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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Main section
 2.1 Process of sensor
 2.2 List of sensor
 2.3 Functions & Principle of sensor
 2.4 Sensor wiring diagram
 2.5 Troubleshooting method
3.0 Conclusions

4.0 References

1.0 INTRODUCTION

There are many phenomena naturally occur in machining operations which are detrimental to this objective. feed. force. rewriting a part program to increase the depth-of-cut to minimize burr formation. etc. We will present techniques for monitoring and controlling the process phenomena which arise due to the interaction of the cutting tool and the workpiece like force generation. There is also a trend towards more frequent product changes which has driven research in the area of reconfigurable machining systems.. in some cases. typically by selecting process variables from a machining handbook or from the operator’s experience. chatter. Machining operations are shape transformation processes where metal is removed from a stock of material to produce a part. Process monitoring is the manipulation of sensor measurements (e. Process control is the manipulation of process variables (e. initiating an emergency stop in response to a tool breakage event. chip formation. Process monitoring technology will be critical to the cost- effective ramp-up of these systems. The drawbacks of off-line planning are the dependence on model accuracy and the inability to reject disturbances. Machine tool operators perform on-line and off-line process control by adjusting feeds and speeds to suppress chatter. Unmanned monitoring algorithms utilize filtered sensor measurements which. The trend towards making products with greater quality faster and cheaper has lead manufacturers to investigate innovative solutions such as process monitoring and control technology. vision. speed. visually detecting missing and broken tools and detecting chatter from the characteristic sound it generates. The objective of these operations is to produce parts with specified quality as productively as possible. tool failure. utilizes process models off-line to select process variables..g. Off-line process control is performed at the process planning stage. for example. depth-of-cut) to regulate the processes. temperature) to determine the state of the processes. while process control will provide options to .g. along with operator inputs. The machine tool operator routinely performs monitoring tasks. Computer aided process planning is a more sophisticated technique which.

there are currently companies which specialize in developing process monitoring packages. While process control has not made significant headway in industry. 2. Process monitoring and control technology will have a greater impact in future machining systems based on open-architecture systems.the designer who reconfigures the machining system.0 Main section .

1 Explanation on process selected Precision machining takes place at the sub-micron to nano scale dimensions. As advanced sensor technologies being used in manufacturing there is a continual need to adapt and refine current statistical process monitoring and quality control methods to take full advantage of the available data. The influence of advanced signal processing techniques and artificial intelligence were felt in the development and application of sensors and sensing systems. Conventional sensors such as force and vibration sensors suffer from inaccuracies due to the loss of sensitivity in the extremely high frequency range. For instance. These parameters include product features such as. it is of interest to track for control purposes the variation in process parameters such as material removal rate (MRR). such as. essential signal features may be difficult to obtain. Process monitoring is the use of observable and measurable process and product parameters to evaluate the state of a system. In addition. The focus of monitoring is on either the machine the tools or. as well as process cycle related characteristics like air time in machining. Critical sensor information in precision machining is required mostly for assessing material removal at the sub-micron level. the workpiece or the process itself. surface finish and subsurface damage. When material removal reaches the sub-micron level. The transformation of stand-a-lone sensors used primarily as diagnostic devices in a machining process to sensors as part of an intelligent system for tool and process monitoring and control. These are often called intelligent sensors. where most of the micro cutting activities are sensed.2. surface roughness or geometric dimensions and process variables. pad in chemical mechanical polishing. tool for example wheel in grinding. machine speeds and forces. current manufacturing system collects continuous streams . abrasive in lapping.

and signature analysis. new monitoring strategies must be explored.3 Principle of operation and function of each sensor . we find that sensor involve to operate this process completely. 2.2 Sensor involve in the cutting process From observation that we make in this cutting process. We have five sensor that perform in this process which is: a) Force sensor b) Power sensors c) Vibration sensors d) Temperature sensors e) Tool sensors 2. However. Multivariate control charting is an extension of traditional discrete measurement control charting to monitor multiple parameters simultaneously. such as monitoring the average or maximum value.of data from numerous system sensors. One could use traditional univariate techniques. In order to truly use this data to its fullest. profile monitoring. evaluating just the average or maximum value can exclude many important features and lead to high false alarm and misdetection rates. Advances in statistical and mathematical analyses of continuous signals include the use of multivariate control charts.

