar r an g e m e n t. T he s h af t s ea li n g ar ea m a y b e l oc at ed e it h er at th e di s c h ar g e e lb o w o r at th e
m oun tin g f lo or.
A.6.2 Pull-Out vs. Non Pull-Out Construction
T h e de cis io n o n w h eth er th e p u m p i s p u ll- ou t o r no n p u ll- ou t o nc e a ga in r es ts w it h th e
u til ity an d ar ch it ec t/e ng i ne er . T h e de ci di n g f ac to rs d ea l w i th a v ail ab le c r an e ca pa ci ty an d
d is ch a rg e l oc at io n . E x a m p le s o f bo t h d es i g ns a re s h o w n m F ig u r e A .18 . T h e ad v an ta g es o f
bo th co ns t ru ct io ns ar e li sted .

P u ll O u t D e s ig n N o n P u ll-O u t D es ig n
U nn eces s a ry to dis c on ne ct dis ch ar ge M o re r igid des ig n
fl an g e du r in g s c h ed ul ed m ai n ten an c e
L e s s w e ig h t to ha n dl e d ur in g A ll p ar ts r em ov e d d u ri ng m a in te na nc e
m a in t e na n c e for com plete ins pectio n
L o w er in it ial s u m p c os t d ue t o s m al ler L ow e r in iti al pu m p c os t
cra ne ca pac ity a nd l ift ing s pac e

F ig u re A .1 8
P u ll O u t v s. N o n P u ll O u t

A-31
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

T he p um p de s ign er d oe s s ele ct the s ty le o f pu ll- ou t pu m p w h en th is des i gn i s s pe cif ied .


T h er e a re th re e ty p es o f pu l l- ou t c o ns t r uc ti on : b o tt o m - s ea t, m i d- s e at, an d to p -s e at . T he s e
ar e s ho w n in F i g ur e A .19 .

F ig u r e A . 1 9
B o tto m , M id , a n d T op S ea t C o n str u ctio n

T h e di ff er en ce s b et w een th e th re e de sig n s , as th ei r n am e i m p lie s, is w h er e th e pu m p is


seate d.

F or th e b ot to m - s ea t pu ll -o u t, t he s eat i s e s tab li s h ed b et w een th e s u cti on b ell f la ng e an d an


ou t er c as i n g s t ru ct u re . T he w h ol e p um p a s s em b ly is r em o v ed d ur i ng m a in te n an ce l ea vi ng
th e di sch ar g e el bo w an d o u ter ca sin g st ru ct ur e i nt act .

F o r th e m id - s ea t pu l l- o ut , t he s eat i s es t ab li s he d b et w ee n t h e im pe ll er s h r o u d an d th e
suct io n b ell. T h e sa m e co m p on en ts ar e rem ov ed as f o r a bo tt om -s ea t pu ll- o ut ex ce pt th e
be ll a s s em b ly its elf . T h e p ul l- o u t w ei g ht i s th er ef o r e s u bs tan t ial ly re d uc ed . T h is
con fi gu rati on is m ost pr ev alen t f or d esig ns w h ich d o no t em p loy a bo tto m bear in g.

F or th e to p -s e at p ul l- ou t, th e s ea t is es ta bl is h ed b e tw ee n th e to p of th e co lu m n an d th e
dis c ha rg e elb ow . T he en ti re p um p as s em bly les s the d is ch ar ge el bo w is r em o v ed f or
m ai nt en an ce. T h is ty pe o f d es i gn is em p lo y ed f o r s h o rt s et tin g p u m p s s in ce th e p ul l- ou t
w eigh t be com es ex ces s iv e oth er w i s e. T h e b en efit o f th is d es ig n is lo w er in itia l f ir st co s t
sin ce th er e is n o o u ter casi n g str u ctu r e as in t h e bo tt om -s eat d esi gn .

A-32
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

A.7 Component Design

U n til no w t he de s ig n e r h as e s ta bl is h e d t h e p um p s hy d r au li c p ar a m e ter s a nd b as i c
co n fi gu r ati on . N o w t he i nd iv id u al p um p co m p o ne nt s m us t b e de s ig ne d. T h e fo llo w in g i s a
lis ti ng o f th e m a jor p um p co m po ne nts dis cu s s ed h erei n as s h ow n in F ig u re A .2 0:

Su ction B ell
Im p el le r
W ear R in gs
Bow l
L i n e S h af t
B ear in g s
C o lum n
S ha ft E n clo s in g T u be
D is char ge E lb o w
L in e S h af t C ou p lin g
D riv e C o up lin g

F ig u re A .2 0
P u m p A s se m b ly

A-33
EPRI Licensed Material
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T h e di ff er en t O E M 's h av e st an da rd ize d on di ff er ent d esig n p h ilo sop hi es in ce rta in


im p o rt an t a r ea s . E ac h ap p r oa ch w i ll b e an al y ze d i n s o fa r a s r el ia bi li ty , m a in t ai na b il it y,
efficiency and cost.

A.7.1 Suction Bell


T h e pr im ar y f un ctio n s o f th e s u cti on b ell ar e to:

G u id e th e liq u id in to th e im p el ler
P ro vi de eff icie nt accel erati on in to th e im pel ler ey e
R ed u ce th e r eq u ir ed s ub m e r ge nc e an d p r ev en t s u rf ac e v or te xi ng
M in im ize the eff ects o f sub su rf ace v or tex ing

F igu re A .2 1
P u m p B e ll P r o file

T h e s uct ion bel l p r of ile, as c an b e s e en in F i gu re A .21 , is pa rab o lic. T his s ha pe p ro vi de s


co nt in uo u s ly d ecr easi ng cro ss- secti on al ar ea s, an d th u s li qu id a cce ler ati on t o th e im p el ler
ey e. T h e r at e of ar ea c h an ge is gr e ate r n ea re r t he i n let t o a llo w n or m ali za tio n of th e f lo w
s tr e am lin e s .

T y pical liqu id app ro ach velo cities t o th e i m pelle r ar e as fol low s :

U ps tr eam o f the s u ctio n b ell: 1 - 2 fp s


S ucti on b ell ent ran ce: 7 - 9 fp s
A t th e i m pel ler eye : 22 - 25 f ps

R edu ctio n in r eq uir ed su bm erg en ce and p r even tio n o f sur fac e v or tex in g is a cco m pl ished by
es t ab lis h in g t he s u ct io n b ell i nl et d iam ete r to ach ie ve t he p r op er in let v el oc ity . A s
pr ev iou s ly stated , on e f oo t o f sub m erg en ce i s req ui red f or ev ery f oo t per seco nd at th e b ell
in let.

A-34
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

S ur f ace vo rt ex ing i s ca us ed b y ei the r in su f fic ien t su bm er gen ce o r too gr eat a dist anc e f ro m
th e p um p c en ter l in e to t he s um p b ac k w al l. F iel d r em e d ies to all ev ia te su rf ac e v or te xi n g
du e to in s uf fic ien t s u bm erg en ce v ar y. O n e w a y is to m od if y the s u ctio n be ll d es ig n to lo w er
th e i nl et v el o cit y t o t he re qu i re d l ev el b y pr o v id in g a n " u m b r ell a" ( s e e F ig u r e A .22 ) A n
"u m b re lla " i s a f lat p late at tac hed to th e be ll to in cr eas e th e ef fe ctiv e in let d iam e ter .
A n oth er m eth od is t o pl ace a gr id b en eat h th e f r ee sur fac e to d isru p t v o rte x fo r m ati on .

F ig u r e A .2 2
S u ct io n B e ll U m b r e lla

A-35
EPRI Licensed Material
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E xa m p le 8 :

A n in stal lat ion h a s b een exp erien cin g su rf ace vo rtexi ng . T he fiel d en gin eer ha s
ob tain ed t he f ollow ing ele vatio n d ata :

H igh w ater level: 3 00' - 6"


L ow w ater level: 2 93' - 0"
Im peller center line: 2 90' - 3"
S uctio n bel l in let: 2 88' - 0"

Th ere ar e fo ur (4 ), 25% con denser coo ling w a ter pum ps , each pu m p delivering
17 0,00 0 gp m at 5 2 ft o f h ead . T he s ucti on b ell d ia m e ter is 93 .17 " .

W h at m us t be th e d ia m e ter o f t he s ucti on b ell um b re lla to elim in a te th e s ur fa ce


vo r tex in g ?

So lutio ns foll ow th is gen er al fo rm a t:

1. D eter m in e th e m ini m u m d is ta nc e fr o m th e fr ee su r fa ce (lo w w a ter


level) to the bell inlet.
2. C alcu late the velocity at the bell inlet.
3. C o m p ar e the tw o va lu es an d as cer ta in w h ether or n ot the
sub m ergence is a dequa te.
4. If no t, calcu la te a n ew bel l d iam eter tha t w ill decr ea s e th e i nlet
velocity below the critical value.

Th e m inim um s ub m er gen ce is 29 3.0' - 2 88.0' = 5.0 '.

T he velocit y at th e be ll in let i s calcu lat ed f ro m E q ua tion A .8:

Th e s ur fa ce vo rtexin g is pr ob abl y a res u lt of the inlet velocity bein g g re ater th an


the existing sub m ergen ce.

Th e b ell d iam eter th at w ou ld pr event this o ccurrence can be ob taine d b y o nce


ag a in u ti liz in g E qu a tio n A .8 , s o lvi ng fo r ''D b e ll " , an d s u b s tit ut in g " 5.0 " fo r V i .

S ur f ace v or tex in g d ue t o im p r op er p o s itio n o f th e p um p re lat ive t o th e s um p ba ck w al l can


be e lim i na ted b y p r ov id in g a fa ls e ba ck w al l to est abl is h th e p ro pe r cle ar an ce.
R e com m en ded su m p d im e ns io n gu id elin es a re gi ven i n F igu r e A .23 .

A-36
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

F ig u r e A .2 3
R ec o m m e n d e d S u m p D im en s io n O u tlin e s

S u bs u rf ac e v o rte xin g ca n re s ul t f ro m eit he r po o r s um p de si gn or p re -r ot atio n al eff ec ts f ro m


th e im p eller .

R em e di es f or a p o or s u m p d es ig n ar e di s cus s e d at len g th in A p p end ix D , bu t bas i call y en tail


f u rn is h in g ar ea f il lets to ch an ge t he su m p ge om etr y o r b af fl es to e ith er r ed ir ec t th e flu id or
b re ak u p th e v or tic es .

T h e m a jor it y of s ub s ur fa ce vo r tice s d u e t o im p el ler p re -r o tati on e m an ate f ro m a re lati ve ly


sm all ar ea o n th e sum p f lo or d ir ec tly b el ow th e im p el ler . N o rm all y, t he s e v o rt ice s ar e
d is r up te d b y r ib s w h ic h ar e in h er en t i n th e s u cti on be ll d es ig n .

T h er e ar e tw o (2 ) suct ion b ell de si gn s em p lo yed b y d iff ere nt O E M 's. T he on e desig n


i nc or p or at es a "b o tto m " be ar in g. T h e be ar in g a nd be ar in g su p po r ts act a s a f lo w
s t r aig h te n er to s u pp r es s t h e p re r ot at io n al v o r ti ces .

T he o th er de s ig n d oe s n o t in clu d e a bo tt om b ea ri ng bu t u til ize s s t ra ig ht en in g v an es to


m in im iz e f lo w d ist u rb a n ces a t th e i m p e ll er ey e. I nst an c es ex i s t w h en th e s tr ai g ht en in g
v an es do n o t pr ov id e s uf f ici ent p r ote cti on , an d a s tr o ng c en tra l vo rt ex f or m s u nd er t he
im p elle r. P ro v id in g a co n e u n de r th e s u cti on be ll an d at tac he d to t he s u m p fl oo r w i ll co rr ec t
t h is s i tu a ti o n .

A-37
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

F ig u r e A .2 4
S u ct io n B e ll w ith a n d w /o B o tto m B e a r in g

T h e m ajo r ad v an ta g e o f th e b o tt o m b ea ri n g d es i g n i s i n cr ea s ed ro t or s t ab il ity . T h e m aj or
di s ad v an tag e is t he d if f icu l ty i n p ro v id in g l u br ic ati on . T h e bo t to m be ar in g c an e it he r b e
gr ea se p ack ed or ex te rn al ly f lu s h ed . O i l is n ev er u s ed as a lu b ri ca nt si nc e th e o il ca n m ix
w ith th e li q ui d a nd ev en tu al ly co at t he c o nd en se r tu b es, af fe ct in g t he c on d en s e r's h eat
tr an s fe r ca pa bi lity . O bv io u s ly , th e b ot to m be ar in g b eco m e s o n e m o re i tem w hi ch h as to b e
m ain ta ine d an d co ul d be th e s ol e r ea so n f or cos t ly p um p re m o val .

A.7.2 Impeller
C o n de ns er co ol in g w ate r p um ps ar e hig h f lo w , lo w he ad ap p lic atio n s . T h e s ys t em
re qu ir em en ts di cta te th at t he d es i gn s pe cif ic s p ee d o f th e im pe lle rs ar e r ela tiv el y h ig h,
rang in g f rom 400 0 to 850 0. T his sp ecific s peed r ange corres po nds to a"m ixed" flow d esign .
(I m p ell ers ca n be e ith er ax ia l, m i xe d, o r r ad ial f lo w d es ig n s r ef err in g to the l iq uid 's p at h.
In t he case o f m ix ed f lo w , th e liq uid dir ec tio n is so m e w her e be tw een r ad ial an d ax ial
de pe nd i ng on th e he ad re qu ir em en t - h ig h er h ea ds h av in g m or e r ad ia l fl ow .)

A-38
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

F ig u r e A . 2 5
O p e n a n d E n clo s ed Im p ell er D e sig n

O pen vs , C l os ed
C o nf ig ur atio n cho ice s of t he im p eller d es ig n are eit her o pe n or en clo s ed, a s s ho w n in F ig ur e
A .2 5. T he on ly d iff er enc e b etw ee n the tw o c on fig ur ati on s is tha t th e op en im pell er ha s o ne
s hr ou d o n the b ack s id e and the en clo s ed im p ell er h as tw o , on e on e ach s id e of th e im p elle r
va ne s . T he a dv an ta ge s o f b o th d es i g n ar e li sted be lo w :

O p e n Im p e lle r E n c lo se d Im p e lle r s

1 . B et te r ca sta b il it y 1 . S m o o th er f lo w p at h at im pe ll er ey e
2. E a si er to i ns pe ct 2 . E a s ie r to m a c h in e
3. E q u al o r hi gh er eff ic ien cy t ha n en clo s ed
s ty le i m p el ler
4 . C a n b e ad j u s te d d ur i n g i n s t al la ti o n t o
b e tte r m a in ta in p e rfo rm a n c e

C a s ta b ility
T h e o pe n im pe lle r is eas i er t o ca s t th an th e cl os e d im pe lle r. T h e op en de s ig n p er m it s m or e
u nif o rm c oo li ng re s ul tin g m a r ed uc tio n o f r es id u al s tr es s es . T h e clo s ed i m p ell er m ak es it
m o r e d if f icu lt to ch eck v an e an g les an d to gr in d th e p ro pe r im pe ller fi ni s h. O p en im p el ler s
ar e ca s t w i th t h ick ai rf o il b la d es an d w ith s u pp o r t r in gs t o m ain t ain b lad e p o s it io n. R in g s
ar e la ter re m o ve d a nd bl ad es d im e ns i on a lly in s pe cte d w i th t em p la te s .

E ff iciency
T h e ef ficien cy of th e o pen im pelle r i s hig her th an the clo s ed im pel ler fo r h igh sp ecific spee d
de s ign s ( > 4 00 0 N s ) du e to th e a dd itio n al dis k f ri ctio n in her en t in clo s ed d es ig ns .

A-39
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

M ain t ai na b ili ty
T he p ressu re d ro p ac ro ss th e bl ade o f an o pe n im p ell er tak es pl ace alo n g the f ul l b lad e
l en g t h . T h is k e ep s t he p r es s u r e di f f er e nt ia l s m a ll a n d re s u l ti ng w e ar r at e l o w . In c o nt r as t,
t he clo s ed im pel ler u tiliz es w ea r rin g s ab ov e and bel ow the im pel ler w h ich ar e su b ject to t he
f u l l d is c ha r g e p re s s u r e a cr o s s a n ar r o w ba n d , r es u l ti n g m r a p id w ea r r a tes . R e pl ac em en t o f
t he s e w ear ri ng s in vo lv es r ot or or pu m p re m o va l. W ith th e op en im p el ler de s ig n, th e ax ial
p o s itio n o f th e ro to r can b e ad ju s ted f ro m th e ex ter nal r ig id co u pl ing to r ees ta bli s h th e
i m pe ller -to -s h ro ud d es ign clear anc e an d to m a inta in de si gn ef fic ienc y.

S m o oth Fl ow T ra ns iti on
T h e clo s ed im pel ler h as a sm o o the r fl ow pa th to th e im p ell er ey e du e to th e nat ur e of i ts
design.

E a si er to M ach in e
M ac h in in g o f an o pe n im p ell er r eq u ir es ex ac tin g to ler an ce s t o a s s ur e th a t th e tap er in th e
im p ell er a n d su cti o n b ell co rr esp o n d. A n y m ism a tc h in th ese t ap er s cau se s a d e gr ad at io n i n
p er fo r m an ce . In co nt ra s t th e e nc lo s ed i m p ell er o n ly r eq ui re s s i m p le cy lin d ri cal m ach in in g
at th e w ea r ri ng s.

A.7.3 Back Wear Rings

B ack w ear rin gs ar e so m eti m es us ed o n b oth o p en an d en clo se d im p elle rs to ba lan ce or


p ar tia lly ba la nc e th e im p el ler ax ia l th ru s t. F ig ur e A .2 6 s h ow s ty p ic al co n s tr uc tio n f o r b ac k
w e ar r in g s . In th i s ar r an g e m e nt , ba la n ce h o l es a re dr i ll ed th r o u g h t h e im p el le r h u b to
al lo w t he p r es s u re o n t he b ac k s id e o f th e im pe lle r to ap pr o ach s uc tio n p r es s u re a nd pl ace
th e im p el ler i n hy d ra uli c bal an ce.

F ig u r e A . 2 6
B ac k W e ar R in g s

A-40
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

T h e m aj or ad v an ta g e in lo w er i ng th e t ot al p u m p ax ia l th r u s t is t he s m al le r i ni ti al c os t
as s o c iat ed w ith le s s e x pe n s iv e m o to r s eq u ip pe d w i th les s e r r at ed th ru s t b ea r in gs . H o w ev er ,
u nle s s th e p um pe d liq u id is v ery clea n an d n on - ab ras i ve , th e bac k r ing cle ara nc e w i ll o pen ,
in c re as i n g t h e p re s s u r e an d d ow nw ar d a x ia l th r u s t o n t h e b ac k h u b of th e i m p e ll er . S in ce
th e m ot or th r us t b e ar in g i s n o t d es i gn ed to ha nd l e th is in cr e as ed lo ad , t h e be ar in g w i ll
o ve rh e at as w i ll b e ev i de nc ed by a h eat ri s e in th e lu b ri ca tin g m ed i um . T he h o t b ea ri ng
w ill f or ce the pu m pin g un it t o c om e of f line aff ectin g un it av ailab ility .

A n oth er dis a dv an tag e o f ba ck r in gs o ccu rs w h en th e p um p d es ig n u tili zes a s ha ft en cl os in g


tu b e. W it h b ac k r in g s an d l itt le o r n o er os io n o f t he ri ng d es ig n cle ar an ce , t he p r es s u r e at
th e ba s e of th e s ha ft en cl os i ng tu be w i ll b e clo s e to s u ct io n p re s s ur e. A ny int er ru p tio n o f
th e cle an f lu s h, be ar in g lu br ic atio n s y s te m w ill r es u lt in a l os s o f liq u id m t he s h af t
en clo s ing tub e abo v e t he s um p w ater lev el. T h is w i ll inv ar iab ly ex p os e on e or m or e
b ear in g s t o at m o sp he re a nd dr am ati cal ly i n cr ease t he p o ssib ili ty o f p u m p cat astr o ph ic
f ai lu r e d ue to ro to r s ei zu r e. A s s u ch , a n y i n ter r u p tio n m th e c le an f lu s h s ys tem de m a n ds
p um p u n it s h ut d ow n , a n d, on ce a g ain , l im its p lan t a va ila bi lit y .

O n th e o th er h an d , a ri ng - les s de s ig n w il l h av e cl os e to fu ll d is c har g e pr es s u r e a cti ng at th e


b as e of th e s ha ft en cl os i ng tu be. A ll b ear in g s w il l be l ub r icat ed b y t he p u m p ed li qu id m th e
ev e nt o f a n i n te rr u p ti o n i n t h e cl ea n f l us h s y s t em . F or th i s in s t an ce , t h e p u m p s h o u ld no t
b e tak en of f li n e u n til t he f lu s h s y s te m is re es ta bl is h ed s i n ce th e di s ch ar ge p r es s u re w ill
d ecay ra pi dl y ( sq u ar e of th e sp ee d r ed uc tio n ) w he n th e m o to r is d e- en er gi zed . ( D ur in g t he
tr ans i ent s h ut do w n pe rio d , be ari ng s w il l b ec om e ex p os ed and the re is a p o ss i bil ity o f r oto r
seizur e.)

A.7.4 Impeller Attachment


T h e r e ar e v a r io u s m e th o d s o f i m p e ll er - to - s h af t a tt ac h m e n t. T h e f o u r pr i m a r y a tt ac hm e nt
m et ho ds are sh ow n in F i gu re A .2 7 an d ar e l isted b elo w :

D rive collect
L o ck c ol le ct
S p li t r i ng a nd r et ai n in g ri n g
L ock co llar

A-41
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

F ig u r e A . 2 7
Im p e lle r to S h a f t A tta c h m e n t M e th o d s

A-42
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

T h e dr iv e c ol let is th e s i m p les t of the f o ur a rr an gem en ts a nd is t yp ica lly u s ed o n s m a ll


u n it s . I t i s es s en t ia ll y a ta p er ed c ol le t t h at i s d r iv e n b e tw e en th e s h af t a n d t h e t ap er e d f i t
of t he im p ell er bo re . T h e d ri ve co llet as s em b ly i s no t a con tr oll abl e o pe rat ion . T h e q u ality o f
th e at tac hm en t d ep en ds s o lel y o n t he a bi lit y o f t he i nd iv id u al a s s em b li n g th e p um p a nd th e
en vi ro n m en t. If the c ol let i s n ot t ig ht e no u gh or i f d ir t or o il i s p r es en t in t he i m p ell er
an d/o r s h af t f its , t he im pel ler w il l s l ip u nd er lo ad a nd t he p um p pe rf or m an ce w il l b e
ad ver s ely af fe cted . T he o ne ad van tag e of th e dr iv e co lle t is th e in iti al l ow er c ost.

T h e lo ck c olle t i s s im i lar to th e dr iv e c olle t e xce pt a thr ead ed n ut o n the s m al l e nd o f th e


co ll et is a dd ed . T h is re s u lts i n th e c ol let h a vi ng a ti gh te r f it a nd is m o r e r eli ab le . A l th ou g h
th e lo ck co ll et ha s a t igh te r f it th an t he d ri ve co ll et, it s til l h as as s e m b ly p ro b lem s a nd t he
po ss ib ility o f the im pe ller s lipp ing u nd er load .

T h e n ex t ar r an ge m e nt u t ili zes a s p li t ri n g/ re tai n in g r in g c om b in ati o n to s ec ur e th e i m p ell er


o n th e sh a ft. T h e sp lit rin g tra n sm its a x ial d o w n th ru st a n d th e re ta in in g rin g tran sm its
ax i al u p t h r u s t . T o r q u e i s tr a n s m i t te d b y a k ey in t h e s h a f t. T h is m et h o d is s ub s ta n ti al ly
m o r e re lia bl e th en t he d r iv e an d l oc k co ll ets. T h e di sad v an tag e o f th is d esi gn is th at it
r eq u ir es tw o r eg i s te re d f it s to en s u r e ti gh t n es s b et w ee n t he im pe ll er an d s h a ft . A ny
m an u fa ctu r ing er ro r w il l re s ul t i n a lo os e f it , cau s in g t he im pe lle r to " ch att er " du r in g
op er ati on and in cre as in g o ve ral l pu m p v ib ra tio n .

T h e last at tac hm en t m et ho d i s a sp lit co ll ar d ev ic e. T h e co ll ar f its in a sh af t g ro o ve an d i s


att ac he d to th e im p ell er hu b b y cap s cr ew s . O n ce ag a in , to r q ue i s t ra n s m it te d b y a k ey in
th e s h af t. T h is de s ig n a ccu r ate ly lo cat es th e im pe ll er a t th e p ro p er l oc at io n an d ri gi dl y
ho ld s th e im p el ler un d er a ll o pe ra tin g c on d iti on s in clu d in g re ve rs e r o tat io n. T h is de s ig n is
th e re co m m e nd ed m eth o d f or im p el ler a tta ch m en t.

A.7.5 Bowl

T h e l iq uid leav in g th e im p elle r ha s h ig h ki ne tic en erg y an d d is ch ar ge s in to t he p um p bo w l.


T he b ow l con tain s a xial ly dis p os ed d if fu se r van es to e ff icien tly tr an sf or m this kin eti c
en er g y in to pr es s u r e en er gy . D if fu s er s als o ha ve t he b e ne fi t of m in im al h y dr au li c ra di al
lo ad s . T h e bo w l w il l b e f itte d w it h a s tat ion ar y w e ar r in g f or b ac k ri ng de s ig ns , a nd ha ve
on e o r m or e b ea ri ng s . T he b e ar in gs ar e sim il ar t o th e li ne b e ar in gs ex ce p t th ey n o rm al ly
hav e a sm al ler L /D ratio ( re fer to T a ble A .4 ). T h e fun ctio ns of th e bo w l ar e to :

P rov ide effic ient en erg y r ecov ery


C on nec t th e su ctio n b ell and co lu m n
S u p po r t th e s h af t be ar in g (s )

A.7.6 Shaft/Bearing System

T h e sh af t/b ear ing sy stem is in div id ua lly d esig ned f o r each a pp lica tio n fo r lar g e e ner gy
co nd en se r coo li ng w at er pu m p s. T h e d esig n g oal is to o bt ain a fi rs t w et cri tica l sp eed w h ich
is ab o v e an y o p er at in g s p e ed . T hi s m u s t in c lu de m ax i m u m r ev er s e r o tat io n d u r in g
ru naw a y con di tion s . A g oo d ba llpa rk f igu re is 15 0% o f the o per atin g s pe ed.

C riti cal S peed


T h e p um p w et c riti cal s peed i s d eter m in ed by E qu atio n A .3 1.

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A .31

w h er e: Nc = S h af t cr iti cal sp eed (c pm )


E = M o dulus o f elasticity (ps i)
I = M o m en t o f in er t ia ( in )
g = G r avi tatio n al c on s tan t ( 38 6 in /s ec2 )
L = B earin g s pan ( in)
W = T otal w eig ht (lb)

T he m o m en t o f in erti a ( I) f or a s haf t is def in ed by E qu atio n A .32 .

A .3 2

w here: d S ha f t di am ete r ( in )

T he to tal w eig h t ca n b e a pp r o xi m a ted b y th e s h a ft w e ig h t al on e . T h e s h a ft w e ig h t is


d eter m in ed f ro m E q uat ion A .33 .

A .3 3

w here: M ater ial de ns ity (lb /in 3)


T o tal s h af t len g th ( in )

E qu at io n A .31 can be e xp r es s ed a s a f u nc tio n o f s h af t d iam ete r an d b ear in g s p an .

A .34

E , p , an d T L a re co n s t an t f or a gi v en s h a f t m at er i al an d p u m p l en g t h. T h is m ea n s th a t t h e
cr it ica l s pe ed i s p r o po r tio n al to th e s q ua re r o ot o f t he d i am e ter s qu ar ed o ve r th e b ear in g
span c ub ed.

S in ce th e p um p cr iti cal c an b e s et at 1 50 % o f t he d es ig n s p ee d, t he p u m p d es ig n er m us t
ca lc ul at e ei th er th e d e s ir ed s h af t d ia m e te r o r b e ar in g s pa n i n o r d er to ach i ev e t he ot h er
va lu e.

S h a ft D ia m eter
T h e p um p de s ig n er in v ar ia b ly op t s to d e te rm in e t he m i ni m u m s ha ft di am et er to m e et a xi al
t h r u s t a n d t o r qu e cr i te ri a b a s e d o n s h a ft m a te r ia l p r o p er t ie s .

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Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

T h e p r ed om in an t sh af t m ate ri als u s ed f or co n de nse r c oo li n g w at er ap pl ic ati on s ar e:

F r esh w ate r se r vi ce: C arbo n s teel: A S T M A 322, gr 104 5


410 s s : A ST M A 276 ty 4 10
416 ss : A ST M A 276 ty 4 16

S e aw ate r ser vi ce: 316 s s : A S T M A 27 6, ty 316


M o n et: A S TM B 164

T ab le A .2

S in ce sh aft s fo r this typ e o f equ ipm ent com m on ly fai l f rom ex cessive shear f or ces, the pu m p
d e s ig n e r c al cu la te s th e m i ni m u m al lo w a b le s h a f t d ia m e te r b a s ed o n th e m ax i m u m s h e ar
s t re s s cal cu la tio n . O n e s u ch eq ua ti on is pr o v id ed by A N S I B 5 8 .1 an d i s g iv en as E q u at io n
A .3 5 .

A .3 5

w h ere: d M i ni m u m a llo w ab le sh af t d ia m et er ( in )
F A x ial th ru s t (lb )
N S h aft sp eed ( rp m )
BHP M a xi m u m b r ak e ho r s ep o w er
S a ll = 1 8% o f ten si le s tr eng th or 3 0% o f yi eld s tren gt h
w h ichev er is les s
" S a ll " is t h e al lo w ab le s he ar s tr es s a n d ta k es in t o ac co u n t a co m fo r ta bl e s a fe ty m a rg in .
" B H P " is t h e m a x im u m b r ak e h o r s e po w e r th at th e p u m p c an s ee . A lt h ou g h th e p u m p
h o r s ep ow e r is h ig h es t at s h u to ff , t he m o to r is r ar ely s ize d t o p ro v id e th is cap a bi lit y. A s
s u ch , i t is a go o d as s u m pt io n to us e t he m ot or na m ep la te h or s ep o w er , ti m es an y s erv i ce
f acto r , fo r thi s va lue .
" F " ta ke s in to ac co un t b o th s ta tic an d d y n am i c f or c es . T h e s ta ti c fo r ce s c an b e
ap p ro x im a ted by co ns i de ri ng all m ajo r r o tat in g co m p o n en t w eig h ts ; s h af t, im p ell er , an d
d ri v e co u p lin g . T h e dy n am ic f o r ce i s t h e h yd r au li c ax i al th r u st w h ic h m us t be cal cu la te d a t
b o th s t ea d y s ta te an d tr a n s i en t ( s t a rt - u p ) c o n d it io n s . T o c al cu l at e t h e c o nt in u o u s a n d
m o m en ta r y ax i al t hr u s t s , r ef er to E q u at io n s A .2 7 th r o ug h A .29 .

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S i n ce ax i al th r u s t i s n ee d ed t o d e te r m i n e " d " a n d " d " is p a rt o f t h e a x ia l t h ru s t e qu a ti o n ,


t he n E q u at io n A .35 b ec o m e s in d et er m in at e. F o r tu n at el y , t h e s h af t w ei gh t i s s u ch a s m al l
p a rt o f th e to ta l a n a l th ru s t th a t it c a n b e in itially ig n o re d s o th a t th e sh a ft d ia m eter c an
b e c alc u la te d. O n ce th e d ia m e te r i s k no w n , th e t ru e ax ia l th r u s t c an b e es t ab l is h ed .

O n ce t he m in im um all ow a b le sh af t d iam ete r i s k n ow n, th e pu m p d esi gn er can d ete rm in e


th e m a x im u m b ear in g spa n to sati sfy th e cr iti cal sp ee d cr it er io n .

A .3 6

E xam p le 9 .

T hr ee (3 ), 33 113 % ca pacity pum p s a r e req uir ed to deliver a tota l of 390 ,00 0 g pm


o f s eaw ate r at 42 ft. T he pu m ps a r e 8 9% effici ent, a nd ar e dr iven b y 1 8-p ole (3 90
r pm ) , 17 50 h p in du ctio n m o to rs ha vin g a 1.0 se rv ice fact or . T he to tal de velo ped
h ead at sh ut- off is 78 ft., a nd th e ho r sep ow er at s hu t-off is 1 45% o f d esig n.

T h e s h af t m at er ia l is 3 16 s s , a n d th e to ta l p um p le ng th is 42 fee t. T h e l en gt h o f
the bow l an d s uctio n b ell is 8.7 ft., an d th e im peller eye is 2.6 fit abo ve the b ell
inlet.

T h e i m pel ler an d co up lin g w eig h 17 5 0 an d 4 00 I bs , r e sp ect ivel y. T he th r us t


fa ct or a t des i gn is 52 0 a nd 42 3 a t s h ut- o ff

C al cul at e t he m in im u m a llo w ab le s h aft d ia m eter ) b ea r in g s pa n , an d tr u e ax ia l


th ru st va lu es.

S olu tion s fo llow th is g ener a l fo r m at:

1. C a lcul ate all the va ria ble s nec ess a ry to d eter m ine the m inim u m all ow ab le
s ha ft di am e te r . T h es e i nc lu d e:

T o ta l sh a ft len gth
C on tinuo us a xial dow n th r us t (@ d esig n)
M a xim um br a ke h orsep ow er
A llow a ble sh ear stress

2 C al cu la te t h e m ax im u m b ea r in g s p a n.

3. C al cu la te al l t r ue a xia l th r us t v alu es .
T h e t ota l sh a ft leng th i s eq ua l to th e t ota l pu m p len gth les s th e dis t an ce fr om the
im peller eye to th e bell inlet.
T L = 4 2 -2 .6 = 3 9 . 4 '

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Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

T h e c on tin uo u s a xia l d o w n t hr u s t is ca lcu la ted a t des ig n fr o m E qu at ion A .2 7


u s ing th e a p pr o pr i ate v alu es , a n d ig no r in g th e s ha ft w e ig ht ( p x T L x d /4 ) .
2

F @des = (4 2 x 1 .0 3 x 5 2 0 ) + 1 7 5 0 + 4 0 0 = 2 4 , 6 4 5 lb s
T he b ra keh or s epo w e r at d esi gn ca n be cal cula ted fr o m E q ua tion A .25 . T o ob tain
th e in di vid ua l p um p f lo w , the t ota l r eq ui r ed fl ow m us t b e di vid ed b y th e nu m be r
of pu m p s oper atin g in p ar allel.

B H P@ des = (39 0,0 0 0 3 ) x 42 x 1.0 3 = 15 96


39 60 x 0.8 9

B H P@ s .o .= 1 5 9 6 x 1 .4 5 = 2 3 1 4

M a x i m u m m o t o r h o r s e p o w e r = 1 7 5 0 x 1 .0 = 1 7 5 0

T herefo r e, th e m a xim um b ra ke h orsepo w er valu e to us e in E qu atio n A .3 5 is 175 0.

T he allow ab le s hear s tr ess is the s m aller o f 18 % o f th e ultim ate tens ile o r 30% o f
yie ld. T h e m a ter ia l pr op er tie s ca n be fo un d fr om T ab le A .2 .

0 .3 0 x Y s = 0 .3 0 x 3 5, 0 0 0 ps i = 1 0 ,5 0 0 p s i
0 .1 8 x U t = 0 . 1 8 x 8 5 , 0 0 0 p s i = 1 5 , 3 0 0 p s i

T herefor e, th e allow a ble sh ear str ess is 10,5 00 p si.

U s in g E q ua tio n A .3 5, a n d s ub s titu tin g a ll kn ow n a nd c alc ula te d va lue s , w e ca n


de term in e the m inim um allow ab le s ha ft d iam eter , " d ".

T his eq uatio n m u st be solved throu gh an iterative p ro cess sin ce "d " a pp ear s on
b oth s ides o f th e equ atio n. T his is acco m p lis hed by as s um ing a val ue fo r "d " o n
th e " ri ght " sid e o f th e e qu atio n, an d s olvin g for " d" . T he cor r ect v alu e fo r the
s ha ft d iam eter o ccur s w hen th e tw o v alu es ar e eq ua l w ithin .005 ".

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F or this exam ple,

d = 5 .1 6 "

N ext, so lve for " L " u sin g E qua tion A .36 .

F or this exam ple,

L = 150.87 5" = 12.6'

T h e a xia l t h r u s t va l ue s , m ax im u m c on t in u o us a xi a l d o w n th r u s t , m a x im u m
m om e nt ar y a xia l d ow n t hr u s t a nd m om e nt ar y d o w n thr u s t a r e th en c al cul at ed i n
E qu atio ns A .2 7, A .2 8 an d A .2 9 re sp ectivel y a nd us in g the ap pr op r iate val ues .

Fup = 2 7 ,5 1 2 x .5 = 1 3 ,7 5 6 lb s (m o m e n ta ry )

Th e m a xim um br ak e h or s epo w er an d allo w a ble s hea r s tr es s va lues ar e s til l 1 75 0


and 10,5 00 ps i res pectively.

U si ng E qu a tio n A .35 , a nd s u bs t itu tin g a ll kno w n an d n ew ly ca lcu lat ed va lu es , w e


can det erm in e th e fin al m inim u m allo w a ble s ha ft d iam eter , "d " .

T he fi na l ca lcu la ted m in im um s h af t d ia m et er i s :

d = 5.1 6 "

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Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

N ext, s olve for the fina l l eng th "L " us in g E qu ati on A .36 .

T he fin al cal cula ted be ar ing s p an is :

L = 1 5 0 .8 7 5" = 1 2 .6 '

I t is i m po r ta nt t o no te t ha t th e a xi al th r u s t, a t de s ign , d id c ha n ge s u bs t an tia ll y,
b ut its ef fect on E q ua tio n A .3 5 is n egl igib le. F o r th is r ea so n, t he A na l v alu es fo r
s h aft d ia m eter an d b ear i ng s p an did n o t c ha ng e fr o m th e or ig in al ly cal cul at ed
values.

A.7.7 Line Shaft and Line Shaft Couplings


T h e li ne s h af t is th e co m po n en t th at tr an s m its h or s ep o w er f r o m th e m o to r to th e im pe lle r.
A x ia l th r u s t i s tr a ns m i tt ed to th e m o to r th r u s t b ea r in g f r o m t h e im p el le r t h ro u g h t h e l in e
s h af t. S h af ti n g i s pr e ci s io n m ac h in ed f or tr u en e s s , b a la nc e, s tr a ig h tn es s a n d s u r f ac e f in is h
to m in im i ze s h af t vi br at io n an d to m ax im ize b ea ri ng lif e. S ha ft s ec tio n s a re j oin ed by a
s u it ab l e co u p li n g t o tr an s m i t to r q u e a nd a xi al th r u s t. V a r ia bl e d e s ig n s ar e a v ai la b le , b u t
th e f iv e ba s ic ty pes ar e: (F i gu re A .28 )

T h r ead ed sl eev e
S o lid s leev e w ith s pli t e xter na l c olla rs
S o lid s lee ve w ith s p lit rin g s an d s oli d ext ern al col lar s
S p lit s lee ve w it h s pl it rin g s
S ol id s lee ve w it h " C "- ty pe s plit thr us t collar , and lo ck colla r

E x cep t f or th e th re ad ed sl eev e d esig n , al l slee ve s a re k ey ed to t he sh af t to tr an sm it t or q ue .

T h e th r ead ed slee ve d e sig n co n s is t s o f a sl eev e in w h ich tw o sh af t en d s ar e th re ad ed . T he


m ax im u m sh af t d iam e ter r ecom m en ded is f ive ( 5) in ch es d ue to d iff icu lty in d isassem b ly
af te r o p er at io n . T h is d es i g n h as t he fe w es t pa r ts an d th e lo w e s t i ni ti al c os t. A s s em b ly is
in cr ea sin gl y m or e d if fi cu lt w h en ga lli n g m a ter ia ls ar e u s ed f o r t he sh af t an d co up li ng . It i s
com m on t o req uir e t he cou pl ing to b e cut of f du rin g di sa ss em bly t o s av e the m o re exp en si ve
s h af t. T h e c os t fo r s pa r e p ar ts o v er tim e an d th e m ain t en an c e in co n v en ie n ce u s u al ly
ou tw e ig hs th e f ir s t co st ad va nt ag e.

D esig n s ( b) an d ( c) ar e sim i lar in th at t hey ha ve a so lid sleev e at tach ed to e ach sh af t by


ri ng s . D e s ig n ( b) e m p lo ys s p lit r et ain in g r in gs w h ich fit i n a s h af t g r oo v e an d ar e b ol ted
di re ctl y to t he sl eev e. S o m e u ti lit ies p ref er a soli d m a tin g p ie ce - sp ur r in g th e de ve lo pm en t

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of de s ig n ( c) . D es ig n ( c) u s es s p lit r et ain i ng ri ng s to tr an s m i t th e ax ia l th r us t b e tw ee n
s ha ft s , an d s o l id c ol lar s to h o ld th e re tai n in g r in gs m t he s h af t g ro o v es . T he s e d es ig n s , as
co m p a re d t o t h e o th e r t hr e e, re su lt i n t h e la r ge s t sh a ft d iam et er f or th e re q ui r ed to r q ue an d
th r us t , a n d , t he r ef o re , t h e la rg e s t i ni ti al s h a ft /b e ar in g s y s te m co s t . T h e m a jo r be n ef it of
th es e d es i gn s is th at t he s lee ve p r o pe rl y a lig n s t h e s ha ft s . T he s e co u pl in g s c an b e u s ed o n
all sh af t d ia m et er s.

F i g u r e A .2 8
S h a ft C o u p lin g D e sig n s

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D es ig n ( d ) u til ize s a s p li t s l eev e an d s p l it re tai ni ng ri ng s . T he s l eev e is s p lit a xi all y an d


bo lt ed to ge th er . T hi s d e sig n h as th e sm a ll est sh af t d iam et er o f a ll sl eev e d esi gn s sin ce t he
s h af t r e li ef c ar r i es t h ru s t, b u t z er o to r q u e. T h is m ea n s th a t t h e s h a f t/ b ea r in g s y s t em h as
the lo w es t ini tial co s t o f th e n on - thr ead ed d es ig ns . M ach in in g com ple xit y is a d is ad van tag e
and th e cou pl ing a ssem bly c an be cu m be rso m e.

D es ig n ( e) us e s t he s p li t C - th r us t c ol lar t o tr an s m it ax ia l t hr u s t. T he s o li d s le ev e is he ld i n
pl ace b y a sp lit r eta in in g ri ng . T hi s d es i gn h as p ro v id ed e as e of fi eld as s em b ly an d
disassem bly a nd i s th e p re fer re d cho ice .

