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# 5/9/2014

## 03/2014 Quang Khnh HoChiMinh City University of Technology 1

Email: dqkhanh@hcmut.edu.vn or doquangkhanh@yahoo.com

## Content & Agenda

Ref:
Recent Advances In Hydraulic Fracturing, John L. Gidley, Stephen A. Holditch, Dale E.
Nierode & Ralph W. Veatch Jr.,1991
Reservoir Stimulation, 3e Economides & Nolte
Petroleum Production Systems - Economides et al., 1994
Production Operations: Well Completions, Workover, and Stimulation -Thomas O. Allen,
Alan P. Roberts,1984

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Introduction
Objective: to create highly conductive paths some
distance away from the wellbore into the reservoir.
o Execution of a hydraulic fracture involves
the injection of fluids at a pressure sufficiently
high to cause "tensile failure" of the rock.
o At the fracture initiation pressure, often known
as the "breakdown pressure, the rock opens.
o As additional fluids are injected, the opening
is extended and the fracture propagates.
o A properly executed hydraulic fracture results in a "path," connected to the well,
that has a much higher permeability than the surrounding formation.

Introduction
o Minimum hydraulic fracturing candidate well selection screening criteria

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length ;

conductivity;

## related equivalent skin effect

o In almost all calculations, the fracture length, which must be the conductive length and not the created

hydraulic length, is assumed to consist of two equal halflengths, xf, in each side of the well.

## o The dimensionless fracture conductivity: CfD = kf W / k Xf

= (Ability of fracture to deliver oil/gas to well)/(Ability of formation to deliver gas into the fracture)

## > 30 (Infinitely Conductive Fracture)

2 xf

w
o -Related to Prats a (called the relative capacity): CfD = /2a

where:k is the reservoir permeability, k f is the fracture permeability, and w is the propped fracture width.

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## o Equivalent skin effect, sf, & Improve Productivity Index J:

o The equivalent skin effect, sf: the result of a hydraulic fracture of a certain length and conductivity

& can be added to the well inflow equations in the usual manner.=> sf is pseudo skin factor
used after the treatment to describe the productivity:

2kh 1 2kh
J J D
B ln[ re ] 0.75 s B
f
rw
o Prats (1961): the concept of dimensionless effective wellbore radius rwD

## LENGTH, CONDUCTIVITY, & EQUIVALENT SKIN EFFECT

for small values of a, or high conductivity fractures, the rwD is equal to 0.5, leading to rw
= xf /2; which suggests that for these large-conductivity fractures the reservoir drains to a
well with an effective wellbore equal to half of the fracture half-length.
Since the effective wellbore must be as large as possible, values of a larger than unity m
ust be avoided because the effective wellbore radius decreases rapidly.
=> hydraulic fractures should be designed for a < 1 or CfD > 1.6
for large values of a, the slope of the curve is equal to 1, implying a linear relationship
between rw and a that is approximately rw = kf w/4k; Which suggest that for low
conductivity fractures, the increase in rw does not depend on fracture length but instead
on fracture permeability-width product,which must be maximized.

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## (good quality proppant and nondamaging fracturing fluid).

Notation
rw wellbore radius, m (or ft)

## r'w Prats equivalent wellbore radius due to fracture,

m (or ft)
xf
f s f ln Cinco-Ley-Samanieggo factor, dimensionless
rw
sf the pseudo skin factor due to fracture,
dimensionless
rw Prats' dimensionless (equivalent) wellbore

## But JD is the best

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q Jp
Production rate is proportional to drawdown, defined as average
pressure in the reservoir minus wellbore flowing pressure

Drawdown
2kh
q J D p
B
Circular:
1 Dimensionless
JD Productivity Index
r 3
ln e s
rw 4

2kh 2kh
J J
r or r
B ln 0.472 e s f B ln 0.472 e
rw r 'w

Prats

f (C fD )
2kh 2kh
J
0.472re x 0.472re
B ln s f ln f B ln f
xf rw xf

Cinco-Ley

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Dimensionless Productivity
Index, sf and f and rw

1 1
JD or JD
re re
ln 0.472 sf ln 0.472
rw r 'w

Prats
f (C fD )
1 1
JD
0.472re x 0.472re
f
ln s f ln f ln
xf rw x f

Cinco-Ley

Factor f

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oExample:

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## Proppant placement into formation

We can use the propping
agent to increase fracture
length or width.

## Tip screenout (TSO)

techniques:
fracture width can be
increased without
How should we select the optimum fracture length
increasing the fracture
and width under the constraint that the proppant
extent. volume is given?

## the optimum CfD,opt = 1.6 is a given constant for any reservoir

and any fixed amount of proppant.