All of this sensor have their own criteria. improve mechanical properties and increase surface durability. Applying a force to the surface of the sensing film causes particles to touch the conducting electrodes. cutting movement. which changes resistance in a predictable manner following application of force to its surface. The sensing film consists of both electrically conducting and non-conducting particles suspended in matrix. The principle of operation of all five sensor is: a) Force sensor A force sensing resistor is a piezoresistivity conductive polymer. The particle sizes are of the order of fraction of microns. and are formulated to reduce the temperature dependence. we observed the principle of operation of each sensor that used in this process. Figure 1: Force sensor . Based on all five sensor that we listed at (2). As with all resistive based sensors the force sensitive resistor requires a relatively simple interface and can operate satisfactorily in moderately hostile environments. It is normally supplied as a polymer sheet which has had the sensing film applied by screen printing. sensor characteristic. capacity and type of detection. changing the resistance of the film.

Thermopile sensors measure the radiation power of a laser beam. The absorber coating determines which spectral range of the radiation is detected. The working principle of thermopile sensors is fundamentally different from that of photodiodes. the temperature difference causes an electrical voltage to build up within the sensor element. thermopile sensors are therefore sensitive to radiation of all wavelengths. When using a broadband absorber with a flat spectrum. This output voltage is directly proportional to the power of the incoming radiation. Figure 2: Current/Power sensor . Due to the thermoelectric effect. This heat is then flowing through the sensor from the top surface to the bottom. When a laser beam hits the surface of a thermopile sensor. the incident radiation is absorbed within the coating layer and transformed into heat.b) Power sensor Power sensor that used in this process is Thermopile sensor. photodiodes are used to measure laser power. causing a temperature difference across the sensor. In many applications.

It is based on the phenomenon of induction. The measurement scales use the metric Celsius scale. The absolute scale that uses is Fahrenheit temperature sensing. The principle of electrodynamics is used in a relative speed sensor.c) Vibration sensor This vibration sensor works on electromechanical principle vibration and used for measuring the bearing absolute vibration. The magnet either moves contactless or it is guided within the coil. The scale measures . and they start at zero. In order to apply this principle a coil and a light permanent magnet is used. Figure 3: Vibration sensor d) Temperature sensor A temperature sensor measures temperature using four measurement scales that are divided into various degree units. For example there are sensors with a working frequency range between 1 Hz and 2 kHz. This voltage can be measured and it is directly proportional to the speed of the vibrations. The magnet is fixed to the vibrating object. Temperature sensors determine absolute zero measurements as close to minus 460 degrees Fahrenheit. The isolation of the wires is the only restriction for the maximum voltage. Due to the movement of the magnet a voltage is induced in the coil.

The sensors read temperature by taking measurements of voltage outputs. Figure 4: Thermocouple sensor . A popular thermal measuring method is thermocouple. Thermocouples (figure 4) typically provide vast measurement ranges. Combining two different metals generates a strong voltage that has the same capacity as temperature. They work using the Setback effect which involves changes in temperature in electrical circuits. which is composed of two different metal alloy wires.absolute zero as 492 degrees.

and ultrasonic mouse. . and other flaws in the products). Piezoelectric ultrasonic sensors use a piezoelectric material to generate the ultrasonic waves. The above image shows the ultrasonic transmitter and receiver. air bubbles. Here we are discussing the ultrasonic sensor using the piezoelectric principle. Object detection. These sensors are categorized in two types according to their working phenomenon piezoelectric sensors and electrostatic sensors. they are also used in ultrasonic material testing (to detect cracks. An ultrasonic sensor consists of a transmitter and receiver which are available as separate units or embedded together as single unit. Ultrasonic sensors are devices that use electrical– mechanical energy transformation to measure distance from the sensor to the target object. Apart from distance measurement.e) Tools sensor Tool sensor that used in this process is ultrasonic sensor that have install to this cutting process. Ultrasonic waves are longitudinal mechanical waves which travel as a sequence of compressions and rarefactions along the direction of wave propagation through the medium. position detection.