A.7.8 Bearings

T h e b ea ri ng s u s ed thr o ug h ou t co nd en ser coo li ng w ater pu m p s are sl eev e- ty pe b ear in g s to


com pen s ate f or r ad ial lo ads an d to p ro vi de ro to r d am p ing . T h e tot al bea rin g co ns i st s o f th e
ro ta tin g jo ur n al ( s h af t o r s l eev e) an d t he s tat io n ar y b us hi ng . T h e bu s h in g s ar e
pr ed o m i na nt ly m an u fa ctu r ed ou t o f b r on ze o r cu tle s s r u b be r. C u t les s r ub b er bu s h in g s a re
pr ov id ed w ith br o nze o r s t ain les s s te el ba ck in g to p r ov id e d im e ns io n al s ta bi lity . T he
m ate ria l s e lect ion fo r th e bac ki ng i s a fu n ctio n o f th e flu id t hat c om e s in con ta ct w ith t he
bu s h in g . ( B ro n ze i s u s e d f or f re s h w a ter ap p lic at io ns , an d a u s ten i tic s t ai nl es s s te el f o r
se aw ater ser vice .)

C u tle s s r u bb er i s t he p re fe rr ed m ate ri al fo r v er tic al p um p lin e s h af t b ea ri ng s fo r th e


follo w ing reas ons:

T he cu tle s s r ub b er b or e i s n or m a lly f lu ted t o he lp f lus h fo re ign par tic les fr om t he


b ea ri ng s ur fa ce. (T he b ro n ze b or e m a y ha ve a s p ir al g ro o ve m ach in ed t o p ro m o te a
p u m p in g ac tio n . T h is is n ot as ef f ect iv e a s t he d ee pe r- cu t fl ut es .)

T he sof tn ess o f th e cut less r u bb er p erm its f o rei gn p ar ticle s to b eco m e em bed d ed in
t h e r ub b er . F o r b r o nz e, at ta ch m e n t o f f o re ig n pa r tic le s to th e m eta l b o re ca n r es u l t
i n a c ut ti ng to o l act io n a nd u lti m a te d es t ru ct io n o f t h e m a tin g s ur f ace ( s h af t o r s h af t
sleev e) d ue to a p rocess co m m on ly r eferr ed to as "w ire w o olin g".

C u t les s ru b b er is a h y d r os co p ic m at er i al, m ean i n g t ha t i t ab s o r b s w at er . T h e


a bs o rp tio n p ro ces s re su lts in a s w ell in g of t he b or e and red u ctio n o f be ari ng
c le ar an c e. A lth o u g h t he in it ia l d es i gn cl ea ra n ce o f t h e cu t les s r u b b er i s la rg e r t ha n
t h at o f b r o n ze, th e a ct ua l r u nn i ng cl ea ra n ce i s t ig h te r p r o vi d in g g r ea te r d am p in g
a nd re s to ri ng fo rc es . T yp ic al d es ig n c lear an ce s f o r cu tle s s r u bb er an d b ro n ze
b ea ri ng s a re f ur n is h ed in T ab le A .3 as a fu n cti on o f j ou rn al d ia m ete r.

R u bb er ex pe rie nce s a gr eatl y re du ced co ef fic ien t o f f ric tio n in w ate r resu ltin g in
in creased serv ice lif e.

T h e m a jo r d is ad va n tag e o f c u tle s s ru b b er be ar in g s i s th at i t r eq ui r es co n tin u o us


lu br i cat io n . W he n d r y , th e r u b be r w i ll a ct a s a br ak e i f i t co m e s in c o nt ac t w it h th e r o ta tin g
jou r na l an d can lead to sh af t fa ilu re . (R ef er to th e "B ac k R ing " sec tio n u nd er "I m p ell er" .)
A s su ch , cu tle ss r u bb er i s n o t a g o od bu sh ing m at er ial f or be ari ng s situ ate d ab o ve th e lo w
w ate r le v el w h er e an ex ter n al i nj ect io n so u rc e is n ot a va il ab le. B r o n ze b ear i ng s , o n th e
oth er h and , of fer s om e deg ree of s elf- lub ricit y f or s ho rt per iod s of tim e .

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Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

B ot to m be ar in g b us h i ng s , w h en us e d, ar e m an u fa ctu r ed e ith er ou t o f b ro n ze o r c ut les s


r ub b er de pe n di ng o n th e l ub r ic ati o n m e d iu m . B r o n ze is t he t yp i cal m at er ial fo r g r ea s e-
p ack ed , an d c ut les s ru b be r, fo r ex te rn al f lu s h ap p lic ati on s .

T a b le A .3

T Y P IC A L B E A R I N G D I A M E T R I C A L C L E A R A N C E S
J o u r n a l D ia m e t e r C u tle ss R u b b er B ro n z e
(in ) ( in ) ( in )
O v er 3.0 th ru 4 .0 0 .0 0 7 0 .006
O ve r 4.0 th ru 5 .0 0 .0 0 8 0 .007
O v er 5.0 th ru 6 .0 0 .0 1 1 0 .008
O v er 6.0 th ru 7 .0 0 .0 1 1 0 .00 9
O v er 7.0 th ru 8 .0 0 .0 1 4 0 .01 0
O v er 8.0 th ru 9 .0 0 .0 1 4 0 .011
O v er 9 .0 th ru 1 0 .0 0 .0 1 5 0 .012
O ver 10.0 thr u 11 .0 0 .0 1 6 0.013
O ver 11.0 thr u 12 .0 0 .0 1 7 0.014

T h e be ari ng L /D ( le ng th -to - dia m ete r ra tio ) is a f u nct io n of i ts l oa d car ry in g r equ ir em e nts .


T yp ical L /D values are g iven in T able A .4.

T a b l e A .4

T Y P I C A L B E A R I N G L /D R A T I O S
B e a r in g D e sc r ip tio n L /D
B ott om B ear ing ( W he n U s ed ) 2 :1
B ow l B ear ing s 1:1
L i ne S h a ft B ea r in gs 2 :1
S tuf fing B ox B earin g 2 :1

A-52
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

A.7.9 Bearing Lubrication System

T h e p u m p de s ig n er m u s t p ro v id e a m ea ns t o lu b r ica te a ll p r im p b ea ri ng s : b o tt om be ar in g
(w h en u s ed ), b o w l b ea rin g (s ) , lin e s haf t be ari ng (s ) , an d s tu ff in g b ox b ear in g. Se lect io n of
w hi ch ty p e of l ine b ear in g lu b ric atio n s y s tem to us e f or e ach b ea rin g ty p e dep en d s o n th e
qu al ity o f th e pu m p ed l iqu id a nd t he av ail ab ilit y/f eas i bi lity o f a cle an w at er in jec tio n
sour ce.

T w o ty pes o f f lus h sy ste m s are co m m on ly us ed:

A n ex te rn al cle an w ate r f lu s h sy st em
A n in t er n al f l us h s y s t em w h e re th e f lu s h li n e ta p o r ig i na te s an y w h er e d o w n s tr ea m
of th e b ow l

F or bo th s y s tem s , 1 - 2 gp m pe r in ch o f be ari ng i ns id e di am e ter o f cle an w ate r is r eq u ire d fo r


ea ch b e ar in g at 10 - 15 p s i ab ov e d is c h ar ge p r es s u r e. W h en i n di vi du a l lu be l in es ar e
em plo y ed , th e t ot al fl ow re qu ir ed i s eq u al to th is v alu e tim e s th e n um ber of b ea rin g s .

I t i s h ig h ly r eco m m en d ed to us e a cl ean w ate r f lus h syst em f or any ap pl ica tio n w h er e th e


li qu id is co n s id er ed ab r as iv e. W h en it i s n o t fe as i bl e to s up p ly cle an w ate r, an in ter n al
fl us h s ys t em c an be em plo ye d uti lizin g s om e t yp e o f fi lter ing . T h e m or e c om m on f ilte r
s ys t em u s es a c ycl on e s ep ar ato r o ff t he p u m p d is ch ar ge . T h is ty pe o f s y s tem w o rk s m o st
ef f ici en tl y w h en th er e is at l east 4 5 ps i p r essu r e di f fe re nt ial a v ail ab le a cr oss th e se pa ra to r
to car r y o u t its f un ct io n S i nc e m o s t co n d en s er c o ol in g w a ter ap pl ic ati on s do n ot h av e t hi s
h ig h d is c ha r ge p r es s u r e, a pu m p m ay b e u s ed to au gm en t t he p r es s u r e to th e d es ir ed le ve l.

I nt er ru p ti on of th e f lu s h s y s te m ca n ca u s e cat as t ro p hi c f ail ur e d ep en d in g o n t he pu m p
d es ig n . A s s uc h, it is re co m m en de d th at c on tr o ls be im p lem en ted in t he f lu s h l in e t o s en s e
fl ow an d al ar m w he n th e s ys te m is no t op er at ing pr o pe rly .

F o r d es ig n s h av in g i m p ell er b ack ri ng s , i nt er ru p tio n o f t he c lean fl us h s ys t em w il l re s ul t in


a lo s s o f liq u id in th e s h af t en clo s in g tu be a bo v e t he s u m p w a ter l eve l. E x p os u r e o f a ny
b ear in g to a tm o s p h er e w il l cau s e l oc ali zed h eat in g a nd po s s i bl e s ei zu re . I n th i s e ve n t, t he
pu m p s h ou ld be tak en o ff li ne im m e diat ely.

F o r ri ng -l ess d esi gn s, all b ear in g s w il l be lu b ric ated by the l iqu id pu m p ed w h en t he cl ean


f lu s h s y s te m is in te rr u pt ed s in ce f ul l d is ch ar g e p re s s ur e w i ll ex is t a t th e b as e o f t he s h af t
en c lo s i ng tu b e . F o r th is i n s ta n ce , t he pu m p s ho u l d n o t b e t ak en o f fl in e u n ti l t he f lu s h
sy st em is r eesta bl is h ed sin ce t he d isch ar g e pr essu re w i ll d ecay ra pi dly (s q u ar e of t he sp ee d
re du ctio n) w he n the m o tor i s de -en erg ized an d b eari ng s can b eco m e e xp osed .

In d iv idu al lu b e l in es a re m o re s u s cep tib le to fie ld p ro bl em s , p ar tic ula rl y fo r b ot tom b ear in g


d es i gn s . S i nc e th e b e ar in g s ar e l ub r ic at ed in pa r al lel , u n ev e n o r pr e m a tu r e w ea r o r lo s s o f
lu br ica tio n to o n e o r m o r e b ea rin g s w ill r ed uc e t he f low to a ll ot her bea rin g s r es ul tin g in
ad d it io n al w e ar to t h es e c om p o ne nt s . L u be lin e s t o t he bo t to m b ea ri ng ar e p r o ne t o r u p tu r e
du e to co n tact w ith l arg e de br is .

A-53
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

A.7.10 Shaft Enclosing Tube

T h e en clo s ed lin e sh af t co ns is ts of a p ipe be tw een th e b o w l an d the d ischa rg e el bo w to


is o la te t h e s h af t/b e ar in g s y s t em f r om th e en v ir o nm en t. T h is c on s t ru c tio n is re co m m en d ed
w he ne ve r th e p u m p ed li qu id c on tai ns a h ig h co n cen tr atio n o f ab ra s iv e s o lid s . T h e en clo s in g
tu b e is no r m al ly f la ng ed , a nd is co ns t ru ct ed i n le ng th s co rr es p o nd in g t o th e b ear in g s p ac in g
sin ce eac h b ear in g is alw ay s sup po r ted a t on e en d o f eac h en clo s in g tu be se ctio n . T h e
fl ang ed s ec tio ns inc or po ra te rab be t f its fo r p os iti ve ali gn m en t.

T h e dia m et er o f th e sh af t e nc los i ng t ub e is si zed t o pr ov id e ro o m f o r th e b ea rin g s an d


co u pl in g . T y p ica l d iam ete rs a re s h o w n i n T a bl e A .5. T h is ta bl e als o p ro v id es th e m a xi m u m
u ns up p o rt ed s p an to p r ev e nt a re s o n an t co n d iti o n.

T a b l e A .5

T Y P IC A L S H A F T E N C L O S IN G T U B E D A T A
S h a ft D ia m e te r S h a ft E n clo sin g T u b e M a x . U n su p p o r te d S p a n
(in ) D ia (ft)
(in )
4 .0 8 .0 1 8 .0
4 .5 8 .0 1 8 .0
5 .0 10 .0 2 3 .0
5 .5 10 .0 2 3 .0
6 .0 10 .0 2 3 .0
6 .5 10 .0 2 3 .0
7 .0 12 .0 2 6 .0
7 .5 12 .0 2 6 .0
8 .0 12 .0 2 6 .0
8 .5 14 .0 3 0 .0
9 .0 16 .0 3 4 .0
9 .5 16 .0 3 4 .0
10 .0 16 .0 3 4 .0
1 1.0 18 .0 3 8 .0
1 2.0 20 .0 4 2 .0
-

A-54
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

A.7.11 Column
T h e co lum n assem bly is th e sp oo l p iece con nect ing th e b ow l t o t he disch arg e elb ow and can
co n si s t o f o ne o r m o r e s e ctio ns . C o lu m n s ec tio ns ar e f la ng ed an d a re p ro vi ded w ith r ab be t
f its fo r p o s itiv e al ign m e nt . C ol um n len g th s d ep en d o n s h aft c on s tr uc tio n ty p e, o p en o r
clos ed.

F o r o pe n li ne c on s tr u cti o n, t h e c o lu m n l en gt h m a tch es th e b ear in g s p an to e na bl e be ar in g


su pp o rt t hr o u gh th e us e o f a sp id er lo cat ed a t th e fl an ge ( u nl ess th is len g th e xc eed s th e
m a ch in in g cap ab il ity of t he m an uf act ur er an d/o r t he h an d lin g ca pa city in t he f iel d) .

F o r enc los ed lin e c on s tru ctio n , the co lu m n le ng th is det erm ine d to s ati s fy al l o f th e
fo llo w in g req uir em ent s:

S up po r t t he s h af t e nc los i ng t ub e to a vo id a r es on an t co nd iti on .
E ase in assem bl y an d d isasse m b ly .
M ac hi ni n g a nd h an d lin g co n s tr ai nt s .

A ty pi cal cr os s -s e ctio n de taili ng d es ig n br eak s i n th e s h aft en clo s in g tu be an d co lum n is


sh ow n in exam ple 10.

E xa m pl e 1 0:

T hr ee ( 3), 3 3 1 /3% ca pac ity p um ps a re to be ins talled fo r a low hea d, s iph on,
on ce- thr o ug h sys te m . G en er al in for m at ion is as fo llo w s :

Suction so ur ce: M is s ou r i R iver (a br as ive liq uid )

P u m p C on fig u ra ti on :
D isch arge L ocation: A bo ve G r ou nd
C on str uctio n: N o n P u ll -O u t
Su ction B e ll: N o B ott om B ea r ing

D im ens io n al D ata :
D r ive C o up ling to M oun ting : 11.0'
St uf fin g B o x to M o u nti ng : 9.0'
M o un ting t o B otto m o f B e ll: 42 .0 '
B ow l E x it to B o ttom of B ell: 10.5'
Im peller E ye to B o ttom of B ell: 3.1 '
O ther D ata:
M a xi m u m B e a r in g S p a n: 12.6'
Sh a ft D ia m eter : 6. 0"
D is char ge D ia m eter: 72 .0"
M ax im um M ac hin ing C apab ility : 20 .0'

D eter m in e th e t ota l n um b er a nd ty pe of bea r ing s to b e us ed fo r th is a pp lica tion


(t her e ar e tw o be ar in gs in th e b ow l) a nd th e typ e o f lub r ica tio n sy s tem . D r aw a
pu m p s ch em a tic s h o w in g t he lo ca tio n o f all b ea r in gs an d th e s iz in g a nd
co nfi gu r atio n o f t he co lum n , s ha ft, a nd sh a ft e ncl os in g tu be.

A-55
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

Solu tion:

1. T he fir s t s tep is to se lect the type bea rin g a nd bea r ing lub rica tion s yst em .
S in ce th e p u m p liq uid is a br a s ive, cut les s r u bb er be ar in gs flu s he d w i th a
cl ean w a ter ext ern al s ou rce is th e b es t a lter na tive. G iven this sele ction , the
s h af t e ncl os in g tu be a ffo r ds m axi m um r elia bi lity .

2 . T he ne xt st ep is t o s iz e a ll co m po nen ts an d de ter m in e m a xim u m d es ig n


c riter ia .

S ha ft D i am eter: 6.0 " (g ive n )


M a x im um Sh a f t L e n g th : 20 .0 ' (M ac hin in g lim ita tio ns )
M a xi m u m B e ar i n g S p an : 1 2. 6 ' (g ive n )
S ha ft E n clos in g T ub e D ia .: 1 0 .0 "( fr o m T a b l eA .5)
M a xi m um T u b e L en g th : 2 0.0 ' ( m a ch in in g li m ita t io n s )
M a x. U ns u pp or ted T u be L gt h: 23 .0 ' ( fr om T ab le A .5 )
C olum n D ia m eter: 72 .0 " ( to co incid e w ith d is ch ar ge
dia .)
M a xi m u m C o lu m n L en g th : 20 .0 ' ( m a ch i n in g li m i ta t io n s )

3 . N e xt, c alc ul ate a ll o f t he p hy s ica l p a r am et er s .

a. T o tal s ha ft len gth :


T o tal s ha ft leng th is the di st an ce f ro m th e dr ive co up lin g to the
im p eller eye = 1 1.0 + 42.0 - 3.1 = 49.9'

b. T otal s haft enclosing s tub e len gth:


T o tal s ha ft e nclo s ing t ub e le ng th is th e dis ta nce fr om th e
s tu ffing box to the top of the bow l = 9.0 + 4 2.0 - 10.5 = 40 .5'

c. T o tal co lu m n leng th :
T o tal co lu m n len gth i s th e d is ta nc e fr o m t he m ou nt ing t o the to p
of th e bow l = 42.0 -10 .5 = 31 .5'

4. N e xt, s om e gener al pr incip les s hou ld be es ta blis hed :

Sh aft enclo si ng tub es s ho uld be br o ken at each be ar ing to pr o vide


suppo rt.
C o lum n s s ho uld b e b ro ken to pr o vide s up po r t fo r th e s ha ft
en clos ing tube.
Sh aft br ea ks s h ou ld be as clo se to a b ear in g as p os s ib le. T he b ow l
sh aft is u su all y b ro ken r igh t a bo ve th e to p bo w l bea rin g.
W h enever p ossible, m ake com po nen t leng ths id entic al to fa c ilitate
field a s sem bly.
M ak e as few b rea ks as p os sib le to r educ e cos t a nd the pos s ibility
fo r m is a lig n m ent .

A-56
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

5 . N ex t , c o m p o n en t b r e ak s s h o u ld b e d e te rm in e d :

a . S h a f t b re ak s :
S i nce th e tot al pu m p len g th is 4 9 .9 ' it w ou ld b e pr efe rab le to u tili ze
t hr ee (3 ) shaf ts . T h e b ow l sha ft is d icta ted b y the d istan ce f ro m th e
i m pe ller ey e to the to p of t he bo w l: 10 .5 - 3 .1 = 7.4' S ince th e
m ach in ing lim it atio n is 20 .0 ', th e b o w l s h aft w o ul d hav e to b e 9 .9'
t o end u p w ith th ree (3 ) shaf ts . T h e d istan ce f ro m t he top o f th e
b ow l sh aft to the bear ing (9 .9 - 7.4 = 2.5') is s atisf acto ry. T h eref ore ,
t he th r ee s ha ft le ng th s a re 9 .9 ', 2 0.0', a nd 20 .0 '.

b . B e a rin g L o ca tio n s :
T h e p um p has t w o ( 2) b ear ing s in th e b ow l and t he s tuf fin g bo x
b ea r in g . W i th o u t ad d i n g a d di ti o n al b e ar i ng s , t he m a x im u m
dis tance betw een b earings is f rom the s tuf fing bo x to the to p o f th e
bow l (4 2.0 + 9.0 - 1 0.5 = 40.5).

S in ce th e m a xi m u m be ari ng s pa n is 12 .6', t hr ee ( 3) ad dit io na l


be arin gs ar e r equ ired to w or k in c onj unc tion w ith the tw o (2)
be aring s on eith er end to pr ov ed fou r (4) b earin g sp ans.

T o p ro vide iden tical co m po nen t leng ths ( sh aft enclo sin g tubes are
br ok en at ea ch be ari ng lo cat ion ) , the to tal b ear ing sp an i s d ivi ded
by f ou r (4 ) : ea ch b ear i ng s p an = 4 0.5 4 = 10 .1 25 '.

T he ot her cr iter ion to c heck i s tha t a be arin g exi st s ne ar each sha ft


br ea k. T he re a re t hr ee ( 3) s ha ft s an d t w o ( 2) s ha ft b re ak s . T h e to p
bo w l b ear ing is clo se to th e fir s t sh aft br eak . T he seco nd sh aft
br eak is 2 .2 5' a bo ve an int erm e diate b earin g, w h ich is a ccept able .

c . S h af t E n c lo s in g T u be B r ea k s :
T he sha ft en clos in g tu be br eak s ar e dict ated b y the b ear ing
locations . T hes e are given above.

d . C o lu m n B r e a k s :
T he colum n is b ro ken to pro vid e s up por t f or the sh aft e nclos in g
tu be . T h e co lu m n le ng th is 3 1 .5 '. B y p ro v id ing tw o ( 2 ) eq ua l
colum n s ections ( 15.75' lo ng) , th e lon ges t s haft enclos ing tub e
un su pp or ted sp an w ill b e t he d is tanc e fr om th e s tuf fin g bo x t o th e
m ou ntin g plu s the col um n s ectio n l eng th = 9 + 1 5.7 5 = 2 4.7 5'.
S in ce thi s d istan ce is lo ng er t han the m ax im u m allo w ab le
u n s up p or te d s p an ( 2 3.0 '), th is ar ra ng em en t w il l no t w o rk . T he t w o
acceptab le cho ices are:

P ro v id e u ne qu al c ol um n le ng th s : th e to p c ol um n b ein g 1 1 .5 0 '
l on g , an d t he b o tto m s ec tio n, 20 .0' lo n g. (T hi s m eet s a ll cr ite ri a
i nc lu d in g m ach in in g cap ab il it y w h il e ke ep in g t he u n s u pp o rt ed
s pa n s a pp r o x i m a te ly e q ua l.)

A-57
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

P r o vid e f ou r s u pp o rts , tw o in ter n al. S i nc e t he c olu m n m at es t o


th e d ischar ge elbo w , th is is a con ven ient place to inter nall y
s u p po rt th e s h aft e ncl os in g t ub e. T his al low s eq u al co lum n
s ec tion s w it h the en clo s ing t ub e s p an s eq ual to 9 .0 ', 15 .7 5 ', a nd
15.75'.
A.7.12 Discharge Elbow
T h e m ajor f un ctio ns of th e disch arg e elbo w a re to:

E f fic ien tly ch an ge th e dir ect ion of th e liq ui d fr om th e ve rtic al axi s to t he d ischa rg e pip e
axi s (n or m ally , hor izo ntal) .
S u p po r t th e p u m p s ta ti on a ry co m p o n en ts .
H ou s e t he s ha ft s ealin g d evic e ( ab ov e g r ou nd ap p licati on s ).
S up po r t th e m o tor ( ab ov e g r ou nd a pp licat ion s ).

F ig u re A .2 9
D isc h a rg e E lb o w T y p es

T h e thr ee m aj or ty p es o f d is cha rg e elb ow s are s h ow n m F ig ur e A .2 9.


T h e he ad l os s th r ou g h th e d is ch ar g e elb o w c an b e d ete rm in ed fr o m E q ua tio n A .3 7 . V ar io u s
"K " factors ar e given in T ab le A .6.

A .37

W h ere: K = F ri ct io n F act o r
V = D i sch ar ge velo city ( ft/s ec)
g = G r av i tat io n al c o ns tan t ( 3 2 .2 f t/ s ec )

A-58
EPRI Licensed Materia l
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

T a b le A .6

D IS C H A R G E E L B O W H EA D L O S S
O p e n E lb o w S p litte r V a n e (s) M u ltip le V a n e s
( S l ed )
L o ng S h o rt L on g Sh o rt A irfo il C om m on
R ad iu s R ad i us R ad i us R a d iu s
K 0.17 0 0 .27 0 0.14 0 0.240 0.13 6 0.24 0
H 0 .38 0 0 .6 0 4 0.313 0 .53 7 0.30 4 0.5 37

F o r ty pi ca l in s ta ll ati o ns t he v e lo ci ty a t th e d is c h ar g e ra n ge s f r o m 1 0 t o 1 5 f p s . T he he ad
lo ss f or each t yp e of d isch arg e he ad at 1 2 fp s i s tab u lated in T ab le A .6 .

T h e o p en di s ch a rg e e lb o w is th e s i m p le s t a nd m o s t e as i ly m a nu f ac tu r ed . T h is d es i g n h as a
hi g he r h ea d lo s s d ue t o t he i ne f fi cie nt m et ho d of tu rn i ng th e li qu id . In th e m i d- 7 0 's , w h en
ho r s ep ow e r w as b ein g ev al ua ted at $ 20 0 0- 30 0 0/ kw , pu m p de s ig ne rs s o ug h t w ay s to
m ax im ize th e t ot al pu m p e ff icie nc y. D e cre ase of t he f ric tio n lo ss at th e d isch arg e elb o w
w as ac co m p li s h ed b y e it he r in c or p or at in g a s p l itt er v an e i n th e e lb ow o r s u b s ti tu tin g th e
m u lti -v an e sl ed f or the o p en el bo w . B oth of the s e d esi gn s i ncr ea se t he tu r n ef fi cien cy b y
re d uc in g th e li q ui d s e p ar at io n o f f t he in s id e w a ll . T he m u lt ip le v a ne de s ig n ha s an ad de d
b en ef it of d ec re as in g t h e tu r n in g r a di u s , t h us s h o r te n in g t h e p um p len g th a nd lo w e r in g
in it ial p u m p co s t. T h es e tu r n in g v an es , ho w e ve r, ar e s u bj ect t o f lo w in d uc ed v i br at io n
re s u lti ng in fa il ur e o f t he v an e t o s t ru ct ur al m em b er w e ld s . ( T hi s c o nd it io n i s r em ed ie d b y
ad d in g s ti f fe n er p la tes b e tw e en th e v a n es an d s tr u c tu r al m em b er .)

T h e p um p di sc har g e el bo w is fr eq uen tly con ne cted t o the d is ch arg e pip e us in g a fle xib le
pi pe c ou p lin g ( D re s s er t yp e) . I t is rec om m en d ed t ha t tie r od s br id g e the c ou p lin g t o
tr an s m it th e p r es s u r e l oa d b e tw e en th e d i s ch ar g e p i pe an d e lb o w . (T h e f o rc e at th e
d is c ha rg e e lb o w ex it e q ua ls t he p u m p d is c h ar ge pr e s s u re t im es th e e x it a re a an d act s al on g
th e d isch ar g e ax is .) W he n ti e ro d s ar e no t u s ed , th is f o rc e act s i n b ot h d ir ec tio n s i m p o s in g
a lo a d to b o th t h e d is c ha rg e e lb o w an d p i pe . I t i s f o r t h is r eas o n th at m o s t d is c h ar ge
elb o w s ar e de sig ne d to acc ep t th e f ul l th ru st o f an un r estr ai n ed e xp an s io n j oi nt .

A.7.13 Stuffing Box


T he s tu ff ing bo x is loc ated i n the d is ch arg e elb ow fo r ab ov e gr ou n d ap pli catio n s an d in th e
m ot or s up p or t fo r b el ow g ro u nd a pp li cat io ns . I ts f un ct io n is to m in im i ze th e liq u id l eak ag e
o u t of the p u m p . T w o m et ho d s a re e m p lo ye d; p ac ki ng a nd m ec ha ni cal s e als .

P a cki ng is th e sim p le r, m or e eco no m i cal, m or e re liab le , an d easie r m ai nte na nce c ho ice


w he n p r op e rl y u ti li ze d. T h e m os t im po r ta nt co n cep t r eg a rd i ng p ack i ng is th a t le ak ag e i s
r eq ui re d acr o s s th e pa ck ing to p ro v id e l ub r icat ion an d co ol ing . M o s t pa ck ing pr o ble m s
o c cu r w h en m a in te n an ce i nd i vi du a ls ad ju s t t h e gl an d t ig h tn es s t o r ed u ce o r ev en eli m i na te
p a ck in g l eak a ge . P a ck in g s up p li er s re co m m en d l ea ka g e ra te s r an g in g fr o m 3 0 t o 6 0 d r o ps
p er m in u te . P re d o m in a n t p a c k in g m a te ria l m th e p a st w a s g ra p h ite a sb es to s . S in c e th e
o b s ol eti on of a s be s to s , r eco m m en de d m a ter ial s i nc lu de e ith er g r ap hi te im pr eg na ted tef lo n
o r aero m atic pol yim id e.

A-59
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

T he d isad van tag es o f m e cha nic al se al us e fo r co nd en ser co oli ng w at er ap pli catio n s in clu de :

H ig h er fi rs t an d r e pl ac em en t c ost
M o re d iff icu lt ins ta llatio n
S en s it iv i ty t o s h af t ad j u s tm e nt

M ech an i cal se al in st all ati o n m u st b e co m p l ete d af te r t he p u m p ro to r is in stal le d to acc o un t


fo r s h af t s tr et ch . T h e m e ch an i ca l s e al m u s t b e r e lo c ate d ev er y ti m e th e re is a n a x ia l
ch an ge i n s h aft p o s iti on as a re s ul t of im p el ler an d/ or s hr o ud w ear .

Si nce th e s e alin g pr es s ur e i s lo w ( dis ch ar ge pr es s ur e to atm o s ph er e; p = 1 5- 50 p s i), a


s in g le, u nb a lan c ed de s ig n is al l th at i s re q ui r ed . T yp i cal m at er ia l s el ec ti on s ar e:

R ot atin g F a ce: C ar b on
S ta ti on a ry F a ce : S ilico n C ar bide
E la s t om er : V iton
S pr ing : H astello y-C
M e ta l P ar t s : 3 16 S .S .
Sh af t S lee ve: 4 16 S .S. ( 31 6L S.S . fo r S eaw ate r A p plic ation s )

C u r re n t spl it m ech an ic al se al d esig n s ar e lim it ed t o m ax im u m sh af t sl eev e siz es o f


app r ox im atel y 5" , h ow ev er , in d ivi du al r eq uest s w il l b e re vi ew ed b y sea l m an uf act ur er s f or
app licab ility .

T he s tu ff ing b ox lub ric atio n is a fu n ctio n of th e pu m p d es ign :

F o r o pen lin e s ha ft s, th e b o x is lu br ic ated by t he p u m p ed li qu id .

F or en clo s ed lin e sh af ts , th e b ox is lu br ic ate d b y an ex ter n al cle an w ater sou r ce.


(F o r d es ig ns w h ich t ap o ff of t he p um p d is ch ar ge f or inj ect ion , a s ep ar ate t ank is
re qu i re d ab o v e th e pu m p to lu b ri cat e th e p ack i ng an d e xp o s ed be ar in g s p r io r t o
s ta rt -u p vi a g ra v ity f eed .) T h e s tu f fi n g b o x n o rm al ly w or k s m p ar al lel w ith th e
be ar i n g s y s t em in r eg ar d s to w a te r l u b ri ca ti o n a n d t hu s s e es t h e s a m e i n je ct io n
pr es s ur e, 1 0 -1 5 ps i ab o ve d is ch arg e.

A.7.14 Drive Couplings

T h e m ain f un ctio ns of th e cou pl ing ar e to-

C o n n ect th e pu m p s h af t to th e s o li d s h af t m o to r
T r a n s m i t to r q u e
T ra n s m it a x ia l th ru st
P r ov ide ca pab ili ty fo r im p ell er ad jus tm ent

T he m o s t co m m on ly u s ed dr iv e co up lin g i s t he r ig id ad ju s ta ble c ou p lin g. T h is d es i gn


e m p lo y s a n ad j us t in g n u t be tw e en t he p u m p an d d r iv er c o up li ng h ub s to ax ial ly p o s it io n
t h e r o to r .

A-60
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

F or p u m p d esig n s w h ich i nc or po r ate a m e cha ni cal seal , a suf fi cien tl y sized spa cer is
re qu ir ed to a llo w easy acc ess to t he se al fo r m ain te na n ce.

A.8 Materials of Construction


T h e select ion o f m a teri als f o r com po nen t par ts of co n den ser co oli ng w at er pu m p s is
d e pe n de n t o n t h e ch e m i s tr y o f t he li qu i d p u m p e d a n d t he ab r as i v en es s o f th e l iq u id . F o u r
g en e ri c gr o u pi n gs h av e b ee n c ho s e n: R i ve r W ate r , R et ain in g P o nd W a ter , S ea W ate r ,
C oo lin g T o w er W ater . T h e pr op er ties of the li qu id p um ped w ill va ry w id ely dep en di ng o n
th e sp eci fic s ou rce w h ich, i n m os t cas es , w ill ha ve va ry ing m agn itu des of co rr os iv e and /o r
a b r as i v e c o n ta m i n a nt s .

T a bl e A .9 p ro v id es m ate r ial g u id el in es f or th es e c la s s if ic ati on s . T h e m a ter i als ta k e in to


acco unt th e f ollo w i ng cri teria:

E ro s i on an d cav i tat io n re s is t an ce
C or r os io n r es is ta nce
F ir s t an d re p la ce m e nt co s t s

A.8.1 Erosion and Cavitation Resistance

T h e r ate of er os iv e w ea r is d ep en d en t o n th e c om p on en t m ate ri al , th e s u s p en d ed p a rt icl e


ch a ra ct er i s ti cs , a n d t h ei r r e la ti ve m o t io n . T h e r a te o f er o s i v e w e ar f or a g i v en m a te r ia l is
de pe nd en t o n th e f ol lo w in g p ar tic le at tr ib ut es :

C o n c en t r at io n
H ard n es s
S h a rp n e s s
Im p act A ng le
M as s
V elo city

T h e ra te o f w ear in cre as es as th e co nc en tra tio n o f p ar tic les in t he li qu id in cr eas es to 20 % .


T h e w e ar ra te i s c o ns t an t ab o v e th is c on c en tr at io n s i n ce th e m ax im u m p ar ti cle t o s u r f ace
co nt act h as be en ac hi ev ed.

A n in c re as e m p ar t ic le h a r dn e s s ca u s es a ri s e i n w ea r u n ti l th e pa r ti cl e h ar d n es s r e ac he s
ap p r ox i m a tel y 6 0 H R c. A s a ru l e, s ha r p p ar ti cl es ca u s e ab o u t tw i ce a s m u ch d am ag e as
r ou n d p ar tic les .

D if f er en t m a ter ia ls ar e m o re s usc ep tib le t o er o s iv e w ea r w h en th e er os i ve co nt act i s a t


d if fe re nt a tta ck a ng le s . T ab le A .7 p ro v id es th e p ar tic le an g le o f a tta ck c au s in g m ax im u m
d am ag e fo r ty p ical c on de ns e r co oli ng w a ter m ate ria ls .

A-61
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

T ab le A 7

M A T ER IA L ER O S IO N PR O PE R TIES
M a te r ia l A t t a c k A n g le C r itic a l V e lo c ity
() (fp s )
A lu m in um B ro nz e 30 - 50 76 - 9 0
B ron ze 20 - 40 50 - 60
C arb o n S teel 75 - 90 40 - 50
Ca st Iro n 75 - 90 25 - 3 0
N ickel-A lum inum - B ro nze 20 - 40 7 5 - 90
N i- R es is t 60 - 80 40 - 5 0
T y pe 3 00 S e ri es S t ain less S tee l 20 - 50 > 100

A b r as io n ( p art icl e er os i on ) i s a s h ea r f or ce . A s s u c h, a br as i on in ten s if ie s a s t he a tta ck a ng le


a pp r oa ch es ze ro . E ro s io n du e to cav it at io n r es u lts f ro m b u bb l es im p lo d in g a t th e m a ter ia l
s u r f ac e. C av i ta ti o n d a m a g e in c r ea s es a s th e p a r ti cl e at ta ck a ng l e a pp r o a ch es 9 0 . I n o rd e r
t o r es i s t er o s io n d a m ag e , co m po n en ts a re u s u al ly m a nu f ac tu r ed m ha rd m a te ri als w h i ch
n at u ra ll y r e du c e th e a b r as i ve re m o v al o f m et al. I t s h o u ld be no t ed th at re s i s ta nc e t o
er o s io n m a y be i nc om pa tib le w it h re s is ta nc e t o co r ro s io n an d ca vi tat ion . D u ct ile m a ter ia l i s
r eco m m en de d f or p ar ts th at m i gh t ex p eri en ce ca vit ati on atta ck f r om in su ff ic ien t N P S H ,
s e pa ra ti on , or re ci rc ul at io n. I n g en er al , b r on z es an d 3 0 0 s e ri es s ta in le s s s tee ls ar e u s ed f or
t h es e p ar ts . C a s t i r o n a n d ha r d en e d m a te ri a ls s u c h a s h ea t t r ea te d 40 0 s e r ie s ar e no t g oo d
m at er ia ls to u s e w h e n c av it at io n i s p re s en t s i n ce t h ey ar e b r itt le . T h e im p ell er an d s h ro u d
ar e th e c om po ne nts m o st lik ely t o ex per ien ce ca vit atio n . T h e b o w l a nd su cti on b ell m ay
also be af fected.

P a rt icl e m a s s ha s a d i re ct r ela ti on to er os i o n w ea r. A n i nc r eas e i n t he m as s o f a p ar ti cle


i nc rea ses its k in eti c en er gy an d in tu rn in cr eases th e f or ce o f i m p act o f t he p ar ti cles . A s t he
p ar t ic le m as s i n cr ea s es , t he ra te of w e ar in cr e as e s .

V el oci ty h as t he g rea test im p act o n er os io n r ate. A sim p lif ied e xp re s si on f o r A ver ag e R at e


of E rosive W ear (dW /dt) is :

dW m
= KV E q. A .3 8
dt

w here: k= co n s tan t, de pe nd en t on va ri ou s flu id pa rt icle


a tt r ib u t es : C o nc en t r at io n , S i ze , H ar d n e s s ,
S h a r pn e s s , a n d M a s s
V= averag e par ticle velo city ( ft/s ec)
m = co n s ta nt , d ep e nd e nt o n m a ter i al ( b etw een " 2"
an d " 3 " )

A n ex pr essio n u s ed to qu an tif y a m ate ri al's r esist anc e t o ab ra si on i s it s " vel oc ity sen s iti vit y"
(s e e T ab le A .7 ) . T y pi cal li qu id v elo ci ties m th e pu m p a re g iv en in T ab le A .8 . I t is i m p or tan t
th at th e co m po n en t m at er ial h av e a g rea ter s en s iti vi ty t o it s e xp ec ted liq u id v el oc ity to
m inim ize ero s ion.

A-62
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

is i m p o r ta n t th a t th e co m p o n en t m a te ri al ha v e a g r ea te r s en s i ti vi ty to i ts ex p e ct ed li qu i d
velo city to m in im ize ero s ion.
T a b l e A .8

T Y P I C A L V E L O C IT IE S T H R O U G H P U M P C O M P O N E N T S
V e lo c ity (fp s )
S u ction B ell 7 -9
I m pe lle r 80- 1 00
S hr o u d 80 - 10 0
C ol um n an d E n clo sin g T u be 1 0-15
D is charg e E lb ow 10- 15

A.8.2 Corrosion

C o nd ens er co ol ing w ate r pu m ps exp er ienc e v ario us typ es o f co rr os io n dep end in g on th e


s ou rc e of t he l iqu id pu m p ed . T h es e i ncl ud e g alv an ic, i nt er gr an ul ar an d c re vic e co rr os i on .
W h en di s s im il ar m et al s a r e in co n tac t w it h a n e lec tr o ly te , th e l es s n o bl e m e ta l is at tac k ed
to a g r eat er d e gr ee t ha n i f it w a s e xp o s ed alo n e. T h is att ack is ca lle d g al va ni c co rr o s io n
s in ce th e en t ir e s y s te m ac ts a s a ga lv a ni c ce ll . I n te rg r an u la r c or r o s io n is a l oc al iz ed a tt ac k
alo n g th e g r ain bo u n da ri es of a m e tal o r a ll oy . C r ev ic e co rr o s io n r el ate s t o s u r fa ce at tac k
du rin g s tag na nt (n on -f lo w ing ) co nd itio n s.

M ost co nd en ser co o lin g w ate r pu m p c om po ne nt m a ter ial co rr o s ion occ ur s i n sea w ater and
coo lin g tow er w ate r env iro nm ent s. A dis cu s s ion o f bo th ap plic atio ns f ol low s .

S e a W ate r

M ate ri al s el ect io n f o r s ea w a ter s er vi ce h as un d er g on e s ev er al c ha n ge s o v er t he


pa s t 3 0 y ear s in f lu en ce d b y t he e xp e ri en ce g ai ne d m t he N a v al s h ip p in g
in du s t ry . O ri g in all y , m os t c o nd en s e r c oo li n g w a ter pu m ps w e re ou tf i tte d w i th
cas t i ro n o u ter s he lls an d c as t b ro n ze im pe lle rs .

T he n ex t g en e ra tio n ut ili zed ca s t N i- r es i s t (t yp e D 3 ) o u te r s h el ls w it h ca s t


a us t en it ic s ta in le s s s tee l (3 0 0 s e ri es ) im pe lle rs . T h e N i -r es i s t is a s l ig ht ly m o r e
n o b le m a te rial th a n c as t iro n a n d h a s b e tte r e ro s iv e p ro p e rties . T h e ty p e 3 0 0

N i-resist is availa b le m d ifferent grades. T ypes D 1 an d D 2 h a ve very little n ick el con tent and
are no t m uc h differe nt th an d uc tile ca st iro n . T y p e D 3 h a s 1 6% n ic k e l, p ro vid ing in c re a se d
co rro sion re sista nc e an d stren g th.
4
T he pu m p d e sign er m u st use care in sele c tin g m a terials w he n the p um p ed liquid is corro sive.
T h e g a lva nic s e ries, F igu re A 30 is us ed to giv e an ind ication o f th e ra te of c orro sio n betw een
d iffere nt m e ta ls o r alloy s w h en the y are in c o ntac t in an ele c troly te s uc h a s s ea w a te r. M e tals c lose
to th e ac tive end o f th e table w ill be hav e a s an an od e an d c orro de, w hile m e tals close to th e n ob le
e nd w ill a c t a s a c a th o de an d b e p rese rv e d . T h e d istan c e b e tw e e n tw o m e ta ls in th e ch art is u su a lly
a n ind icatio n of co rrosio n rate. T h is pro ces s is re ferred to as c a tho dic p rotec tion , w ith th e ca th od ic
m a terial rec e iv in g m a te ria l de po sit fro m th e sacrificial an o de . C a th od ic p rotec tio n is c om m on ly
u sed in co nd en ser c oo lin g w a ter pu m ps fo r sea w a ter se rv ice so tha t less no ble, less ex pen sive
m a te ria ls c a n b e u se d .

A-63
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

30 0 s er ie s s ta in le s s m a te r ial s is th a t th e y a re les s n o b le th an th e b r o nz es a nd ar e
su scep ti bl e to cr ev ic e co rr o s io n ( pi ttin g ) u nd er stag n an t co nd it io ns .5

T h e n ex t m ate ri al u p gr ad e f ro m N i -r e s is t/ s tai n les s s te el w a s f ab r ic ate d


al um in um -b ro n ze o ut er sh ell s an d e ith er c ast n ick el- al um inu m -b ro n ze o r 30 0
s er ies s ta in les s s t eel i m p ell er s . T he a lu m in u m - b ro n ze is m or e n ob le th an N i -
r es is t , h a s g r e at er s tr e ng t h , a nd i s w el d -r e pa ir a b le . T he n ic ke l- a lu m in u m -
b ro n ze is m o re n ob le th an t he 3 0 0 ser ies stain le ss, an d is no t susc ep tib le to
p it ti ng u n de r s t ag n an t c o nd i tio n s .