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## Optimum fracture dimensions

Once we know the volume of proppant that can be placed into one wing of the fracture, Vf, we can
calculate the optimum fracture dimensions as

Moreover, since

## The fracture will be oriented at a 90-degree angle to

the least principal stress.

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## The formation properties that are known to influence a fractures

growth pattern, including its height, are:
Young's modulus
Poisson's ratio
Tensile strength
Fracture toughness
Permeability
Porosity
Poroelasticity constant

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Rock Properties

## Plane Strain Modulus:

Shear modulus:

Rock Properties
Tensile Strength: The maximum stress that a material can tolerate without rupture in a uniaxial tensile experiment is
the tensile stress.

Fracture Toughness: The critical value of the stress intensity factor, or fracture toughness, characterizes a rocks
resistance to the propagation of an existing fracture.

Permeability: The larger the fluid leakoff, the less driving force is available for fracture growth.

## The Poroelastic Constant, , is defined by the relation:

where K is the bulk modulus (ratio of hydrostatic pressure to volumetric strain) of the dry rock material and Ks is the
same measured in a saturated sample.

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## Other elasticity constants

Required \ Known E, G, E ,G

Shear modulus, G E G G
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Young's modulus, E E 2G 1 E

E 2G
Poisson ratio,
2G

E 2G
Plane strain modulus, E' 4G 2
1 2 1
4G E

## Poroelasticity and Biots constant

p
Total Stress = Effective Stress + a[Pore Pressure]
Grains Force Pore Fluid

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## Vertical Profile of Minimum Stress

The effective stress, s, is the
absolute stress minus the pore
pressure (p) weighted by the
poroelastic constant (a):

## 1) Poisson ratio changes from layer to layer

2) Pore pressure changes in time

## Crossover of Minimum Stress

Depth from original ground surface, m

Ground Surface
-500 0
Current Depth , m

## -1000 Critical Depth

-500
977 m

-1500 -1000

-2000 -1500

-2500 -2000

-3000 -2500
0 20x106 40x106 60x106 80x106
Stress, Pa

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Slope of the Vertical Stress line 1.1 psi/ft

## Basically the slope of the minimum

horizontal stress line 0.4 - 0.9 psi/ft

## Extreme value: 1.1 psi/ft or more

STRESS

oExample:

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Fracturing Pressure
Fracture Initiation Pressure or breakdown pressure is the peak value of the pressure appearing
when the formation breaks down and a fracture starts to evolve. Usually it is approximated by

where smin is the minimum horizontal stress, smax is the maximum horizontal stress, T is the tensile
stress of the rock material, a is the poroelasticity constant and po is the pore pressure.

Fracture Propagation Pressure is the stabilized value of the injection pressure for a longer period of
time during which the fracture is evolving.

Detection of formation
breakdown from a step-
rate test

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## Fracturing Pressure (MiniFrac)

Fracture Closure Pressure. After a fracture calibration treatment, which is carried out without injecting
proppant material, the fracture volume gradually decreases because of leakoff (and also because of
possible back flow, if the injected fluid is flowed back through the well).

## (1) breakdown pressure;

(2) fracture propagation pressure;
(3) instantaneous shut-in pressure;
(4) closure pressure;
(5) fracture reopening pressure;
(6) closure pressure from flow-back;
(7) asymptotic reservoir pressure;
(8) rebound pressure

Leakoff
Fluid leakoff is controlled by a continuous build-up of a thin layer, or filter cake, which
manifests an ever-increasing resistance to flow through the fracture face.
The leakoff velocity, VL , is given by the Carter equation:

CL
uL
t

Where CL is the leakoff coefficient (length/time0.5) and t is the time elapsed since the
start of the leakoff process. The ideas behind Carter's leakoff coefficient are that:
o if a filter-cake wall is building up, it will allow less fluid to pass through a unit area in unit time;
and,
o the reservoir itself can take less and less fluid if it has been exposed to inflow.

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## Lost volume per unit surface, m

0.007

0.006

0.005
AL 0.004

0.003
y = 0.0024 + 0.000069x
0.002
Sp 2CL
0.001
CL
uL 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
t Square root time, t1/2 (s1/2)

VLost m3
= S p 2CL t CL unit :
m
or
AL s m2 s
units : m mm Sp unit : m

## Description of leakoff through flow in porous

media and/or filtercake build-up

CL
Concept of leakoff coefficient uL
t
m m / s1 / 2
1/ 2
s s
Where are those twos coming from?
Integrated leakoff volume:
VL 2 AC L t
Leakoff Width
VL
wL 2CL t
AL
What is the physical meaning? m mm

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## Definition of injection rate, fracture area

and permeable height

Width Equations
Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) Kristianovich-Zheltov-Geertsma-DeKlerk (KGD)

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## The crossover occurs approximately at

the point at which a "square fracture"
has been created, i.e., when

## For the small fracture extent, the

physical assumptions behind the KGD
equation are more realistic.