4 Sensor Wiring Diagram Diagram 1: Force sensor (fsr402 force sensor) FSRs are sensors that allow you to detect physical pressure. and easy to use but they're rarely accurate. . They are simple to use and low cost. The 1/2" diameter round part is the sensitive bit. The FSR is made of 2 layers separated by a spacer.2. squeezing and weight. specifically the Interlink 402 model. This is a photo of an FSR. These sensors are fairly low cost. the more of those Active Element dots touch the semiconductor and that makes the resistance go down. The more one presses. FSRs are basically a resistor that changes its resistive value (in ohms Ω) depending on how much it is pressed.

. low self-heating. 0. Diagram 2: Temperature sensor (LM35) Temperature sensor is a device which senses variations in temperature across it.1/4 degree Celsius typical and low impedance output. less than 60 micro ampere current drain.08 degree Celsius in still air.1 Ohm for 1mA load. rated for full -55 to +150 degree Celsius range.5 degree Celsius accuracy guarantee able (at +25degree Celsius). the voltage across diode increases at known rate (actually the drop across base-emitter junction of transistor). It give the readings in centigrade (degree Celsius) since its output voltage is linearly proportional to temperature. LM35 is a basic temperature sensor that can be used for experimental purpose. It uses the fact that as temperature increases. nonlinearity only +/. It features is calibrated directly in degree Celsius (centigrade). 0. low cost due to wafer-level trimming. operates from 4 to 30 volts. suitable for remote applications. 0.

In combination with true power. It also measures the AE energy resulting from the fracture when a tool breaks. it increases the reliability of breakage monitoring. It is easy to install on both new and existing machines. which generate very small cutting forces. . It is best suited to applications where the level of background AE signal is low compared to the sound of tool breakage. Diagram 3: Tool setters and sensor Sensor works on principle of measuring the high-frequency energy signals produced during cutting process. This makes the sensor ideal for breakage detection of small drills and taps. Sensor detects force proportional monitoring signals even in machining operations.

vibration range. in a variety of industrial applications. Various machine operating conditions concerning temperature extremes. Diagram 4: Vibration sensor With the proper sensor to supply the critical operating information. SKF has optimized its selection of vibration sensors to obtain the best performance. . the machine operates in a safer condition for both the machine as well as the personnel operating the machine. electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and electrostatic discharge (ESD) conditions and the required signal quality necessitate the need for a variety of sensors. from its range of vibration instrumentation systems. frequency range. magnetic fields. The measurement of vibration is a complex subject.

and ultimately will result in cost saving. By monitoring pumps.2.  Vibration analysis is an essential part of machinery maintenance. Characterization of every sensing point is complicated especially when working on sensor matrix since many points should be stimulated in a controlled way.  fsr402 Force Sensitive Resistor. or the components themselves may have reached their useful life gears.  Sensors 13 17379f18 1024 (Digital and Analog Vibration Sensor). it’s overload due to some sort of stress.  Homogeneity is how similar the responses of two specimens of the same sensor are.  As machines or the electronics and components within machines begin to move back and forth. Vibration analysis is used as a tool to determine a machine’s condition and the specific cause and location of problems. or belts may be in the process of failure. So the easiest way to troubleshoot the problem a resistive sensor is to connect one end to Power and the other to a pull-down resistor to ground. the vibration is preventing a smooth flow of energy. A problem when calibration and other techniques exposed here cannot be performed on every used sensor. Then the point between the fixed pulldown resistor and the variable FSR resistor is connected to the analog input of a microcontroller such as an Arduino.5 Troubleshooting method if sensor faulty/problems.  Lm35 Temperature Sensor. teeth. what we are measure is trying to heat . troubleshooting and fault diagnosis will be easier. For this a classical solution is the usage of pressurized chamber. Typically. motors. The flow is interrupted.  Thin sensor that detects physical pressure. fans and other types of rotating machinery. When we use a temperature sensor. expediting repairs and minimizing costs. hence the noise and the shake.  Thermal Conductivity ‘leaks’. bearings.