A ust en iti c stain le ss st eel s a re a lso su scep ti bl e to i nt er gr an u lar c or r osi on .


H ea tin g o f th e m ate ria l f r om w el din g c aus e s th e pr ec ipi tati on o f ch r om iu m
ca r bi de s i n th e g r ain bo u n da ri es cau s i ng th es e ar ea s to b ec om e an o di c. T h is can
resu lt m a lo cali zed at tack alo ng t he g rai n bo u nd ar ies, al lo w ing cor r osio n to
pr o ce ed u n ti l gr ai n s o f m et al d et er io ra te a nd th e m e tal lo s es s tr en g th .

T h er e ar e se ve ral m eth od s of a vo id in g in ter g ran u lar c or ro s io n .

U se of low carbon allo ys


Q u e n ch in g a fte r h e a t trea t
A dd in g s tab iliz in g elem en ts t o th e a llo y

T h e m o st co m m o n p rac tice in co nd enser co olin g w at er pum ps is the us e o f low


ca rb o n allo y s s u ch a s ty p e 3 0 4L an d 3 16 L f or a ll w eld ed p ar ts . ( T h is s am e
app ro ach s ho uld als o b e f ollo w ed fo r any co m p on ent w her e th ere is p ro bab ility o f
f u tu re w e ld re pa ir .) R ed uc in g th e c ar bo n c o nc en tr ati o n r ed uc es th e f or m a ti on of
t he u n w an ted ch r om iu m car b id es .

Q u en ch i n g a ft er h ea t tr ea ti n g s e p ar at el y s u s p e nd s t he car b o n a n d c h ro m iu m i n
so lu ti on . S i nc e th is p r o cess ha s a n ad v er s e af fe ct o n th e d im e ns i on al st ab ili ty o f
th e c om p on ent, it is n ot w ide ly pr acticed .

D if f ere nt s tab il izin g ele m en ts can b e ad ded to th e m ate ria l w h ic h co m bi ne m o r e


re ad il y w it h t he c ar b on th an ch ro m iu m , t h us p re s er v in g th e c or r os i o n r es is t an ce
of t he m a ter ial. O n ce ag ain , th is d o es n o t o ccu r to o o fte n sinc e the se al lo yin g
e lem en ts ad d co st to t h e m at er ia l an d in c re ase p ro c ur em en t ti m e.

5
S om e sea w a te r ap p lica tio n s ex ist w h ere the co m plete pu m p h as be en m an ufa cture d ou t of ty p e 3 16
stain les s ste el. F o r th ese in stallatio ns , a n air h o se is dr op p ed in to th e sep ara te p u m p ba y w h en a n y
p um p is in active . T he ox id ation of the stainless stee l s urface pro vid es a c oa ting w h ich pro te cts th e
m ate rial fro m fu rth er attac k .

A-64
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

C oo ling T ow er W ater

M a teria l s elec tion f or co ol ing to w er s erv ice has a ls o un der go ne cha ng es o ver th e
p as t 3 0 y ea rs . O ri gi na lly , m os t c on d en s er c oo li ng w ate r p um p s w e re o u tfi tte d
w i th c as t ir on o u ter s h el ls a nd cas t b ro nz e im p ell er s .

A s E P A req ui rem en ts ti gh ten ed in t he ear ly 1 98 0 's , f ew er b lo w do w ns w er e


per m i tte d. A s a r esu lt, t he c on cen tr at io n of ch em i cals in th e c oo li ng to w er
inc rea se d w ith th e nu m b er o f cy cles, m aki ng t he co oli ng t ow er w a ter ch em i s try
m or e ag gr essiv e. T h e a ff ecte d co nd en ser co oli ng w a ter p um p co m po n ent s ar e
tho se w her e lo calized liq uid v elociti es rem o ve the pas s iv e co rro s ion in hib itor s.
T he af f ecte d co m p on en ts a re th e br on ze im pel ler a nd c arb o n steel sh ro u d.
M ate ria l up g ra de s o f th es e c om po n en ts t o a ty p e 30 0 s er ie s s t ain les s s te el
incr eases pu m p life .

A.6.3 First, Repair, and Replacement Costs

F i r s t, r ep ai r , a n d r e pl ac em en t co st s ar e a lw a y s im p or t an t i n m a ter i al sel ec ti on . F a ct or s
af f ect in g f ir s t an d re pl ace m e nt co sts in cl ud e th e r aw m at er ial c ost a nd m et ho d o f
co n s tru ct ion . T hes e a re d ep end en t on th e f o llo w in g:

W eigh t
M ate ri al co s t
P at ter n s
L a bo r h ou r s

T h e co m p o ne nt fa br ic ati on m e th od is th e k ey e lem en t in de ter m i n in g p ar am ete rs f or th e


abo v e c ost fa cto rs. T h e dec isio n on w h eth er th e par t is c ast o r w eld ed i s af fe cted b y ( 1) th e
m at er ial r eq ui re d f or t he a pp li cat io n, ( 2 ) th e av ai lab ili ty o f p att er ns an d ( 3 ) th e co st of
pa tt er ns i f th e y a re n o t av a ila bl e. If a p at ter n ex is t s , th e c as t in g w i ll b e le s s ex p en s iv e.

W he r e pa tt er ns d o n o t ex i s t, t h e ad d ed m at er ia l co s t o f t he cas t in g p l us th e p at te rn co s t
( in clu d ing en gi ne eri ng ) m us t b e w eig h ed ag ai ns t th e ad d itio n al lab o r h ou rs in v ol ved in
f ab r ic at io n . ( A ca s t p ar t i s i n he r en tl y h e av ie r t ha n a w el de d p a rt , s i n ce t hi ck e r w a ll
s e cti on s ar e r eq ui re d t o p er m i t th e m e tal t o f lo w du r in g c as ti ng . T h e m at er ia l co s t of a ca s t
p ar t i s , th er e fo r e, h ig h er th a n a w eld e d p a rt of th e s am e m a te ri al .) U s u a ll y, a f ab r i cat io n is
l ess ex pe ns i ve i n th is in st an ce u nl ess th er e ar e qu an ti tie s of scal e to o f fs e t th e lar g e, i ni tia l
p at te rn co s t.

R ep ai r co sts de pe nd on th e w eld ab il ity of th e co m p on en t m a ter ia l. T h er e ar e n o f or m a lly


a ccep ta bl e p r oc ed ur es fo r w el di ng cast ir o n or N i- resi s t. R ep air of t he s e m ate ri als is
a cc om p lis he d t hr o u g h m eta l- s ti tc hi n g. I t is r ec om m e n de d t h at a lte r na te s e le ct io n s t o
w e ld ab le m a ter ia ls be m ad e in th os e i nst an ces w h er e co m p o ne nt r ep la cem en t is re qu ir ed .

A-65
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

G a l v a n ic S e rie s i n S e a w a t e r

C o r ro d e d E n d (A n o d ic o r L e a s t N o b le )

M a g n e s iu m a n d M a g n e siu m A llo y s

Z i n c, G al vi ni ze d S t eel an d G a lv i ni ze d W ro u g h t Ir o n

A lu m in um (5 0 5 2, 3 00 4 , 3 0 0 3,1 1 00 , 60 5 3 i n t hi s or d er )
C a dm i um

A lum i num ( 211 7, 2 01 7, 20 24 in th is o rd er)

M i ld S teel , W r ou gh t I ron , and C as t Iro n

N I - R E S IST

T yp e 4 1 0 S ta in l es s S t ee l ( act iv e )

L ea d T i n S o ld e r

T y p e s 3 0 4 a n d 31 6 S t a in l es s S te el ac ti v e )

L ea d an d T in

M u n tz M e tal, M an g a n e se B ro n ze , an d N av a l B ra ss

N ickel 2 00 ( active) and I N C O N E L alloy 6 00 ( active)

Y ello w B rass , A dm irility B ras s, A lum inum B ronze, R ed B ras s, C opp er , Silicon
B r on ze, 7 0 -3 0 C o p per N ic kel , C o m p . G -B ro n ze, an d C o m p . M -B r on ze

N icke l 2 00 ( pas s ive) an d IN C O N E L all oy 60 0 (p a s s ive)


M O N E L allo y 4 0 0

T yp e s 3 0 4 a n d 3 1 6 S t ai nl es s S te el P as s iv e ) a n d I N C O L O Y al lo y 8 25

IN C O L O Y allo y 625, H A S T E LL O Y alloy C and Titanium

P ro te c te d E n d ( C a th o d ic o r M o s t N o b le )

F ig u r e A .3 0
G a lv a n ic S e r ie s in S e a w a te r

A-66
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

T a b le A .9

T Y P I C A L P U M P M A T E R IA L S O F C O N S T R U C T I O N *
R iv e r W a t e r R e ta in in g C o o lin g Se a W a te r
P o n d W a t er T o w e r W a ter
Su ction B ell C a st Iro n C as t I ro n C as t I r o n A L B ronze
A 48,C L 30 A 48,C L 30 A 48,C L30 B 16 9,G R 613
S hr o u d S tee l S tee l S ST A L B ro nze
A 36 A 36 A 276,T Y 31 6L B 169,G R 6 13
I m pe ll er B r onze B ronze S ST N i A l B r on ze
B 584,A L9 22 B 584,A L 922 A 296,TY 31 6
B ow l C as t I r o n C a s t Ir o n C as t I r o n A L B ro nze
A 48,C L 30 A 4 8 ,C L 3 0 A 48,C L 30 B 169 ,G R 613
B ow l S haf t S ST S ST SS T S ST
A 2 7 6 ,T Y 4 1 0 A 276,TY 4 10 A 276,T Y 410 A 2 76,TY 316
L in e S h af t S tee l S te el S teel SST
A 322,G R 1045 A 3 22,G R 1045 A 32 2,G R 1045 A 276,TY 316
S h af t C o up lin g SST SST SS T SST
A 2 7 6 ,T Y 4 1 0 A 276,TY 4 10 A 276,T Y 410 A 2 76,TY 316
E n clos in g T ub e S tee l S te el S te el A L B ronze
A 3 6 /A 1 2 0 A36/A120 A 3 6 /A 1 2 0 B 16 9,G R 6 13
C o lum n S tee l S tee l S te el A L B ro nze
A 3 6 /A 1 2 0 A36/A120 A 36/A 120 B 16 9,G R 613
D isc har ge E lbo w St eel S teel S te el A L B ronze
A 36 A 36 A 36 B 169,G R 6 13

* N o te s: 1 . A ll M ateria ls ar e g iven in A S T M Sp ecif icatio ns


2 . B it um as t ic co at in g s a re no r m a lly ap pl ie d to ex te rn al s ur f ace s e x po s ed to
t he p u m p ed li qu id
3 . A l te r n at e m a te r ia ls w h ic h ar e eq u a l t o o r b e tt er t h an t h os e i n d ic at ed a n d
w h ic h m ee t t h e r eq u ir em en t s s et fo r t h h er e in ar e a cc ep t ab le

A-67
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

Appendix B Vibration Analysis and Monitoring

B.1 General Overview

V ib rat io n is o ne o f th e m a in l an gu ag es f or w hi ch p um p en g in eer s att em p t to c om m u n ica te


w ith ro ta tin g eq ui pm en t to de te rm in e its o v er all w e ll -b ei ng . T re n di ng vi b ra tio n a m p li tu de s
ov er ti m e a t d is ti n ct f r eq ue n cie s is im p or ta n t in de te rm in in g ch an g es in th e eq u ip m en t
co n di ti o n. E v a lu at in g th e f r eq u en c y a nd p h as e r e la ti on s h i p o f h i g h a m p li tu d e o u tp u t
pr ov id es in s igh t as to t he ca us e o f d is tr es s .

H i gh v ib rat ion o f lar ge v ert ical co nd en s er co oli ng w at er pu m p s ca n res u lt fr om o ne o r m or e


of the follow ing ty pical pro blem s:

M is alig nm ent
. U nbalan ce
N on- plum bn ess
S tru ctural reson anc e (cov ered in A pp en dix C )
Excitation of a roto r critical speed
In let flow distu rbances
In c rea se d im pe ller- to -s hr ou d a x ia l c lea ran c e (inc re as ed re circ u latio n )
I m pe ller in let s e pa ra tio n /ca vi tat io n
S h oc k lo ad in g of exiting im p eller flo w o nto station ary diffu ser v an es
In cr ea s ed p u m p r ad i al b ear in g c lea ra nc e
B e ar ing loo se ne ss
H ig h axial th rust
W o rn /da m aged m oto r b ear ing s
C om ponent rubbing
C racked or bow ed shaft
B ro ken com p on ents (e.g ., m issing im pe ller v ane)
L oose foun dation o r co lum n jo ints

T h e s e pr o b lem s c an re s ul t in re du c ed p r im p p er fo r m a nc e an d /o r c ata s tr op h ic f ai lu r e. E ar ly
d ete cti on is i m p or ta nt t o av o id lo s t r ev en ue s d u e t o a r ed uc tio n in pl an t lo ad , or in t he
ex t re m e, a f or ce d o u ta ge . I n s o m e in s tan c es , e ar ly de te cti on an d a na ly s is c an l ea d to
r em ed y in g th e c au s e o f v i b ra ti on w i th o ut di s m an tl in g th e u n it. T h i s is ex t re m e ly
im p or tan t fo r v ert ical co n de ns er c oo lin g w at er ap pl icat ion s w h er e the c os t to r em o v e a nd
in stall o n e pu m p in g u ni t (i nc lu din g e lec tr ical a nd m ec ha nic al cr ew s an d cr an e re nt al) is
typically $6 5,0 00 - 7 5,0 00.

E ar l y d ete ct io n c an b e s t be ach ie v ed t h ro u g h th e u s e o f a v ib r at io n m on i to ri n g s y s te m . T h e
d es ig n o f the m on ito r ing sy s te m i s k ey to m ax im i ze its po ten tia l as a p re dic tiv e
m a in ten an ce to o l. T h e m aj or fac to rs to b e co ns i de re d w he n sp ecif y in g a m o ni to rin g sy stem
include:

B-1
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

H is tory o f pu m p pro blem s - typ ical m alfu nctio ns an d failu re m od es


P ri m ar y da ta ty pes of int ere s t ( e.g., s ha ft m o tio n , im p act lo ad in g, r o tor dam pi ng ,
str u ct ur al m o d es)
T he en vi ro nm ent to w h ich t he v ibr atio n tr an sdu cer s w ill b e su bj ecte d
T h e d es ire d fr eq ue n cy r an ge
T h e signal-to-n oise ratio of the various trans ducers in the tar get frequency range
T he m as s of the casing/bearing su pport sys tem relative to the shaft

T h e cur re nt pr acti ce o f m o nit or ing c on den ser co olin g w ater p um ps con s is ts o f ran d om
m ea s u re m e nt of o v er al l v ib r ati o n a t th e m ot o r t hr u s t b ea r in g . T hi s is u s u al ly a cc o m p li s h ed
b y at tach in g a seis m i c tra nsd uc er ( vel oc ity p ro b e o r ac cele ro m et er) on t he m o to r b ear in g
h o u s i n g a n d u s in g a p o r t ab l e h a nd - h e ld v ib r a ti o n m e as ur i n g in s t r u m e n t. U n f o r tu n a te ly ,
d u e to th e no r m a lly lo n g s h af t le n gt hs an d ro to r da m p in g , th i s m eth o d w i ll n o t ad eq u ate ly
m e as u r e t he vi b ra ti on o u tp u t n ea r t he im pe ll er an d ha s s ev er e l im it at io n s fo r an y t y p e o f
d ia gn o s tic a na ly s is . I n ad d iti on , w i th o n ly p er io d ic m o n ito r in . g, th er e is a h ig h p r ob ab il ity
o f m is s in g im p o rt an t d ata w h ic h m ay b e im p or ta nt t o p re di cti n g im m in e nt f ai lu re .

T he id eal vib rati on m o nito ri ng system f or co nd enser co oli ng w ater p um p s co ns is ts o f:

P air s o f p r ox im i ty p ro b es m o un ted 90 ap ar t and lo cate d at ea ch p u m p b ear in g an d


o n e o th er l oc atio n o n th e pu m p s haf t
A ph as e r e fe re nc e tr an s d uc er m o un te d o n t he m o to r s h af t
A s eis m ic t ra ns d u cer m o u nt ed on th e pu m p ca s in g n ea r th e im p ell er
A s ei s m i c tr an s d u ce r m ou n te d a t th e m ot o r t hr u s t b ea ri n g f o r r o lli n g e lem en t t h ru s t
b earin g des ign s
A p r ox im ity p ro b e m o un t ed a t th e m o to r t hr u s t be ar in g t o m o n ito r a x ial
d isp lac em e nt fo r K T B d es ign s

T h is s et u p w ill pr ov ide the fo llo w ing u se fu l in fo rm a tion w ith co nt inu ou s m o nito ri ng :

S h af t po sit io n an d m o tio n w i th in ea ch b ear in g


A xia l a nd r ad ial vib ra tion a m p litu d es a t lo w f req u en c ies
E x is ten ce o f any van e pa s s o r hi gh er o rd er f re qu en cy am pli tud es du e to h yd ra ul ic
p h en o m en a
S h a f t m o d e s h ap e s
R oto r cr itica l s p eed s
S h a ft s pe ed an d ro t ati o n
C o nd iti on of m ot or r o lle r ele m en t th ru s t bea ri ng s

S ys t em s s uc h a s t h es e h av e n o t b een u s ed in t h e pa s t d u e to pr o b lem s in s af eg u ar d in g t he
p r o be s an d m ai nt ai ni n g w o r ki n g in t eg r ity o f th e s y s t em . T h e c o rr o s iv e a nd er o s iv e n at ur e
o f th e en vi ro nm en t a s w e ll as t he p assag e of f o rei gn o b ject s ar e th e no rm al ro o t c au s es o f
m o n it o ri n g e q u ip m e n t f ai lu r e . F o r t un a te ly , im p ro v e m e n ts m t r an s d u ce r de s i gn , b r ac ke t
m ater ials , an d m o un tin g n ow allo w f or s er iou s c on s ide rati on o f th is ty pe o f s ys tem .

A less ex pen siv e ap pro ach is to co ns ider :

B-2
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

P ai r s o f pr o xi m i ty pr o be s m o u nt 9 0 ap ar t a nd lo ca te d at t h e pu m p ca s in g be ar in g
n e ar t h e i m p e l le r
A p ha se r efe re n ce tr an sd u c er m o u n ted o n th e m o to r sh af t
A s eism ic trans ducer m ou nted at the m o tor thru st b earing fo r ro lling elem en t thr us t
b ea r in g d e s ig n s
A p ro x im ity p ro b e m o u n ted at t he m o to r th r u s t b ear in g to m o ni to r a xi al
d isp lacem en t f o r K T B d esig ns

T hi s a rr an g em en t w ill p r ov id e:

S ha ft m o tio n at o r n ear its m a xim um d efle ctio n


A x ia l an d ra d ial vi b ra ti on le v els n ea r t h e im p ell er
O v er al l vi br at io n le ve ls f o r th e f ul l ev alu at in g sp ectr u m
S h af t s pe ed an d r o ta tio n
C o nd itio n o f m otor ro lle r elem en t th rust b ea rin gs

T h is s c ale do w n s y s tem w ill p ro vi de g rea tly im pr ov ed v ib ra tio n m o ni tor in g in fo rm atio n


th a n c ur r en t p r ac ti ce s s in ce t h e s h af t m o tio n is m ea s u re d m th e ar e a o f h ig h e s t f or c es an d
deflection s.

T h e n u m b e r a nd ty p e o f t r an s d u cer s an d m o n it o ri n g d ep e nd s to a l ar g e ex te n t o n
ac ce s s ib il ity f or in s t all at io n a nd p um p r e lat ed pr o b lem s . U lti m a te p r ob e i n s tal la tio n w il l
m o s t lik ely b e a co m p ro m is e bet w e en op era tin g need s an d fi eld co nd itio ns .

A n al ys i s of s in g le e ve nt s or d ata t re n ds w i ll f u rn is h m a in te na n ce a nd op e ra tin g pe r s on n el
in f o rm at io n i m p o rt an t t o th e i d en ti fi cat io n of th e m ajo r pr o b lem ar ea s d e tai le d a bo v e. T h is
ap p en di x f ur th er e xp la in s h o w t hi s i s a cco m p li s he d al on g w i th a b as i c p r im er m v ib ra tio n
th eo r y. A r el ev an t cas e s t ud y c lar if ie s t he m ajo r p o in ts co v er ed .

B.2 Typical Malfunctions and Failure Modes

V ib ra tio n p ro bl em s in v er tica l con d en se r co ol in g w ater pu m p s c an b e eith er r o tor or


s ta ti on a ry co m po n en t r el at ed . T h e tw o m o s t c o m m on r ot o r r el at ed p r o b lem s ar e
m i s al ig n m e nt an d i m b al an ce .

M i s ali g nm en t ca n m an if es t its e lf w ith i n th e m o to r, b etw een th e p u m p a n d m ot or , or am on g


th e p u m p co lu m n s ec tio n s . M i s al ig n m en t c an b e p ar al le l, a ng u la r, o r a co m bi n ati on o f th e
tw o. T h e re a r e s ev e ra l v ar ia b les w h i ch af fe ct ali g nm en t d u r in g n o r m a l o pe r ati o n,
in cl ud in g t he rm al g ro w t h d ur in g s t ar t- up an d f lu id d y n am i c fo r ces .

I m b al an ce ca n ap p ea r as o ve ra ll s y s te m im b a lan ce o r b e li m i ted to p u m p an d/ or m o to r
co m p o ne nt s . E v en if t he p u m p i s " p erf ec tly " b al an ced p r io r to s hi pm en t (v ir tu al ly
im po s si ble to a chi eve ), th e ro to r bal anc e w i ll cha ng e d u rin g o per atio n .

T h er e ar e a n um be r o f o th er r o to r re lat ed p r ob le m s w h ich e ff ec t eq ui pm en t op er at io n.
T h ese inclu de:

A x ia l po s itio n c ha n ge (e x ce ssiv e th rus t)

B-3
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

R u b b in g o f r o ta tin g to s ta tio n a r y p a r ts
O p era tio n n ea r o r a t a ro to r critic al sp ee d
R o tor cra cks
S h af t b en d o r b o w
L oo s e com po ne nts
In stab ilitie s d u e to p um p o u tp u t ch a ng es

R o to r s tab il ity an d d am p in g in v er tica l c on de ns e r coo li ng w a ter p um ps is p r ov id ed b y th e


r ad ia l p u m p b ea ri n g s . T h es e be ar i ng s a re lu b r ic ate d eit h er b y t h e p um p ed li q u id or a c le an
ex te rn a l fl u s h. T h e p um p ed liq u id can b e br a ck is h , a br a s iv e, o r cle ar de pe n di ng o n t he s i te
lo ca ti o n an d o ve r all pl an t d es i g n c ri te ri a. If th e b ea r in g l u br ic at io n c o nt ai n s a b ra s iv es , th e
lif e of the b ear in g an d an y m ou nt ed tr an s du cer s w ill be a ff ect ed.

T he ty pe o f b ear ing can al so aff ect th e nu m b er , co m p lex ity , an d ex ten t o f p um p vi br atio n .


E ach ty pe o f b ea ri ng ha s it s o w n o p er ati ng ch ar act er is ti cs a nd m o d es of f ai lu re t ha t af fe ct
p u m p op er a tio n . T y p ic all y, be ar in g m at er ial s a re e it he r b ro n ze , ca rb o n ( g ra ph it e al lo y) , o r
c utl ess r u bb er .

G en er all y, r o to r re lat ed m a lf un cti on s on a f lu id f il m be ari ng m ac hin e ca us e a ch an ge i n


r ot or vi br at io n o r p o s iti on re la tiv e to th e be ar in g . H o w ev er , th e b ea ri ng its e lf d o es n ot
ch an g e po s it io n d ue t o it s r ig id s up p or t. If o n ly a s m al l pa rt o f th e r ot or vi br at io n is
tr an s m itt ed to th e s u pp o r t s tr u ctu r e, re li ab le m on i to ri n g is a ch ie ve d b y u s i ng p ro x im ity
p ro be s al on e. A m a jor fac to r in v er tica l c on d ens e r co ol in g w ater pu m p s i s th e m as s o f th e
ca s in g / be ar i ng s u p p or t re la ti ve to th e r o to r . If th e b e ar in g h o us in g a b s o r bs a lar g e a m o u n t
o f ro to r t ra ns m itte d v ib ra tio n , th en a l og ica l ch oi ce is to m eas u r e the h o us i ng m o tio n w i th a
seis m ic tr an sd u cer ( v elo cit y sen s or o r ac cele ro m et er ). A s a ge ner al r ul e, if m or e th an 1 /3 o f
th e s h a h v i b r at io n i s tr a n s m it te d to t h e b ea r i ng h o u s i n g , m u l ti p le m e as u re m en t s
( pr ox im ity pr o be s a nd se is m i c tr an s du ce r) a re a pp ro p ri ate . T h is co ur s e o f act io n is
p art icu lar ly d es ir ab le if a hi gh d eg re e o f in f or m at ion is r eq ui red f o r an aly s is .
R ot o r ax ia l th r ust i s co m p en sat ed by a th r ust b e ar in g l oc ate d i n th e m ot or . W h en ro ll er
b e ar i n g s ar e pr o v i d ed , it is i m p o r t an t th a t ad e q u at e w a r n in g i s g iv e n t o p re v en t
c at astr o p hi c fa il ur e. B y d esig n , a r o ll in g el em en t b ear in g ha s e x tr em e ly sm a ll cl ear a nc es
w h ich do n o t a llo w s ig ni fic an t s h af t m ot ion r el ativ e to th e bea rin g .

R o llin g el em en t be ari ng s ar e de sign ed w i th a fin it e l ife an d w ill ev en tu ally fai l d u e t o


f a tig u e, ev en if o p er at ed un d er id ea l de s ig n c o nd it io n s . P r em at ur e f ai lu r es re s u lt f r om
u nf avo rab le co ndit ions , inc ludi ng:

Excess iv e loading due to m is alignm ent, unbalance or sys tem instability


Im proper lubricatio n
E xtern al c on ta m ina tion
Im p ro p er in stalla tio n
In c o rre c t s izin g o r w ro n g d e sig n
E xp o s ur e t o vi br atio n w h en id le
P a s s ag e of an el ec tr ic cu r r en t t hr o u g h t he be ar i ng

A n aly z in g th e f re qu e nc y at h ig h v i br at io n h elp s to de ter m i n e th e cau s e o f f ai lu re . A s a


r esu lt, acc ele ro m e ter s fu rn is h th e be st ty pe o f v ib r ati on m ea s ur em en t fo r a na ly s is of ro ll er
ele m en t b ear ing c on diti on .

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S t ati on ar y co m p on e nt p r ob le m s ar e al m o st al w ay s th e re sul t o f r ot or pr o bl em s . T h e m ost


co m m o n statio nar y com po nen t p ro bl em s in clu de:

Structural com ponent resonances


Im prop er com po nen t fits
L o o se fo u n d atio n s
E xcessive nozzle loadings
F a tigu e in du c ed c rac k in g o f th e p um p c as ing , co lu m n (s ), fla ng e s, an d /or bo lts

B.3 Basic Vibration Principles


B.3.1 Basic Parameters
A ll v ib rati on i s in itia lly ca us ed b y a fo rc e. T h e res u lt of t his fo rc e i s m o tio n. M oti on ca n be
d es cr ibe d by f ou r b as ic par am et ers .

D ir ectio n
A m plit ud e
F re qu en cy
P h as e a ng le

A s in gl e deg r ee o f fr eed o m s ys t em can be u s ed to de s cri be t hes e f o ur p ar am e ter s . T h e


m o tion o f a s ing le de gree of fr eedo m s y stem can be des cri bed by th e m o del in F ig ur e B .1.
T his m o del co ns i st s o f a m as s , s pr ing , an d da m p er an d is co n st rai ned t o m o ve on ly in on e
d ir e cti on . W h en at r es t , th e m as s is lo ca te d at i ts in it ia l po s i tio n . I f a f o r ce is a pp li ed to t h e
s ys tem , the m as s w i ll beg an to o scill ate.

F ig u r e B . 1
F r e e d o m S y ste m M o tio n

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F ig u re B .2
M a s s P o sitio n a t A n y P o in t in T im e

T h e m a s s p o s iti on at an y p oi nt i n ti m e is d es cr ib ed by a s i ne w a ve , F ig u re B .2. T h e
eq uati on fo r th is m o tion i s:

B .1

V ib ra ti on an d r o to r p o s it io n m o ni to r in g ar e m ea s ur em en ts o f t h is m o ti on . V ib r ati on
m e as u r e m e n t p ar a m e te r s in c lu d e:

A m p l it u d e
F re q u e n c y
P h as e A n g le
V ib r ati on f or m
V ib ra tio n m o d e s h a p e
E ccen tricity slow r oll

R o t or po s i tio n m ea s u re m e nt p a ra m e ter s in cl ud e :

S h af t r a d ia l p o s i ti o n
A x i al th r u s t p o s i ti on
A l ig n m e n t

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B.3.2 Vibration Measurements

B.3.2.1 Amplitude
V ib r ati o n a m p li tu d e is a m ea s u re m e nt of v ib r ati o n m ag n it ud e . T he d e gr e e o f m ag n itu d e i s
a n i nd ic ati on o f th e v ib ra tio n s ev er ity . A n o rm al o p er ati ng m a ch in e w ill g e ne ra lly ha v e a
s t ab le a m p li tu de r ea di ng at a n ac cep t ab ly l ow l ev el. A ny ch an g e in a m p li tu de s ig ni fi es a
c han ge in m ac hin e c on diti on .

T h e am p li tu de m a y b e exp r es s ed i n te rm s o f d is pl ace m en t, v el oc ity , o r acc ele rat io n. W he n


m e as ur in g d is p lac em e nt, th e a m p lit ud e of m o tio n ca n be a bs o lu te, or r el ativ e to s o m e f ra m e
o f re fe ren ce . U s in g d ispl acem en t to d escr ib e ab solu te m ot ion can b e m i slead in g w it h
r ega rd s t o th e eq ui pm e nt c on di tio n sin ce v ib rat io n sev er ity i s a co m b in ati on o f t he
d is p lace m e nt an d f r eq ue nc y. A g o od ex am p le i s th e b en di ng of a pa pe r cli p. If a p ap er cli p
is b en t ba ck a nd fo r th i n ea ch d ir ec tio n , it w i ll ev en tu a lly fai l. I f t hi s s a m e p ap er cli p is
b en t th e s a m e d is t an ce b u t at a m u ch h i gh er ra te , th e p ap er cl ip w ill f a il m o r e r ap id ly .

O n th e o th er h an d , d is p lac em en t is a us e fu l to o l w h en m eas u r ed r el ati ve t o s o m e f r am e o f


r e fe re nc e. P ro x im ity pr o b es lo ca ted at o r n ea r b ea ri ng s g iv e th e r ela ti ve d is p l ace m e nt o f
t h e s h af t t o t he be ar i ng s . K n o w in g th e d es i g n c le ar an ce , m o n ito r in g s y s te m s c an ala r m
w h en the shaf t m o tio n b eco m es ex cessi ve.

V elo ci ty is th e m or e co m m o n m eth od of e xp re s s ing vi br ati on a m p litu d e t od ay . It s


p op u lar ity st em s f ro m th e fac t th at ve lo city is an ex ce llen t in d icat io n of vi br ati on s eve ri ty at
an y fr equ en cy s ince s ev erit y fo llow s con s tan t v elo city lin es ov er the u se fu l f req ue ncy r an ge
(s ee Figur e B .3) .

A cce ler ati on i s a m o re f un ct ion al m ean s o f ex pr essin g v ib rat io n w he n th er e i s a d esir e t o


qu an tify t he actin g fo rces (F = m a ).

B.3.2.2 Frequency
R efer ri ng to F ig ur e B .2, th e per io d of m o tio n is t he nu m b er of s ec on ds i t ta kes to co m pl ete
on e cycl e. T he fr eq uen cy of m otio n is t he inv er se o f t he per io d (cy cles /s ec) . F req uen cy is n o t
d ire ctl y re lat ed to vib r atio n s e ve rit y; h ow e ve r, f r eq uen cy is u s ef u l i n d eter m i ni ng t he c aus e
of vibratio n.

F re qu en cy is m o s t c om m on ly e xp re s s ed in m ult ipl es o f th e eq uip m e nt ro tat iv e s p eed s i nce


m a ch ine v ib r atio n s u s ua lly occ ur at di re ct m u lti pl es o r s u bm u ltip le s o f th is s pe ed .
E x am p les a re:

lx : F re qu e nc y o f v ib r at io n is t he s a m e a s th e eq u ip m e nt r o ta tiv e s p ee d
2x: F req u en cy o f v ib r atio n i s t w ice t he eq u ip m e nt r ot ati ve s p ee d
x: F req u en cy o f v ib r atio n i s o n e- ha lf th e eq u ip m en t r ota tiv e s p eed
Z xN : F r eq u en cy o f v ib ra tio n is th e eq ui pm en t v an e- p as s f r eq ue ncy w he re Z is th e
number of i m p el ler v an es an d N i s t h e eq u ip m e nt r o ta tiv e s p e ed

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F R E Q U E N C Y - (C P M O R R P M )

F ig u r e B .3
V e lo city F r eq u e n cy
B.3.3.3 Phase Angle
T h e p h ase a ng l e is ac tu al ly a tim e m e asu r em en t th a t is co n ve r ted to an an g le o f r o tat io n
b as ed o n s o m e re fe ren ce p oi nt . T h e ref er en ce p oin t can be a p iece o f ta pe o n th e s ha ft o r a
n ot ch i n th e s ha ft ( s u ch a s a k ey w ay ) w h ic h p ro v id es a s ig na l d is c on ti nu it y. A p h as e
r ef er en ce tr an s d u cer re ad s t h is di s co n tin u ity , p r od u ci ng a s y nc hr o no u s , o n ce- p er -t u rn
ev en t . T o r ead p ha s e an g le a ccu r at el y, ve ct or fi lt er s ar e ne ce ssar y t o f il ter th e si gn a l to l x ,
an d t h en m ea s ur e an d di s p lay th e n um b er o f d e gr ee s f r o m th e r ef er en ce p o in t to th e f ir s t

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p os i tiv e p ea k o n t he v ib r at io n w av e fo r m . T h is pe ak co rr es p o n ds to th e h ig h s p o t on th e
r o to r as it pa sse s t h e t ra n sd u ce r .
T h e p h as e re la tio n s h ip f ro m o n e en d o f th e s h a ft to t h e o th er is im p or t an t in m a ch in e ry
d ia gn o s t ic s . I n - p ha s e v ib r a tio n s d es c r ib e t ra n s la ti o na l m ot io n , i.e, th e r o to r is m ov i n g i n
th e s am e d ir e cti o n i n th e s a m e in s t an t i n t im e ( F ig u r e B .4 ). S t at ic u n b al an c e is a go o d
ex am p le of t his ty pe o f m ot ion . O u t-o f p has e v ibr ati on s in v olv e s om e co m p on en t of r ot atio n
o r fl exi ng (F ig u re B .5 ) . A b o w ed s h af t w i ll pr o du ce p ha se r ela tio ns h ip s t ha t a re cl os e to
1 80 ap art .

P h ase an gl e vs . f r eq ue nc y w he n p lo tted co in cid en tal ly w i th am pl itu d e vs . f r eq ue ncy is a


g oo d m e an s of d ete r m in i ng co m po n en t n at u ra l f re q ue nc ie s . A t e ac h n at u ra l f re q ue nc y ,
th er e w i ll b e a ph a s e an gl e s h if t of ap p ro x im ate ly 1 8 0 an d an am pl itu d e in cr ea s e
d ep en di ng up o n th e am ou n t of s ys t em d am p in g . ( s ee F ig u re B 1 6 - B o d P lo t)

P h as e an g le i s e s s en ti al in co m p o ne nt b al an ci ng .

F ig u r e B . 4 (to p ) I n -P h a se V ib r a tio n a n d F ig u r e B .5 ( b o tt o m ) O u t o f P h a s e V ib r a tio n

B.3.3.4 Vibration Waveforms


T he p r ev io u s ly d is c us s e d v ib ra tio n pa ra m et er s c an b e o bt ain e d w it h th e u s e of vib r a tio n
t r a ns d u ce r s . V ib ra ti on tr an s d u ce rs ar e e le ctr o n ic d ev ic es th a t d ir ect ly tr an s f o rm m ac h in e
m o tio n in to ele ct ri c s ig n als . T h e s i gn a ls ob t ain e d b y v ib r at io n t ra ns d u ce rs a re a co m p le x
c om b in ati on o f v ib ra tio n w av es in s tig at ed by fo r ces b o th i nt er na l an d e xt er na l to t he
m a ch in e . T he ke y t o v ib r at io n an al ys i s is to b re ak th es e s ig n al s d o w n in to d is c er n ab le
i n f o r m a ti o n . T h e re ar e s ev e r al f o r m s t h at v ib r a ti o n d a ta ca n b e d i s p la y ed . E ac h f o r m
p ro v id e s c er ta in ch ar ac ter i s tic s of th e v ib r at io n t ha t m a y n o t b e ea s il y s e en i n t he ot h er .

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B.3.3.4.1 Timebase and Orbit Formats . T im eb as e a nd o rbit fo rm a ts a re d ispla ys of


a bs o l ut e m o t io n . T he s e f or m ats p r es e n t th e am p lit u de , f r eq u en cy , ph a s e an g le a nd s h ap e o f
th e d y n am ic m o tio n co n cu rre n tly . T im e b a se d isp la y s sh o w th e v ib ratio n in "real tim e",
p ro v id ing th e a gg r ega te of all th e in di vid u al s in e w ave s p ro d uc ed b y th e in ter act ing fo rc es .
T h e tim e b as e w av efo rm is us u all y di sp lay ed o n an o s cil los c op e ( S ee F ig ur e B .6) . T h is
w a v ef o r m p r e s en t s th e tr u e a m pl it u d e o f m o t io n at an y i ns ta n t in t im e. F r e q ue n cy c an b e
c alc ul ate d b y co u n tin g t he n u m b er of re pe ati ng w av ef o rm s p er s ec on d . T h e p ro b le m w ith
u s in g t he t im e d o m ai n f or an aly s is is th at t he w a ve fo r m can be co m e co m pl ex a s t he
n u m b e r o f in d iv id u a l sin e w a v e s in c rea se O n th e o th e r h an d , a n y ty p e o f tra n s ie n t e v e n t
i s b e tte r s e en in th e ti m e d o m a in . C o m p o n en t r u bb i ng is a g o o d ex a m p le .

F ig u r e B .6
A m p litu d e v s. T im e P l ot

O r bi t dis p la ys re s ul t f r om in f or m a tio n g ath er ed b y tw o rad ia l pr ox im ity p r ob es lo cat ed 9 0


a pa rt ba s ed on s o m e r ef er en c e po in t ( p h as e r ef er en ce tr an s d uc er ) . T h is t yp e o f d is pl ay
e na bl es an o p er at or to :

E v al u ate th e tr u e s h a pe of r ot o r d y n am i c m ot io n w it hi n t h e b ear i ng cl ea ra n ce
A s s es s th e av er ag e r o to r ce nt er lin e p o s iti on ab o ut w h ic h t he r o to r o r bi ts

T h e o r b i ta l p a tt e rn i d en t i fi e s th e m a g n i tu d e an d p h as e a n g le o f t h e v i b r at i o n. T h e m a jo r
a n d m in o r ax e s re p r es e n t d ir e ct io n o f m o s t a n d l ea s t v i br a ti o n r e la ti ve to th e o ri en t at io n o f
th e tran sd u c e rs. O rb ita l p re s en ta tio n s a re u s efu l in d e fin in g m alfu n c tio n s su ch a s
p re lo a d s, m isa lig n m e n t, u n b ala n c e a n d ru b s.

U s e of a p has e r efe ren ce tr ans d uc er (P R T ) s ig n al i np ut o ff ers th e f o llo w i ng b en efi ts :

P r ov i de s a ti m e re fe r en ce f o r ph a s e an g le m ea s u r em e n ts

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C au s es th e o rb it t ra ce to b e in ter r up te d b y a b la nk s po t f o llo w ed by a b ri gh t s p ot t o
d ef in e ro to r r o tat io n
P r ov id es ac ces s p h as e an g les o f th e in p ut s i g na l to a pp r ox im ate t he r o to r m od e
sh ap e
E n a bl es th e o p er at o r to ap p r ox i m a te t he f r eq u en cy co n te n t of th e t im eb as e s i g na ls
b y co u nt in g th e n u m b er o f w a ve fo r m p eak s be tw ee n P R T m a rk s 1

F ig u r e B .7
O r b ita l P r e se n ta tio n

B.3.3.4.2 Amplitude vs.Frequency F re q ue n tly, th e pu m p e ng in e er w ish e s to v ie w the


vi br at io n sig n al in th e f r eq ue nc y d om ai n sin ce m an y co m m on de fe cts ar e asso ci ate d w it h
di s ti n ct f r eq u en ci es ( S ee F ig u r e B .8 ) . T h er e ar e t w o ty p es o f i ns t r um en t s t h at a re m o s t
of ten us ed t o view am p litu de vs . f req uen cy .

T h e fi rs t i s a n an a lo g s ig n al f ilt er w hi ch l oo k s a t th e w av ef o rm i n th e t im e d o m a in a t
dis c re te fr eq ue nc ies . A n e xa m p le of t hi s is a tu na ble b an d p as s f ilt er w h ich allo w s the
an aly ze r to sw eep th e w av ef or m ac ro ss th e en tir e fr eq u en cy r an g e sear ch in g f o r am pl itu d e
pe aks .

T h e se con d , m o re p o w erf u l d ev ice , is the F F T an aly zer ( n am e d af ter Jea n B ap tis te F o ur ier
fo r his dev elo pm e nt of a m at hem atical m o de l w h ich br eak s d ow n a co m ple x w avef or m int o
in d iv id u al s i ne w av es ) . T h e F F T a n aly z er di gi ti ze s t h e an al og s ig n al an d p er f o rm s th e
ne ces s a ry m a th em a tic al f un ct io n s t o r ap id ly d is p la y th e w a ve fo r m in t he f r eq u en cy
do m a in . S o m e e rr o r is in tr od u ce d b y th is m e th od th ro u gh th e di gi tiz in g p ro ce s s .

1 F or exa m ple, th ree p ea ks be tw ee n P R T m ark s w ou ld in dica te the pre sen ce o f a fre qu en cy


c om po ne nt a t 3 x.

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F ig u r e B .8
F re q u e n c y D o m a in

B.3.3.5 Vibration Mode Shape


F o r v er tical co n de ns er c oo lin g w ate r pu m p s , an a dd iti on al s et( s ) of p r ox im i ty p ro be s,
p o s it io ne d 9 0 ap ar t, m ay b e lo cat ed s om e d is ta nc e aw a y f r om a s ele cte d b ea ri ng ( s )2. T h es e
t r an s d uc er s w i ll a id i n d e te rm in in g s h af t d ef le ct io n s a n d s l o pe ; m e as u r e th e b a s ic m o de
s ha p es ; a nd p er m i t ca lcu l ati o n o f a ct ua l s h af t a nd b ear i ng s ti f fn es s . K n o w le d ge o f hi g h
b e nd i n g s t re s s lo c ati o ns a n d s t re s s ch a ng e s un d er d if f er en t o p er a tin g lo a ds h el p s de f in e
m ain te na nc e ar eas fo r e xt en de d m a ch in e lif e.