## For the larger fracture extent, the PKN

width equation is physically more
sound.

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## Perkins-Kern-Nordgren model Geertsma and deKlerk model

Types of Fluids
Water-Base Fluids

## natural guar gum (Guar)

hydroxypropyl guar (HPG)
hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC)
carboxymethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (CMHEC)

Oil-Base Fluids
Lease oil and gelled oils.

Acid-Base Fluids
Used in limestones or dolomitic formations.

Emulsions
Mixtures of oil and an aqueous material (either water or acid).

Gas/Foam Fluids
Specialized emulsions using nitrogen or carbon dioxide gas as the inner phase of an aqueous mixture.

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## Bacteria control agents Gypsum inhibitors

Breakers N2and CO2 gases
Clay-stabilizing agents Scale inhibitors
Demulsifying agents Sequestering agents
Dispersing agents Sludge inhibitors
Foaming agents Temperature-stabilizing agents
Friction loss reducers Water blockage-control agents

## Proppant Pack Permeability & Fracture Conductivity

Proppant duties:
Be capable of holding the fracture faces apart

## be readily available, safe to handle, and relatively inexpensive.

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Types of Proppants

## Two major categories:

Naturally occurring sand
White Sand ("Ottawa" sand)

Manufactured proppants
Sintered Bauxite

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Design Logics

## Height is known (see height map)

Amount of proppant to place is given (from NPV)
Target length is given (see opt frac dimensions)
Fluid leakoff characteristics is known
Rock properties are known
Fluid rheology is known
Injection rate, max proppant concentratrion is given
How much fluid? How long to pump? How to add proppant?

## Fracture width is determined by net pressure and

characteristic dimension (half length or half height)

## The combination of fluid mechanics and solid mechanics

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Two approximations:

Perkins-Kern-(Nordgren)
Vertical plane strain

## elliptic cross section

Kristianovich-Zheltov - (Gertsmaa-deKlerk)
Horizontal plane strain

## Width Equations (consistent units)

Perkins-Kern-Nordgren PKN
width: w, wo, wwell,o qi x f
1/ 4

ww,0 = 3.27
viscosity: E'
w 0.628ww,0
inj. rate (1 wing): qi

half-length: xf Kristianovich-Zheltov
Geertsma-De-Klerk KGD
plain-strain modulus: E' 1/ 4
qi x 2f
ww = 3.22
height: hf E' h
f
Vf = w(h f x f ) w 0.785ww

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## With equivalent viscosity at average shear rate, the

maximum width at the wellbore is:
1
n
1 2.14n 2 n 2 2 n 2 qi h f x f 2n2
1 n 1 n 1 n

3.98 2n2
K
n E'

## Power Law fluid

ww,0 K: Consistency (lbf/ft2)sn
n: Flow behavior index

## Material balance +Width Equation

Vf = w(h f x f ) 2qi

Vf = w A Vi = qi t e

xf
Vfe = Vi - Vlost

Average
w(xf)
qi
A
hf Lost: spurt +leakoff

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## Pumping time, fluid volume, proppant schedule:

Design of frac treatments
Pumping time and fluid volume:
Injected = contained in frac + lost
length reached, width created

Proppant schedule:
End-of-pumping concentration is uniform,
mass is the required

Given:
Mass of proppant, target length, frac height, inj rate, rheology, elasticity

## Pumping time, slurry volume (1 wing)

1. Calculate the wellbore width at the end of pumping from the PKN (Power Law version)
1
n
1 2.14n 2 n 2 2 n 2 qi h f x f 2n2
1 n 1 n 1 n

## ww,0 = 9.15 2n2

3.98 2n2
K
n
E'

2. Convert max wellbore width into average width
we 0.628ww,0
3. Assume a k = 1. 5 and solve the mat balance for inj. time, (selecting sqrt time as the new unknown)

qi
4. Calculate injected volume t 2 C t (we 2S p ) 0
h x L
f f

V fe h f x f we
e =
Vi Vi

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## Proppant schedule calculation

1 e
1. Calculate the Nolte exponent of the proppant concentration curve
1 e

2. Calculate the pad volume and the time needed to pump it V pad Vi
M
3. The required max proppant concentration, ce should be (mass/slurry-volume) ce
eVi

4. The required proppant concentration (mass/slurry-volume) curve c ce
t t

c
5. Convert it to added proppant mass to volume of clean fluid cadded
c
1
propp
(mass/clean-fluid-volume)

## Gross and Net Height

2qi
Vi = qi te

Vfe = Vi - Vlost

2D design: hf is given
A

hf

rp= hp /hf

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