The first is to use a very thin single strand of wire between the sensor and the connecting cable. There are two approaches to avoiding it.  Power Sensors Ltd. Computers can “choke” on large data files. If u have an unlimited budget and can afford a cray computer then processing . Copper is a very good conductor of heat and the connection leads will try and draw heat from the active sensor resulting in low readings. the sensor up to the same temperature as itself. which could be different for each and every tool.  Tool Setter And Sensors for CNC Machine Tools. In the real world we have a very small active sensor being heated. So. One way of solving this problem is to make the connection in two stages. Another method is if it is practical. Second.0. we have to go through a process of telling it every time you change tools.0 origin there) we started from. let the heat source also heat up the connecting cable as well as the sensor. You also have the problem of moving the files from the monitor to the computer and then from computer to computer. First. which is connected back to the equipment with copper wires. This is a tedious and time consuming process that doesn't make a lot of sense if you can avoid it. to reduce this heat loss. All that fussing with edge finders and such can be a bit of a nuisance.  Getting all the offsets right can make writing the CNC program a lot simpler. which is part of the CAD drawing (the 0. It just needs to keep track of where the cutter is relative to the Work Zero datum point. you can use an automated system that measures the tool length under CNC control. CNC control program needs to know how long each cutting tool is and in the worst case. you can use an organized manual system of some kind to manage the problem.  Also consider that more memory is not necessarily better. particularly when you get into tool length offsets. Pqube 3. we really need some of heat barrier between the sensor and the copper cable.

3. we can say that the sensors for process monitoring which is cutting processes need all the sensors to work properly without having any problems that could bring unwanted things happen. The sensor being use for this cutting process was fsr402 Force Sensitive Resistor which works to detect the .0 Conclusion For the conclusion. larger files should not be a problem.

belts. coils. Then. Lastly. 4. Pqube 3.0 References  Force sensor https://www. the Lm35 Temperature Sensor.. the sensor used was sensors 13 17379f18 1024 (Digital and Analog Vibration Sensor). In addition.3. such as bearings.physical pressure and optimized for use in human touch control of electronic devices. at least one these mechanisms require regular maintenance. we used the power sensors Ltd. It is used to measure temperature more accurately than a using a thermistor.google. In a typical machine. This sensor act as an instrument for monitoring electric power systems and environmental conditions.97 . gears. designed to help solve problems that impact the quality and reliability of the product or process. the tool setter and sensors for CNC machine tools were used to make sure that all the offsets were right so that the writing of the CNC program will became a lot simpler. Next. brushes. and valves. chains.com/search? newwindow=1&biw=1215&bih=581&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=fsr402+force+sensor+sc hematic+diagram&oq=fsr402+force+sensor+schematic+diagram&gs_l=img. It is used to observe machine health and the objective is to correlate observable vibration with typical wear-out mechanisms.. shafts.

104285.0..1..0...0.0.3.WuGg2bg_UP4#imgrc=_ ..1.0.0.16.google..0.104022.0. 0.64.1.0.1c.13  Tool setters and sensor https://www..1.0.1..303.18..0.0.118...1.186335.3951... CZVQJbyIz74#imgdii=9Te108KHz7dM1M:&imgrc=1ZWScXQV3gPs8M :  Temperature sensor (LM35) https://www.207...156..0.img.0.0.1c.117.google.com/search? newwindow=1&biw=1215&bih=581&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=vibration+sensor+schem atic&oq=vibration+sensor+schematic&gs_l=img.0.18.3- 1.0.0l2..303.64.0..com/search? newwindow=1&biw=1215&bih=527&q=tool+sensor+for+CNC+machine+tools+ex planation&oq=tool+sensor+for+CNC+machine+tools+explanation&gs_l=serp.nR-VwvQftcs  Vibration sensor https://www.2.com/search? q=lm35+temperature+sensor+explanation&newwindow=1&source=lnms&sa=X& ved=0ahUKEwiRp5fcqbPTAhURNpQKHY8QBzMQ_AUIBygA&biw=1215&bih=58 1&dpr=1.0.1...1c.12.64.1.0.1990.google.3315.3j13.118.0.0.0.1.serp.3315.1.0.0.0.186335.img. .0j1.188189.