B.3.3.6 Eccentricity Slow Roll


E ccent ricity slo w ro ll, also kn ow n as p eak -to -pe ak eccen tricity , is th e am ou nt of bo w o r n on -
c on ce nt ri c su r fa ce o f th e ro to r . F o r v ert ica l co nd en s er c oo li ng w ate r pu m ps , t hi s c an r es u lt
f r om m i s alig n m en t of t he r oto r s ec tio ns or ho ri zon ta l f lu id lo ad s . L o w p ea k- to -p eak
a m p l itu d es ar e d e s ir ed to pr ev e nt th e u nd e s ir ed ef f ect s of a r es i du a l bo w a nd
c or res p on din g u nb alan ce, in clu din g:

D a m ag e t o se al s
R o to r ru b s
2
Id ea lly , the se tra nsd u cers sh ou ld b e c en tered b etw e en tw o ad ja ce nt b ea rin gs . H o w e ve r,
loca tion 2 fe et on th e in boa rd side o f the b earin g w ill allow the c alcu latio n of sha ft defle ction s.

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B.3.3.7 Position Measurements

B.3.3.7.1 Shaft Radial Position. T he m easurem ent of the shaft radial position defines the
s h a ft c en te r lin e w i th in th e b ea ri ng s . R a d ial p o s it io n i s an ex ce lle nt in di ca to r o f b e ar in g
w ear an d m i s al ig n m en t. S in c e th i s lo ca ti on ca n va r y w i th ch a ng i ng lo a d a n d r o to r
a li gn m en t, it is i m p o rt an t to co n ti nu o u s ly m o n ito r s h af t po s i ti on d ur in g s ta rt - u p , shu t -
d o w n , an d s t ead y s t ate o p er ati on to e s ta bl is h a l on g t er m fr am e of re fe re nc e.

B.3.3.7.2 Axial Thrust Position. A xial thrust position is a m eas urem ent of the relative
p o s i ti on b et w ee n t h e th r u s t c ol la r a n d t hr u s t s h o e s f o r K T B ty p e b e ar in g s . T h is
m easu re m en t is a u s ef ul p re di ctiv e to ol to :

M on i t or t h r u s t b e ar i n g w ea r
P r ev e n t s e v er e a x ia l r u b s
D et er m in e t he p re s en c e o f t h ru s t re v er s a ls

T r an s d uc er s to m ea s u re t h ru s t p o s it io n s h o u ld b e m o un te d f o r d ir e ct o b s er va ti on an d ha ve
t he c ap ab ili ty t o s en s e m o v em en ts as lar g e a s 2 0 0 m ils .

B3.3.7.3 Alignment. M i s al ig n m e nt is o ne o f th e pr i m ar y ca u s e o f r o t o r m a lf u n ct i o ns
l ar ge v er ti cal c on d en s er co ol in g w at er p u m p s . P r io r t o m on it or in g , al ig nm en t p ro ce du r es
c o ns i s te d o f d e s ig n c alc u lat io n s w it ho u t s at is f ac to r y r es u l ts . C u r re n t p op u la r te ch n iq u es
u til ize o pti cal m ea s ur in g, b o th u nd er co ld a nd o p era tin g co nd iti on s , to en s u re co m p lian ce to
d e s i gn s t a nd a r d s .

B.4 Vibration Transducer Selection


B.4.1 Selection Factors

T he ef fec tiv enes s of a v ibr atio n m o n itor in g s ys te m i s di rec tly in fl uen ced b y th e t yp e o f
t ra n sdu c er (s ) sel ec ted . E v en a sop h ist ic ate d m on i to ri n g sy ste m ca nn o t co m pe n sate fo r a
p o or ch o ice in tr an s du cer s . P ro p er s elec tio n re qu ir es ca ref u l c on s ide rat io n of t he fo llo w in g
f acto rs:

F r eq ue nc y ra ng e o f th e v ib ra tio n w a ve fo r m
S ig n al- to - n oi s e ra ti o o f th e p ar ti cu lar tr an s d uc er m th e de s ir ed fr eq u en cy ra ng e
T y p es o f b ea rin g s a nd th eir d es i gn clea ra nc e
N eed to ev alu at e ab sol ut e or re lat iv e m o tio n
E n v ir o n m en t al c on d it io n s at t he tr an s d u cer lo ca ti on

B.4.2 Transducer Types

V ib ra tio n tr an s d uc er s ar e in s tr u m e nt s us e d t o co n v er t d yn am ic m o tio n in to ele ctr i cal


i m p uls e s . S in ce th e m ajo r ity o f v ib rat ion pr o ble m s fo r v ert ical co n de ns er coo li ng w a ter
p u m p s ar e a sso ci ate d w ith th e r o to r , t he op ti m u m t r an sd uc er sy ste m w il l in d ic at e ch an g es
i n s ha f t p o s it io n . T h e b a s ic v i b ra ti o n t r an s d u ce rs a r e:

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P r o x i m i ty tr a n s d u ce r s y s te m
V e loc ity t ra ns d uc er
A cceler om eter

B.4.2.1 Proximity Transducer System

A P ro xim i ty Pr ob e is an ed dy cu rr ent d evice co m pr ised o f a co iled w ir e sur ro un de d by n on


c on du cti ng c era m ic o r pl astic (F i gu re B .9 ) . A m agn eti c f iel d em a nat es f ro m th e pr ob e tip .
T he p r o be i s p la ced in t he b e ar in g h ou s in g or som e ot he r cl o s e cle ar an ce sh af t ar ea. T h e
sh af t sur f ace p osi tio n w i ll cau se a ch an ge i n th e m ag n eti c f ie ld a nd t he re fo r e c au s e a
c ha ng e in th e cu rr en t fl ow i ng th ro u gh th e co ile d w ir e an d th e r es u lti ng ga p v ol tag e.

T IP
F ig u r e B .9
P r ox im ity P ro b e

T he typ ical fr equ en cy res p on se fo r a p ro xi m ity p ro be is f rom 0 H z (d c) to 10 k H z, thu s it


m easu r es stat ic o r av er ag e po sit io n as w el l as dy n am i c m o tio n . T h e d if fer en ce i n g ap
v o lta ge s m ea s ur es r ot or m o tio n a n d p os i tio n c ha ng e f ro m th e a t re s t po s it io n to th e
o p er a tin g p os iti o n. T h i s to ta l ch a ng e i s co n tr o ll ed by th e a v ai lab l e b ea ri n g c lea r an ce . I f
p r o be g a p in f o rm at io n i nd i cat es m o v em en t g r eat er th an th e d es ig n cle ar an ce , b ea r in gs
s h ou ld be in s pec ted fo r w ear o r dam a ge.

T he m o s t us e fu l dia gn o st ic in fo rm atio n is o bta in ed w h en tw o p r ob es are m ou nt ed 9 0


a pa r t. T hi s ty pe of s et- u p w i ll :

I d en t if y th e l at er al m o d e s h ap e at r e s on a n ce a n d a t o p er at in g s p ee d
I de nti fy th e "s lo w r oll sha pe" o f a sh af t b ef or e st art -u p or d ur in g co ast-d ow n
D isp l ay sha ft orb it al m o tio n w it hi n i ts b ea ri ng co n stra in ts
I n d ica te s h a ft r a di al p o s it io n w ith i n th e b e ar in g c le ar an ce d u r in g o p er at io n
( as s u m in g t he p ro b es a re lo ca ted c los e t o th e be ari ng )

L ate ra l m o de sh ap es ar e u s ef ul i n sh af t cr ack de tec tio n w h er e cr ac k in d uc ed m od e sh ap e


d is t or tio n h as be en f ou n d.

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T h e sl ow ro ll shap e of t he sha ft is in dica ted b y th e 1 x v ecto rs at lo w rota tiv e sp eed w h ere


dy n am ic m ot io n is n eg lig ib le . S h aft crack in g i s se en i n th is m o d e as a pe rm an ent bo w i n
t he sh aft .

O rb it al p att erns id e nt ify ex ce ssiv e prel oa di n g d ue t o m i sali gn m e nt or hy d ra ul ic p re ssure


lo ad s. In tern al lo o ps o n an orb it d isp lay m ay be o b serve d w h en a b al an ce reso na nc e is
excited by a 2 x v ibration.

W h en th e p rox im ity p rob e is u sed as a" ph ase referen ce tran sdu ce r" , it o bse rv es a on ce p er
rev ol ut io n ev en t (su ch as a sha ft n o tch o r p roj ect io n). It pro vi de s a v o lta ge p ul se at ea ch
sh aft rev o lut io n w hi ch t rig g ers a ta cho m e ter, d igi tal v ect or fil ter, o r o th er d iag no sti c
in st ru m e n ts. T h is al lo w s eac h v ib rati o n fre q ue nc y c om po n en t to b e re la ted to th e rot ati v e
spee d o f the shaft.
B.4.2.2 Velocity Transducers and Accelerometers

V el o cit y tran sd u cers an d ac ce lero m et ers a re seism ic t ra nsd u cers w h ich m ea sure a bso lu te
b ea rin g ho u si n g m o ti on rat h er th a n d i re ct sh aft v i bra ti o n o r p os it io n . T h e m e as ure m e nt o f
rel ativ e sha ft m o tio n is re du ced b y th e da m pi ng coe fficie nt o f th e bea rin g su pp ort syst em , o r
som eti m es en h an ced if t he sh aft v ib ra tio n i nd u ces a co m p o ne nt reso n an ce in th e be arin g
struc tu re i tse lf. O b vi o usl y, th ere h as to b e su ffi cie nt tran sm iss io n o f th e sh aft m o ti o n to th e
st atio n ary e lem e nt for t he seism i c t ran sd uce rs to w ork effectiv ely .

V el oc ity t ra nsd uc ers c on sist o f a m ass su rrou n de d b y a w ire coi l. T he m a ss i s su pp o rt ed b y


a spri ng an d d am p er a nd su rro u nd ed b y a m ag ne t (F ig u re B .1 0). A ny m o ti on o f th e m ass
ca use s a cu rren t t o flo w t h ro u gh th e co il d u e to th e surro un d in g m a gn e tic fie ld . T hi s
in du ce d cu rren t is di rect ly rel ate d t o th e v el oc ity of th e m a ss. T y p ic al fre qu en cy resp on se
fo r a v elo city tra nsdu cer is fro m 1 5 H z to 2 kH z.

F ig u re B .1 0
V e lo c i t y T r a n s d u c e r

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A cc eler om et ers con tain a m ass w h ich r ests o n a p iezo elec tric cr ys tal (F ig u re B .11 ).
V i br atio n c aus e s th e m ass to ac cele ra te, th er eb y ap pl yin g a co m p re ssive f or ce o n th e
c ry s t al. T h is f or ce c h an ge s th e ele ct ri cal c on d u cta nc e o f th e c ry s ta l, c au s in g a ch an g e in
c ur r en t p ro p or t io na l to t h e m as s a cce ler at io n. T h e ty p ic al f re qu en c y r es p on s e o f a n
acceler om eter is fr om 5 H z to 2 0 k H z.

F ig u r e B . 1 1
A c c ele ro m e ter

B.4.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Specific Transducers


T h e fo ll o w in g t ab le c on ta in s ad v an tag e s a nd d is ad v an ta ge s of p ar tic ul ar tr an s d uc er s .
P ro p er a pp li cati on of vi br ati on tr an sdu ce rs co m b in ed w i th t he av ai lab il ity o f
i ns t ru m en ta tio n f or m o ni tor in g , di ag no s tic s , an d an al ys i s w il l res u lt in im p r ov ed , lo w er c os t
e qu ip m en t op er ati on .

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Table B.1

T R A N S D U C E R A D V A N T A G E S A N D D ISA D V A N T A G E S
T ran sdu cer A d v a n ta g e s D is a d v a n ta g e s
Type
P r o x im ity 1) D ire ct m ea su re m e nt o f d y n am ic 1) D ep e nd e n t o n g oo d q u a lity sh aft
P ro b e sh aft m o tion fin ish
2) M easu res rotor pos ition relative 2 ) M a y be se n sitiv e to s om e sp ec ial
to b ea rin g o r ho u sing s ha ft m a teria ls
3 ) S a m e ty p e o f p ro b e is ap p lie d to 3) R equires an extern al dc so urce
m u ltip le use s 4 ) M ay b e d ifficu lt to in sta ll
4) N on contact m eas uring in dir ect un d erw a te r a t lo w e r b ea rin g o r
e n gin e erin g u n its im pelle r o n ve rtica l pu m p
5 ) S m a ll size , m o d u lar d e sig n, so lid 5) U sed w ith a seis m ic transducer
state an d e asily c alib rated for pu m p s w ith low m ec han ic al
6) M easures f rom dc to high im p ed a n ce ra tio
frequ en cie s
V e l o c it y 1) Ex tern al m ou ntin g is easier to 1) R equ ir es that the m achine have
T r a n sd u c e r ins tall lo w m e chan ic al im p edan ce
2 ) N o e x ter na l p o w e r so u rc e 2 ) M ea su re m e n t c an be aff ec te d b y
re q uir ed h o usin g v ibra tio n s
3) C an be tem porarily in stalled if 3 ) M ec h an ic al de sig n w ill d eg ra d e
re q uir ed an d w ea r o ut w ith tim e
4 ) V elo city is re la tiv e ly e as y to 4) R ather large and heavy, difficu lt
in teg ra te to d isp lac em en t to calibrate
5) S trong m idrang e frequency 5) S ens itive to m ounting orientation
sig na l (3 0H z to lkH z) 6) Ph as e and am plitude erro rs at low
6 ) G o od f or ov e rall v ib ratio n fre qu enc ies
m e a su re m e n t
A c c e le r o m e te r 1 ) E xter na l m o un tin g 1 ) P ro v id es o n ly lim ite d d a ta a b o u t
2) V e ry u sef ul fo r f req u en cie s fro m sha ft d y nam ic m otion
5 H z to 5k H z 2 ) S u s ce p tib le to ex te rn al n o ise
3 ) N o m ov ing p arts 3 ) M ea su re m e nts c an be e ffe c ted by
4) R elatively light w eight s pu riou s v ibra tio n s
5 ) M ay be th e o n ly a v aila b le 4 ) D ifficu lt to u se in so m e lo w sp ee d
alte rn ate u n de r s o m e f req u en c y m ac hine s since sign als m a y n ot b e
an d tem p er atu re co n ditio ns m uc h ab ov e b ack grou nd no ise
5) R equ ir es an external pow er
so urce
6 ) D oe s n ot o b serv e s lo w roll

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B.5 Monitoring Recommendations


T a ble B .2 and T ab le B .3 co nta in id eal reco m m en d atio ns fo r p ro be ty p es, lo cati on s an d
ex p ected m easu rem ent s for v ertic al con de nser coo lin g w ate r pu m p s w it h flu id film
b e arin g s.

Table B.2

M O N IT O R I N G R E C O M M E N D A T IO N S
P r o b e T y pe L o c a tio n M e a su r e m e n t
P r o x im i ty X -Y (90 ) A t e ac h p u m p ra di al S h aft p os iti o n & m ot io n
be ari ng an d o ne ot h er S h a ft ra d ia l v ib ra tio n
loc ati on on th e pu m p sh aft Sh aft m o d e s h ap es
P h a s e R e fe re n c e O n t he dri v er sha ft S h aft rot at iv e sp ee d
T ra nsducer D ire cti o n o f ro ta ti on
O bs erv e o n ce p er tu rn
e v en t
P r o x im ity P r o b e , A x ia l A t th e m ot o r t hr u st c ol la r S h a ft ax ial p o sitio n
( f o r K T B b e a r in g s )
A c c e le r o m e t e r A t th e m o t or b earin g C on d iti on of ro ll er
e l em en t b ea rin g
S e is m ic T r a n s d u c e r C a se m o u nt e d a t o r n ea r Flo w d istu rb an ce s
the im p ell er lo catio n S ta r tu p a n d sh u td o w n
tra n s ie n t d a ta

Table B.3

M O N IT O R IN G R E C O M M E N D A T IO N S - S C A L E D D O W N
P ro b e T y p e L o c a tio n M easu rem en t
P r o x im it y X -Y (9 0 ) A t pu m p casi ng b earin g S had s po sitio n & m o tio n
n ea r th e i m p e ll er S h a ft ra d ia l v ib ra tio n
P h a s e R e fe r e n c e O n th e d riv e r sh aft S ha ft ro ta ti ve s pe ed l

T r a n sd u c e r D irec ti on o f ro ta ti o n
l
O b se rv e o n c e p e r tu rn
event
P r o x im ity P r o b e , A x ia l A t th e m o t or th ru st c ol la r S h aft a x ia l p o s itio n
(fo r K TB b e a rin g s)
A c c e le r o m e te r (fo r A t th e m ot o r b ea rin g C o nd i tio n o f ro ll er
R o lle r E le m e nt br g .) e le m e n t be a rin g

B.5.1 Special Considerations


E n vi ro n m en ta l co nd it io ns at sp ec ific tran sd uc er p o siti on s alo n g th e p um p rot or are
esse nt ia l co n sid e ra ti on s. F o r ex a m p le , i f a t ran sd uc er is p la ced u nd e r w a ter, a sp ec ial
u n d erw at er p rob e m u st b e d e sig n ed t o o p era te i n t h at e n v iro nm en t . C o n d it io n of th e
b ea rin g l u bri can t w i ll als o affec t t ra ns du c er de sig n . If th e l ub ric at in g w a te r i s ab rasiv e o r

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b r ack i s h su ch th at i ts tr an sv er se f lo w c an er od e o r w e ar th e pr o b e tip , a pr o te cti ve sh r o ud


m us t b e add ed .

I t is al s o es s en ti al to acc ou n t fo r o th er in s tal lati on an d o pe ra tin g c on d iti on s th at w il l af fe ct


t he t y pe , s iz e an d r an g e of tr an s d uc er s ele cte d. F o r ex am pl e, be ar in g d es i gn , r o to r s t if fn es s ,
r o to r d i am ete r a nd to ta l w e ig ht m u s t al l en t er i n to th e s el ec tio n eq u ati o n.
B.6 Evaluation and Diagnostics Information
E ff ec ti ve e va lu at io n r eq u ir es in fo r m a tio n m a fo r m a t th at is e as il y u n de rs t oo d by th e
a na ly s t an d w h ic h c an b e p ro ce s s ed fo r a pp r op r ia te ac tio n . T h e d at a ne ces s a ry to co m p let e
m achin er y diag no stics i nclu de :

M a gn it ud e of th e vib r ati on : D e fin es s ev er ity o f th e p ro bl em an d es t abl is h es


u rg enc y fo r c or recti ve actio n

F re qu ency o f th e v ibr atio n: C ate go riz es th e m alf un cti on ; i .e.,


s u b s y nc h ro n ou s v er s u s s y n ch r on o u s v er s u s
s u p er s y n ch r on o u s

F o r m o f t he v i br a tio n D e fi ne s th e sh ap e of th e r o to r ce nte rl in e dy n am i c
m ot io n du r in g a vi br at ion cy cle, ex pr essed as a n
o rb it f or m

A m p litu d e/p has e an gl e: D e f in es m o d al s h ap e o r v ib r ati on d is tr ib u ti on at


v ar io us lo cat io ns alo n g th e ax is o f r o tati on , an d
d et erm in es t he s o ur ce lo ca tio n o f th e m alf u nc tio n
( s u ch as fl ui d in du ce d in s tab ili ty )

R o tor cen terlin e po s ition : D e ter m i ne s th e lo ca tio n o f th e ro to r c ent er lin e


r ela tiv e to t he g eo m etr ic ce nt er o f th e be ari ng ;
i n di ca te s t o ta l s h af t m ov e m e nt fr o m t he at- r es t
p o si tio n to an on -li ne p os it ion ; calc ula tes sh af t
a tt it ud e an g le a n d e cc en tr i ci ty ra ti o w it hi n t h e
be a ring

P ro ces s inf or m atio n: V a ria bl es , s u ch as lo ad , f low r ate, an d di s ch arg e


p r es s u r e, ar e us e d i n co n ju n ct io n w i th v i br at io n
d at a to c or r ela te b etw e en o b s er v ed v ib r ati on
b eh av io r a nd th e op er at io na l m o de o f th e
equipm ent

P um p des i gn in fo rm atio n: U s e d to co m p ar e v ib ra tio n in fo r m ati on t o kn o w n


g eo m etr ie s o f t he p u m p , s u ch a s nu m b er of
i m pe ller v ane s, r o tor cr iti cal fr equ en cies , etc .

T r end f ile in fo rm at ion : U s e d to ex am ine m ach ine b eh av ior ov er ti m e


( fo u r w eek s i s th e re com m en de d m in im um ti m e
f r am e fo r t re nd an al ys i s )

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M achin e histo ry file: R e fe re n ce f ile s o f t ra ns ien t d ata a cq u ir ed d u ri ng


pr e v io u s s ta rt - up s , s h u t- d ow ns , a nd o p er at in g
pe ri od s can be c om pa re d w it h cu r re nt
ob s er v ati on s

B.7 Data Displays Presentation and Analysis


B esi des the p rev io usly d escrib ed tim e b ase, o rb it, an d am p lit ud e v s. freq uen cy w av eform s;
se ve ral o t he r d at a p rese nt at io n s are u sefu l fo r an a ly sis .

B.7.1 Cascade and Waterfall Plots

C a scad e pl ot s ( F ig ur e B .1 2) a re u s ed t o an aly ze ch an g es i n eq u ipm en t vi br ati on w i th


ch an g es in spe ed . T hi s is us e fu l t o h el p ch ar ac te ri ze th e c au s e o f v ib r ati on . F or ex am pl e,
v ib ra ti o n am p li tu d e d ue to u n b al an ce w ill in cr ea s e w i th in cr ea s in g s p ee d ( F u = m r ),
w hi le h ig h v ib ra tio n d u e to co m po n en t res o n an ce w il l di s ap pe ar a s t he eq u ip m e nt p as s es
th ro u g h th e cr it ica l s pe ed . C as ca de p lo ts ar e al s o v alu a bl e to h el p id en ti fy s ha ft c ra ck in g.
S ha ft cr ac ki ng w i ll ex hi bi t a m p lit ud e pe ak s at 1 x a nd 2 x . T h e 2x co m p on en t w ill m a gn if y
as the sy stem sp eed c oi nc ide s w it h a kn o w n syst em re son an ce, e asily disc er ned in th is
fo rm at.

W at er fal l pl ot s ( F ig ur e B .1 3) ar e a m p lit ud e vs . fr eq ue nc y d is p lay s o v er ti m e an d p re s en t a


go od in dicat ion of ch ang es in eq uip m en t co nd itio n w ith r es pect to :
T im e o f oper ation
C h an gi ng lo ad

F ig u r e B .1 2
C as ca d e P lo t

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F ig u re B .1 3
W a te rfa ll P lo t

B.7.2 Bode and Polar Plots


T he B o d P lo t d is p lay s v ib ra ti on am pl itu d e an d p h as e a ng l e as s ep ar at e pl ot s ve rs u s
p u m p /m o to r r u nn in g s pe ed ( F ig u re B . 1 4 ) d ur in g s t ar tu p an d c oa s td o w n. T h es e p lo ts ar e
e ff ec tiv e i n d ete rm in in g r o to r c ri ti cal sp ee d s . A t ea ch cr iti cal spe ed , t he v ib r at io n
a m p lit ud e w i ll in c re as e an d th er e w il l be a p h as e a ng le s hi ft o f 1 8 0 . I f t he a m p li tu d e an d
p hase an gle are p lott ed in po lar f or m at (F ig ur e B . 1 5) , t he loc us o f ro tati on al sp eed v ecto rs i s
v ie w ed a s t he s p ee d v ar ies . T h is da ta is h ig hl y u s ef ul t o id en ti fy ba lan ce r es o n an ce s p ee ds ,
s y s tem d am p in g an d r ot or m o d al s ha pe s .

F o r ex am p le, th e B o d p lo t in com bin ati on w i th its 1x P o lar p lo t i s es s en tia l f or


d o cu m e nt in g t he l o cat io n a nd ch ar ac te ri s tic s of s ys tem r e s on an c es . T h e B o d p lo t in
co m b in atio n w ith it s 2 x P olar plo t is u s efu l fo r ide nti fy ing sy s tem r es on an ces a t 2 x fo r
d etectio n o f sh aft crack s.

A ll tr ans d uce rs can be u s ed to d evel op th es e plo ts ; ho w eve r, p ro xim ity p ro bes pr ov id e th e


b es t d at a s in ce t he y m e as u r e s ha ft d y n am i c m o ti on .

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F ig u r e B . 1 5
P o la r R e p re se n ta tio n o f B o d P lo t

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B.7.3 Shaft Centerline Position Plot

T h e sh aft ce nt erli n e po si ti on is n orm all y p lo t ted at th e rad ial be arin g lo ca tio n s th rou g h t he
use of p ro xim i ty prob es. T h is p lot (Fi gu re B . 1 6) p ro vi des the av era ge po sitio n of th e ro tor
cen te rl in e w i th re spe ct t o th e b ea rin g. T h is i nfo rm at io n i s h e lp fu l i n d et erm in i ng p um p-to -
m o to r a li gn m en t, b eari ng p re lo ad an d w ear.

F ig u re B .1 6
S h a ft C e n te r lin e P o s itio n P lo t

B.7.4 Overall Amplitude Plot

T he ov erall am p litu de pl ot is a d isplay o f th e v ib rat ion am plit ud e o ve r tim e (F ig ure B . 1 7).


It i s a use fu l p red ict iv e m a in ten an c e to ol to e va lu at e m ac hi ne co nd it io n . A m p li tu d e
ch an ge s ov er ti m e a re j u stifi cat io n fo r fu rt he r i nv e stig at io n . T hi s pl ot i s pa rtic ul arly u seful
w i th v ertic al co nd en ser c oo lin g w at er p um ps sin ce th e len g th y, m ul tip le sect io n roto rs a re
relativ ely flexib le.

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F ig u re B .1 7
O v e ra ll A m p litu d e P lot

B.8 System Inspection and Maintenance


R e gu lar m ai nte na nce o f th e vi br ati on m o nit or in g s y s tem is es s en tia l f o r co lle ctin g r eli abl e
m a ch i ne r y i n f or m at io n . W i th pr o p er m ai nt en a n ce , t he in s t r um en t at io n w il l c on t r ib u te to
lo ng ter m ac cu ra te m ea s ur em en t an d p ro te ctio n o f t he v er tic al co n de ns e r co o lin g w at er
pu m ps . A b r ief s um m ar y o f t he t yp e o f in s p ec tio n s a nd tes t r eq u ir ed f o r co n tin u ed
accep tab le sy stem op era tion is pr ov ide d.

Id e all y , in s p ec tio n an d t es t in g s h o u ld b e p er f o rm ed an n ua lly , or w h en th e p um p s a re s hu t


do w n, w h ich ev er is m o re of ten . C om p let e s y s tem m ai nte nan ce co ns is ts of :

V isu al in sp ecti on
V er if icat io n o f tr an sdu ce r syst em o pe rat io n
In stru m e n t ca lib ra tio n
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

B.8.1 Visual Inspection

V isu al i nsp e cti on s ar e in te nd ed to lo cat e ex is t in g an d po te nt ia l pr o bl em s a nd ar e th e


easie st to p er fo rm . A n in spec tio n con s is ts of a cl os e ex am in ati on o f th e sy stem co m p on en ts .
Sign s to lo ok fo r include:

S u rf ace d am ag e, e xce ssi ve w ear , co r ro s ion , an d b rea kag e


W a ter, o il, o r co rr os io n aro un d ju nct ion b ox es a nd h ou s ing s
C rack ing , c orr os io n, or d isc olo ratio n of circu it b oar d par ts
B ro ken f itti ng s , h o us in gs , o r do or s
I m p ro pe r en vi ro nm en tal co nd iti on s , s u ch as liq u id o n m o ni tor s
F o r ei g n m at ter o r d i rt pa r tic le s th at w il l af f ec t tr a ns d u c er op e ra ti on

B.8.2 Verification of Transducer Operation


T h e p r ob e, ca ble , and P ro xim ito r fo r ea ch s ys t em m u st b e fu nc tio nal ly tes t ed to v er ify
pr o per w or ki ng o r der or d et erm in e f u tur e co rr ect ive a ctio n . T h e f o llo w in g item s s h ou ld be
ch e c k ed :

A ll sy stem co m p o ne nts ar e com pa tib le w ith each oth er


S ca le f acto r a nd l in ear r an g e a re w i thi n sp ecif ic atio n
M o n ito r am p l itu d e re ad in g s a n d s et p o in ts a re c or r ect
T he p h as e r e fe re nc e tr an s d u cer s ig n al i s o p er at in g p r op e rl y

B.8.3 Instrument Calibration


A fte r co m p letio n o f tr ans d uc er s ys t em op er atio n al c he cks , p ro p er o per ati on o f th e m on ito r s
s ho u ld b e ver if ied by e ns u ri ng tha t:

E a ch m o n i to r al ar m s e t p o in t a ct iv a te s th e a p p ro p r ia te re la y s an d ex te r n al ly d ri v en
devices
F ro n t pa ne l m e ter s pr o vi de t he c or r ect i nd ic ati on s
"O K " an d al arm i nd ica tor s are w o rk in g p ro p erl y

W h en o pe ra ti on o f th e m on i to rs h as b ee n co n f ir m e d, tr an s d u cer s m u s t b e r ei ns t all ed , a la rm
s et p o in ts a dj u s te d, an d r e lay b yp a s s es r em ov e d p r io r t o e qu ip m en t s ta r t- u p. S p eci f ic
m a in ten a nc e an d i ns p ec ti on pr o ce du r es s h ou ld b e es ta b lis h ed b as ed o n th e u n iq ue
ch ar ac te ri s ti cs o f th e p la n t an d t h e in s ta lle d m o ni to r in g s y s t em .

B.9 Case HistoryDynamics of a Vertical Pump


B.9.1 Introduction

T h is c as e hi s to r y re p or t s th e r es u l ts o f a n a na ly s i s on a s e r vi ce w at er pu m p. T h i s pu m p i s
ty p ic al o f th e w a te r p u m p s u s e d t hr o u g ho u t t he po w e r g e n er at io n i n d us t r y . W hi le lit tl e is
kn ow n of th e m ech an ical b eha vio r o f ver tica l p u m ps du e to d iff icu lty m m o d elin g th e r ot or
s ys t em , r ece nt d ev el op m en ts in t he a pp li cat io n o f s u bm er s ib le p r ox im ity tr an s d uc er s h av e
m ad e th e m e as u re m e nt o f p um p d y na m ic s u n de r o pe ra tin g c on d iti on s po s s ib le .

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T h e pu r po s e o f th is s tu dy w as to d ete rm in e th e pr o pe r s ele cti on an d in s tal lat io n of vi br at io n


m o n ito r ing tr an s du ce rs as w el l a s t o m e as u re t he e ff ect s o f i m b ala nc e, m is al ig nm en t, an d
h yd r au li cs on th e p er fo r m a nc e an d r el iab i lit y o f v er ti cal p u m p s . I n ad di tio n , t he c au s e o f
s h af t fa il ur es o n t hi s pu m p w a s d et er m i ne d .

B.9.2 Machine Description

A n o ut lin e dr aw in g o f th is p um p an d m o to r is gi ve n in F i gu re B .18 . A nu m b er o f s h af ts on
th is p um p h ad fa ile d in re cen t y ea rs f or un k n ow n re as o ns .

LE G EN D

F irst L e tte r: V e r tic a l lo c a ti o n o f m e a su re m e n t p o in t


(i .e., A , B . C , et c.)
S e c o n d L e tte r: H o riz o n ta l lo c a tio n ("S " f o r so u th sid e o f
p u m p , " W " fo r w e st)
T h i r d L e t te r : T y p e o f tra n sd u c e r ("D " fo r d isp la c e m e n t
p ro x im ity p ro b e a n d " V " fo r v e lo c ity tra n s -
d u c e r)

F o r e x a m p le , th e tra n sd u c e r id e n tifie d a s D W D is lo c a te d a t
th e b o tto m b e a rin g a n d is th e w e st p ro x im ity p ro b e .

F ig u r e B .1 8
O u tlin e D r aw in g o f C a se H is to r y P u m p

T h e l ow er be ar in g co n s is t s of a g r ea s e- lu b r ica te d b r o nz e b u s h in g s u p p o rt ed by th e p u m p
en d be ll . I nt er m ed ia te " be ar in g s " a re s up p o r ted b y t he p u m p v er ti ca l co lu m n an d ar e o f t he
cu t le s s ru b b er ty p e. T he co u p li ng b et w ee n t h e s h af t s ec tio n s a re ri g id an d tr an s m it s to r q ue
th ro u gh tw o k ey s s p ace d 1 80 ap ar t.

B -26
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

T he r ate d p um p pe rf o rm an ce is :

SP E E D : 720 R PM
H O R S EP O W ER : 12 50 B H P
RA TE D F LO W : 30 ,00 0 G PM
RA TE D T D H : 140 F T

T his p um p is on e of thr ee id en tic al pu m p s con n ect ed to a c om m o n he ad er. F lo w is


r eg ula ted b y a con tr ol v alv e m t he di s cha rg e p ip in g of e ach p um p.

B.9.3 Transducer Selection

S i nce v er y lit tle in f or m at ion is a va ilab le o n th e ro to r d yn am i c cha ra cter is ti cs o f th is ty pe o f


p u m p, p r o xi m i ty a nd v el o ci ty tr a ns du c er s w e r e in s t al le d a t e ac h b e ar in g an d at th e m o to r
c o up l in g . L oc at io n ar e s h o w n o n th e p u m p o u tli n e d ra w in g . T h e t ra n s du c er s ar e i de n ti fi ed
u s in g a th r ee- let ter c od e s h ow n i n th e leg en d m F i gu re B .18 .

T ra nsd u cer s at lo ca tio n C an d D ar e b elo w th e ri ve r le ve l an d r eq u ir e th e us e o f a w a ter -


p r oo f t ra n s du ce r d es i gn . T he t ra n s du ce r al s o h ad to b e d es i gn ed to pr o vi de m ec ha ni cal
p r ot ecti on an d s u rv iv e th e ab ra s iv e acti on of s an d m th e fl ow i ng w ate r. F ig ur e B . 19 is an
o utl ine dr aw in g of th e p ro be d esi gn u tilize d.

F ig u r e B . 1 9
S u b m e rs ib le P r o x im ity P r o b e D es ig n

B.9.4 Static Testing

T he ro to r s ys t em w a s t es t ed e x pe ri m e nt all y f o r b o th l ate r al an d to rs i o na l re s o na nc es .
T es t in g w a s pe rf o r m e d b y s u s p en d in g th e in s tr u m e n ted p um p , m ot o r r ot o r, an d p u m p
i m p el le r v er ti ca lly an d p e rt u rb in g th e as s em b l y b y s t r ik in g i t w it h a n i ns tr um en t ed f o r ce
h a m m er . T h e re s u l ts o f th e s e t es t s , s u m m ar i ze d m F i g ur e B .2 0 , w er e co r r el at ed w i th d at a
o b ta in ed m t h e la te r f ie ld te s ti n g. T h e p u m p s p e ed of 7 2 0 R P M d ic ta te s t h at t h e s y s te m
w i ll r un ab ov e th e s ec on d an d b elo w th e th ir d la ter al r es o n an ce.

T he f ir s t t or s io na l res o n an ce of th e r o to r oc cu rs in t he r an ge o f 6 90 t o 7 65 C P M . S i nc e t hi s
r a n g e i n cl u d es t h e r u n n in g s p e ed , t o r s io n a l a n al y s i s w a s w a rr a n te d . S t ra i n g a u g es w it h
t ele m et ry w er e em p lo y ed t o m e as u re s h ea r s tr ai n. V alu es w er e ex tr em ely l ow - w ell b elo w
t he f ati gu e lim it - in d icat in g a s ys t em w el l d am pe d to rs i on al ly.

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B o tto m b earin g O rb it an d tim e b ase p lo ts w ith an d W ith o u t im b alan ce w eig h t


1% F IL T E R E D
UP

F ig u re B .2 0
R e su lts o f C a se H is to r y T e stin g

B.9.5 Field Testing

T he p um p im p eller w a s m o di fie d to all ow the ad di tio n of b alan ce w eig hts to th e im p eller


va ne s w i th ou t r em o v in g t he p u m p w i th t he u s e o f a s cu b a di ve r to s w im in t o th e p um p
in tak e t o ad d o r re m o v e w eig h ts . T h e pu m p im p ell er w as th en s h o p b al an ce d to cr it ica l
s ta n d ar d s a n d in s t al l ed i n t h e p u m p ca s e . T h e p u m p w as as s em b le d w i th th e tr a n s d u ce r s
m e n ti o n ed e ar l ie r . E x t r em e c ar e w a s ta k en t o al ig n t h e p u m p a n d m o t o r . T h e a x ia l
po s it io n o f th e pu m p w as s et to t he m an uf ac tu re r s pe cif ic ati on , es t ab lis h in g t he cl ear an ce
be tw een th e l ead in g ed g e o f t he im pe ller an d th e casin g .

B.9.6 Imbalance

T h e b ala nce co n dit ion of t he im p el ler w as ch ang ed w h ile h ol din g th e ot her var iab les
co ns t an t. T h e am ou n t of im b al an ce ad d ed w a s 8 0 o z.-i n., r es u lt ing in a c en tr if ug al f or ce

B -28
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Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

eq u al t o 84 I b s, ( Fc = M r 2 ) . F or a r oto r w eig ht o f 10 0 0 lb., th is eq u als 8 .4 per cen t of th e


u u
ro to r w eig ht.
T a b le B 4

F i g ur es B .21 an d B .2 2 s h o w th e o rb it a n d ti m e b as e pl o ts of tr ia l ru n s w it h an d w it ho u t th e
i m b al an ce w eig h t. T h es e m e as u r em e n ts w er e t ak en at t he l o w er be ar in g (" D " l oc at io n ) an d
a t the " B " loc ati on . N o te th at th e p lo ts a t th e l ow e r b ear in g ( D ) cle ar ly s h ow th e ef fe cts of
u n ba lan ce, w hi le th e pl ots at th e u pp er bea ri ng (B ) d o n ot sh ow a sig n ifi can t ch an ge .

F ig u r e B . 2 1
C a s e H is to ry O rb it P lo ts

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F ig u r e B . 2 2
C a se H is to ry T im e B a se P lo ts

B.9.7 Misaligned Response Testing


T he a lig n m en t b etw e en t he m ot or s ha ft a nd pu m p s ha ft w a s c ha ng ed by ad d in g a 0 .0 1 0
i nc h s hi m u n de r o n e s i de o f th e m ot o r. T h i s r e s ul t in an an g u la r m is al ig n m e n t o f
a pp ro x im at ely t w o d egr ee s. R a dia l of fs e t i s im po s s ib le w ith thi s ty p e of c ou p lin g. O r b it an d
t im e ba s e p lo ts of d ata at th e "B " lo catio n ar e s ho w n in F i gu re B .2 3. T he s li gh t elli pti cal
s h ap e o f t he o r bi t o f th e s ec on d tr ial r u n in d ic ate d a p re re ad cau s ed by th e m i s al ig nm en t.
S i nc e th e m isa lig n m en t m a ni fe sts i tsel f as 1 X v ib r ati on , n o str o ng in di cat io n o f tr ad iti on al
2 X m i s ali g nm en t is i nd ic at ed o n th e s p ect ru m p lo t. T h e p r e- lo ad w as n ot a s ap pa r en t at
th e bo tto m b ear ing a s ex pec ted.

B -3 0
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

F ig u r e B . 2 3
C a s e H is t o r y O r b i t P l o t s ( i n " B " L o c a ti o n )

F ig u r e B .2 4
C a s e H i s t o r y T i m e B a s e P lo t s ( i n " B " L o c a t io n )

B-31
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B.9.8 Hydraulic Response Testing


T h e pu m p w as r u n w it h tw o d if f er en t c lea ra nce s b et w een the l ead in g ed g e of the i m p ell er
and casin g . T est w er e con d uct ed w it h a desi gn c lear an ce of 0.04 3 in ch a nd e xce ssive
cle ara nc e of 0.2 00 i nc h. T h e di s cha rg e p re s s ur e de cr eas e d b y 20 ps i g w it h th e in cr eas e d
im p eller cl ear ance , w h ich i s a go od in d icatio n o f the am o un t of r ecir cul atio n and e ff icien cy
los ses.

W ith des i gn c lear an ce, s p ect ru m plo ts of p r ox im i ty p ro be s d ata fr o m t he lo w er b ear in g


s ho w s tr o ng s ub - s yn ch r o no u s r es p o n s e at 3 72 cp m (F ig ur e B .2 4 ) T hi s f r eq ue nc y is th e f ir s t
lat er al n a tu ra l f re q ue nc y ( cr i tic al ) o f t he p u m p sh af t. W h en th e cl ea ra n ce w a s i n cr eas ed ,
th e su b -sy nc hr o no u s v ib rat io n b ecam e less stab le an d o ccu rr ed ov er a b ro ad er f r eq uen cy
ra n g e. T h e h y d r au li c r es p o n s e t es t in g d et er m i n ed th a t th e e x ci ta ti on o f t h e f ir s t ba la n ce
re s on an ce b y th e s u b- s y nc hr o no u s v ib r ati on w as t he c au s e of th e r ec en t s ha ft f ail ur e.
T h es e fa ilu r es w ere d ia gn o s ed as b en di ng fat ig ue f ail ur es b y m e tall ur g ica l a na ly s is .
H ow e v er , s ev er al u n an s w er ed q u es t io ns r em a in ed :

1. W h y is t he vi b ra ti on h ig h er w it h t h e d es i gn cl ea r an ce s ?

2. W hy d id t he p u m p o pe r at e w i th o u t s h a ft f ai lu r es u n ti l r ec en t ly ?

3. W h y i s th e di s c h ar g e p r es s u re o n ly 6 2 p s i g w h en r at ed p r es s u re at pr e s en t r iv er
level is 85 p sig?

W h en m a in te n an ce r ec o rd s w e re r e s ea rc he d , it w as f o un d th at t h e s ta rt o f s h af t f ail u re s
w as pr ece de d b y a ch an g e i n s u pp li er f or im p el ler s . R ece nt i m p elle rs w er e n ot p ur ch as e d
fr o m t he O E M . T he O E M h as i n di ca ted th a t s u b tle ch an g es i n t h e v an e at ta ck an g le c o ul d
cau s e th e re -ex ci tat ion of th e f ir s t lat er al na tu ra l fr eq ue nc y (c ri tic al) d u e to v or te x
sh edd ing .

B.9.9 Summary
T w o m ajo r con clu si on s re su lted f ro m this tes t:

1. A deq u ate m ach in ery m on ito ri ng o f lo ng v ert ical pu m p s ca nn ot b e a cco m pl is hed


w ith o u t m e a su rin g th e m o tio n o f th e sh aft n e a r th e im p e lle r. T h is p u m p w a s
an aly zed on m an y o cca sio ns us i ng tra nsd u cer s i nst alle d at lo ca tio n " A ". T he s e
casin g tr an sd u cer s ( vel oci ty an d acc eler ati on ) fa iled t o de tect th e lar ge su b-
s yn ch r on o us v ib ra tio n o cc ur r in g at t he f ir s t b ala nc e re s on an t f re qu en cy of th e s ha ft
at ru nn in g s p eed o f 7 20 r p m .

2. H y d r au lic e ff ec ts ap p ear to b e s e ve ra l or d er s of m ag n it ud e h ig h er t ha n im b ala nc e


an d ali gn m e nt e ff ect s: A ny di agn o s tic s e ff or t sh ou ld i nc lu de t he co r re lati on of
h y d ra u li c d at a.

B -3 2
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

Appendix C Troubleshooting Vibration Problems in Vertical


Condenser Cooling Water Pumps Using Computer-
Aided Test, Analysis, and Design Techniques
C.1 General Overview

T h is s ec tio n dis c us s es the id en tif icat ion a nd r es o lut ion o f v ibr ati on p ro b lem s as s oc iated
w ith co m p o n en t re s on an c e us i ng co m p u ter - aid e d te ch no lo g ie s . I t ill us t ra te s h o w t he
co m b in ati on o f f ie ld te s tin g an d f in it e e lem en t an aly s is s im u lat io n ac cu rat ely pi np o int s t he
s ou rc e(s ) o f v ib rat ion pr ob lem s , eli m in atin g co s tly t ri al and err or pr oc es s es . T h is se ctio n
als o ad d res s es ho w c om p u ter -aid ed a nal ys is can b e us ed a s a de si gn t oo l i n dev elo p ing
s olu tio ns to ex is tin g p ro ble m s o r to av o id co m po n ent r es on an ce i n new in s talla tio ns .
F in al ly , it s h o w s ho w th e co m pu te r m o d el s i m u la tes d es ig n ch an g es to e ns u r e th at
m od ifica tion s do n ot create secon dar y p ro blem s.

T he m a jor s o ur ce o f vi br atio n pr ob lem s in co nd ens er c oo ling w a ter pu m p s is c aus ed b y a


m at ch in g o f o n e or m o r e of th e s tr uc tu ra l na tu r al f re qu en ci es to s i gn i fi can t p um p u n it
dr iv in g f o rc es . W he n th e n atu r al f req u en cy of p u m p co m p on en ts m a tch th e fr eq u en cy o f
th ese dr iv in g f or ces, i ne ff ici ent o p era tio n, pr em atu re f ail ur e, an d i n som e inst an ces,
co m pl ete de s tru cti on o f th e p u m p ca n res u lt.

V er ti cal c on d en s er co ol in g w a ter pu m p s ar e esp ec ial ly vu ln er ab le t o st ru ct ur al n a tu ra l


fr eq ue nc y ex cit atio n d u e t o th eir co nf ig ur ati on . A s ex pl ain ed in th e app li cati on secti on o f
th is g u id e; lo ng , s le nd er can til ev ers h av e m an y "c ri tica l ree d" ( n atu ra l) f re qu en cie s a t
fr eq uen ci es lo w eno u gh t o be ex cit ed b y pu m p u n bal anc ed f or ces. T he lar g e m oto r m a ss,
po sit io ne d h ig h ab o ve th e su pp o rt st ru ctu r e, a nd th e pu m p im p el ler , lo ca ted a con s id er ab le
di s ta nc e be lo w th e m o u nt in g f la ng e cr ea te t w o s u ch can ti lev er s . H ig h p u m p v ib r at io n ca n
resu lt fr o m e xci tati on o f eit her o f th ese can til eve rs.

S ignif icant pu m p dri ving f orce s w i ll no rm al ly o ccur at the follo w ing fr equ encies :

P um p op eratin g s peed ( 1X ) an d i ts low - or der ed har m on ics ( 2X , 3 X ) , us ua lly caus ed


b y im ba lan ce, m is al ig nm ent , an d /or ex ces s iv e be ar ing cle ara nc e
V an e p as s f req uen cy , c aus ed b y the s ho ck lo adin g of th e exit ing im pelle r flo w o n the
s t ati on ar y d i ff u s er b la d es
V an e p as s f r eq uen cy an d its m u lt ipl ier s , in d uc ed o ne o r m o r e vo rt ice s en te ri ng t he
im p eller ey e
S ub sy nchr ono us fr equen cies (56 -75 % o f 1 X ) , r esu lting fro m im p eller flo w
r eci rcu la tio n at t he ey e d ue to ex cessiv e ax ial cl ear an ce b etw ee n im pe ller an d
sh ro u d

It is th e p u m p d es i g ne r 's go a l to en s u r e th a t th e s t r uc tu r al n a tu r al f r eq u en ci es b o th a bo v e
an d be low t he m ou nt ing a re far e no ug h re m ov ed f ro m any o f th e a bo ve pu m p d riv in g fo rc es .
P ri o r to m o d er n co m pu ti n g te ch ni q ue s , ca lc ul ati on o f th e s tr u ct ur al n at u ra l fr eq u en ci es
w as nea rl y im p o s s ib le to co m p le te w ith a h ig h d eg re e of a ccu ra cy . A s a r es u lt, a s ig n if ican t
nu m b er o f co nd en s er co o lin g w ate r pu m p ins t alla tio ns ex is t w h ic h ex hib it th is pr ob le m .
W i th o u t co m pu t er - ai de d tes t an d an al y s is , at te m p t ed s o lu ti o ns t o n a tu r al f r eq u en c y

C -1
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f req u enc ies are p ro po rt io nal to t he s tif fn es s - to- m as s ra tio , s and bag s w o u ld be p lace d on the
m o to r to c ha ng e the u ni t m as s , o r s teel s u pp o rts w o uld be w eld ed f r om th e pu m p t o ex is tin g
s t ru ct ur e s t o in c re as e u n it s t if fn es s . M an y of th es e p r ac tic es co n tin u e to d ay , u s u al ly w ith
n o b enef icial res ult.

W i th e xis t in g co m p ut er ca pab il itie s , s ol ut io ns to n atu r al fr eq ue nc y pr o bl em s tak e on a


d ir ec t ap pr o ac h. C om pu t er m od e ls ar e co n s tr uc ted to s im ul ate t he m o da l an d f r eq u en cy
r espo n s es o f th e pr o tot yp e. W her e m at ch -u p ex is ts to p ossib le p um p fo r ces, th e co m p ute r
m o de l is m o dif ied to r em o ve th e m od al fre qu enc ies f ro m thes e d riv ing f re qu enc ies . T he se
m o d if ica tio n s a lm o st alw a ys ch an g e th e st if fn ess o f th e pu m p str uc tu re in th e de sire d p lan e
an d clos e to th e p oin t o f m ax im um d eflec tion . T yp ical fie ld m od ifi catio ns r es ult ing f ro m
co m p u ter a id ed t est an d an aly s is in clu d e:

A d di ng s ti ff en ers on the p um p h ou s in g
B raci ng eit her :
U pp er p or tio n o f th e p um pi ng u ni t, ty pi cally the m o to r
L ow e r p o rtio n of th e pu m pi ng u nit, t yp ically t he s uctio n b ell
C han g ing t he m o un tin g s tiff n es s b y:
A dd ing f ou nd ation b olt s
A tt ach in g g us s e ts aro u nd th e m o un ti ng fl ang e

E ve n w i th m o de rn co m p u te r te ch ni q ue s , t he re a re m an y ha rd - to - de ter m in e va r iab le s w hi ch
ar e ke y in c alc ula tin g th e na tu ral f r equ en cie s o f th e co nd en s er c oo lin g w a ter p u m p
s t ati on a ry co m p o n en ts . T h es e v ar ia b les a re u n iq u e to ev er y p u m p in s ta lla ti on an d i nc lu d e:

S tif fn ess o f th e bo un da ry co nd iti on s ( pu m p m o u nti ng su rf ace an d disch ar ge n ozz le


connection)
N o n- u nif o rm d am p in g ca us e d by s um p de s ign , s u m p f lo w p at ter ns , and va ry in g
s u b m er g en ce o f t h e s tr uc tu r e in t he s um p
N on - sy m m e try o f th e str uct ur e ( di sc har ge n ozzl e ta ke- of f an d cou pl ing h an d ho les)

T h es e fa c to rs c a n n o t b e d ete rm in ed b y an aly tic a l m e a n s a lo n e . A c tu a l field d a ta m u st b e


u s e d t o f i ne tu n e t h e co m p ut er m o d e l to a cc ou n t f o r th es e u nk n o w n s s o th a t th e m o d al an d
f req uen cy re sp on s es o f the m o del an d pro to typ e c or relat e.

C.2 Background

E v er y m ac h in e s tr u c tu r e is a d y n am ic s y s t em o f m a s s e s , s p r in g s a n d d am p er s . T h e
s im p les t e xa m p le i s t he s y s te m s h ow n in F i gu r e C .1 . I t is m a de u p of a m as s , a s p ri ng , a nd
a p is to n -c yl in de r d am pe r. T h e m as s is r es tr ai ne d to m o ve i n o ne d ir ec tio n a nd th er ef or e
has a "s in gle degree of freedom ".

C -2
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Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

F ig u r e C . 1
S im p le S in g le D eg r e e o f F r ee d o m S y s te m

T h e equ atio n d efin in g thi s s ys te m is gi ven b elo w .

C .1

w here: F (t) = T ot al f orc e ap plied to th e s ys tem (lb )


W = W eig ht o f the m as s (lb )
g = G r a v ita ti o na l co n s t an t ( 3 2.2 f t/s2 )
.. = A cce lerati on of m a ss (ft /s2 )
x
C = D am ping coefficient (lb-s /ft)
. V elocity of m ass (ft/s )
x =
k = Stiffness coefficient (lb/in)
x = D isplacem en t (in )

T h i s e q u a ti o n s t a te s t h a t th e d r iv in g f o r c e , F ( t) , i s c o m p r is e d o f a n i n e r tia l fo r c e ,
.. .
m x ( m = w /g ), a d am pin g for ce, C x , a nd a stiff ness f orce , k x.

T hese th r ee fo r ces co ntr o l t he d yn am ics of the m ass. A tra nsf er f un ct io n pl ot ( F ig ur e C .2 )


s h ow s the v ibr atio n r es po ns e of the m as s rel ativ e to th e f re qu enc y of th e fo rc ing f un cti on .
A s can b e s een in th is fi gu r e, th e vi br ati on r es p o ns e is hi gh ly d ep en de nt o n th e fr eq ue nc y o f
th e dr ivin g f orce.

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F ig u r e C .2
T r a n sfe r F u n c tion P lo t

T h e s p i k e in th i s cu r v e r ep r es e n ts t he n atu r a l f re q u en cy o f t h e s y s t em . B e lo w th e na tu r al
fr eq u en cy , th e r esp on se is co n tr ol led by th e stat ic sti ff n ess of t h e sp r in g . A b ov e th e n atu r al
fr equ en cy, m otio n is con tro lled by th e sy s tem in erti a ( m as s ).

A t th e n at u ra l f r eq u en cy , t h e s ti ff n es s a n d i ne r tia l f o rc es ar e e q ua l in m a g ni tu d e an d
op p os i te in di re cti on , t hu s ca nc eli ng eac h o th er . T o ob ta in a cle ar er u n de rs t an di ng of th is ,
con s ider a s ing le d eg ree of f reed om s ys tem un de r dy nam ic co nd itio ns w ith n o app lied f or ce
and zer o dam pin g.

C .2

C -4
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T he s o lu t io n to th is di ff er en ti al eq u ati on de s cr ib es th e d is p lac em e nt o f t he m as s at a ny
m om ent in t im e:

C .3

w here: x(t) = D isp lace m en t o f m ass at ti m e t (in )


x0 = M ax im u m am p lit ud e o f d isp lacem en t ( in )
= F r eq ue nc y (r ad /s )
t = T im e (s )

T he co m p on en t vel oc ity an d ac cele rat ion can b e ob tai ned by t aki ng t he f irs t an d seco n d
d eri vativ es o f equ ation C .3 , res pe ctive ly.

C .4

C .5

F r o m equ at ion s C .3 an d C .5 w e can s e e t ha t t he s ti ff ne s s f or ce , kx , is co ns t an t w i th


f r equ en cy , th e in ert ial f or ce, m a = m x, var ie s as th e squ ar e of f re qu en cy , an d th er e is a 1 80
p h as e lag b et w ee n d is p l ace m e n t an d acc el er at io n 1. A s ca n b e s e en in F ig u re C .3 , t h er e is
o n e di stin ct f re qu en cy w he re th e in er ti al fo r ce eq u als th e stif f ness f or ce . S in ce th e
m ag ni tu de s a re e qu al a nd th eir di re cti on op p osi te, th ese fo r ces esse nt ial ly c an cel e ach ot he r
a n d a s i tu at i on e x is t s w h er e th e s y s te m h a s li tt le to n o r e s t ra in t . A t t hi s p o in t , t h e s y s t em
i s in re s o na n ce a t it s n a tu ra l f r eq u en cy .

1
T he fo rce is the f irst eve nt tha t o ccu rs in tim e. D is plac em en t, ve loc ity, a nd a cce lera tion ar e a ll
re spo ns es to th is for ce. T h ere is a p has e lag b etw ee n the d riv ing f orc e and t he sy ste m re spo ns e. In a dd itio n,
th er e is a 90 p ha se la g b etw e en d isp la ce m en t a nd ve loc ity ( co sin e vs . si ne ), a nd a 1 8 0 p ha se l ag b etw e en
displace m en t and acceleration (co sin e vs. -cosine).

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F ig u r e C .3
G ra ph ical R elat ion of S ti ff ness, M ass and D am p ing w i th R espec t t o F req u enc y

T h e n at ur al f r eq ue nc y can be d er iv ed by eq ua tin g th e in er ti al an d sti ff n ess fo rc es.

C .8

w here: n = N a tu ral f req u enc y (c pm )


k = S tif fnes s (lb/in)
W = W eight (lb)
g = G r av ita tio nal co n st an t ( 38 6 in /s 2 )

W h en t h e syst em i s o p er at in g at o r ne ar i ts na tu r al f re qu e nc y, dy n am ic am p lif ic ati o n is


co nt ro l led by d am p i ng . T h e am p l itu d e an d s h a pe o f t h e na tu r al f re qu e nc y s p ik e d ep en d s on
th e a m o u n t o f d am pi n g . L it tl e d am p in g w i ll r e s u lt in a t al l, n ar r o w s p ik e. I n cr e as e d
dam p ing w ill l ow er th e am p lit ud e an d w i den th e fr eq ue nc y r ang e.

F or ve rt ica l co nd en s e r co o lin g w a ter pu m ps , da m p in g c on s is t s o f m at er ial d am pi ng an d t he


da m p in g a s s oc ia ted w it h b ol ted co n ne cti o ns . E x p lic it d am pe rs s u ch as ru b b er m o un ts ar e
us ual ly no t em plo yed .

C -6
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Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

7
S t at ic s tif f n es s v al u es o f 1 0 6or 1 0 l b/ in ar e c om m on ; b u t e ve n a t th e s e v al ue s , t h e p um p
c an sti ll v ib r at e. T h e r eas on f or th is i s th at t he str u ctu r e b ec o m es " d yn a m ic al ly w ea k" at i ts
n a tu ra l f r eq ue n cy . T h e d yn a m ic s ti ff n es s m ay be as li tt le a s o n e- o n e h un d r ed th o f t he
s t at ic s tif f n es s . T hi s m e an s th a t th e s y s t em w il l r es p o n d i n a g r ea tl y m ag n if i ed m a nn e r f o r
m in i m a l en e rg y in p u t at it s na tu r al fr e q ue n cy .

T o a vo id th e h ig h e n er gy o s cil lat io n s a t r es o n an ce d u ri ng n or m al o r s t ar t- u p/ s hu t -d o w n
o p er ati o n, it is d es ir ab le t o h av e th e p u m p d es i gn s p eed be lo w a ll s y s tem na tu ra l
f requ encies .

I n re al s t r uc tu r es , s u ch a s co n de n s er co o lin g w at er pu m p u n it s , m an y m as s es , s pr i ng s , an d
d am p er s co m b in e in to c om p lex sy stem s. T he sin gl e d eg ree o f fr eed om sy stem is n o t
a de qu ate t o d es cr ib e the d y na m ic s o f a co m p lex s tr uc tur e, bu t th e ba s ic tec hn iq u es a pp ly to
b o th s y s t em s . D y n am ic b eh av i or is d e ter m in ed t hr o u g h a na ly t ica l t ec hn i qu e s s u ch as f in it e
e lem en t a na ly s is o r t hr o u gh m o d al t es ti ng . B o t h m e th o ds c om p ut e f re qu e nc y r es p o n s e
sp ectr a of t he syst em .

T her e are s ev er al op tio ns fo r co nt ro llin g co m p on en t vib r atio n kn o w ing the b as ic


r el ati o ns h ip s o f m a s s , s t if fn es s , an d d am p in g, an d t he s t ru c tu ra l dy n am ics o f t he s y s t em .
T h e tw o m ajor ca tego rie s are m od al for ce co ntr o l, w h ich tr ies to m i nim i ze o r m ov e t he
d r ivi ng fo rc e; an d m o da l tu ni ng , w h ich a lte rs vi br ati on b y c ha ng in g m a s s , s tif fn es s , o r
d am pi ng.

M o dal fo rce co ntr ol m in im izes vib rati on b y r ed ucin g the m ag nit ude o f t he fo rce or m o vi ng
t he d r iv in g f o rc e fr eq u en cy aw ay fr o m th e n atu r al f re qu e nc y o f th e s y s te m . E xa m p le s o f
t hi s ar e:

C h an g ing the p u m p o pe rat in g s pe ed ( fo r ex cit atio n at 1 X o r v an e p as s )


B a lan cing the pu m p i m pe ller o r m o tor r ot or ( fo r exc itati on at 1 X )
C h an g ing the n u m be r of im p ell er b lad es ( f or e xci tati on at van e p as s f re qu en cy )

M o d al fo rc e c on tr ol is u su al ly em plo y ed in the d es ig n p ha se p ri or t o m an u fac tu re an d


i ns ta llati on , s in ce ap ply in g th is tech n iqu e on the f ield req u ire s m a jor m o dif ica tio n to th e
p u m p a nd /o r m o to r at g re at ex p en s e.

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E ve n in s it ua tio n s w he re th e s tr uc tu r e is be in g e xc it ed b y a pu m p o r m o to r un b ala n ced , t he


p r ef er r ed ap pr o ac h i s t o c ha n ge th e d yn am ic c h ar ac ter i s tic s of th e s t ru ct u re t h ro u g h m o d a l
t u ni n g .

I n m o d al tu ni ng , th r ee fa cto r s ar e v ari ed to co nt ro l th e dy na m ic b eh av io r o f a s ys te m ; m a s s ,
s ti ff n es s , a nd da m p in g ( s ee F ig u re s C .4, C .5 , an d C .6 ) . A n i nc re as e in s tif fn es s o r d ecr ea s e
in m a s s w i ll in cr ea s e th e co m p o ne nt n at ur al f r eq u en cy . A n i nc re as e in da m p in g w i ll lo w er
t he r es p o n s e o u tp u t o f th e s t ru c tu r e. S i nc e t he n atu r a l f re q u en cy is t h e s q u ar e r o o t o f t h e
s ti ff n es s - to- m a s s r at io , a lar g e c ha ng e in eith er pr o pe rty is re qu ir ed t o p ro d uc e a s i gn if ica nt
e ff e ct . D es i g n c o ns tr ai n ts m ay p re cl u d e ch a n ge s in o n e o r m o r e o f t h es e p ar am et er s , b u t
ca ref ul ap pl icati on o f ju st o ne ch an ge w ill , in m o st c ases, sol ve th e v ib rat ion p r ob lem . N o te
t ha t c ha n g in g o n e p a ra m e te r m ay a ls o al te r t he o th er , re s u lt in g in li tt le c h an g e to t he
n atu ra l f r equ en cy ; f o r ex am p le, a dd in g ri bs fo r s tif fn es s w ill als o a dd m as s t o th e s y s tem .

T he b es t ap p ro ac h to m o da l tu nin g c om b ine s f ie ld t es tin g a nd an aly s is . A c om pu te r m o d el


is cr eated w hic h, w h en p ro pe rly cor r elate d to th e pr ot oty p e, can b e us e d as a d es ig n to ol to
p red ict the eff ectiv en ess of d esign m o di ficat ion s be fo re they ar e i m ple m ent ed.

2
A ro tatin g sy stem w ith som e inh ere nt unb ala nce ge ne rates a forc e th at is a fu nctio n of its s pee d
sq uared .

. .

w h e re : F u = F orce due to un balanc e (lb)


W = W eig ht of unbalance (oz)
= p um p sp eed (rp m )
r = D istanc e from the c enter of u nba la nce to th e ax is of rotation (in)

If r otatin g elem e nts su ch as m oto r r otor s a nd im pe llers co uld b e m a nu factu red in p erfec t b alan ce, th ere
w ou ld b e no vib ratio n pro blem reg ardle ss of the loc ation o f th e struc tural na tura l fre que ncy . S in ce this is no t
pos sible, the best a d esign en ginee r can do is to sp ecify an acce ptable un balan ce a nd live w ith the respo nse.
E v en if it w ere po ssible, v ertica l cond enser co oling w ater p um p co m p onents w ill go out o f balanc e in tim e d u e to
natu ral ero sion/c orrosio n o r from con ta ct w ith fo reign ob jects p assin g thro u gh the pu m p.

C-8
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F ig u r e C . 4
E ffe cts of S tiffn ess M o d ifica tio n

F ig u r e C .5
E ffe cts of M a ss M od ifica tio n

C-9
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F ig u r e C . 6
E ffec ts o f D am p in g M o d ifica tion

C.3 Creating an Analytical Model

T h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f a c o m p u te r in te g ra te d m o d el is a d e ta iled p ro c e ss th at in v o lv e s field
te stin g o f th e a c tu a l sy ste m , c o n stru c tio n o f th e co m p u te r m o d e l, a n d c o rre la tio n o f th e
m o d el to t he s y s tem . A f lo w c har t of th is p r oce du r e i s p re s en ted i n F ig ur e C .7 .

C -10
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F ig u r e C .7
M e th od o lo gy F lo w C h a r t

C-11
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C.3.1 Testing

U n d e r s ta n d in g th e v ib r a tio n c h a r a c te r is tic s o f th e p ro to ty p e is th e fir s t s te p in th e


d e v e lo p m e n t o f a c o m p u te r m o d e l. F o u r p a ra m e te rs m u s t b e k n o w n to c h a ra c te riz e th e
system .

D a t a n e c e s s a r y f o r th e f o r m u la tio n o f t h e s e p a ra m e te r s is d e r iv e d th ro u g h d e ta il e d
v ib r at io n an d m o d al a n aly s i s . T h es e an al y s es a re co m p l et ed in tw o p ha s e s .

O p e r at io n T es ts

O p e ra tin g te sts p ro v id e th e a n a ly st w ith a c le a r p ic tu re o f th e n a tu r e o f th e v ib r a tio n .


O p e r at in g te s t d a ta ar e u s u a ll y in th e fo r m o f d i s p la ce m e n t a n d a cc el er a ti o n ti m e hi s t o ri es
a s w e ll a s r e s p o n s e s p e c tr a . F r o m th is d a ta , p o in ts o f m a x im u m d is p la c e m e n t a n d
a c c e le ra tio n a t th e c o rre s p o n d in g fre q u e n c ie s c a n b e id e n tifie d fo r b o th stea d y sta te a n d
tr a ns i en t o p er at in g c on d it io n s .

M o dal T es tin g

M o d a l te stin g is a te c h n o lo g y in w h ic h th e stru c tu ra l re sp o n s e to a k n o w n fo rce in p u t is


m e a s u re d o v e r a p r e d e te rm in e d se t o f lo c a tio n s th ro u g h o u t th e s tru c tu re . T h e re s p o n se
d ata , u s ua lly in t he f o rm o f a cce ler ati on , i s i nt eg ra ted th ro u gh th e us e o f s p ec ial s o f tw ar e to
o bt ain th e d is p lac em e nt o f t he s tr uc tu re f r om a r ef er en ce d c oo r di na te s y s tem .

T w o i m p o rt an t c ri te ri a ar e e s tab l is h ed f ro m t h is te s ti ng :

M ode Shape
T ran s fe r F un ctio n

A m o d e s h a p e is th e d e fo rm a tio n th a t a stru c tu re u n d e rg o e s w h e n it o p e ra te s at a n a tu ra l
f re q ue n cy . T he f i rs t na tu r al f r eq ue n cy o f a s tr u ct ur e i s c al led it s f i rs t m o de ; th e s e co n d, th e
s e c o n d m o d e , a n d s o fo rt h . M o d e s h a p e s fo r v a r io u s n a tu r a l f re q u e n c ie s o f a s im p ly
s u pp o r ted s ha ft ar e s ho w n in F i gu r e C .8 .

F ig u r e C . 8
M o d e S h a p e s o f S im p ly S u p p o rt ed S h a ft

C -1 2
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T h e t ra ns f e r f un c tio n o f a s tr u ctu r e is a r ep re s en ta ti on of it s r es i s ta nc e to fo r ce a t va r io us
fr eq uen cies (F ig ur e C .9) . T he tr an sf er f un ctio n is a pl ot of c om p lian ce (in v ers e of s tif fn es s )
an d ph as e a n gl e vs . f re qu e nc y an d pr o vi d es th e n ece s s ar y i nf o r m at io n t o o b tai n th e s y s te m
char acter istics .

S y stem n at ur al f re qu en ci es can be d et ecte d b y b ot h a p eak in th e co m p li an ce v s . f re qu en cy


cu r ve ( s ig ni fy in g a lo s s of re s tra in t to t he d ri vi ng fo r ce) a nd a 18 0 p h as e s h if t. T h e s y s tem
stif f ne ss is th e i nv er s e of t he y -i nte rc ept o f th e co m p lian ce v s . fr eq u enc y cu rv e. T he sy stem
d am p in g i s re l at ed to t h e m ag n it u d e a nd w i d th o f th e n a tu r a l f r eq u e nc y p ea k . T h e s y s t em
m a s s i s c alc u lat ed v ia E qu at io n C .6 k no w in g t he v al ue s f o r s ti ff n es s an d n at ur al f r eq ue nc y.

F ig u r e C .9
T ra n s fe r F u n c tio n

T h er e ar e tw o t yp es o f tr an sfe r f un cti on s:
D r iv e p oi nt
C r os s p oi nt
T h e d riv e p o in t tra n sfe r fu n c tio n is th e re sis ta n c e res p o n se in th e p la n e o f th e d riv e fo rc e.
T h e cr o ss p o in t tr an sf er f u nc tio n p r ov id es th e r esist an ce r esp on se in all o th e r p lan es.

C.3.2 Analytical Modeling


F i ni te el em en t t ec hn i q ue s , fi r s t d ev e lo p ed in th e l at e 1 9 5 0' s , h a ve be en u s ed e xt en s i v el y i n
r ec en t y ea rs t o p re d ic t s t r u ct u ra l b e h av i or o f co m p on e n ts a n d s y s te m s p r i o r t o p r o t ot y p in g
a n d m a n u f ac tu r e . T h i s r i s e i n p o p u la r it y o f fi n i te el em e n t m o d el ( F E M ) a n al y s i s h as be e n
d u e in m o st p a rt to th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f la rg e , h ig h -s p e e d c o m p u tin g c a p a b ility a n d th e
r e ad y a va i la b il i ty o f u s e r -f r i en d l y s o f t w a re s u c h as I - D E A S , A N S Y S , a n d N A S T R A N . F E M
a n a ly s is , o n c e lim ite d to lin e a r sta tic sim u la tio n , h a s p ro g r e ss e d in to a r e a s o f d y n a m ic
an aly s is and also n on -l in ear an aly s is of c om ple x syst em s.

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T h e c alc u la tio n o f n o rm a l m o d e s o f a s tru c tu re is a re la tiv e ly triv ia l e x e rc ise fo r to d a y 's


F E M c o d e s . In a d d itio n , th e in tr o d u c tio n o f so lv e r s s u c h a s S V I (S im u lta n e o u s V e c to r
I te ra ti on ) ha v e el im in at ed t h e n ece s s it y o f de f in in g m as t er de g re e o f f r ee do m l o cat io n s an d
assoc iated co nv erg ence ev alua tion .

A n a ly s ts o n c e l im i te d t o r ep r e s en t i ng c o m p l ex s tr u ct u r es w it h b ea m s an d s p r i ng s ca n n o w
in c o rp o ra te a s ig n ific a n t a m o u n t o f d e ta il in to th e a n a ly tic a l m o d e l p ro v id in g g re a te r
accu racy at a red uced lev el of ef for t.

T h e f in ite el em en t m o d el fo r a c on de ns e r co ol in g w at er p um p u ni t i s c om pr is ed of t hi n s h ell
e le m e n ts , b e a m e le m e n ts , lu m p e d m a s s e s , a n d s p rin g s . T h in s h e lls r e p r e s e n t th e o u te r
st r u ct u r e, b ea m s r ep r e s en t th e sh af t , lu m p ed m ass es r e p r ese n t t h e m o to r a nd i m p e l le r , a n d
s p r i n g s re p r es en t t h e i n te r n al b ea r in g s .

O n c e th e stru c tu re is d e v e lo p e d , its p ro p e rtie s m u s t b e d e te rm in e d . T h es e p ro p ert i es


include:

B o un dar y c ond ition s


S tiff nes s
M a s s a nd m o m en ts o f in er ti a
D am p in g c ha ra ct er is ti cs

B o u n da r y c o nd i ti o ns d e f in e t he in t er f ac e o f t h e s t ru c tu r e t o i ts e nv i r on m en t . I n de v el o pi n g
th e b a se lin e m o d e l it is re c o m m e n d e d th a t a ll b o u n d a ry c o n d itio n s b e re p re s e n te d w ith
" r ig id c o n n e c tio n s " a n d w ith " tr a n sla tio n o n ly " c o n d itio n s a t a ll o f th e b o lt lo c a tio n s.
S im ila rly , c o n d itio n s a t th e g ro u n d s h o u ld b e re p re s e n ted a s tran sla tio n a l a n d ro ta tio n a l
r es t ra in ts . In s o m e i ns t an ce s , a ctu al bo lt s tif f ne s s va lu es m ay b e i nc lu d ed i n t he m o de l.

T h e s ti f f n es s o f b o u n d a r y co n d i ti o n s a n d bo l t ed c o n n ec ti o n s a r e t h e g r e at e s t u n k n o w n f o r
th e a n a ly s t. T y p ic ally , a fin ite e le m e n t a n a ly s is o f a c o n d e n s e r c o o lin g w a te r p u m p u n it
w ill ca lc u late a s et o f n o rm a l m o d e s w h ic h a re , in g e n e ra l, h ig h er in fre q u e n c y th a n th o s e
m e a s u re d in te s t. T h e m o d e l stif fn e s s is u s u a lly h ig h e r th a n th e p r o to ty p e . T h is o v e r
p re d ic tio n is u s u a lly th e re s u lt o f re p re s e n tin g b o th th e b o u n d a ry c o n d itio n s a n d b o lte d
in te rf ac es as " rig id ".

M a ss v a lu e s a re o b tain e d fro m th e m a n u fa c tu rer's d a ta sh e e ts a n d d ra w in g s . T h e a n aly s t


d e te r m i n e s th e p r in c ip a l m a s s m o m e n t s o f i n e r ti a f r o m th i s in f o r m at i o n . I t is im p o r ta n t t o
i nc lu d e r ot at io n al i n er ti as in th e a na ly s i s .

D a m p in g c h a rac te ristic s a re a c q u ire d fro m th e m o d a l te stin g o f th e sy s te m . E v e n th o u g h


th is is a d iffic u lt p ro p e rty to q u a n tif y , it c a n b e e s tim a te d a n d a p p lie d fro m th e tra n sf e r
f un ct io n o f th e te s ted s tr uc tu re .

I n s u m m a ry , th e a na ly s t h as t h e to o ls to b ui ld r ela ti ve ly d eta il ed re p re s en t ati o ns o f ve rt ic al


c o n d e n s e r c o o lin g w a te r p u m p s . T h e s p e c if ic d e ta il o f th e s e m o d e ls v a r y fo r e a c h
a p p li ca ti o n d ep e n di n g o n t h e p h y s i c al pa r am e te r s an d b o u n d ar y c on d i ti o n s . A s s uc h , f ie ld
t es t in g is i nv a lu ab l e f o r p r o v id in g in s i g ht fo r th e c o n s tr u ct io n o f t he an a ly ti ca l m od e l. T h e
m o d e l m u st b e d e v elo p e d to a d d res s th e sp ec ific p ro b le m at h a n d . T h e te st d a ta p ro v id e s

C -1 4
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

t he n ec es s a ry in fo r m at io n t o co n s tr uc t a m o d el w h ich ac cu ra tel y m e et s t he o b jec tiv es o f t he


a na ly s t.

C.3.3 Correlation
T h e ob jectiv e i n cor rela ting a fi nite elem ent m o del to f ield tes t data is to dev elo p con fid en ce
in a n an al yti cal m od el w h ic h w il l acc urat ely rep resen t th e b eh av io r o f th e ex ist in g
s t r uc tu r e. T h e re s u lt s of th e b a s el in e a n aly s i s p ro d u ce th e f u n da m e n ta l m o d es o f in te r es t ,
e s pec ial ly at lo w er fr eq ue nc y va lu es . H ig h er o rd er m o des o f v ibr at io n, s u ch a s p la te or
p an el m od es , are n o t us u al ly p ic ke d u p in a m o da l t es t; h o w ev er t he s e w ill b e pr es e nt i n th e
F E M an al y s is . T h er e fo r e, it i s im p o r ta nt f o r t h e an al y s t to u s e th e a na ly ti ca l m o d el t o
d et er m in e th e co m p le te b eh av io r o f t he s t ru ct ur e.

T he an al yt ical m od el is s aid to b e "co r rel ate d" w h en t he re is g oo d ag r eem e nt w i th th e tes t


r es u lts in th e fo llo w in g ar eas :

M od e sh ape de sc rip tio n


F re qu en cy v alu es
M od al m a s s an d s ti ff ne s s
T r ans f er f un ct ion s (b ot h dr iv e po in t and cro s s p o in t)

T he co rr ela ted m od el w ill ac cur ate ly p re dic t t he m o d es o f v ibr at ion of th e ex is tin g s tr uc tu re


a s w e ll as th e str u ctu r e's re spo n s e to fo r ced ex cit ati on at d iscr et e fr eq u en cie s. A s suc h , th e
co rr elate d m od el i s a po w e rfu l analy tica l to ol fo r dis co ve rin g and s o lvin g vib rat ion
p rob lem s.

C o m pa ri ng M od e S h ap e an d F r eq u en cv
T he co r re lati on e ff o rt b eg in s w it h a m o de sh ap e an d fr eq u en cy co m p ar is o n. A t t hi s p oi nt ,
f r eq ue n cy i s n o t as im p or ta nt a s m o de s h a pe c om p ar is o n. I t is ne ces s ar y to id en ti fy th e
p r im a ry b en d in g an d t or s io na l m o de s h ap es an d to co m p ar e th em to t he s e co nd ar y m od e
sh ap es. T yp ica l c aus es of "m issin g" a nal yti cal m o de shap es inc lud e:

M i ssin g m ass o r in er ti a va lu es
I n co rr ec t m at er ial o r p h ysi cal p r op er ti es
L a ck o f s uf fic ien t d y nam ic ran g e i n the an aly s is ; i.e., n o t e no ug h m o de s h ap es h av e
b een c alcu la ted

O n ce th e m od e sh ap es h av e bee n cor r elate d, ef f or ts c an be gin to clo s e the g ap b etw een t he


f re qu en cy va lu es ca lcu late d by a nal ys is to th os e o bta ine d fr om f iel d tes tin g .

T he m o de s ha pe f req ue ncy i s a fu n ctio n of t w o par am e ter s :

S tr u ctu ra l s t iff n es s ( bo u nd ar y co nd it ion s , b ol ted jo in ts )


S t ru c tu r al m as s ( m a s s va lu es , m a s s m o m en ts o f i ne r tia )

A lt ho u gh a m o d el can a pp ear t o be co r rel ated , it m a y be f or the w r on g r easo ns.


C o m p le m en t ar y er r or s in bo th m a s s a nd s tif f n es s m ay p ro d uc e a m o d el t ha t pr ed ic ts th e

C-15
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Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

co r re ct f re q ue nc y an d m o de s h a pe . A s s u ch , it i s i m p o rt an t to c o m p ar e an d c or r ela te m o d al
sti ff ne ss a nd m od al m ass, as w el l a s m od e sh ape a nd fr eq ue nc y.

T y p ica lly , a v ar iat io n in b o un d ar y co n di tio n p ar am eter s w ill s i gn if ica nt ly i m p act t he


c alc ula ted f r equ en cy v al ues o f a fin it e e lem ent m od el. B o un d ar y co nd iti on s sh o uld be
ad j us t ed s o t ha t th e r eq u ir ed s ti ff n es s is a ch ie ve d . G o o d e ng in e er in g j u dg m en t s h ou l d
p r ev ai l; e.g ., th e an al ys t sho u ld n o t v ar y p ar am ete rs w h ic h ar e k n ow n to b e c or r ect , su ch as
t he m od u lus o f ela s tici ty o r d en s ity o f t he m a ter ial .

G e n er at in g A n al yt ic al T r an s f e r F u n ct io n s

O n ce co r re lati on h as be en a chi ev ed b y co m p ar in g m o de sh ap es a nd fr eq ue nci es, an al yti cal


t ra ns f er fu n cti on s s h ou ld be g en er at ed a nd co m p ar ed t o th e co r re s po n di ng fu n cti o ns
o b ta in e d i n f i el d t es ti ng . T he an a ly ti ca l t r an s f er f u n ct io n s ar e ge n er a te d b y ta k in g th e
m o d e s ha pe s a nd fr eq u en cie s i nt o a dy n am ic po s t p ro ce s s or or s ys t em s o lv er . F o r
co n den s er co oli ng w ater pu m p s , a m o d al d am p in g v alu e is ap pl ied t o eac h m o d e. T h is
f act or is p ro v id ed f r o m th e tes t d a ta an d i s u s u al ly s l ig ht ly di ff er en t f or ea ch m od e. O f
p ar ti cu la r i nt er es t ar e th e m o da l s t if fn e s s an d m o da l m a s s v alu e s c al cu la te d f r om eac h
f un cti on . I f th er e is go o d ag re em e nt o n th e m o d al s tif f nes s , in al l lik eli ho o d, t he m od al
m ass is co rr ect.

T h e m o d al s tif f ne s s is ca lcu lat ed b y lo o ki ng at d riv e p oi nt tr an s f er f un ct io ns p res e nt ed a s


co m p li an ce 3 v s . f r equ en cy . T he sti ff n ess is t he i nv er s e of th e y- in ter ce pt v alu e f ro m th is
cu r ve . T h es e d ri ve p o in t tr an s fe r fu n cti on s s ho u ld b e ca lcu lat ed f o r lo ca tio ns o n th e
s t ru ct ur e w h ic h ar e m a xi m u m m o tio n po in ts f or th e gi ve n m o d e s ha pe .

C.3.4 Evaluating Design Modifications Using the Correlated Analytical Model


S hi fti ng s tr uc tu ra l re s on an ce s a w ay f r om f r eq ue nc ies o f o pe rat io n is th e p re fe rr ed m et ho d
em p lo ye d in th e e lim in ati on o f vi br atio n p ro ble m s in ver tica l c on den s er co ol ing w a ter
p u m p s . T y pi ca lly , th er e i s m o re th an on e e x cit at io n f r eq u en cy th at m u s t b e id e nt if ie d . I n
a d di ti on to th e p um p r u n ni n g s p ee d, m u lt ip le s of p um p r u nn i ng s p ee d an d va n e pa s s
f r eq u en cy s h o u ld al s o be av o id e d. C ar e m u s t b e t ak en t o a vo i d s hi f ti ng s t ru c tu r al n a tu r al
f req u en cies in to a no th er ex ci tati on s ou rc e.

T h e d es ig n e ff o rt s h o ul d al w ay s b e ai m ed at s h if tin g r es o n an t fr eq u en cie s a t lea s t 5 0 %


ab o v e e x ci ta ti on f r eq u en c ie s . A g ai n , c ar e m u s t b e t ak e n t o in s u r e t ha t o t he r r e s o n an t
fr eq uen cie s of t he stru ctu re ar e su ff icien tly sp aced f ro m se con da ry sou r ces o f exc itati on .
S h if t of a res o n an t f r eq uen cy be low th e o per at ing s pe ed is u nd es ir ab le s in ce th e pu m p w ill
p a s s th r o u g h t h es e fr e qu e n ci es d u r in g s ta r t u p a n d s h u t d o w n .

M od if ica tio n s w h ich ar e dir ec ted at m in im izi ng th e m ax im u m d ef lec tio n o f th e s tr uc tu re a t


r eso na nc e ar e u s u all y th e m o st ef f ect iv e. F o r e xa m p le, if th e f ir s t be nd in g m od e o f th e
p um p in vo lv es th e m ot or m as s d r iv ing th e u p pe r po r tio n o f th e h o us i ng , th e m o di fic atio n
s h o ul d en tai l l im i tin g th at d ef lect io n b y br ac ing th e m ot or , o r s ti ff en in g th e ho us i ng .

3
T h e c o m p lia n c e is o b ta in e d b y d iv id in g t h e m e a su re d d is p la c e m e n t b y th e k n o w n fo rc e in p u t.

C -16
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

Si m ilar ly, a m o de w hich i nv olv es a hig h m o tion o f th e s uc tion b ell is b es t a ffe cted b y
m o di fi cat io n t o th at a re a, t hr o ug h b r ac in g o r ad d iti on al s t if fe n in g.
A cor re lated an alyti cal m od el p ro vid es th e f ol low in g ben efits :

D i ff er ent so lu tio ns can be ev alu at ed p rio r to "cu tti ng st eel"


T he o ptim um , m o st co st- eff ect ive sol uti on c an be sele cted a s a re su lt o f
u n d er s t an d i n g t h e d y n am ic be h av i o r o f th e s tr u ct u re
S eco nd ary p ro ble m s w hi ch cou ld ar is e as a r es ul t o f any m od ifica tion w il l b e
id en ti fi ed i n t he d esi gn p ha s e an d av o id ed

T h e m et ho d ol og y p r es en t ed a bo v e is an a na ly tic al w ay to s o lv e s tr u ctu r al v ib ra tio n


pr ob lem s . T h is s a m e m et ho do lo gy is a pp lie d to s im ilar pr ob lem s in v ol vin g th e im p ell er ,
im pe ll er s h af t, an d be ar in g s . T h e t hr u s t o f th e a na ly t ica l m od e l is s l ig h tl y d i ff e re n t, bu t
th e ap pr o ac h is id en ti cal .

A ca se s tu d y is a ttac hed s ho w in g ho w t hi s tec hn iq ue w as s uc ces s fu lly us ed in s ol vi ng a


s tr uc tu ra l re s o na nc e co nd it io n o n a v er ti ca l co nd en s er co o lin g w a ter p um p u ni t at a
m id w es t u til ity .

C.4 Case History: The Resolution of a Pump Vibration Problem Using Computer
Aided Testing, Analysis and Design

T h e f o llo w i n g i s a n e x am pl e o f t h e ap p li ca tio n o f t he p r ev i o us l y d e s cr ib e d m et ho d o lo g y i n
s olv in g a s tr uc tu ra l v ib ra tio n p ro b lem in a v er tic al co nd en s er c oo lin g w a ter p u m p .

C.4.1 Background
D e s i g n P a ra m et e rs :
F lo w (g p m ): 80,5 00
H ead (f t) : 78
S peed ( rpm ): 44 0
M o tor rat ing (h p) : 2,00 0

V ib ra tio n le ve ls on th e pu m p w er e e xc eed in g t he m an uf ac tu re r's re co m m e nd ed va lu es on a


re g ul ar b as i s th r o u gh o u t t he li fe of th e pu m p . V i b ra ti o n l ev el s at th e s h a ft be ar i ng s w e r e
as hi gh as 3 0 - 4 0 m il s . T hi s l ed to a r el at iv ely s h or t b ear in g lif e an d ot he r v ib r ati on -
as s o ci ate d f ail u re s . A lt ho u gh th e m o to r s w e re b a lan ce d p er io di cal ly , th e v ib r ati on
pr o bl em s k e pt r eo c cu rr in g . C av i tat io n a nd s u bs e q ue nt e r os i on o f th e i m p el ler bl ad es w a s
als o a re occ ur ri ng p ro b lem w hi ch led to s ys t em un ba lan ce.

R e s p o n s e s p ec tr u m g e n er at ed w i th a tw o c h an n el s pe ct r u m an a ly ze r in d ic at ed th at th er e
w er e t w o s t r uc tu r al re s o n an ce s at o r ne ar th e o p er a tin g s p ee d o f th e p u m p ( 7.3 3 H z) . I n
or d er t o s u s tain p um p o pe ra tio n f o r ex te nd ed pe ri od s of tim e, t he o p er ato r s o f th e p lan t
w er e f or c ed t o o p er at e th e p u m p at l es s th an o pt im um de s ig n f l ow . I n d o in g t hi s th e
m ag n itu de o f th e v ib ra tio n w as s ig n ifi can tl y re du ce d.

A p r og r am in v ol vi ng tes t in g, a na ly s is an d d es ig n w a s i m p lem en ted to r es o lv e th is v ib ra tio n


pr ob lem . A s um m ary o f th es e e ff or ts f ollo w s .

C -17
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Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

C.4.2 Modal Testing

M o da l t es tin g ide nti fie d fo ur m od es of v ib rat ion a t o r b elo w 2 0 H z ( 12 0 0 rp m ) . T h es e


r es o nan ce s o ccu rr ed at f re qu en cies o f 7.1 H z, 7 .8 H z, 1 8.0 H z an d 19 .0 H z. T h e fir s t tw o
m od es w ere r es o na nc es o f th e up p er s ec tio n o f th e p u m p , in vo lv in g th e m o to r m as s an d th e
" sh ell s ti ff nes s " S im ilar ly, the s eco n d tw o m o de s w er e m od es of th e lo w e r s ectio n o f th e
pu m p i nv ol vin g th e m as s of t he b ell ho u s ing and s t iff n es s o f th e l ow er par t of t he s h ell.
T h e f ir s t t w o m od es w ere id en tif ied a s k ey to th e re so lu tio n of the p ro bl em bec aus e o f th eir
pr o xi m it y to t he o pe ra tin g s p eed of t he p um p . V is co u s d am p in g r ati os w er e co m p ut ed f ro m
th e t es t d ata . T h es e v al ue s r an g ed b et w ee n 1.0 % an d 1.5 % o f c r iti ca l. F i gu r e C .1 0 an d
C .1 1 s h o w th e fi r s t t w o m o d e s ha p es e x tr ac te d fr o m te s t d at a. O b s e r v e th a t t he p ri m a r y
re gi on o f f lex u re i s th e u pp er p o rt ion of th e p u m p . S h ow n i n F ig u re C .1 2 i s a d ri ve p oi nt
tr an s f er fu n ct io n tak e n at th e to p of th e m ot o r.

F ig u r e C .1 0 F ig u r e C .1 1
1st M o de Sh ap e o f C ase H is to ry M o da l 2 nd M od e S h ap e o f C a se H isto ry M o d al

C -18
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

F ig u r e C . 1 2
D riv e P oin t T ra n sfe r F un c tion at T o p o f M o to r

C.4.3 FEM Model Construction and Correlation


A f ull th re e d im ens io n al fin ite el em en t m o del o f th e pu m p w as cr eated us in g S D R C 's
I D E A S so f tw a re . T h e m od el c on s is t ed of th in sh el l el em e nt s t o r ep r esen t th e m a in
s tr uc tu r e; b ea m el em en ts to re p re s en t th e s h a ft ; lu m p e d m a s s es f o r t he m o to r a nd im pe ll er ;
a n d s p ri ng el em e n ts to s i m u la te th e b ea ri ng s . F ig ur e C .13 s ho w s an is o m e tr ic v ie w o f t he
a naly tical m od el.

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F ig u r e C .1 3
Is om e tric V iew o f M o d el

F ig u r e C . 1 4 F ig u r e C . 1 5
A n a ly s is M o d e S h a p e 1 A n a ly s is M o d e S h a p e 2

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Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

F ig u r e C .1 6 F ig u re C .1 7
A n a ly s is M o d e S h a p e 3 A n a ly sis M o d e S h a p e 4

R ea s on ab le c or re lat io n w as ach ie ve d b etw e en th e m o d e s ha pe s a nd fr eq ue nc ies o bta in ed


f r o m te s t an d t h os e pr ed i cte d b y t h e fi n ite ele m e nt m o de l af te r t w o m o de l it er at io ns . I n t hi s
c ase, th e cor re lati on w as ach iev ed b y "b ack in g do w n th e st iff n ess v alu e" assum ed f or th e
c on n ect io n to g r ou n d. T h e in itia l as s u m p tio n o f a p er fe ctly ri gi d co n ne ctio n a t th e
m o un t in g b as e w as to o c o ns e r va tiv e . A f te r t he f ir s t a n aly s i s , ac tu al s pr in g ele m e nt s w er e
i n co rp o r at ed i n to th e m o d el t o r ep r es e n t th e s t if fn e s s at th i s c r iti ca l in te rf a ce. F ig u r es C .1 4
t hr o ug h C .17 sh o w t he f ir s t fo u r m o de sh ap es cal cu lat ed w it h th e "c or r elat ed " an aly tic al
m od el. A co m pa rat ive s u m m ar y o f fr equ en cies is p r es ent ed b elow :

M ode T e st C o r r e la te d A n a ly s is
M o del
1 7 .1 H z 7 .1 H z
2 7 .8 H z 7 .6 H z
3 1 8.0 H z 17 .0 H z
4 19 .0 H z 19 .0 H z

O n ce t he m od e s ha pe s a nd fr eq ue nc ies w er e cal cu lat ed, th e m o da l dam p ing va lu es ob tai ne d


w er e in p u t in to th e r e s ul ti ng m o d al m o d el . T h e s e d am pi n g v al u es co n tr o l th e m ag n it ud e o f
t h e r es p o n s e a t r es o n an c e. W i th d am p in g v a lu e s a cc o u nt ed f o r, an a ly ti ca l t ra n s f er
f u nc ti on s w er e cr eat ed . S h o w n in F ig u re C .1 8 is a d ri ve p o in t tr an s f er f u nc tio n co m p ar is o n
b et w een tes t a nd m o de l da ta. N o te t he c lo s e ov er la y o f th e tw o f u nc tio n s i n th e fr eq u en cy
r an g e o f i nt er es t . M o r e im p o r tan tl y , o bs e r ve t he clo s e t ra ck in g i n th e " s ti ff n es s an d m as s
r eg io n s " of the c ur v e. T h is cl os e co r re lat ion be tw ee n th ese tr an sfe r f un ct ion s ve ri fi es t he
a na ly tic m o d el an d it s p re di cti ve r es u lts .

C -2 1
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

F ig u r e C . 1 8
D r iv e P o in t T ra n s fe r F u n c tion

C.4.4 Design Modifications


S ev er al d es ig n m o dif icat ion s w er e eva luat ed in an e ff or t t o so lv e t he vi br atio n pr ob lem .
T he in ten t of th es e m o dif ic atio n s w as to s h if t the f ir s t t w o m o de s o f th e s tr uct ur e aw ay f r om
t he o p era tin g , ex ci tat io n fr eq u en cy . S in ce t he e xc itat io n f re qu en cy is at ap pr o xi m at ely 7.3 3
H z, a t arg et o f 11 .25 H z w as s et fo r th e de si re d fr eq ue ncy m in im u m fo r th e fir s t m o de s o f
th e m o dif ied des ign .

C -22
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

F ig u re C .1 9
D e sig n M o d ific a tio n s

F ig u r e C .2 0
D e sig n M o d ific a tio n s

C -23
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T h e o pt im um m o di ficat ion w as t he add itio n of s ix ( 6) "T " s ha ped s tif fen ers at the top o f the
p um p b od y ( F ig ur es C .1 9 an d C .2 0) . T hes e s ti ff en er s p ro v id ed th e re qu ir ed s t iff n es s t o s hi ft
t he f ir s t m od e o f v ib r at io n u p p as t th e d es ir ed th r es h o ld . A s u m m ar y o f t he a ft er -
m o dification frequ ency v alues is as f ollow s:

M ode C o r r e la te d M o d e l M o d ifie d D e sig n


1 7 .1 H z 1 1 .9 H z
2 7 .6 H z 14 .1 H z
3 1 7.0 H z 19.7 H z
4 1 9.0 H z 2 0 .7 H z

I t c an b e s ee n tha t t he ef fec ts o f th e m od ifi catio n s w er e s ig n ifi can t o n th e f ir s t tw o m od es of


th e s tr u ctu r e. S i m il ar ly , th er e w as li ttle o r n o e ff ec t on th e m o de s o f t he l ow e r p ar t o f t he
s tr uct ur e. It w a s n o t t he i nt en t of t he s e m o di fi cati on s to a ff ec t t he m od es o f th e lo w er
p o r ti o n o f th e s tr u ct u r e s i n ce t h es e w e re al re a dy a " s a f e" di s t an c e f r om th e s o ur c e o f
ex cit atio n. S h ow n i n F igu r es C .2 1 an d C .2 2 are m o d e s h ape p lo ts o f th e m od ifi ed d es ign .
S h ow n i n F igu re C .2 3 is a d ri ve p oin t tra ns f er fu n ctio n of t he m o di fie d des i gn , tak en f ro m
th e an al yt ica l m o de l, a t th e t op of th e m o to r. T h e shi ft o f th e r eso na nc e aw ay fr o m th e
ex citatio n f req uen cy c an b e o bs erv ed.

F ig u r e C . 2 1 F ig u r e C . 2 2
A n a ly sis M o d e S h a p e 1, A n a ly sis M o d e S h a p e 2 ,
M o d ifie d D e sig n M o d if i e d D e s ig n

C -24
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Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

F i g u r e C .2 3
D r iv e P o i n t T r a n s f e r F u n c t i o n s - M o d i f ie d D e s i g n

A c om p ar i s o n o f m o d al s ti f f ne s s o f th e o r ig i na l d e s ig n an d th e m o d if ie d de s i gn s h o w s t h at
th e m o d ifie d d e s ig n is a p p ro x im a te ly 3 .7 5 tim e s s tiffe r in th e la te ra l d ire c tio n th a n th e
o r ig i n al de s i g n . T h es e s t if f n es s va l ue s a re ca lc u la te d b y i n v er t in g th e v al ue o f t h e t r an s f e r
fu n c tio n a s it in te rs e c ts th e y - a x is (F ig u re s C .1 8 a n d C .2 3 ). F o r a s im p le o n e d e g re e o f
fre ed o m s y stem , a stiffn e ss c h a n g e o f th is m ag n itu d e w o u ld re su lt in a fre q u e n c y sh ift o f
a p p ro x im a te ly 1 .9 3 tim e s th e o rig in a l v a lu e . T h is c o m p a re s r e a s o n a b ly w e ll w ith th e
f re qu en cy s hi ft , 1 .6 7 t im e s , p re di cte d b y th e an al ys i s f o r th e s ig n if ica nt ly m or e co m pl ica ted
m o de l.

C.4.5 Summary

T h e de s ig n m o d if i ca tio n s d es c r ib ed ab o v e w e re im pl em en t ed o n t w o i d en ti ca l p u m p s , bo t h
w ith th e s a m e v ib ra tio n p ro b le m s . T h e re s u lts o f th e m o d ific a tio n s w e re im m e d ia te ly
o b v io u s, o p e ra tin g d e fle c tio n s w e re re d u ce d b y a fa c to r o f te n (1 0 ). A su b s e q u e n t re tes t
s h o w e d th a t th e f ir st m o d e o f th e s tru c tu re , a fte r m o d if ic a tio n , w a s a t 1 0 .6 H z a n d th e
s e co n d m o d e w as at 1 1 .7 5 H z. T h es e v a lu e s c o m p a r e ve r y w e ll t o t h e va l u es p r e d i ct ed b y
th e a n a ly s is. T h e u se o f th e c o m p u te r-aid e d d e sig n , te s t, a n d a n a ly s is a p p ro a c h p ro v e d to
b e v e ry su c c e ss fu l in th is a p p lic a tio n . T h e d e s ire d re su lts w e re a c h ie v e d th e firs t tim e
w itho ut cos tly r ew or k.

C -2 5
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Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

A p p en di x D S um p D esig n
D.1 G eneral Ove rvie w
S u m p d es i gn is as i m p o rt an t to p ro p er pl an t o p er at io n a s s ele ct in g a nd p ro p er ly
m ain ta in in g th e p um p. T h e p u rp o s e o f a s u m p is t o ef f ic ien t ly d e liv er w at er to t h e s uc ti on
in le t o f th e p um p . S u m p de s ig n h as a d ir ect e f fe ct o n:

I ni tial p lan t con s tr uct io n cos t s


Pu m p p erfo rm ance
P u m p O & M c os ts

A n im p ro p erl y desi gn ed su m p ca n resu lt in in ef fi cien t pu m p o pe rat ion , ex cessiv e do w nt im e,


pu m p f ail ur e, an d e xp e ns i ve r e tr o- f itt in g o f t he s um p s t ru ct ur e.

T h e id ea l sum p is th e lo w est c ost st ru ct ur e th at w il l pr o vi de st ead y a nd un if o rm f lo w


co n di tio ns to a ll co nd en s er co o lin g w ate r pu m p in tak es w i th m ini m u m hea d lo s s ,
co n s id er in g al l an tici pa ted m o de s o f o p er ati on . A g en er ic s um p d es ig n t ha t w ill c re ate
ac cep tab le a pp ro ach f lo w co nd iti on s f or a ny siz e o r nu m b er o f ve rtic al pu m p s h as n ot b een
d ev elo p ed . T h is is m ai nl y d ue t o th e alm os t i nf in ite p o s s ib le s um p co n fi gu r ati on s , p um p
t yp e s , p u m p s i ze s an d fl u id ch ar a ct er is tic s . H o w ev e r, th e H yd r a ul ic s In s t it u te a n d T h e
B rit is h H yd ro m ech an ics R es ea rch A s s o ciatio n ( B H R A ) hav e pu bli s hed s u m p d es ign
gu ideli nes w h ich, if f ollo w ed to the letter , m ay pr ov ide accep tab le ap pr oach f low con diti on s
w ith s o m e f in e tu n in g a ft er t he s t at io n is p la ced in o p er at io n.

T he H y d ra ul ic I ns t itu te a n d B H R A h av e p ub li s he d g u id eli ne s f o r th e cr it ica l s um p


d im ens io ns , incl udi ng:

S u m p w id th s
P u m p b ell -t o- f lo o r cl ear an c es
P u m p - t o -b a c k w al l d i m e n s i o n s
C r it eri a fo r s lo p ing s um p fl oo r s an d d iv er gi ng s i de w alls .

T h e H yd r au lic I n s tit ut e S tan d ar ds p ro v id e s u m p d im e ns i on s as fu n ctio n s o f p u m p ed flo w


ra te s . B H R A p r o v id es s u m p d i m e n s io n s as r at io s o f t h e p um p be ll di am et er . T h e s u m p
di m e ns i on s re co m m en d ed b y B H R A an d t he H y d ra u lic I n s tit ut e ar e s im ila r if th e p um p
bell diam eter is s ized to yie ld a pu m p be ll v elocit y o f abo ut 4.3 f ps f or 1 0,0 00 g pm flo w rat e,
and 6.0 fp s at 1 00 ,0 00 gp m f lo w r ate.

T he m a gn itu d e, d is tr ib uti on and dir ec tio n o f th e a pp r oac h fl ow v elo citi es a re cr iti cal to the
a pp lic ati on o f b o th s ta nd ar ds . T h e s t an da rd s w e re d ev elo p ed b as ed on un if or m f low f iel ds ,
p ar a lle l to th e s um p a x is an d w it hi n t h e v elo c ity g u id el in es i nd i cat ed . In r eal it y , ap p r o ach
f low fi elds ar e s eld o m u ni fo rm . E ven i f the p um p ed f low ra te a nd th e flo w c ro ss - s ectio n
u p s tr ea m f r om th e p um p r e s ul t in an av er a ge ve lo ci ty th at s ati s f ies t he de s ig n cr ite r io n ,
t he a p pr o ach ch an n el d ir ec ti on an d l ay ou t m ay r e s ul t m a v elo c ity di s tr ib u ti on an d /o r
v elo cit y di rec tio n n ot p ara llel to the s u m p ax is .

D-1
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

D.2 Detrimental Effects of Poor Sump Design


P o or s lu m p d es ig n can h av e a d ras ti c ef f ect on a p um p 's o per ati on . S om e cr itic al su m p
c o ns t ru c tio n pa ra m e ter s ar e:

S u m p W all D es ig n an d L oca tio n


S um p F lo or D es ig n and L o catio n
S cr een S y stem s and D e br is R em o va l C o m po ne nts

D.2.1 Approach Flow

A p p r oa ch f lo w is th e li qu id 's s tr ea m li ne a s i t ad v an ces to w ar d th e pu m p in le t. T he
g eo m et ry o f th e su m p , w h ich is its ov er all p lan la yo ut , pr o fil e, an d de tail s in t he im m ed iate
v ic in ity o f t he p u m p s u ct ion be ll, w ill d ef in e th e a pp r oa ch f lo w C h an g es i n th e s u m p w a ll
a lig nm e nt s an d fl oo r pr o fil es ca us e th e f lo w to ent er th e s u m p i n di rec tio ns no n- pa ral lel to
t he s u m p ax is . B eca us e o f t hi s, no n -u n if or m o r n on -s y m m et ric p at ter n s ar e es t ab lis h ed i n
t he ap pr oa ch f low . T hi s cau ses vo rt ices to f or m and /o r th e e ntr an ce fl ow to sw ir l a nd b e
n o n- un if or m , u lti m ate ly d egr ad in g pu m p p er fo r m an ce.

EN D V IEW O F IM PELL ER

S E C T IO N T H R O U G H IM P EL L ER B LA D E

F ig u r e D .1
I m p a c t o f P r e - r o t a t io n o n I m p e l le r A p p r o a c h V e l o c i t y V e c t o r s

D -2
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

D.2.2 Effects of Approach Flolw on Impeller Performance


P u m p im pe ller s ar e de s ig ne d to ach iev e an op ti m u m an g le of att ack be tw ee n th e
a pp r oa ch in g f lo w an d th e im pe lle r b la de s . T h e v ect or re lat io ns h ip s re s ul tin g fr o m th e
a pp r oac h f low v ecto r a nd t he im pe ller bl ade r o tati on , in the s e ctio n th r ou g h an i m p elle r
b lad e, ar e sho w n in F ig ur e D .1 .
O n e of th e as s um pti on s m d eve lop in g th e i m pe ller d es ig n is t hat th e app r oac hin g f low fie ld,
a s i llu s t ra ted by th e v ect or (V ), is un if o rm an d p ar all el t o th e im pe ll er a xi s . C h an ge s e ith er
in th e m ag nitu de or ang le o f the a ppr oach fl ow v ector (V ) w ill ch ang e th e an gle o f attack (Q )
o f t he r esu lt an t f lo w ve cto r r el ativ e to th e bl ad e (V r ). T h e ch an ge i n m a gn it ud e of th e
a pp ro ach f low ve cto r is cau s ed b y a f lo w im bala nce . T he ch an ge in an gle is cre ated b y
p r e- s w ir l or pr e- r ot ati on of fl ow en te ri ng th e p um p. T h es e d etr im en tal c on d it io ns ar e
u s ua lly c aus e d by s u m p d es ig n .
C h an ge s in th e app r oa ch f lo w v ec tor m ag n itu de m ay b e eit he r a lo ng -t er m av era ge o r sh or t
t erm f lu ctu atio ns cau sed b y fl ow tu rb ule nc e. D ecr eases in th e f lo w an g le of at tack r ela tiv e
t o th e p um p im p elle r b lad es ca n d ecr ea se th e pr essu r e di ff er en ce g en er ate d ac ro ss th e
b l ad e s an d th u s d e g ra d e p u m p p e rf o r m an c e. C o n ve r s el y , in cr e as in g an g l es o f at ta ck c an
i nc rea s e per f or m an ce t o a po in t, af te r w hi ch , th e im p ell er b eg in s to s tall an d p er fo r m an ce
d eg r ad es. I n th e ex tr em e c ase, t he m ism a tch o f t he f lo w i nc id en ce an gl e to im pe lle r in let
b la de an g le w ill r esu lt in re cir cu lat io n as th e f lo w se pa ra tes fr om t he b lad e. T he
r ec ir cu lat io n ca us e s a d ec re as e o f th e li q ui d p re s s ur e b elo w its v ap or pr es s u r e. T h is
p h en o m e n a is c om m o n ly r ef er r ed to as s ep a ra ti on / cav i ta tio n . F lu ct ua ti ng an g le s re s u lt in g
f ro m f lo w tu rbu len ce w il l p ro du ce o s cillat ing im p eller l oad s, c aus in g the pu m p to v ibr ate.

PR OF IL E

F ig u r e D .2
V e lo c i t y a n d E n e r g y P r o f i l e a t a S e c t i o n T h r o u g h a V o r t e x

D -3
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

D.2.3 Vortex Formation

A v or tex i s an ex am p le of a f lo w f iel d th at ha s b ot h an ax ial a nd a r ot atio na l flo w


c o m p on en t, sim i lar to a t o rn ad o , as see n in F ig ur e D .2 . C lassi c fr ee -s u r fa ce v or ti ces en tr ai n
a ir in t o p u m p s c au s in g th e m to r u m b le an d v i br a te . T he v ib r ati o n i s a r es u l t o f f lu c tu at in g
l o ad in gs o n t he im p el ler b lad es a s t he y e nc ou n te r th e v ar y in g d en s it ies o f t he a ir a n d
w at er .

V o rt ices c an fo rm on a ny s u m p bo un da ry in clu din g:

W at er S u r fa ce
Sum p F loor
S um p W all

V or tic es th at fo r m at p lace s o th er t ha n th e w at er su rf ac e a re c alle d " su b m er g ed " vo r tic es.


T he s e " s ub m e rg ed " vo rt ices do no t car ry air in to a p u m p as do fr ee- sur fa ce vo r tice s . T h e
k in et ic en erg y , V 2 /2 g , in cre ases ne ar th e co re o f a vo r tex , r esul tin g in a d ecr ea se i n p ressu re
( B er n ou li 's e qu at io n) as s ho w n i n F i gu r e D .2 . T hi s d ec re as e in pr es s u r e can b e en ou g h to
c aus e th e co re o f the v or tex to v apo ri ze. T h is lo w p ressu re co re aff ects the im pell er in m uch
t h e s a m e w ay a s en tr a in e d a ir . W h e n a v o rt ex e nt e rs a p um p , th e i m p e ll er b la d e
e n co un t er s t h e lo w er pr es sur e co r e an d th e lo ad in g on th e im p ell er c h an ge s. T he i m p el le r
r ece ives on e of th ese loa din g d iscon tin ui ties e ach tim e a b lad e en co un ter s a vo rt ex co re.
T h es e im pu ls e s c au s e th e im pe lle r to vi br at e at th e v an e p as s fr eq u en cy (o r m ul tip le s
t here of fo r m ultip le v or tices ).

D.2.4 Debris Loading in Screen Systems


D eb ri s e x clu s io n syst em s ( tr as h r ack s an d sc re en s) m ay in ter a ct w it h t he su m p d esi gn to
c au s e co n d iti on s af f ect in g p u m p p er f o rm an ce . I f th ese sy st em s ar e l aid ou t w i th ou t
c on s id er atio n o f th eir in f lue nc e o n th e ap pr oa ch f lo w to t he p um ps , v o rte x fo rm ati on a nd
o th er hy d ra ul ic p ro bl em s p re vi ou s ly m en ti on ed can o cc ur . I f ex cl us i on s ys t em s ar e n ot
c lea ne d as r eq ui re d, acc um ul ati on of de br is m a y ca us e h ead lo s s es th at w i ll r ed uc e th e
w ater lev el a va ila bl e fo r p u m p s u b m er g en ce an d N P S H R . N on - un if o rm b lo ck ag e o f tr as h
r ac ks or s c re ens m ay lead to ap p ro ach f lo w hy dr au lic s p ro b lem s s im i lar t o th os e
e nco u nte red i n po o rly d es ig ne d s um p s .

T he s iz e, ty pe , an d lo adi ng r at e o f d eb ris m u s t b e co ns id er ed i n de si gn o f th e de br is
e x clu s io n s ys t em . D ep e nd in g u p o n th e s i ze an d s ha pe o f th e de b ri s a nd th e p um p b el l to
f lo or clear an ce, it i s po ssi ble that d ebr is co uld b ecom e w ed ged in p lace and o bstr uct fl ow
e n te r in g th e p u m p b e ll . U ns cr ee n ed d eb r is m a y e n te r a p u m p a n d ca us e m e ch a n ic al
d am ag e to th e pu m p im p e ller .

B a s ke t s tr ai n er s t h at m ou n t o n th e p u m p be ll s h o u ld b e c on s i de re d o n ly as a b ack - u p
s cr ee ni ng s y s te m . A pl u gg ed b as k et s tr ai ne r c an ra di ca ll y al te r th e a p pr o ac h f lo w to th e
i m p el ler an d c an l ead to ra pi d an d s ig ni fi ca nt p u m p da m ag e .

D -4
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

D.2.5 Fish Protection


S tat e an d F ed er al f ish an d w i ld lif e ag en c ies h av e re gu la tio n s co nc er ni ng th e d esig n o f
i n ta ke s cr ee n s . T h e r eg u lat io n s li m i t v el oc it ie s no r m a l to t he s cr ee n s u r f ac e, an d m ay h av e
c r it er ia f o r th e o r ien t at io n o f th e s c r een s i n r el at io n t o t h e am b ie nt fl o w . E P R I h a s fu n d ed
c o ns i de r ab le r es e ar ch o n fi s h p r ot ect io n a nd s cr ee n d es i gn an d r ep o r ts on th is r es e ar ch a r e
a va ila b le to E P R I m e m b er s .

D.2.6 Sediment Loading


I f th er e i s sed im e nt tr an spo rt in th e con d en se r co oli ng w a ter su pp ly , on e of t he f oll ow in g
a c ti o ns i s r e qu i r ed :

T h e s e d im e n t m u s t b e ex cl ud e d f ro m t h e in ta ke t hr o u gh it s d e s ig n a nd /o r s ite
lo c atio n
T he i n tak e m u s t b e en g in ee re d t o al lo w eas y ac ces s f o r s ed im en t r em ov al
T h e v el o ci ti es t h ro u g h th e i n ta k e m u s t b e k e p t h ig h en o u g h t o m a in t ai n s ed im en t in
s u s p en s io n an d p re ve n t it f ro m d ep o s iti ng
T h e s ed im en t m u s t b e m ai n ta in e d i n s u s p e n s io n th r o ug h th e us e o f s p a r ge r s (w at er
j et s t h at i nc re as e t u rb u le nc e to k eep s ed im en t s u s p en d ed )

M an -m ad e ch an ne ls ar e of te n co n s tr uc ted to c on v ey w ate r f ro m a r es er v oi r to th e pu m p
s um p. T h e c ha nn e l lin i ng s h ou l d b e d es ig n ed to pr ev e nt b a nk er o s io n d u e to de s ig n
c h an n el v el o ci tie s an d w av e ac ti on . C ha n ne l b en d s im m ed i at ely u ps tr ea m o f t he pu m p
s t at io n s h o ul d b e av o id ed w he th er or n ot s e di m e nt t r an s po r t is a co n ce rn .

I f th e s e d im en t is a ll ow ed to en te r a n d d ep o s i t in th e s t r uc tu r e, it m ay in t er f er e w i th th e
o p er at io n of th e p u m p s . D e p os i te d s e di m e nt m ay al ter th e a pp r o ach f lo w to t h e pu m ps ,
c au s in g m an y o f th e s am e hy d r au lic p r o bl em s p r ev io u s ly d i s cu s s ed . T hi s i s us u al ly
u n lik ely a s th e s ed im en t w ill d ep os it in low v elo city a re as , pr o vid in g a s tr eam l in ing eff ect
i n th e s u m p. I f p u m ps a r e n ot op e r ate d , a n d s e d im en t i s al lo w ed t o d ep o s i t in th e
s tr u ct ur e , s c re en eq u i pm en t a n d e v en pu m p b e ll s m ay b e b u ri ed , p re v en ti n g s t ar t- u p of
e q ui pm en t u n ti l th e s ed im en t i s r em o ve d .

S ed im en t w h i ch is tr an s p o r te d t hr o u g h t he s tr u ctu r e i nt o t h e co n d en s er co o li n g w a te r
p u m p s w ill ca us e a br as i ve w e ar o f th e im pe lle r an d o th er p u m p c om p on en ts .

D.3 Identifying Poor Sump Design


D.3.1 Field Testing
I n m a ny ca s es , th e f i rs t re ac tio n to pu m p o p er at io n an d m ai n ten a nc e p r ob l em s i s to as s u m e
t h at th e p u m p an d /o r d r iv er h av e b een p oo r ly s el ect ed , d es ig ne d , an d /o r fa br ic at ed . I n f a ct,
m an y tim es th e p r o bl em i s as s o ci at ed w ith th e s u m p d es i gn . It i s of t en p o s s i bl e to
d e te rm in e i f t hi s is th e c as e t h ro u g h f i eld te s ti n g. T h e t yp e s of o bs er v ati o ns t ha t m ay be
m ad e an d s om e of the c on clu s io n s th at m ay b e dr aw n a re d es cr ib ed i n th e fo ll ow i ng
s ection s.

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D.3.2 Visual Observation


O b ser v atio n o f t he w at er su r fa ce in a su m p m ay rev ea l th e pr esen ce o f su rf ac e vo r tice s a nd
s u r fa ce f lo w p at ter n s in di cat iv e of pr e- r ot ati ng f lo w e nt er in g th e p u m p s . T h es e p h en o m en a
w il l ca us e con d ens er c oo lin g w a ter p um p p r ob lem s , as des c rib ed in a pr ev iou s s ec tion , an d
ar e a r esu lt of sum p d esi gn.

O b s er v ati on s m ay re qu i re au x il iar y li g ht in g in th e s um p. I f l ig ht in g is ad eq u ate , v id eo


t ape f o ota ge a nd s t ill p ho to s of t he w a ter s u rf ac e sh o ul d b e c ol lec ted . T h e ob s er v atio n
s h ou ld be m a de o v er a lo ng en ou gh tim e p er io d s in ce f lo w p att er ns m ay req u ir e a s m uc h as
1 5 m in u tes o r m or e to fu ll y e s tab li s h . O b s er va ti on s s ho u ld be m ad e f or va ri at io ns in th e
f ol low i ng p ar am et ers to w h ich v o rte x fo rm atio n co nd it ion s a re de pe nd en t.

S um p w ater level ( low to h igh)


F lo w ra te
Combinations of operating pumps

U n der sp eci al c on di tio ns o f lig h tin g and w a ter q ual ity, it m ay b e p os s ib le to o bs er ve


f o rm atio n o f s u b m er g ed v o rt ices if th ey a re o f v ap or co re s tr en g th . I f w ate r cl ar ity a nd s ite
co n dit ion s per m it , dy e can b e us ed t o lo cate w eak er v o rtic es. H ow e ver , th is is n ot p ossib le
u n de r no r m a l c on d iti on s , a nd th e p r es en ce o f s u b m er g ed v o rti ces m u s t b e in fe rr ed t hr o ug h
o th er o bs er va tio ns .

I t m ay b e p os s ib le to s im u ltan eo us ly co rr ela te t he ob s er vati on o f th e o ff en din g vi su al fl ow


p h en o m en a w i th o th er a ur a l, vi b r ati o n , a nd p u m p p er f o rm an c e in d i ca tio n s . T h e s e
i nd ica tor s m ay b e p rese nt o nl y w h en th e fl ow p he no m en a ar e ob ser ve d.

D.3.3 Aural Observation


T he p r esen ce o f a n ai r en tr ai ni ng su rf ac e vo r tex en ter in g a p u m p i s u s u al ly a cco m p an ie d
b y a c ha ra cte ris tic r um b lin g s o u nd . S u b m er g ed v o rt ice s o r p r e- ro ta tio n o f f lo w en ter in g a
p um p m a y als o cau s e a r u m b lin g s ou n d, o r c avi tati on no is e w hi ch s o un d s li ke g ra ve l
p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e p u m p . T h e p h e n o m en a t h at ca u s e t he s e s o u n d s ar e u s u a ll y tr a n s i en t
a nd , t h er ef o re , th e s o u nd s w il l n ot b e c on s t an tly p re s en t. A s w ith th e v is u al o b s er v ati o ns ,
t he au r al ob s er v atio n s s h o uld be m ad e f o r th e fu ll r an ge o f o pe ra tin g co n dit io ns an d f or a
l o ng en o u g h t im e p er i o d t o c at ch th e t r an s ie n t p h en o m e n a. C on s t an t c av i ta tio n o r r o u g h
r u nn in g s o un d s m ay b e m o r e in di cat ive o f a p u m p p r ob le m th an a s u m p p r ob le m .

A cq u is iti on o f th is da ta m ay be b es t ach iev ed b y li s ten in g to t he p um p be low th e di s cha rg e


el bo w , i f po ss ib le, b y pr es s ing a n ear to th e d is ch arg e co lu m n.

D.3.4 Vibration Measurements


V i br ati on o f th e p um p m ay be m on ito r ed u s in g a ve loc ity t ra nsd uc er o r an acce ler om ete r.

I t is b es t to l oca te th e v ib ra tio n p ick -u p as clo s e as p o ss i bl e t o th e p u m p im pe ller t o ob ta in


v ib r at io n p h en o m e n a as s o ci at ed w it h th e p u m p h yd r au l ics .

D -6
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V ib rat io n dat a sh o uld be co llec ted f or a l on g en ou g h tim e p er io d and fo r th e fu ll ran g e o f


o p er at in g co n d it io n s to ca p tu r e t ra n s ie n t p h en o m e n a. A d ig it al s p ec tr u m a na ly z er s h o ul d
b e us ed t o i de nt if y t he fr eq u en cy o f d o m in an t v ib r at io n e ne rg y . A l te rn at iv el y, th e v ib r ati o n
s ig n al ca n b e vi ew ed in t he t im e d o m a in t o s ea rc h f or tr an s ien t ac tiv it y.

E x ce s s ive v ib r ati on at th e ro ta tio n al s p eed o f t he m ach in e is u s ua lly i nd ic ati ve o f a b ala nc e


p ro b lem . H o w ev er , v ib r ati on at im p ell er v an e p as s fr eq u en cy , o r m ul tip le s t he re of , c an b e
in d icat iv e of th e pr ese nc e o f si ng le o r m ul tip le v o rt ices en te ri ng th e pu m p im p el ler . E ach
tim e an i m p el ler b la de p as s e s t hr o ug h a v o rt ex co r e, t he i m p ell er i s s u b jec ted t o a lo ad
v ar ia ti on an d p re s s u re pu l s at io n t ak e s p l ac e. T h er ef o r e, fo r ev er y co m p l ete ro t at io n , th e re
ar e p r es s u r e p ul s at io ns e qu a l to th e n um b er o f va n es o n th e i m p el le r.

P r e- ro tat io n an d c av ita tio n w i ll li ke ly b e ac co m p an ied by an i nc re as e in th e br o ad b an d o r


s o -c al led w h ite n o is e v ib r at io n . T h is i s d u e to th e r an do m a nd tr an s i en t oc cu r re nc es o f
th e s e p h e n o m e n a.

T h e c on clu s ion s co n cer nin g s ub m er ge d vo rt ices and p r e-r ot atio n ha ve be en co nf irm ed


th r ou g h co r re lat io n o f f ie ld v ib r ati on m e as u re m en ts w i th v is u al o b s er va tio n s an d p re -
r ota tio n m easu r em e nt s i n a hy d ra ul ic m o d el o f th e sam e f ac ili ty su bj ect ed t o th e sam e f lo w
conditions.

D.3.5 Performance Measurements


P e r fo r m an c e t es t in g is an o th e r m e th o d to d et ec t s um p r el at ed p r o bl e m s . T ra n s i en t
fl uctu atio ns m dis ch arg e pr es s ur e o r flo w r ate ar e in di cativ e o f po o r inle t f low con d itio ns .
O th er s ign s o f p oo r s um p des ig n ca n be in fer re d if th ere is pe rf or m an ce deg r ada tio n of o nl y
on e or s ev eral o f the in st alled p um ps u n der th e fo llow in g co nd itio ns :

A s a fu nctio n of pu m p loc ation in th e s um p


W hen o pe ratin g in di ffe ren t co m b inat ion s
W i th ch ang in g sum p w ater lev el, ev en th o ug h th e N P S H av ailab le an d sub m er g enc e
is m o re than req uire d
A s a f un ction of th e s tart- up s eque nce

D.3.6 Laboratory Testing

M eas u r em en t an d o bs e rv atio n i n th e fie ld is di ff icu lt an d m ay o nl y im p ly t he r oo t o f


pe rf o rm a nc e p r ob lem s . It i s ea s ier t o ex am in e o ff en din g f lo w p h eno m e na in a c on tr ol led
lab o rat or y situ ati on . I t i s al so m u ch ea si er an d m o r e e con o m ica l to ex pe rim en t w i th
p ot en ti al s o lu ti on s in a lo gi ca l m an n er an d t o ar r iv e at t he o p ti m u m s o lu ti on fr o m th e
s tan d p oin t o f b ot h p um p p er fo r m an ce a nd eco n om y o f co n s tru ct io n. T ec hn iq u es ap pl ied i n
scal in g m o de ls , sel ect ing de sign cr iter ia , an d m a ki ng m od el m easu re m en ts ar e cov er ed i n
de tail by R efe ren ce 9. T h e fo llow in g s ecti on s pr ov id e a br ief d es cri ptio n o f the tech ni qu es o f
s u m p m od eli ng an d th ei r ap pl ica tio n.

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D.3.7 Model Scaling


T h e d es ig n an d o pe ra tio n o f h yd r aul ic m o d els an d in ter p re tati on of d at a f r om s u ch m o del s
r eq u ir es m a in tai n in g d y na m ic s im i lar i ty o f f lu i d m o t io n b et w een m o d el a nd pr o to ty p e. T o
f ulf il l d y nam ic s im i lar ity , th e m od el m u s t ha ve g eom etr ica lly s im ilar bo un d ari es a nd f lo w
p att er n s . T hi s re qu ir es th a t th e ra tio s o f f or ce s act in g o n t he f lu id el em e nt s b e t he s a m e i n
b oth the m od el an d pr ot ot yp e. F o r fr ee- s ur fa ce m o de ls o f co nd en s er co ol in g w ater p u m p
s u m p s, s eve ral r ele van t d im en s io nl es s f o rce r atio s m ay b e de riv ed :

In e rtia l F o rce
F ro u d e N u m b er ; D.1
G r avit y Fo rc e

In e rtial F o rce
E u ler N u m be r; E =
P re ss u re F o rc e
D.2

UL I ne rtia l F o rc e
R e y n o ld s N u m b e r; R = ; D.3
v V i sc o u s F o rc e

In er tial F o rce
W e b er N u m b e r; W = D.4
S u rfa c e T e n sio n F o rc e

w here: g = G r av it ati o na l ac cel er at io n


L = C h ar ac te ri st ic l en g th
P = P re s s ur e dif f ere nc e
U = C h aracter is tic fl ow v elocity
= K inem atic vis co sity o f th e f luid
= D ens ity o f t he flu id
= S ur fac
= e te ns io n of th e f lu id

F o r co m p let e d y na m ic s im ilar ity , a ll of t he r ati os de fi ned in E q u ati on s D .1 th r ou g h D .4


m u s t b e th e s am e in th e m o de l an d p r ot ot yp e . H o w ev er , it i s no t p os s i bl e to s ati s fy all o f
th e r el ati o ns h ip s s im u lta ne o us l y u s in g th e s am e op e ra tio n al f lu i d ( w at er ) in m o d el a nd
p ro t ot yp e a t s cal es o th er th an 1- 1 . T he re fo r e, m o d eli ng at a r ed u ce d s c ale r eq u ir es
s el ect in g th e ra tio of pr im ary im p o rt an ce f or a p ar ti cu lar f lo w s itu at io n, ba si ng th e m o de l
d es ig n an d o p e ra ti o n o n th a t p ar a m e te r, an d ev a lu a ti ng a nd c om p en s a ti n g f o r t h e
m od eli ng er ro r s o r "s cale eff ects" caused b y no n- com plian ce w i th the rem aini ng ra tios.

P r acti cal co nc ern s of m od el size v er s us spa ce ava ilab il ity a nd l abo r ato ry p u m p in g cap aci ty
v ers u s r eq ui red flo w rat es, etc ., m ust also b e co ns id er ed in select io n of m od el scal e. T h e
la bo ra to ry per f or m i ng t he h y dr au lic m od el stu d y m u st ha ve su ff ic ien t fl oo r sp ace an d
p um pi ng cap aci ty t o pe rm it co n st ru ct io n an d te stin g o f an ade qu at ely si zed m o de l.

D.3.8 Selection of Model Limits

S el ect ion of th e pr op er lim its fo r t he m od el is cr iti cal to en s ur e th at th e m o d el re s ul ts are


v ali d . In m a ny cas e s th e fl ow a t th e pu m p is a r es u lt o f c o nd it io n s e s tab li s h ed f ar up s t re am
i n t h e a pp r o a ch . D et er m in i n g h o w f a r u p s t re a m to c ar r y th e m o d el re q u ir e s a ju d g m en t

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de cis i on b as e d o n pr ev io us m o d eli ng e xp er ien ce . S om e of the f ac tor s th at m u s t be


con si dered in th e dec isio n pro cess inclu de:

T h e de sig n o f th e ap pr o ach ar ea

A ll d a ta av ai la b le o n b a th y m e tr y an d cu r r en t s in t he ap p r o ac h a r ea s h ou l d b e
c on s ide red , an d if i nad eq ua te, ad d itio na l f iel d in fo rm atio n s ho u ld be co ll ected .

T h e r el ati v e s en s it iv it y o f t he ty pe of p um p in g s t ati o n to th e a pp r o ach en v ir o nm en t

P um p s t at io ns o n l ak es m us t c o ns i d er t he lay o u t of th e ap p r oa ch ch an n el f ro m t he
lak e an d i ts im pa ct o n t he v el oc ity p ro f ile a pp r o ach in g t he i n tak e.

P um p s ta tio n s o n r iv er b an k s m ay b e s tr o ng ly af fe cted by cr os s f lo w s p as t t he in ta ke
cau s e d b y th e n at u ra l ri ve r v el oc it ies .

C oo lin g to w er p u m p s ta tio ns m u s t co ns id er t he m a nn er i n w hi ch f lo w is in tr od uc ed
in to th e co o ling t ow er , the p ote nti al f or n on - un ifo rm co nd itio n s cau s ed by b y pas s
fl ow s , an d th e g eo m etr y o f the to w er b as in .

S creen ing s y ste m d esi gn

T he t yp e of sc re eni ng syste m m ay i nc rea se or d ec rea se t he n ece ssary lim it of t he


m o d e l.

S om e scr eeni ng syste m s, su ch as c ente r flo w scre ens, m o dif y th e ap pr oac h flo w to
su ch an ex ten t th at th e scre en its e lf m ay b eco m e t he lo g ical u p s tr eam li m it o f th e
m o d e l.

T h e la yo u t of th e s tr uc tu r e, n u m b er o f p u m p s a n d th ei r s eq u en ce o f o pe ra tio n

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D.3.9 Testing Program


M o de l t es tin g p ro gr am s s ho u ld be e xec ute d in p ha se s to :

D et er m in e th e e xi s ten ce a nd m ag n it ud e o f f lo w p h en o m en a in th e s u m p t ha t co ul d
a dv e rs e ly a f fe ct th e p u m p s

C o rr ect s ig nif ican t flo w p ro bl em s t hr ou gh m od ifi catio ns to th e s u m p d es ig n

D o cu m en t s at is f act or y pe rf o r m an ce of th e m o d if ie d s u m p un d er a va r iet y o f
co nd iti on s
I t is cr itic al th at al l ty pi cal s ta tio n o pe ra tin g co n di tio n s ( p um p o pe rat in g co m b in at ion s ,
f low s , w at er lev els , an d ap pr oa ch f lo w co nd iti on s ) be ev alu ated i n des ig n ing t he tes t
p r o gr am . I t i s no t a lw a y s p r ac ti ca l to te st al l co m bi n ati o ns o f th ese v a ri ab le s as th e
p o s s ib le nu m b er of co m b in ati on s m ay be in th e th ou s an d s f o r a m u lti -p u m p s t ati on .
C ri tical ca se s s h ou ld b e i ncl ud ed in t he in ve st iga tio n ba se d on :
M in im u m su bm erg ence
M ax im u m f low rate s
M o st adv ers e ap pro ach flo w in term s o f:
D i re ct io n
S p eed
T es t cas e s w h ic h h ave p r ov en to b e m o s t cr iti cal w it h r es p ect to th e m o de l m ea s ur em e nt s
an d ob se rva tion s s ho uld b e u se d a s chec k c as es fo r dev elop m en t o f d es ign m odi ficati ons .

F in all y, c on di tio ns rep r es en tativ e of t he f ull r an ge o f exp ec ted o pe rat ion s s h ou ld b e


e m p lo y ed d u ri ng d oc um en ta tio n t es t s t o as s u r e th at t he f in a l de s ig n w i ll p er fo r m
s atis fac toril y.

D.3.10 Testing Procedures and Techniques


T he f o llo w in g o b s er v ati on s an d m e as u re m e nt s a re u s u all y m a d e du r in g m o d el te s ts :

C o nd it ion M easu r ed I n s tr u m e n t E m p l o y e d

W ater l eve l St aff o r po in t g aug e


T otal flo w C a lib rat ed f lo w m eter
I ndiv idu al m o del pum p f low s C al ibr ate d flo w m eter s
A p pr o ach f lo w p atte rn V is ua l
M ax im um v or tex ty p e V is u al
F lo w pr e- ro tat io n at m o de l pu m p R o to m ete r
im p eller locatio n
F lo w v elo cities at t he im p eller M in iatu re v elocit y p ro be

F lo w V is u aliza tio n
F lo w vi s ua liza tio n is ai ded by th e i nj ecti on of dy e, a ir, an d/ or n eu tr all y b uo y ant t ra cer s
s u ch as pla s tic pe llets .

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R o to m et er
T h e r ot om ete r is a n eu tr all y p itc he d f ou r -b la de d r ot o r, w ith bl ad e len g th s e qu al t o 0 .7 5
ti m e s t h e pu m p t hr o at ra di u s . T he ro to m et er i s m o u n ted o n a f r ee ly tu rn i ng ax i s c o in ci de n t
w it h t he p u m p ax is a t th e im p ell er en tr an ce . T he an gl e o f a pp r o ach f lo w de vi at io n i s
com p uted f rom the fo llow ing eq uatio n.

U t
= a rc ta n D .5
Ua

w he re = A ngle of app roa ch f low d eviatio n f rom axial,


Ut = A v er ag e ta n ge nt ia l sp eed o f r o to m e ter
b l ad e ti p s , a n d
Ua = A ver age axial velo city of fl ow th ro ugh
pipe.

F lo w V elocities
P u m p th ro at ve lo cit ie s , U t , ar e m easu r ed w ith a m i ni atu r e v elo c ity pr o b es lo cat ed ev er y
4 5 ( at ei gh t lo cat io ns ) in th e p lan e o f th e im p el ler . T h e m e an v el oc ity , U m is d efi ne d as :

8
Ui
i =1
Um = D .6
8

w he re Um = M ean V elocity
i = P r o b e lo ca tio n nu m b e r
Ui = V elo city at p rob e lo cation

T e m p o ra l fl u ctu at io n s o f v e lo cit ie s ( tu r bu l en ce) ar e m e as u r ed . T he m ax im um tem p or al


f lu ctu ati on (U i ) f or e ach m ea s ur em en t pe rio d i s m easu r ed an d c om pa re d to th e t im e -
av era ged v elo city ( U m ).

D.3.11 Acceptance Criteria

F ou r cr iter ia fo r ju dg ing accep tab ilit y of ap p ro ach f low to a m o del p um p hav e bee n
es t abl is h ed :

T he lev el o f pr e-r ot atio n of fl ow a pp ro achi ng th e p um p im p eller lo catio n s ho uld n ot


b e of su f fic ien t m ag nit ud e to cau se an av er ag e d ev iati on i n th e f lo w v ect or f ro m th e
a xi al dir ect io n of g r eate r th an 5 .
N o o rg an iz ed f re e s u r fa ce an d/ or s u b m er g ed v or ti ces s ho u ld en te r th e pu m p s uc tio n
p ipi ng.
T his cri teri on is pu rp os el y con s erv ativ e bec aus e scale ef fect s o n vo rtex fo rm a tion c aus e
r el ativ ely m o re s ev er e c on d itio ns to o cc ur i n th e p u m p s ta tio n.

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D i s tr ibu ti on o f t im e -av er ag ed v el oci tie s , U i , m easu re d at th e su ctio n sh ou ld be


w i th in 1 0 p er cen t of th e m ea n of th ese v elo cit ies, U m
T em p or al f lu ctua tion o f v eloc ities m eas u red at eac h loca tion s h ou ld n ot be ex ces s ive
o r p eri od ic in na tur e, s o as to af fe ct p u m p p erf or m an ce.

T y pic ally , tem p o ral fl uct uati on s , s ho uld b e w ith in 30 p erc ent o f the m ea n vel oci ty.

D.4 Remedying Poor Sump Design


D.4.1 Introduction

W h en d es i gn in g m od if ic ati on s at an ex is ti ng in s tall ati on , l ab or at or y e xp er ie nc e ha s s h o w n


t hat elim inati ng an y circ ulati on in th e a pp ro ach flo w f ollo w ed by i m pr ov ing l ocal fl ow
g u id anc e i nto the p um ps is an ef fe ctiv e ap pr oa ch to i m pr o vin g s u m p p er fo rm an ce.
C i r cu la ti on p at te rn s i n t he pu m p b a ys a n d a ro u n d t h e p u m p s ca n l ea d t o:

H i gh pr e- ro tat ion of f lo w e nt eri ng t he p um ps


T he fo rm atio n o f eddi es
M ob ile sur face an d su bs u rf ace vo rtice s

B y s t ra ig h ten i ng th e ap p r oa ch fl ow t o t he p u m p s , pr e- r o tat io n d ec r eas e s , a nd s u rf a ce an d


su bs u rf ace v or tice s sta bil ize in w el l def in ed lo cat io ns . T h e us e o f fi llet s, sp li tter s , an d co ne s
ar e th en ef fe ctiv e in e lim i na tin g th es e vo r tice s .

D.4.2 Modifying Approach Flow

D.4.2.1 Open Sump


C i rcu la tio n m ay d ev el op i n an op en sum p o r a sum p w h er e th e pu m p s are i n a co m m on
ch am b er , d ep en d i n g u p o n t h e i nf l o w ar r an g em e nt an d s ta r t- u p s eq u en c e o f th e p u m p s . I t
is d iff icu lt t o im p ro ve th e ap pr o ach to th e p u m ps in a com m on s u m p ex cep t b y us in g fl ow
s tr a ig h t en i ng v a n es o r g ra t in g n ea r t h e p u m p s . F o r g r a ti n g , t h e a s p ec t r a ti o ( d e p th o f t h e
ba rs t o th e c en ter - to - cen t er s p ac in g o f th e b ar s ) m us t b e a t lea s t 1 :1 in o r d er t o s t ra ig h ten
th e fl ow . B ot h m e th o ds r eq u ir e pe ri od ic m ai nt en an ce . T h es e d e vi ces s h ou l d o nl y b e u s ed i n
ver y clean w ater w ith litt le ch anc e o f c log gin g.

T h e m os t ef fe ctiv e m eth od t o im p ro ve ap pr o ach f low to th e pu m p s is to co ns tr uc t in ter io r


w a ll s a n d u n it iz e th e s u m p . I f a n o p en s u m p ar r an g em en t i s s el ec ted , a m o d e l s tu d y o f th e
s um p is r eco m m en de d to de velo p acc epta ble ap pr oac h flo w h yd ra ulic s to th e pu m ps .

D.4.2.2 Unitized Sump


A u ni tiz ed s u m p is on e i n w h ich a pa rt iti on w al l ha s b ee n co n s tr uc ted b etw e en a dj ace nt
p u m p s . T he t op o f th e w a lls a re u s u al ly a bo v e th e m ax im um o p er at in g w a ter le ve l.

A f lo w v elo ci ty d is t ri bu t io n th at r es u lt s i n a g en er al c ir cu lat io n a ro u nd th e p um ps ca n
res u lt fro m the s tat ion b ein g ob liq ue to th e chan ne l o r du e to a c ro s s- fl ow on f ro nt of t he
s ta tio n . F ig u re D .3 s h o w s t h e f lo w pa tt er n s w ith i n a p u m p s ta ti on w h en it i s ob l iq u e to th e

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a p pr o ac h ch an n el . D ep en d in g u p on s t ar t- u p s eq u en ce an d w h ic h p u m p s a re op e ra ti n g , t he
c ir cu lat io n p at ter n s c an ch an ge .

F ig u r e D .3
E x a m p l e o f C ir c u l a t i o n P a t t e r n s in a S u m p D u e t o A p p r o a c h C h a n n e l
a n d T r a in in g W a ll L a y o u t
A n ot her so ur ce f or th is circ ula tio n is t he ex is ten ce of a co m m on ch am b er b etw ee n th e p um p
b a ys a n d t r as h r ac k s an d s cr e en s . T h e s t at io n s p r es e n te d I n ca s e h is to r ie s 2 a n d 3 h av e a
c om m o n ch am be r w hi ch r es u lte d in s t ro n g s u bs u rf ac e vo rt ice s , hi gh pr e- ro ta tio n an d
as y m m e tri c vel oc ity d is t rib u tio ns at th e p um p im p el ler .
T h e app roa ch flo w to a pum p can be m od ifi ed us ing g uid e w al ls, p ier s, f low d if fus er s an d
b af f li ng . G ui de w all s a r e us e d t o r ed u ce o r e lim in at e s ep ar at io n z on e s a t th e en tr a nc es to
p u m p s t ati o ns r es ul ti ng in m or e u n if o r m f lo w v elo c it ies i n t he pu m p b a ys . I ts w a lls c an b e
c ur v ed , as sho w n in F ig u re D .4 o r a t som e an gl e (o r an g les) to t he st ru ctu r e. T he s e w all s
c an b e c on cr ete , s he et pi lin g or no n- er od ib le ea rth en e m b an km ent s .

F ig u r e D .4
E x a m p l e o f G u id e W a l l a n d P i e r s I m p r o v i n g A p p r o a c h F l o w V e l o c i t y D i s t r i b u t i o n

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P i er s at th e e nt r an ce t o a p u m p b ay tu rn th e f lo w w it h ou t c re at in g e xc es s i v e h ead lo s s ( s ee
F ig u r e D .4 ) . T h e n um b er o f p ie rs ty p ica lly ra n ge f r om 1 to 5 de p en di ng up o n w i dt h o f th e
p u m p b ay an d th i ck n es s o f th e p i er . T h e m in i m u m p i er le n gt h s h ou l d b e eq u al t o th e
d i s ta n c e b e tw ee n th e p ie r s . R o u n d ed p i er s a r e m o r e a d v an t a ge o u s t h an b l u n t e n d pi e r s .
F lo w co n di tio n s a ro u n d a p ier be co m e l es s s en s iti ve t o th e p u m p w h en th e p ier is s ev er al
p u m p b el l d iam et er s u p s tr ea m o f th e p u m p . P i er s c an be c o ns t ru ct ed fr o m co n cr et e or s tee l.
W i th c on cr et e pie rs th e th ic kn es s is us u al ly 6 to 1 2 in ch es an d a re a pp r op ri ate ly r ei nf o rce d.
P i er s th a t ar e r el at iv e ly th in co m p ar ed to th e ir he ig h t m ay r eq u ir e b r ac in g .

F lo w d iffuse rs and b affli ng are desi gn ed to in du ce a hea dle ss to im prov e the v elo city
d istribu ti on . A sl ott ed w all , "T " -sh ap ed flow d iffu se rs, a nd p erfo ra ted p lat e a re so m e of t he
m e th o ds u sed to st ra ig h ten th e flo w e n terin g a sum p o r p u m p b ay (see F ig u res D .6 an d
D .6). H ead lo sses o n th e ord er o f 1 to 2 fee t across th e d iffu ser o r b affli ng a re u sual ly
req u ired to s traig h te n t he fl ow . A lso , ad di ti on al fl ow st ra ig h ten i ng m a y b e req ui red s uc h as
th e u se o f p ie rs a s sh o w n i n F i gu re D .6. T h e o pe n in gs a nd spa ci ng s in th e d iffu se rs an d
b affl in g sh o ul d b e su ch t ha t th e flo w j ets are d isp ersed be fo re reac hi ng th e pu m p. D iffu sers
an d ba ffl in g a re us ua ll y co n stru ct ed fro m st eel . B rac in g i s re qu i re d t o su p po rt t he
h orizo nta l l oad in g.

F ig u r e D .5
" T " S h ap ed F lo w D iffu se rs U se d to S t ra ig h te n F lo w E n te rin g a S u m p o r P u m p B a y

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F ig u re D .6
P er fo r a te d P la te F lo w B a ffl in g a t th e E n tr a n c e to I n d iv id u a l P u m p B ay s

S cr ee n s s h o u ld n ot be u s e d t o s t r aig h te n t h e fl o w en te ri n g a s u m p. T h e s c r een s a nd f ra m e s
are n ot us u all y des i gn ed f or th e hy dr au lic lo adi ng r eq uir ed to cha ng e f lo w co n dit ion s .
D ep en di ng u po n t he d es i gn o f th e p um p in ta k e s tr uc tu re , p ar tia l bl oc ka ge o f th e s cr een
m ay re s ul t m a dv er s e ap p ro ac h f lo w h y dr au li cs t o th e p um ps ( as di s cu s s ed i n C as e H is to r y
2 ).

D.4.3 Changing Sump Relative Geometries

S um p rela tiv e g eo m et rie s co ns i st o f re lativ e lo catio n s o f s um p bo un d ari es to the in let o f th e


pu m p. T h e y i n clu d e:

S u m p w i dt h
B ack w all cle ara nc e
F loo r c le a ra n c e
S u b m e r g en c e
A d d itio ns to cu rr ent s um p des i gn s m ay b e nee ded t o avo id lo cali zed f low dis t ur ban ces by
adding :
S u ctio n b ell con es
S p l it te r s
F i llets
F or m ed in le ts
G r at in g C a g es
U m b r el la s
S u c ti o n el bo w s

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A ny o r a com bin atio n o f these m o dif icat ion s ca n dr astical ly red u ce p re -r ota tion al flo w s,
s w ir l a nd vo r te x f or m a ti on w he n p r op er l y ap p lie d .

D.4.4 Sump Width

T h e H y dr au li c In sti tu te an d B H R A di scu ss sum p d esig n w i th rec o m m e nd ed sum p


d im e n s io ns . R ef er en ce 7 co m p ar e d th es e tw o s t an d ar ds b y c o nv er ti ng th e H y d ra ul ic
I ns tit u te d i m e ns io n al d at a t o r at io s o f t h e p um p b e ll d i am ete r .

T h ese a re su m m ar iz ed i n T ab le D .1.

Table D.1

A s s h o w n in T ab le D .1 , t he w i dt h o f th e s u m p r ec om m e nd ed by th e s tan d ar d s r an g es fr o m
1.8 9 t o 2 .2 4 t im es t he pu m p b el l d ia m e te r. T h e e v alu a ti on o f a n u m be r o f pu m p s t at io n s
(R ef er en ce 8 ) in d icat es th at act ua l sum p b ay w i dt hs ra ng e f ro m 1 .8 6 t o 3 .2 3 b ell d ia m et er s.
E x pe ri en ce f ro m m od el s t ud i es s ug g es t th at t h e w id th s h o u ld b e b etw e en 1 .9 a nd 2.0 b el l
di am et er s . T h is m ay be re d uc ed b y m od e li ng . (T h e w id t h h as b e en re d uc ed to 1 .7 0 b ell
di am et er s in se v er al in sta n ce s w it h t h e ai d o f a m o de l st u dy ) . A su m p th a t is w i d er th a n
2.0 ha s a te n d en cy to al lo w f o r g r ea ter ci r cu la ti o n w i th in th e s um p . A l th o u g h s u b s u r fa ce
vo rt ices m a y be w e ake r I n a w ide r s u m p , th ey m a y b e m or e m o bi le m ak in g it d if fi cu lt to
dev elo p m od ifi catio ns .

T he w id th c an b e m od if ied by c on s tru ct ing fal s e w a lls w ith in th e ind iv id ua l p u m p b ay s ( s ee


F ig u re D .7 ) . T he tr an s it io n f r o m th e e xi s ti ng s u m p to th e r ev is e d s u m p w i th fa ls e w a ll s
s ho ul d b e as s m o ot h as po s s ib le t o m i ni m iz e t ur b ul en ce an d s ep ar at io n zo n es w h er e
su b s ur f ace v or ti ces can po ten ti all y de ve lo p. T he h ei gh t of th e fal s e w alls s h ou ld ext en d
abo v e th e pu m p bel l a s uf fi cie nt d is ta nc e to m ini m iz e cir cu lat io n ar ou n d th e p um p an d to
ens u re n o ot her s u bs u rf ace v or tice s d eve lop abo v e th e fa ls e w a ll.

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F ig u r e D .7
R e la tiv e G e o m e tr y o f a S u m p

D.4.5 Back Wall Clearance


T ab le D -1 sh ow s th e g ui de lin es f or c lear an ce fr om t he b ack w al l o f th e su m p to th e p u m p
b e ll . H y d r au li c I n s t it u te cl ea r an c es r an g e fr o m 0 .3 4 t o 0 .5 4 b el l d ia m et er s B H R A
r ec om m en ds 0 .2 5 b ell di am e ter s . R e fe ren ce 8 r ep or ted bac k w all c lear an ces of 0.11 to
0 .7 9 b ell d i am e ter s . L ab o ra to ry ex p er ien ce h a s f o un d t h at th e B H R A g u id el in es fo r b a ck
w a ll clear an ce pr ov id e t he be st lo cat ion f o r the p um p (s ee F ig ur e D .7 ).

A pu m p sh ou ld be located as c los e to th e b ack w all as p ossible to red uce circu latio n o f flo w
a ro u n d th e p um p. H ow e ve r, if t he p u m p i s t oo clo s e to th e ba ck w a ll, a ve ry s tr on g
s u b s ur f ace v or te x ca n de ve lo p w h ich i s e xt re m ely di ff ic ult t o el im in at e. I n ad d iti on , th er e
i s f low star vat ion on th e bac k side o f th e p um p acco m p an ied w ith exc essive tu rb ul enc e.
P u m ps th at ar e lo cat ed to o f ar fr om t he b ac k w all a llo w the su b s ur f ace v or ti ces fo r m in g
f r om th e b ack w a ll to b e m ob ile, m aki ng t hem d iff icu lt to co n tro l. E x ces s iv e bac k w all
c le ar an ce al s o le ad s to a n in cr ea s e in c ir cu la tio n a ro u n d th e p um p .

I n ex is t in g s u m ps , if th e p um p i s f a rt he r t ha n 0 .25 b ell di am ete rs f r om th e b ack w al l, a


s t ep s h o ul d b e i nc or p or ate d in to th e s u m p to f ill i n th is zo ne . I f th e pu m p is m u ch cl os e r to
t he b ack w all th an 0 .25 bel l dia m et ers, fo rm ed i nle ts sh o ul d b e c on s id er ed o r a ph y s ical
m od el em p loy ed to dev elop a s atis facto ry s um p m o dif icatio n.
D.4.6 Bell to Floor Clearance
B el l t o f loo r cl ear an ces ra ng e fr om 0 .45 t o 0.7 3 be ll di am et er s f or t he H y dr au lic I ns t itu te
a nd 0 .5 0 b ell dia m ete rs f o r B H R A . A ctu al b ell to f lo or cl ear ance s r epo rt ed m R e fer en ce 8
r a ng ed fr o m 0 .3 5 to 1 .10 b ell d ia m e ter s . A p u m p t h at is s it ua te d to o f a r ab o ve t h e fl oo r
r es u lts i n a m ob ile flo o r vo rte x tha t is di ff icu lt t o con tr ol. A be ll t hat is too c los e to th e flo or
c re ates ex cessi vel y h igh ap pr oa ch v elo cit ies th at can resu lt m f low sep ar ati on f r om th e b ell
w hic h ca n co n tin ue i nt o th e pu m p . A l s o, t hi s r es u lts in flo w de -a cce ler ati on ju st b ef o re th e

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fl ow en te rs th e p um p w h ic h ca n ca us e t ur b u len ce a nd str on g su b s ur f ace v o r tic es to f o rm .


T he r eco m m en de d bel l to flo or c lear anc e b as ed o n lab or ato ry ex p erie nce is 0.35 to 0.40 b ell
d ia m e te r s . F o r th e ca s e s w h e r e t h e p u m p s ar e g r e at e r t h an 0 .4 0 b el l d i am e te r s ab o v e t h e
s um p flo o r, t he d is ch arg e co lu m n s h ou ld b e ext en ded or t he f loo r u nd er t he p um p s ho ul d be
ra is ed . I f t he f l oo r i s r ai s ed t h e tr an s iti on fr o m th e o ri gi n al s u m p f lo o r t o th e r ais e d f lo o r
s ho u ld b e as gr ad u al as po s s ib le a nd t he s l op e s h ou ld b e le s s t ha n 20 f ro m th e ho r izo n tal .
F als e flo or s a re us u ally con s tru cte d w ith co nc ret e i nco rp o rati ng l oca l f lo w g uid an ce, su ch as
fillets a nd flo or flo w s plitter s .

F or t he cas e s w h ere th e be ll is t oo c lo se to the f lo or , eit her the co lu m n s h o uld be s ho r ten ed


or th e s u m p fl o o r m o di f ie d. I n t h e f or m er ca s e, ca r e m us t b e ta k en th at th er e i s ad e qu a te
N P S H A an d s u bm er g en c e ba s ed o n l ow w a te r l ev el c o nd i tio n s in th e s u m p . In th e l at ter , a
m od el s tud y s ho ul d be co nd uct ed to en s ur e p ro p er flo w t o the pu m p s .

D.4.7 Minimum Vortex Submergence


T h e H y d ra ul ic I n s ti tu te a nd B H R A r e co m m en d t he m in i m u m s u b m er g en ce to e li m in a te th e
fo r m a tio n o f s u r f ace v o rt ic es . T he s ub m e r ge nc e, m ea s ur ed f ro m th e p u m p be ll to th e w at er
lev el , r an g ed fr o m 1 .3 3 to 1 .8 0 b ell di am e te rs m t he H yd r au li c In s ti tu te s t an d ar d t o 1 .5 0 in
th e B H R A s ta n da rd s . R ef er e nc e 8 r e po r te d t h e ac tu al m in i m u m s u b m e r ge n ce f o r s e v er al
pu m p s ta tio n s ra ng ed f ro m 1 .1 2 to 2 .8 5. A m in im um s ub m er ge nc e r eco m m en d ed b y th e
S tan d ar d s do es n o t n ece s s ar il y g u ar an te e th at s ur f ace vo r ti ces w i ll n o t fo r m . R e f er en ce 8
an d la bo r at or y e xp er ie nc e h as sho w n th at su rf ac e vo r ti ces ca n f or m a t lar g e sub m er ge nc e
ra tio s .

It i s r e co m m en de d t ha t th e s u bm er g en ce b e s et to a m in im u m of 1 .5 be ll d ia m et er s , a nd
cu rt ain w al ls or gr a tin g b e in c or p or at ed to d is s i p ate t he f o rm at io n o f s u r fa ce v or t ice s . I n
ad dit io n th e in co m in g p ip e lev el an d N P S H re qu ir em e nt s f or th e p u m p s h o ul d be
ev alu at ed .

S om e f o rm o f v or tex sup pr esso r is re qu ir ed i n m o st su m p s to d issip ate su rf ac e v o rti ces. A


cu rt ain w al l po s it io n ed a pp r o xi m at el y o ne b el l d iam ete r u p s tr eam of th e pu m p an d
ex ten di ng be lo w m ini m u m w ate r le vel b y 2 to 3 f ee t u s u all y d is s ip ate s s u rf ac e vo rt ice s th at
fo r m ne ar t he p u m p by s ett in g u p a h or iz on ta l ro ll er a t th e s ur f ace ( s ee F i gu r e D .8 ) .
C u r tai n w a lls ar e co n s tr u cte d u s in g r ei nf o rc ed c on c re te o r s te el p la te at tac he d to th e
exi st ing s u m p w all s.

C a re m u st be t ak en t o en su r e sur f ace v o rt ice s do no t f or m u p s tr eam o f t h e cu rt ain w all .


G rat in g pl ace d ho r izo nt ally ap pr ox im atel y 2 f eet b elo w m in im u m w ate r lev el ex te nd in g
up str ea m fr o m th e cu rt ain w all i s e ff ec tiv e in di ssip ati ng th ese v or ti ces. A s p r ev io us l y
m e n ti on e d , g r at in g s h o u ld h av e a s q ua r e o r re ct an g u la r op e n in g p att er n w i th a m in i m u m
as pe ct rati o of 1:1 ( g rat ing d ep th to cen ter to c ent er s pa cin g of the o pen in gs ) a nd w i ll
re qu ir e a sup po r t syst em . A c cess sh ou ld b e av ai lab le f or visu al i nsp ect io n an d cl ean in g .

A no t he r ap p r oa ch to c u rt ain w al ls th at m ay be us e d t o d is s i pa te v o rt ic es is th e u s e o f
gr ati ng , a s s h ow n in F i gu r e D .9 . T h e g rat in g is an e ff ec tiv e to ol ; h o w ev er c au tio n s h ou ld be
us ed s in c e, an y a ir th a t w a s e n tr ai n ed in th e v o r te x m ay co n ti n u e in t o t he p um p . A l s o ,
gr atin g lim its access req u ired fo r clea nin g .

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F ig u r e D .8
E x a m p le o f a C u r ta in W a ll U se d to D iss ip a te S u r fa c e V o r tic es

F ig u r e D .9
E x a m p le o f G r a tin g U s ed to D is sip a te S u rf ac e V o rt ice s

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D.4.8 Localized Flow Guidance

L oca lized f lo w g uid an ce s uch a s f illets , s p litt ers , an d co ne s ar e u s ed to p ro v ide a m o re


g r adu al ch an ge in f lo w d ire ctio n an d sm o ot her accel era tio n of f lo w i nto t he p um p suct ion
b ell . T h es e w ill re du ce th e p o s si bil ity o f v or tex f o rm a tio n fr o m t he s id e w alls , b ack w a lls
a nd f lo or ; r ed uce p re- ro tat ion o f f low en ter ing t he pu m p ; and i m pr o ve th e v elo city
d is t ri b ut io n at t he i m p el ler lo cat io n.

F ig u r e D . 1 0
L a y o u t o f F lo w G u id a n c e N e ar a P u m p

D.4.9 Cones

C o ne s o r f lo or fl ow s p litt er s a re u s ed u n de r pu m p be lls to e lim in ate t he f or m a tio n o f a


v or tex f ro m t he flo o r a nd , in th e ca se o f f lo w s pl itter s , r ed uce p re- ro tatio n of f lo w (s ee
F i gu r es D .9 an d D .10 ) . V an es s u pe ri m p os e d o nt o a co n e ha ve b ee n u s ed t o r ed uc e pr e-
r ot atio n of f lo w ( s ee F i gu re D . 10 ) . T he u s e o f co nes w ith v ane s is no t a dv is ed w ith ou t th e
a id of a m o de l s tu dy d ue to th e po ten tial of v or tex f or m ati on f ro m edd ies s h ed din g of f of t he
v a n es .

L ab o ra to r y in v es t ig ati o ns h av e f ou n d t ha t co n es d es ig n ed w it h a h ei gh t o f a pp r o xi m at el y
0 .5 to 0.7 o f t he f lo o r cl ear an ce w ith a ba se di am e ter sim i lar to t he b el l di am e ter ar e
e ff ecti ve m eli m in ati ng f lo or v o rti ces . R ef er enc e 7 sh o w s an o the r va ria tio n o n a c on e w hi ch
c on s i s ts of a tr un ca ted to p a nd a he ig ht e qu a l t o 0 .26 of th e fl oo r c le ar an ce. T h is de s ig n i s
a pp li cab le f or pu m p s w ith a l ow e r b ear in g th at p ro tr u de s w e ll be lo w t he p u m p b el l.

C o n es ar e us u a lly fa br ic ate d f ro m c on cr et e o r s ta in les s s t eel . C on es f ab r ica ted fr o m


c on cr et e ar e us u al ly m ad e on si te an d l ow e re d in to po s it io n o r p ou r ed in pl ace . C on es
f a b ri ca te d f r o m s t ee l a re us ua ll y m a de at a f ab r ic at io n s h op a nd i ns ta lle d on s i te . B o th
s h ou ld be anc hor ed to th e f loo r us in g n on -c orr od ibl e b olts .

D -20
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D.4.10 Splitters

F l oo r f low s p litt ers ca n be a v ar iety o f s h ap es i nc lu din g v er y n arr o w , alm os t v ert ical c ro s s -


s e ct io n al to tr ia ng u la r i n s h ap e. A ve ry th in , ve rt ic al s p li tte r i s e ff e cti ve in r e du ci n g p re -
r o tat io n, ho w ev er , i t m ay no t el im i na te th e fo r m at io n o f a s u bs u r fa ce v or te x f ro m th e fl oo r
u n d e r t h e b el l . I n s o m e s i tu at i on s i t m ay a ct u al ly ca u s e a m o r e s ev e re v o rt ex t o f o r m . F or
t h at r e as o n a f lo o r fl o w s p li tte r th at is tr i an g u la r i n s h a p e is t he p re f er r ed d es i g n.

T r ian g u lar fl o or s p lit te rs ca n b e d es i gn e d ei th er w it h a c on s t an t o r ta pe r ed c r os s - s e cti on a l


a re a ( s ee F ig u res D .7 , D .8 , an d D .9 ) . R e fe ren ce 8 s u m m ari zed t he s iz es of a ctu al fl oo r f lo w
s p l itt er s w hi ch h a ve b ee n u s ed . T h ey ra ng e f ro m 0 .2 5 to 0.9 4 o f t h e fl oo r cle ar an ce .
L ab o r at or y ex p er i en ce ha s s h o w n t h at f o r a s p li tte r w ith a c o ns tan t c r o s s - s ec ti on a l ar e a,
t he h eig h t s ho u ld b e ap pr ox im ate ly 0 .5 to 0 .6 of the b el l t o f lo or c lea ran ce .

T ap e re d fl o or f lo w s p l itt er s h av e ad v an ta g es o v er th e c o ns ta nt cr o s s - s ec ti o n s p l it te rs . I n
m an y in s ta nc es us i ng a tap er ed fl oo r f lo w s pl itt er e lim in ate s t he n ee d f or a b ac k w al l fl ow
s pl it te r. I t p ro v id e s a m o r e g r ad u al c h an g e in f lo w d ir ec ti on w i th a s m o o th e r a cc ele r at io n
t o w a r d s th e p um p . T h u s , t h is t y p e o f s p l it te r is u s ed m o re o f te n th a n o t h er s . F ig u r es D .7
a n d D .8 p ro v id e d e ta ils o n th e s h ap e of th e s p l it ter . It is ap p r o xi m a te ly 0 .5 o f t he b ell to
f l oo r cle ar an c e at p u m p ce n ter l in e. A s w it h th e o t he r t yp e o f s p lit te r, th es e ar e ty p ic al ly
f ab rica ted f ro m c on cret e o r s teel.

F l oo r s p li tter s ar e fab r ica ted fr o m con cr et e or s tain le s s s t eel an d b o lte d to the s u m p fl oo r .


T he y can be f ab ric ate d on or o f f s ite d ep en di ng u p on th e n ee ds an d acc es s t o th e s um p.

A b ack w al l f lo w s p lit ter is us e d w he n ba ck w all f ill ets do n ot e lim i nat e t he f or m at ion of


b a ck w a ll v o rt ice s . I t is u s u all y s h ap e d as a 4 5 is o s ce les tr i an gl e. I f a ba ck w all f l ow
s p l itt er is us e d , ci rc u lat io n w i th in th e p u m p b a y m u s t b e m in im al, o th er w is e v o r tic es m a y
d e v elo p ad j ac en t t o t he s p li tte r a n d e n te r t he pu m p .

D.4.11 Fillets
F i lle ts ar e in stal led alo n g th e sid e w al ls an d so m et im es alo n g th e b ack w all s t o f ill i n d ead
z on es w h er e v or ti ces ca n f o rm . T y p ica lly , t h ey h av e a tr ia ng u la r cr o ss-se cti on an d ca n
e it h er h a v e a co n s t an t cr o s s - s e ct io n al a re a o r c an b e ta p er ed . G en er a l g ui d el in es f o r t he
s i ze o f tap er ed fi llet s a re s h o w n in F i gu r es D .7 an d D .8 . A s w it h f lo or s p li tte rs , f il let s ar e
f ab ric ated f ro m co ncr ete or st eel an d bo lted i n pla ce.

D -2 1
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F ig u r e D .ll
E x a m p le o f a F o r m ed In let

F ig u r e D .1 2
E x a m p le o f a F o r m e d I n le t

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D.4.12 Formed Inlets

F o rm ed in le ts ar e an o th er op ti on f or gu i di ng th e f lo w in to t h e pu m p. E x am pl es o f th es e ar e
s h o w n i n F i gu r es D .1 1 a nd D .1 2. T h es e ar e ef f ec tiv e w he n t he s um p a r ra ng e m e nt d o es n o t
allo w fo r oth er typ es o f m od ific ation s o r th e app roa ch flo w ve lociti es are to o h ig h ( s ever al
f eet /s ec on d ). T h ey can be f ab r ica ted fr o m stee l or fi be rg l ass an d th en in stal led in t he su m p.
T h is r es u lts in m in im al d ow n ti m e. T h es e ty p es of m o d ifi cat io ns u s ua lly re qu ir e a m o d el
s tu d y t o en s u r e p ro p er e n tr an ce c on d it io ns to th e p u m p a n d to m i ni m i ze h ea dl os s .

D.4.13 Grating Cages

G r ati n g ca ge s po s it io n ed a ro u n d th e p u m p can be a n e ff ec tiv e f lo w g ui da nc e s y s tem . T he y


a re ty p i ca ll y ei g h t s i d ed an d s t an d a t l ea s t a s h ig h a s th e pu m p b el l. T h er e i s u s u a ll y a n
o pe ni n g b etw e en th e pu m p b ell a nd th e g ra tin g to a llo w f or m o ve m e nt o f t h e pu m p an d t o
al lo w fl o w t o g et t o t he pu m p in th e e ve nt th e g ra tin g be co m e s bl oc k ed . G r at in g s h o u ld
o nly be u s ed in c lean w ater w ith li ttle o r n o de br is bec au s e o f th e po ten ti al clo gg in g
p ro b le m . I f g r at in g i s us ed t h er e s h o u ld b e p e ri o di c in s p e cti o n a nd m a in t en an ce to en s u re
th a t it i s c le an an d i n g o od r ep ai r. G r at in g i s u s u al ly fa b ri ca ted f ro m f ib e rg l as s o r s t ain l es s
s te el . F i b er g las s g r at in g is co m m e rc ia lly av a il ab le .

D.4.14 Pump Design Modifications

A n u m b r ell a att ach ed to th e pu m p be ll h as be en u s ed to r ed u ce t he f o rm ati on of sur f ace


v or t ice s . T he um b re lla in cr ea s es th e e ff ec ti ve d i am ete r o f t he pu m p b el l th u s r e du ci n g th e
lo ca l ap pr o ac h v elo ci tie s . T hi s i n tu r n is s u p po s ed to r ed u ce t he s t re ng th o f th e ci rc ul ati on
ar o u nd th e p u m p . R ef er e nc e 7 r ep o r ted s u cce s s us i n g th e s e d ev ice s . E x pe ri en ce s b y ot h er s
in di cate t hat th ey w ere n ot v er y ef fe ctiv e in r ed uc ing th e f o rm a tio n o f sur f ace vo r tice s .
C au tio n i s a dv ise d w h en us i ng um br el las to eli m in a te su rf ac e v o r tic es.

S u cti on elb o w s c an b e a m e th od to i m p ro v e fl ow h yd r au lic s e nt er in g th e p um p. T h ey c an


b e at tac h ed t o t he p u m p w h ic h r ed u ces t he d o w n ti m e t o d e- w at er to in s ta ll th e
m o d if icat io ns . T h e p u m p t o f lo or c lea ran ce h as to b e la rg e en ou g h to allo w fo r p ro p er
tu r nin g o f t he f lo w . V an es ar e us u al ly i ns ta lle d in th e e lb ow to im p r ov e th e fl ow
d is t ri b ut io n at t he im pe ll er lo ca tio n . R e f er en ce 7 s t ate s th at us i n g a s u c ti on el b ow w i ll
in c re as e he ad l es s . W i th p ro p er d es i g n, th i s c an b e m i n im iz ed . I f th e e lb o w is at ta ch ed to
th e pu m p, l ate ral f o rc es sh o ul d b e calc ul ate d an d co m p en sat ed f or to en su re t ha t w i ll b e n o
ex cessive col um n o r sh af t d eflec tion o r vib rat ion .

D.4.15 Operational Constraints

A no th er op tio n is to d eve lop s u m p m o dif icatio ns fo r no rm al o pe ratin g co nd itio ns a nd to


lim it the u s e o f ot her op era tin g con d itio ns . T his alle via tes t he ne ed to d ev elo p m o dif icat ion s
to im p ro v e f low con di tion s f or ev ery c on ceiv able s tati on o per atio n. A m od el st ud y us ed in
d evel op ing s u m p m o d ific atio ns is an ef f ectiv e t oo l i n es tab lis hin g th e o p erat ing p ro ced ur es
b as ed on s um p h yd r au lic s .

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D.5 The Sump Design Process

D.5.1 Introduction

P re vio us s ecti on s h av e d is cu s s ed th e:

A ttr ibu tes of a g oo d s um p d es ig n


P o in te d o ut t h e pi tf al ls of in ad eq u ate s um p h y dr au l ics
M e ans of i den tif yi ng an d co rr ect ing t he pe rf or m an ce pr ob lem s asso ciate d w ith p oo r
su m p des ign.

I t is al s o im p or ta nt t o co n s id er t he s t ep s t ha t s ho u ld b e ta ke n to fo r es ta ll o ccu r re nc e of
s um p p r ob l em s w h en p lan n in g a ne w pu m p s ta ti on . In m a ny ca s e h is to r ie s o f pr o bl em
p u m p s t at io n s , i t is ap p a re nt th at s um p h y d r au li cs h av e o n ly b een co n s i de r ed as an
a f te rt h o ug h t, i f a t al l, in th e d e s ig n . S u m p h yd r au l ic s an d th e i nt er a cti o n o f th e p u m ps
w i th th e s u m p s h ou ld b e co ns i de red fr om t he s ta tio n co nc ep tu al de si gn .

I n th e id eal s itu at io n, th e s u m p de s ig n s h o ul d b e p er fo r m e d b y an ex p er t in s um p
h y d ra ul ics , ap p ly in g a n ex p er ien c ed a nd co n s er va tiv e i nt er pr et ati o n o f th e av a ila bl e s um p
d e s ig n s ta nd a rd s w i th a cl ea r u n d er s ta n di n g o f th e p u m p s ta ti on p er f o rm an c e
r e q ui r em en ts .

D.5.2 Design Responsibility

T he r es p on s ib ili ty f or the s u m p d es i gn m an y tim es fal ls on t he h an ds o f th e c iv il s tr uct ur al


e n g in ee r w ho al s o d es i gn s t he s u p er s tr u ct u r e o f t he p ri m p s t at io n . T h e s tr u ct u r al e n gi n ee r
m ay or m a y n ot b e a h y dr au li cs ex p er t. I n s om e cas e s , a n at tem p t is m ad e t o o ve rc o m e th e
p o ten ti al s ho r tco m in g s o f th is ap p ro ach by pas s i ng res p o ns i bi lity fo r ad eq u ate h yd r au lic
p e rf o r m an c e of th e s u m p to th e p u m p s up p li er . T h e s u pp li er is r eq u ir ed by th e p u m p
s p ec if ica tio n t o ap p ro ve t he s u m p de s ig n an d g u ar an tee p er fo r m an ce o f t he p u m p s i n th e
s u m p, r ec om m e nd in g c ha ng es to th e s u m p d es ig n to co rr ec t de fi cie nc ies . P ut tin g th e
r e s po n s ib il ity fo r t he de s ig n in th e eq u ip m e nt s u p p lie r's h an d s m ay no t al w ay s s er ve t h e
b e st in te re sts o f t he ut il ity . T h e su pp li er m ay le an to w ard v ery co ns erva ti ve ,
w e ll-prec ed ent ed so lu tio n s, ra th er th an cost -e ffect iv e so lu ti on s t ha t con sid er t he o v era ll
fu nc tio n an d d esi gn o f t he i nsta lla tio n .

T he b es t a pp r oa ch m ay b e fo r t he ar ch it ect /en gi ne er t o m a in tain co nt ro l o f th e s um p d es ig n


a nd o bt ain ad di tio n al ex p er tis e b y b r in gi ng in a h y dr au li c de s ig n co n s u lta nt t o p er fo r m
c o nc ep tu a l hy d r au li c d es i gn an d hy d r au li c m o d el t es t in g a s r e qu i re d. T h e p u m p s u pp l ier
s h o ul d s till r ev iew an d ap pr o ve, bu t no t co ntr o l the d es ig n an d m od el tes t s .

D.5.3 Design Sequence


S o m e of t he inf or m at ion th at m u st b e d ev elop ed in clu de s:

F lo w r eq uir em ent s, inc lud in g va ria bil ity o f fl ow , b as ed o n th e s ys te m h ead cur ve


( m ax i m u m , m in im um , an d n o r m al ); a ux il iar y w a ter s u pp ly , a nd th e ne ed fo r
sta nd b y ca p aci ty

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Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

S c re en in g re qu ir em en ts , i nc lu di ng de br is ty p e an d lo ad in g s , as w el l as an y re -
qu i re m e nt s f o r s c re en in g m ar i ne o r g an is m s
L o cat io n o f th e s tat io n, i nc lu di ng av ail ab le fo o tp ri nt f or th e s tat ion lay o ut a nd
d ir ec ti o n o f fl o w s u p pl y a n d p u m p d i s ch a rg e
S up p ly w at er le ve ls , in clu d in g va ri atio n w i th f lo w o r o th er v ari ab les
F ou n da tio n c on d itio n s t ha t m ay a ff ec t the s u m p fl oo r

D.5.4 Preliminary Selection of Pumps

T h e n u m b er , s i ze , an d ty pe s of p um p s m u s t be de ter m in ed as th is d at a is r eq ui r ed f o r t he
s tat io n co n cep tu al la yo u t. A p re lim ina ry s ele cti on s h o ul d b e m ad e o f ac tua l eq ui pm en t, s o
pu m p be ll s iz es a nd N P S H r eq u ir em e nt s m ay b e co ns i de re d in the d es i gn of the s u m p s .

D.5.5 Selection of Screens

T h e n um be r, s ize , an d t yp es o f s cr ee ns m us t a ls o b e d ete rm in ed . S p eci al co n s id er at io n o f


s cr een in g m ar in e lif e m ay m ak e t his p ro ces s an d th e l ay ou t of t he s ta tio n ve ry com pl ex.

D.5.6 Conceptual Layout of the Station

T he fo llow in g sh ou ld be con si der ed in t he con ceptu al la you t:

T h e av ai lab le w ate r le ve l, s u b m e rg en c e, a nd N P S H re qu i re m en ts s h o ul d b e us ed i n
es t ab l is h in g p u m p s s et ti n g s

T h e p u m p f low an d be ll s ize s ho ul d be u s ed to e st abl is h th e rel ativ e geo m e try o f th e


s um ps , in clu d ing i nd iv idu al s um p w id ths , b ell to f lo or , an d ba ck w all cl ear anc es

T h e le ng th of th e s u m p s s h o u ld b e d ete rm in ed as a fu n cti on o f th e o ri en tat io n an d


velo city o f f low enter ing th e s um ps

T h e con d itio n o f th e app r oac h fl ow to t he sum p, m o re th an an y o th er f acto r , can


res u lt in p oo r per fo rm anc e f ro m a s lu m p w h ich o ther w is e m eets th e ac cep ted de s ign
sta n d ard s

I n s o m e ca s es t he le ng th m ay b e r ed uce d if f lo w s tra ig ht en ing or tur n in g de vi ces ar e


u sed to m od ify the app roach flo w .

T he un it ize d s u m p de s ig n i s t h e pr ef er r ed l ay o ut a nd s h ou ld b e ad he re d t o f or th e
co nd en sin g coo lin g w at er pu m ps

I t m ay be n e ces s a ry fr o m an op er at io n al o r o th er s t an d po in t to lo ca te au x ili ar y
p u m p s in th e sa m e su m p

It i s cr iti cal to loc ate th e au xi liar y u ni ts s o the re is no ad ver s e ef fe ct of e ith er


p u m p in g u n it

T h e us e o f fl ow g uid an ce an d /o r vo r tex su pp r essin g ap pu r ten an ces.

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D.5.7 Hydraulic Model Testing


H y d ra ul ic m o de l tes ts ar e a nec es s ar y p ar t of t he d es ig n s e qu en ce f or f ac ilit ies us i ng lar ge
p u m p s (o v er 2 0 ,00 0 g p m ) an d ar e h ig h ly r ec om m e nd ed fo r a n y p um pi n g s ta tio n . R es u lt s
o b tai ne d th ro u gh hy dr au li c m o del t es tin g i nc lu de:

D ef in iti on of an y u na cce pt ab le hy d ra ul ic p er fo r m an ce t ha t m ay re s ult f r om


op er at ing th e in itia l co nce pt ua l de si gn ov er the n o rm al ra ng e o f o per at in g co nd it io ns

D eve lop m en t of d esig n rev isio ns to co rr ect an y un acce ptab le hy d rau lic p erf or m an ce
condition s

O p tim iz atio n of th e s ize of th e s u m p s to r edu ce co st s

W ith t he d es ign rev is io n d ev elo pe d in th e pr ev io us ph as e, d im ens i on s o f th e su m p


m ay b e r ed uc ed u n til t he t hr es h o ld o f u n acc ep tab le p er f or m a nc e is de ter m i ne d

I t m ay be p os s i ble t o re du ce s iz es f u rt her th ro ug h t he ad d itio n o f ca ref u lly d es i gn ed


f low g uid ing or vo rtex s upp res s ion dev ices

F in al t un in g of fl ow g u id in g ap p u rt en an ces an d ot he r d es ig n de tai ls as m a y b e
r eq ui re d b y o th er d e s ig n co n s id er ati on s s u ch a s m ate ri als , fa b ri cat io n te ch ni qu es ,
etc .

D e fi ni tio n o f s t atio n o p er ati on al c on s tr ai nt s th r ou g h te s tin g o f v ar y in g w at er le ve ls ,


p u m p o p er at in g c om b in at io n s , a n d p u m p in g ra te s

D.6 Case Histories

D.6.1 Case History No. 1

T he c oo li ng w ate r in tak e f or e ach un it , as s ho w n i n F ig u re D .1 3, c on ta in s f o ur ,


2 7 5 ,0 0 0 g p m co nd e ns e r co o li ng w ate r p u m p s an d a s cr ee n w a s h p u m p . T hi s p r oj ec t is
i llu s tr at iv e of a hi gh ly no n -s t an da rd s um p d es ig n w i th h y dr au li c pe rf o rm an ce p ro b lem s
t ha t w er e co r re cted b y m o d el te s tin g , an d e m p h as iz es th e im p o rt an ce o f im p lem en tin g
d es ig n r evi s ion s d ev elo p ed by m o del te st ing pr ecis e ly as int end ed .

D -26
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Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

F ig u r e D .1 3
S u m p D e sig n P r o c e ss C a s e H is to r y - S ite P la n

D -2 7
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D u r in g in it ia l s t ar t- u p t es t s th e c on d e ns e r c o o lin g w at er p u m p s r um b le d a nd v ib r at ed
ex c es s i ve ly . O b s e rv a tio n of th e w a ter s u r fa ce i n th e s u m ps r ev e ale d a ir c o re v o r tic es an d
s t r on g c ir cu l at io n p at te r n s ar o u n d t h e p u m p s . T h e le v el o f v i br a ti o n , e v en w h e n t h e ai r
co r e v o rt ice s w er e n ot p re s ent , in d icat ed p ro b ab le pr es e nc e o f s u b m er ge d v or tic es . M o d el
te s ts c on f ir m ed t h is . M o s t of th e p r o bl em s w er e as s o c iat ed w it h n o n -s t an d ar d f e atu r es o f
t h e s t at io n d es ig n :

T h e s cr een ing s ys te m w a s d es ig ne d to a llo w o ne s cr een to b e d o w n fo r m a in ten anc e


w it h an y co m b in at io n of pu m p s in o pe ra tio n u p to an d in clu d in g all f o ur p u m p s
ser v ici ng a sin gl e un it

T h er e is a f lo w di s tr ib u ti on ch am be r d o w ns tr eam f r o m th e s cr ee n b ay s to di s tr ib u te
fl ow lat er all y f ro m th e s cr een s to th e p um ps


. T h e i nd i v id u al s u m p s ar e q u it e s h o rt . A s a r es u lt , a s s h o w n i n F ig u r e D .1 4, ev e n
w ith al l pu m p s an d sc r een s in op er at io n :

S tr o n g c ir cu l ati o n p a tte r ns w er e es tab l is h e d i n t he s u m p s


S tr on g p re ro ta tio n o f f lo w e nt er ed th e p um ps
E dd ie s w er e sh ed i n cr os s flo w p as t th e pie r no s es
N um er ou s sub m e rg ed and fr ee su r fac e vo r tic es fo rm ed a t va ri ou s lo cati on s in t he
s u m p s a n d en t er e d t h e p u m p s .

T h e s t ru c tu r e w as m u ch d ee p er th a n d i ct at ed b y pu m p s u bm e rg e n ce re q u ir em e nt s
i n o r d e r t o m a i nt a in ad e q u at e s c r ee n ar e a.( s e e F i g u r e D .1 5 ) . I n o r d e r t o m a in t ai n
r ad i al i nf lo w t o t he pu m p b el l, th e m an u fa ct ur e r s u p pl ie d t he pu m p s w ith a ci r cu la r
p la te a tta ch ed to t h e pu m p b el l by s tu d s . S e pa r ati on o f f lo w fr o m th e e dg es o f t he
p late l ed to f o rm a tio n o f s tro n g va po r co re v or ti ces w h ic h en ter ed th e pu m p s .

T hr o ug h m od el t es ti ng , s e v era l m o d if ica tio n s t ha t co ul d b e re tr of it ted in t he e xi s tin g s u m p s


w er e d eve lo ped to al lev iat e t he f lo w p ro b lem s . T h es e, a s p ictu r ed in F ig ur e D .1 6, inc lu ded :

E l im in at ion o f v or tic es f ro m th e w a lls by in s tal lin g fl ow gu id in g s hap es alo ng t he


w a ll s o f t he s u m p s a t th e s a m e el ev at io n as t h e an n u la r o p en i n g b e tw e en th e b e ll
a n d p la t e

P r ev en tio n o f f re e sur fa ce v or tic es by in stall in g a lay er of g r ati ng abo v e th e pu m p


b ell el ev atio n

P r even tio n of cir cu latio n of f low belo w th e pu m p bel l p lates by lo catin g a w al l ac ros s
t h e en t ra n ce o f ea ch su m p

I ns t allat io n of a co n e o n ea ch o f the ci rc ula r pu m p b ell p late s to gu id e f lo w in to t he


b ell s w ith ou t fo rm atio n o f vo rt ices fr om th e be ll pla te

C ro s s ed f low gu id e v an es w er e s up eri m po s ed o n th e co n es to c on tr ol pr e- ro tatio n o f


f lo w en t er in g t h e pu m ps

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V o r tic e s f ro m w a te r s u rf a c e , s u m p s id e a n d b a c k w a lls a n d p u m p b a f fle p la te s in a ll


sum ps.

F ig u r e D .1 4
S u m p D e sig n P ro c e ss C a se H is to r y - I n itia l C o n c ep tu a l D e sig n

D -2 9
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F ig u r e D .1 5
S u m p D e sig n P ro c e ss C a se H is to ry - F in a l C o n ce p tu a l D e s ign

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F ig u re D .1 6
C a s e H is to r y N o . 1 - I n itia l S u m p L a y o u t

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D ur ing f ield im p lem en tatio n o f the m o dif icatio ns , the pr of ile of the co ne w a s cha nge d to
m at ch m o re clo s ely to th e pu m p b ell pr of ile. T he res u ltin g co ne , sh o w n i n F igu re D .17 , did
no t occ up y th e b as e pla te to th e li m its of t he cr os s ed f low gu id e v an es . T h is w as no t m od el
tes t ed p r io r to i ns t all ati on . F ol lo w in g f iel d im p le m en ta tio n , th e pu m ps ag ain vi br at ed , bu t
w it h e ve n g r eat er m a gn it u de t h an b e fo r e, a t f ou r tim es v an e p as s f re q ue nc y . T h e m o de l
w as re -t es ted w ith the c on es as in s tal led i n the f ie ld. F ou r c on s tan t s u bm er ged vo r tice s
w ere f ou nd to f or m fr om th e b ase p late ad jacen t to the en ds of th e c ro sse d flo w g uid e v an es
in th e areas un occup ied by the base of the con e. A m od ification of th e con e pro file, also
s ho w n in Fig ur e D .1 7, w as d evelo ped o n the m od el w h ich elim ina ted thes e v or tices an d
vi br atio n of th e pr oto ty pe pu m p s .

P ro p o s e d

A s B u ilt

A s M o d ifie d

F ig u r e D .1 7
C a s e H is to ry N o . 1 - C o n e P r o file s

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D.6.2 Case History No. 2

C oo li n g w a ter f or th e p la nt i s w it hd r aw n f ro m a m an - m a de r e s er v oi r. T h e c ir cu la tin g w at er
s ys t em f or th e po w e r pl an t is s er ve d b y f iv e ve rt ica l pu m p s , e ach ra ted at 1 80 ,00 0 g p m . I n
ad d it io n , th e re ar e tw o d ec an t p u m p s , e ac h r at ed at 1 0 ,00 0 g pm . A t hi r d d ec an t p u m p is
pl an ne d. A 54 -i nc h d iam e ter m ak eu p w ate r lin e, w hi ch d is ch ar ge s in to a c om m o n p len u m
ch am be r ju s t u p s tr eam of th e co n de ns e r c oo li ng w at er p u m p s , i s u s e d to m ai n tai n w at er
lev els in the re se rv oir .

S in ce s t ar t- up ,all o f t he c on d en s er co ol in g w a ter pu m p s ex p er ien ce d p er fo r m a nc e pr o bl em s .


T h e pu m p s ha ve ex p er ien ced ex ces s iv e v ib rat io n, kn o cki ng s ou n ds , a nd s om e s ur gi ng .
S ur f ace v or tic es h av e be en o bse rv ed j ust u pst rea m of t he h ead w all at th e sto p lo g slo t
lo cat ion s . T he im pe lle r bl ad es on P u m p s 1, 2 an d 4 u lti m at ely f ai led .

A f iel d in ves t ig atio n w as un d ert ak en af ter t he f ailu r e o f o ne o f th e pu m p s to ob s er ve


exis tin g con dit ion s at t he sit e an d collec t ap pr oach f low v elo city inf or m atio n for m o de l
cal ibr ati on . D ur in g th e in ves t iga tio n, P um p 1 w as vi br ati ng e xc es s iv ely ( m o ve m en t on the
or der o f 0.25 to 0 .50 -i nch at a f req uen cy o f a ro und 5 to 6 H z) w ith k no cki ng an d c lang ing
s ou n ds acc om pa ni ed b y s h ud de ri ng a pp r ox im atel y o nce p er s e co nd . N o is e an d v ib rat io n
d ecr ea s ed in s ev er it y f ro m P u m p 1 to P um p 5 . I n te rm it ten t s u r fa ce v o rt ic es fo r m e d i n th e
p le nu m ch am b er u ps tr ea m o f th e p u m p s . I t w a s no t ed th a t w h en t he r e w e re 4 t o 6 in c h es
of he ad loss ac ro ss t he scr ee ns b ecau se o f alg ae g ro w th , t he p um ps v ib ra ted m or e th an w i th
clean scr eens.

A p hy s ica l m od el s tu dy w as un d ert ake n at a 1:1 2 s cal e, w h ich in clu d ed a po rt ion of th e


re s er vo i r, in tak e s tr u ctu r e, a ll f iv e of th e ci rc ul ati ng w ate r p u m p s , m a ke -u p w ate r li ne ,
de cant p um ps, tr ash ra cks an d scree ns (s ee F ig ur e D . 1 8) .

D ur in g th e in it ial in v es tig at ion w ith clea n s cr een s , s tr o ng s ub s u rf ace v or ti ces fo r m ed fr om


th e f lo or u n der the b ell. I n s om e c as es , a pa ir o f flo o r vo rt ices fo rm ed . O th er s ub s ur f ace
vo r ti ces f or m e d f ro m t he b ac k w a ll an d f r om eit he r o r b ot h s i de w a lls . In te rm it ten t s u rf ac e
v or ti ce s f o r m e d i n th e p l en u m ch am b er up s t re am o f th e s u m p h ead w al l. P r e- ro t ati o n o f
fl ow ent eri ng th e pu m p s w as w ith in th e cri ter ion of b ein g w ith in 5 .

P ar tia l bl oc ka ge o f t he s c re en s w a s t es te d to ev alu at e i ts ef fe ct o n p um p p er fo r m an ce . W ith


4 to 6 inch es of he adloss ( pro toty pe) across th e screen s, vap or cor e f loor vo rtices f orm ed.
P re -r o tat io n in cr eas e d d ra m at ical ly , u p to 10 or m o re , an d w a s u n s tead y .

T h e r es u lts o f th e in it ial i nv e s tig at io n in d ica ted th at t he f ai lu re s o f t he i m p el ler bl ad es w er e


pr o bab ly d u e to ap pr o ach f lo w h y dr au lics . P a rt ial bl oc kag e o f s cre en s w as pr o bab ly the
m aj or c on tr ibu tin g f acto r to the f ailu r e o f th es e p um p s , al on g w ith t he f or m at ion of s u rf ace
and su bs ur fa ce v or tices.

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F ig u r e D .1 8
C a se H ist or y N o . 2 - I n itia l S u m p L ay o u t

D -3 4
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

T w o o ptio ns w ere dev elop ed to i m pr ove app ro ach flow to t he p um p s :

M a in t ai n th e e x is t in g s u m p a r r an g e m e n t an d c le an th e s cr e en s f r eq u e nt ly
(c on tinu ou s ly du rin g alg ae g ro w th se as on ) t o pr ovi de un ifo rm ap pr oach f low s a nd
el im in at e un d esir ab le sub s u rf ace t ur b ule nc e
I s o la te ea ch p u m p c ha m b er by s ep ar ati ng eac h b ay w ith a co nt in uo u s s id e w all f r om t he
back w all to th e t rash rac ks (s ee F ig ur e D . 1 9 )

F ig u r e D .1 9
C as e H is to ry N o . 2 - P ro p o se d S u m p M o d ifica tio n s

T h is op tio n w as dev elo p ed if f r equ en t clea nin g o f th e t rash rac ks w as i m pr ac tical .

F or eith er op tion , t he foll ow ing m o dif icatio ns ( as s ho w n i n F ig ur e D .2 0) w ere dev elo ped to
im p rov e ap pro ach flo w hy drau lics :

T a per ed f loo r f low s pi tter u nd er ea ch pu m p t o elim ina te the f or m ati on o f fl oo r vo r tices

S i de w all , ba ck w all , an d cor n er f illet s to e lim i na te the f or m at ion of s u bs u rf ace v or tic es


f r om th e s um p w al ls

G r ati n g p lat fo r m s in th e pl en um ch am b er to d i ssip ate su r fa ce v o rt ice s

R e lo ca tin g th e 5 4 -i n ch m ak e up li n e aw a y f r om th e s ta ti o n

T h e p er fo r m a nc e of th e in ta ke w i th th e m o di fi ca tio n s w a s d o cu m e nt ed in d et ail . W ith


o ptio n (1 ) , the pe rf or m an ce is s ati sf acto ry w i th clea n sc ree ns ; ho w eve r, if th e sc ree ns
b eco m e pa rti ally b lo ck ed, hig h p re -r ota tio n an d s om e s u b su r fac e v o rti ces m ay f or m an d
d eg ra de p u m p pe rf o rm an ce. W i th o p tio n ( 2 ), th e pe rf o rm an ce i s s a tis f ac to ry w it h ei th er
clea n o r pa rtial ly blo cke d sc reen s .

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F ig u r e D .2 0
C as e H isto ry N o . 2 - B a ffle P la te C o n e M od ific a tio n s

D.6.3 Case History No. 3


C o o li n g w a te r f o r t h e p la nt is w i th d ra w n fr o m a m an - m ad e la k e th r o u gh a c an al . T h e
pu m p in g s tati on has b een d es ig n ed f or a 5 -f o ot r ang e in lak e lev els . U nit 1 i s s er v ed b y
fo ur v er tic al con d en se r co ol ing w ater p u m p s, each rat ed at 7 2,50 0 g pm ; tw o s er vi ce w ater
pu m p s , eac h r at ed at 3 ,1 0 0 g p m ; a n d tw o au x il iar y c o ol in g w a ter p um p s , ea ch ra ted at
8,9 00 g pm (s e e F ig u r e D .2 1 ) . A n id en ti cal in tak e s t ru c tu re f o r a f u tu r e U n it 2 is ad ja cen t
to U nit 1.

A f ield in vest ig atio n w as u nd er tak en t o o bser v e e xi s tin g co nd it ion s at th e si te an d co lle ct


app ro ac h flo w vel oci ty in fo rm atio n f or m od el cal ibr ati on . D ur in g th e i nv es tig at ion s o m e
su r gin g an d v ib rat ion s w e re n ote d in o ne o f th e c on d ens er coo lin g w at er p um ps .
In te rm it te nt s u r f ace v o r tic es f o rm ed be hi n d th e p u m p s , in t h e co r ne rs o f t he s um p , an d
alo ng th e w a lls ju s t up s tr eam o f th e re lie f ho le s .

D -36
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Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

PUMP INTAKE LAYOUT

F ig u re D .2 1
C a se H isto r y N o . 3 - In itia l In ta k e D e sig n

A 1 :1 0 s c ale m od e l of th e in ta ke s tr uc tu r e w as b ui lt an d tes t ed to i nv e s tig at e s u m p


h yd r au lics . In v es tig at io n of th e e xi s tin g d es ig n r ev eal ed n o n- un if o rm d is tr ib u tio n o f f lo w
ap p r oa ch in g t he p u m p s ; an d a ge ne ra l ci rc ul ati on in th e pu m p b ay s w hi ch l ed to t he
f or m at ion of su r fac e v o rti ces. S u b su r fac e vo rt ices fo r m ed f ro m th e fl oo r un d er th e pu m p
b ell s , f ro m th e b ack w all , an d f ro m t he s i de w a lls . P r e- r ot ati on of fl ow en te ri ng th e pu m p s
w as ex ce s s iv e. T h e v elo ci ty d is tr ib u tio n a t t he i m p ell er lo ca tio n w a s n o t s ym m et ric al.

T h e m a jo r co n tr ib ut in g fa cto r s f o r th e h ig h p re- r ot ati on an d as y m m etr ic al v elo cit y


d is tr ibu ti on w e re:

T he op e n su m p ar r an g em en t w i th a co m m o n ch am b er acr o ss th e e n tir e st r uc tu r e ju st
up s tr eam of the ci rc ula tin g w ate r pu m p s
T h e relie f h ol es in th e i nter ior w al ls on e ither s id e o f th e cir cu latin g w a ter pu m p s (s ee
F ig ure D . 22 )

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F ig u r e D .2 2
C a se H ist or y N o. 3 - In itia l S u m p L a y ou t

T h ese a llow e d flo w to en ter th e con de nser co oli ng w ate r pu m p ba ys n o nu nif or m ly cr eati ng
ad ve rs e f low hy d rau li cs at th e pu m p s.

M od if icatio n s w ere d evel op ed to r edu ce or eli m in ate adv ers e fl ow ph eno m en a. T h e


m od ifications s how n in F igu res D .23 an d D .2 4 inclu ded:

D -3 8
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Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

B lo ck in g of f th e s to p lo g s lot s an d re lief h ol es in o r der to len gth en an d is o late th e


c ir cu lat in g w at er p u m p b ay s to i m p r ov e f lo w d is t ri bu ti on ap pr o ach in g t he p u m p s

I ns tal latio n o f flo or /b ack w all fl ow s p litt ers to di ss ip ate s ub m er g ed vo rt ices


o r ig in at in g f ro m f lo o r an d b ac k w a ll

M o dif y in g th e step be hin d t he p u m p b ell s t o all ow cl ear an ce b etw e en th e b ell an d


ba ck w al l s p li tt er

I n stal la tio n of fi ll ets al o ng th e sid e w a lls a nd b ack w al ls to eli m i na te t he f o r m at io n


o f s ub m erg ed vo rtic es fr om s um p w alls

In stal lin g a gr ati ng p latf o rm ar o un d eac h p um p to d issip ate su rf ace v or ti ces

F ig u r e D .2 3
C as e H ist or y N o . 3 - S u m p M o d ific a tio n D e ta ils

D -39
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T h e p er f or m a nc e of th e s um p w i th t he m od i fic at io ns w as d oc um en te d in de tai l. W he n
U ni t 1 w as op erat ing , the p erf or m an ce w as fo un d to be s atis f acto ry . H o w ev er, w he n flo w s
to U n it 2 w e re s i m u la ted to r ep r es en t a p o s s ib le f ut u re o p er ati on , t he v a ri ati on in v el oc iti es
m e asur ed in the th ro at o f o ne of th e pu m p s in U n it 1 w as c on si der ed ex cessiv e. T hi s
co m b inat ion o f op er atin g con di tion s w as ide ntif ied as a c om b in atio n to be av oid ed if an d
w h en U ni t 2 b eco m es op er ativ e.

F ig u re D .2 4
C a se H is to r y N o . 3 - In ta k e P la n

D -4 0
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

D.6.4 Case History No. 4

T h e c oo ling w ater f or the pl ant is fr om a s er ies o f c oo ling to w e rs co nn ected to a pu m pin g


s t atio n t hr o ug h tw o 12 - fo o t dia m et er c on d uit s . T h e co nd en s er co oli ng w ate r pu m p s tat io n
c on s is ts o f th re e, 2 20 ,0 00 gp m cir cul atin g w ate r pu m p s , tw o s er vi ce w ater p u m ps an d th ree
f ir e w a ter pu m ps , s ee F i gu r e D .25 . F lo w e n ter s th e p um p b ay s p er pe nd ic u lar to t h e ax is o f
t he s u m ps .

T he ci rc ula tin g w at er p um ps ex pe rie nc ed v ib ra tio n p ro bl em s , w i th th e m o s t s ev ere


v ib r ati on pr o bl em s o ccu r ri ng at o ne o f t he e nd pu m p s . T he v ib r ati on s w er e ra nd o m in
o ccu rr enc e. T o co m p ens ate f or th is , on e of th e coo lin g tow er s w as no t us ed r es ult ing in
p otential los s of p ow er .

P u m p pe rf o rm an ce p ro b lem s w er e r ev ie w ed d u ri ng th e s ite i ns p ec tio n . T h e v ib ra tio n s o f


t he pu m p s w er e con fi rm e d to be r and o m , an d th e p um ps ran s m oo thl y w hen flo w f ro m on e
o f th e co ol in g to w er s w as r ed uce d. T h e i m p elle r b lad es had cav ita tio n d am a ge , w ith pit tin g
u p to 1 /2 th e thic kn ess o f th e b lad es. T h e sh af t o n on e of t he cir cul atin g w ater p u m ps ha d
f ailed, p ro bab ly d ue to fatig ue.

F igure D .25
C a s e H isto r y N o. 4 - In itia l S u m p L a y o u t

D -4 1
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A 1: 12 s ca le m o d el o f th e p um p s t ati on w as bu il t an d te s ted to de ter m i ne i f th e v ib ra tio n


p ro bl em s w ere d ue to s u m p h yd r aul ics . F lo w f ro m th e i nf lo w li nes fr om t he co ol ing tow er s
en t er ed th e pl en u m ch am b er c au s in g up - w el li ng an d t ur b u len c e.

T h e g en er al cir cu la ti on in t h e ba ys r es u lt ed i n u n s tea d y, s w ir li ng fl o w e nt er in g t he p u m p s .
P re- ro tatio n of fl ow w as excessiv e. S om e o f t he edd ies th at w er e f or m ed in th e w ak e o f f lo w
d eve lo ped int o s ur fa ce vo rt ices an d en ter ed th e pu m p s . S u bs u rf ace v or tic es f o rm e d fr om
th e fl o or u n de r t h e p um p s , a n d f r o m th e b a ck w al ls a nd s i de w al ls . F r om th e a n aly s i s , i t
w a s de te r m i n ed th at th e v ib r a tio n s w e re p ro b ab l y d u e t o t h e r an d o m f o rm at io n an d
d is s ip at ion of s ub s u rf ace v o rt ices an d t he u n st ead y s w i rl ing fl ow en te rin g t he p u m p s .

SU M P M O D IF IC A T IO N S

F ig u r e D .2 6
C a se H isto r y N o . 4 - S u m p M o d ific a tion s

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M od ifications w ere d evelop ed to im pro ve f low cond itions in the existin g s um p (s ee


F i gu r es D .2 6 a nd D .2 7 ). T h es e in cl ud e d:

P er f or a ted pl at e in s ta lle d o n t he up s tr e am f ac e of th e s cr ee n s t o i m p ro v e ap p r oa ch
f low d is trib utio n

Fl oo r/b ack w all f low sp lit ter to d is si pate s ub m er ge d vo rtic es f ro m t he flo or a nd b ack
w all

F il lets al on g th e sid e w all s to eli m in ate t he f or m a tio n o f su bm er ge d v or tic es f r om


these location s

G rat in g lo ca ted in t he c or n er s o f th e s u m p s ne xt to th e s id e w all f il let s i n P u m p B ay


A t o d is s ip ate v o rti ces fo r m in g i n th e co rn er

C urtain w all upstream of each circulating w ater pum p to diss ipate s urface vo rtices

T he ad v er s e hy d rau li c con d iti on s w e re s u b s tan tia lly r ed u ced o r e lim ina ted allo w in g
co m plet e fr eedo m in op erati on of pu m ps a nd coo ling tow er s.

F ig u r e D . 2 7
C a se H ist o ry N o . 4 - S u m p M o d ific a tio n D e ta ils

D -4 3
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

D.6.5 Case History No. 5


T w o coo ling tow er b asin s s up ply w ater to t w o v ertical w et pi t, s in gle stag e, m ixed f low ty pe
co nd ens er co o ling w at er pu m ps at U n it 1 (s ee F igu re D .2 8 ). A ll flo w to th e pu m ps is
s up pli ed fr om eith er of th e co ol ing to w er bas in s , o r can b e a com bin atio n of th e tw o . T he
u n it ca n o p er a te w i th eit h er o r bo t h p u m p s , e ac h r at ed at 1 2 0 ,0 0 0 g p m . O n e- p u m p ru n o ut
is 1 4 5 , 0 00 g p m .
A 1 :9 s cal e m o d el o f th e p um p int ake s tr uctu re an d po r tion s o f th e co ol ing w a ter ba si ns
w er e bu il t an d tes t ed . A ge ne ral c ir cu lati on de ve lo ped in t he p u m p b ay w h en on e p um p
w as op er atin g w it h th e o p po s ite co o lin g to w er b as in s u pp ly in g th e f lo w . T h is r es u lte d in
h ig h p r e- r ot at io n a s f lo w en t er ed th e p um p . F lo w w a s r el at iv el y u n if or m i n th e p u m p ba y s
w ith v ery l ow pr e-r ota tion w h en b oth p um ps w e re op er atin g w ith a 50 /50 f lo w s pli t f ro m the
co olin g tow er ba sin s . A s the flo w s pli t fr om co olin g tow er ba sin s d eviat ed fro m the ideal
50 /50 s plit, a g ener al cir culatio n w o uld beg in to d evelo p a nd pre -ro tation of f low w ou ld
cor respo ndi ngly in crease.
In itia lly, t he pu m p b ell to bac k w all c lear ance w as app ro xim ately 1 /1 8 of th e b ell di am ete r.
T h is r esult ed in a ver y stro ng su bs u rf ace vo rtex ( va po r cor e v o rtex ) fo rm ing f ro m the ba ck
w al l an d en ter i ng th e p u m p . I n a d di tio n , f lo w s e pa ra te d al o ng th e r ear p or t io n o f t he pu m p
be ll.

S ub m erg ed vo rtice s dev elop ed fr om oth er flo w bo un dar ies in clud ing th e b ack w all, the flo or
d ir ect ly un d er th e pu m ps , an d t he c eil in g d ir ec tl y ab o v e th e pu m p. S u rp r is in g ly , w i th th e
o th er p er fo rm an ce p ro b lem s, th e vel oc ity dis t ri bu tio n a nd tu rb ul en ce lev el s m eas u re d at
th e i m p eller l oca tio n w ere w it hin c rit eri a.

F ig u r e D .2 8
C a se H is to ry N o . 5 - In it ial S u m p L a y o u t

D -4 4
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

M o dif icat ion s w er e dev elo pe d to re du ce pr e-r ot atio n of f lo w en ter ing t he pu m p s , and
el im i na te th e fo r m at io n o f s ub s u rf ac e vo r tice s . T h e s u m p m od if ic ati on s i nc lu de d, s ee
F ig ur e D .2 9:

F lo w b af f li n g a nd g u id e v an e s a t th e e n tr an c e to ea ch p um p b a y t o i m p r o ve
a p p ro ac h flo w d istrib u tio n

I n cr ea s in g th e p u m p b e ll to ba ck w all c lea ra n ce to .2 5 x b ell d ia m e ter to h e lp


e lim in ate t he f o rm ati on of vo r tic es fr om th e ba ck w a ll, red u ce tu r b ul en ce an d f lo w
s ep ar a tio n fr o m t he p u m p b el ls , an d t o i m p r ov e t he ge ne r al f lo w m o v em en t b eh i nd
the p u m p s

T a per ed fl oo r flo w s p litte rs t o elim i nate th e f or m at ion o f fl oo r vo rtic es an d re du ce


pre-ro tation of f lo w

F ill ets alo n g th e s id e w all s a nd ba ck w a ll to e lim in ate th e f or m a tio n o f s u bm er ge d


vo rtices fr om the p um p bay w alls

C ur ta in w al ls to el im i na te th e fo r m at ion of sub m e rg ed v o rt ices f ro m th e cei lin g


di re ctl y ab o ve t he p u m p s

T h e f lo w ba ff li n g th at w as tes t ed w as pe rf o r ate d p lat e w it h ap p r ox im at ely 16 to 18 pe rc en t


o pe n ar ea w it h ap p ro x im a tel y 1.8 5 f eet o f h ead lo s s (p r ot ot yp e) a t th e ru n ou t fl ow r ate .

F ig u r e D . 2 9
C a se H isto r y N o . 5 - S u m p M o d ific a tion s

D -45
EPRI Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

D.6.6 Case History 6


A p o w er u til ity p la nn ed a n ad di tio n o f a co al- f ire d p ow er ge ner at in g un it at t he ir ex is ti ng
f aci lit y. T h e de s ig n c on s u lta n t fo r t he a dd it io n r et ain ed a s pe cia lis t t o p er f or m th e
h yd r au lic d es ig n o f t he s t ati on an d th e co o lin g w a ter di s ch arg e s tr u ctu r e, a nd to p er f or m
s tea dy - s tate a nd t ra ns ie nt h yd r au lic an al ys is o f th e co oli ng w ater lo op .

C oo lin g w at er f or the p o w er p lan t co nd en s er s is r ecir cu lat ed th r ou gh a coo li ng l ak e. W a ter


is w i thd raw n f ro m the la ke th ro ug h a c anal as s ho w n in F igu r e D .30 . T h e lo cati on f or th e
n ew in ta ke w a s co ns t ra in ed by th e ex is tin g c an al a nd o th er p la n t eq ui p m en t an d fa cil it ies
to a fo ot pr int ap pr ox im at ely 2 60 f eet alo ng o ne b ank o f th e ca nal an d 18 0 fe et o n sh o re fr om
th e ca na l ce nt er lin e. T h e n ew in ta ke s t r uc tu re w a s to b e d es i gn ed fo r th re e, 1 8 0 ,0 0 0 g p m
cir cul atin g w ater p um p s : t hr ee, 1 2,50 0 gp m aux iliar y co oli ng w ate r pu m ps ; tw o 2 ,5 00 g pm
f ire w ater pu m ps ; a nd th re e, 1 ,0 0 0 g p m s er vi ce w at er p u m p s . P r io r to ad di tio n o f t he n ew
u nit , f lo w s to ex is tin g u n its alo n g th e can al t ota led 96 6 ,0 00 gp m . W at er le ve ls i n th e lak e
var y 5 feet fro m th e no rm al oper ating level.

W a ter s u rf ac e p r of ile ca lcu lat io ns w er e p er f or m ed to d ete rm i ne th e w ate r lev el s an d


av er ag e c an al v el oc iti es at t he i nt ak e f or va ry i ng lak e l ev els an d pu m pi ng ra te s . T h e
re s ul ts o f th is an aly s is p o in ted to a po ten tia l p r ob lem w i th s co ur in g o f s ed im e nts in t he
in tak e can al w i th th e ad di tio n al fl ow of th e n ew u ni t. T h is w ou ld lead to d ep os i tio n o f
s ed im en t i n th e i nt ak e an d po s s i bl e p re m a tu re w ear o f th e p u m p im pe lle r s t hr o u gh
ab ra s ion . B ed p ro te ctio n to pr ev en t m ob il izat ion of t he ca nal s e dim en ts w a s d es ig ne d.

F igure D .30
C a se H ist or y N o. 6 - S ite M o d ifica tio n D e tails
(Se vera l alternative c on ceptu al lay ou ts o f th e ap proa ch c han ne l e xcav atio n fo r th e pu m p sta tion an d
th e pu m p statio n itse lf w ere d evelop ed an d the layo ut pictu red in F ig ure D .3 0 w as se lected .)

D -4 6
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

F ig u r e D .3 1
C a se H is to r y N o . 6 - In itia l In ta k e L a y o u t

D -4 7
EPR I Licensed Material
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center

H y d rau lic m o d el t es ts w e re pe rf or m ed t o:

O pt im ize th e si ze o f th e s t ru ctu re, r edu cin g it fr om 7 7 x 19 0 f eet to 57 .5 x 18 4 fee t

( T h is r ed u cti on in ar ea o f th e s ta tio n , w ith th e pr ev en tio n o f p ro to ty p e pe rf or m a nc e


p ro b lem s t hr o ug h p r io r an al ys e s , m o r e th an c om p en sate d f or th e co st o f t he
h yd ra uli c des i gn a nd m od el s tu di es ).

D evel op th e d es ig n of f low gu idi ng f illets and s h ape s to p rev ent f or m atio n of


s u bm er g ed v o rt ic es b en e at h t h e p um p s .

O p tim iz e th e he ig ht o f c u rtain w alls fo r p re v en tio n o f fre e su rfac e vo rtex f orm a tio n .

M easu re h eadl osses associa ted w ith w i thd ra w al o f fl ow fr om th e c ana l i nto t he


s tru c tu re

T h ese w er e us e d in r e- ev alu ati on o f N P S H av aila bl e a nd resu lt ed in r ev isio n o f


p um p e lev a tio n s ett in g s a nd th e in v er t el ev at io n o f t h e s um p s

C o n firm atio n o f s atisfa cto ry s um p h y d rau lic p erfo rm a n ce th ro ug h m o d el te sts

C o n fir m s atis f act or y h yd ra ul ic per f or m an ce w ith a r ev is ed l ay ou t of f ir e a nd


aux iliar y pu m ps , d ictated lat e in the des ig n pr oces s b y econ om ic an d fir e s af ety
con sid eratio ns

C o n fi rm s ati s fa cto r y h y dr au l ic p er fo r m a nc e fo r th e fu ll r a ng e o f p o s s ib le la k e w ate r


le v e ls a n d p u m p flo w s

T h e re s ul tin g a rr an g em en t of th e p um p s ta tio n i s p ic tu re d m F i gu r e D .3 2 .

D -4 8
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

F ig u r e D .3 2
C a se H is to ry N o . 6 - S u m p M o d ific a tio n s

D -49
EPRI Licensed Material
Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pump Guide

References
1. " D yn am ics of S tr uctu res ," R ay W . C lo ug h, J os ep h P enzi en, C op yr igh t 19 75 .
2. " F in ite E le m en t A n aly s i s F u n da m en ta ls ," R ich ar d H . G al lag h er , C op y ri g ht 1 9 75 .
3. " M S C / N astr an P rim er - S tat ic an d N o rm al M o de s A n al ys i s ," H a rr y G . S ch aef fe r,
C op y rig h t 1 9 7 5.

4. " A N S Y S E n gin eer in g A nal ys is S ys tem U s er 's M an ual ," G ab rie l J . D eS a lvo , P h.D . J oh n
A . S w ans on , P h .D ., Is s ue J une 1, 1 985 .

5 . " H y d ra u lic In stitu te S ta n d a rd s fo r C e n trifu g a l, R o ta ry a n d R e c ip ro c a tin g P u m p s , 1 4 th


E d ., T h e H y dr a u li c In s ti tu t e, C o p y r ig h t 1 9 8 3 .

6. " T he H y d ra ul ic D es ig n o f P u m p S um ps an d I nt ake s ," B r iti s h H y dr om ech an ic s R es ea rc h


A s so ciation, Ju ly 1 977 .

7. "V er tical T u rbi ne, M ix ed F low , & P ro pell er Pu m p s," Joh n L .D icm as, M cG r aw -H ill B oo k
C o m p an y , C op y r igh t 1 9 87 .

8. D is cus sio n of "M odel-P roto ty pe C o m paris on o f F ree S urf ace V or tices " b y G eorge E.
H ecker , A S C E Jou rn al o f the H y dr aulic s D ivision V o l. N o . 108 , N o. H Y 1 1 N ov. 1 98 2 p p.
14 19- 142 0. D is cus s ed b y S w eeney, C .E . an d E lder, R .A .

9. "P um p S um p D esig n A ccep tan ce T hr ou gh H y dr au lic M od el T estin g," P r oc eedi ng s of t he


IA H R S y m p o s iu m o n O pe ra ti ng P r ob le m s o f P u m a S tat io n s a nd P o w er P lan t s ,
S eptem b er 198 2, C .E . Sw een ey and G .E . R o ckw ell.

10 . "S im i litu de C on dit ion s m F r ee S u rf ace V or tex F o rm atio ns ," A SC E Jou rn al of th e


H ydr aul ic D iv isio n, V o l. 1 00 , N o . H Y 1 1, N ov .. 1 97 4, pp l56 5- 15 81, L .L . D agg ett an d
G .H . K euleg an.

11 . "V or tex F or m ati on at V ert ical Pi pe In tak es ." A S C E J ou rn al o f th e H y dr auli cs D iv is ion ,


1 9 7 8 , 1 0 4 (H Y 1 0 ): 1 4 2 9- 14 4 5 , A . .K . Ja in.

12. "E ffects of V is cos ity on V ortex O rif ice Flow ," A S C E Jou rnal o f the H y draulics D ivisio n,
V ol. 94 , H Y 3, M ay 1 96 8, p 7 45- 75 1, P.B . Z ielins ki and J .R . V illem on te. D is cus s ed in
J anu ar y 19 69 b y E . M ark lu ng , J .A . M cC or qu od ale and H .O . A n w ay.

13. "A s s es sm ent o f S cale E f fects o n V orte xing , Sw ir l an d Inle t L o ss es m L arg e S cale S um p
M o dels ," by A ld en R esear ch L ab orato ry, W or cester Po lytechn ical In stitu te, f or U .S.
N uclear R egulatory C o m m is s ion, W ashin gton D .C . 2056 5, N U R E G /C R -2 760 , J une
19 82 .

14 . " P um p S u m p D es ign E x per ien ce: A S um m ary , " A S C E J o ur nal of th e H y dr auli cs


D ivis io n, V ol. 10 8, N o. H Y 3, M arch 1982 .

15. "M achiner y V ibratio n" b y V ictor W ow k, C o pyr ig ht 1 991 .

E -1
Target: About EPRI
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EPRI. Powering Progress

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