12 views

Uploaded by NguyễnTrường

Hydraulic Fracturing

Hydraulic Fracturing

© All Rights Reserved

- Alpaxl Cir
- PETR2510Lectures5 Hydraulic Fracture
- 509
- Hydraulic Fracture Treatment Design & Execution
- 7842679769
- IAS
- Theory of Lost Circulation Pressure
- Borehole Stability
- 36548021-Deflection-of-Beams
- Borehole Geomechanics and Well Design
- 1992 Ochoa & Reddy - Finite Element Analysis of Composite Laminates
- handbook.pdf
- Rubber Roller Design
- GENERAL%20-%20GUIDELINES%20FOR%20PLANNING%20RUN–OFF–%20RIVER%20PROJECTS
- Flexural analysis of prestressed concrete structures
- A Fully Coupled Hydro Logical (1)
- 7357.pdf
- jointed rock mass
- Lecture 24
- Yamamoto 2002

You are on page 1of 28

Email: dqkhanh@hcmut.edu.vn or doquangkhanh@yahoo.com

Ref:

Recent Advances In Hydraulic Fracturing, John L. Gidley, Stephen A. Holditch, Dale E.

Nierode & Ralph W. Veatch Jr.,1991

Reservoir Stimulation, 3e Economides & Nolte

Petroleum Production Systems - Economides et al., 1994

Production Operations: Well Completions, Workover, and Stimulation -Thomas O. Allen,

Alan P. Roberts,1984

1

5/9/2014

Introduction

Objective: to create highly conductive paths some

distance away from the wellbore into the reservoir.

o Execution of a hydraulic fracture involves

the injection of fluids at a pressure sufficiently

high to cause "tensile failure" of the rock.

o At the fracture initiation pressure, often known

as the "breakdown pressure, the rock opens.

o As additional fluids are injected, the opening

is extended and the fracture propagates.

o A properly executed hydraulic fracture results in a "path," connected to the well,

that has a much higher permeability than the surrounding formation.

Introduction

o Minimum hydraulic fracturing candidate well selection screening criteria

2

5/9/2014

length ;

conductivity;

o In almost all calculations, the fracture length, which must be the conductive length and not the created

hydraulic length, is assumed to consist of two equal halflengths, xf, in each side of the well.

= (Ability of fracture to deliver oil/gas to well)/(Ability of formation to deliver gas into the fracture)

2 xf

w

o -Related to Prats a (called the relative capacity): CfD = /2a

where:k is the reservoir permeability, k f is the fracture permeability, and w is the propped fracture width.

3

5/9/2014

o The equivalent skin effect, sf: the result of a hydraulic fracture of a certain length and conductivity

& can be added to the well inflow equations in the usual manner.=> sf is pseudo skin factor

used after the treatment to describe the productivity:

2kh 1 2kh

J J D

B ln[ re ] 0.75 s B

f

rw

o Prats (1961): the concept of dimensionless effective wellbore radius rwD

for small values of a, or high conductivity fractures, the rwD is equal to 0.5, leading to rw

= xf /2; which suggests that for these large-conductivity fractures the reservoir drains to a

well with an effective wellbore equal to half of the fracture half-length.

Since the effective wellbore must be as large as possible, values of a larger than unity m

ust be avoided because the effective wellbore radius decreases rapidly.

=> hydraulic fractures should be designed for a < 1 or CfD > 1.6

for large values of a, the slope of the curve is equal to 1, implying a linear relationship

between rw and a that is approximately rw = kf w/4k; Which suggest that for low

conductivity fractures, the increase in rw does not depend on fracture length but instead

on fracture permeability-width product,which must be maximized.

4

5/9/2014

Notation

rw wellbore radius, m (or ft)

m (or ft)

xf

f s f ln Cinco-Ley-Samanieggo factor, dimensionless

rw

sf the pseudo skin factor due to fracture,

dimensionless

rw Prats' dimensionless (equivalent) wellbore

xf radius

5

5/9/2014

q Jp

Production rate is proportional to drawdown, defined as average

pressure in the reservoir minus wellbore flowing pressure

Drawdown

2kh

q J D p

B

Circular:

1 Dimensionless

JD Productivity Index

r 3

ln e s

rw 4

2kh 2kh

J J

r or r

B ln 0.472 e s f B ln 0.472 e

rw r 'w

Prats

f (C fD )

2kh 2kh

J

0.472re x 0.472re

B ln s f ln f B ln f

xf rw xf

Cinco-Ley

6

5/9/2014

Dimensionless Productivity

Index, sf and f and rw

1 1

JD or JD

re re

ln 0.472 sf ln 0.472

rw r 'w

Prats

f (C fD )

1 1

JD

0.472re x 0.472re

f

ln s f ln f ln

xf rw x f

Cinco-Ley

Factor f

7

5/9/2014

oExample:

8

5/9/2014

We can use the propping

agent to increase fracture

length or width.

techniques:

fracture width can be

increased without

How should we select the optimum fracture length

increasing the fracture

and width under the constraint that the proppant

extent. volume is given?

and any fixed amount of proppant.

9

5/9/2014

Once we know the volume of proppant that can be placed into one wing of the fracture, Vf, we can

calculate the optimum fracture dimensions as

Moreover, since

the least principal stress.

10

5/9/2014

growth pattern, including its height, are:

Young's modulus

Poisson's ratio

Tensile strength

Fracture toughness

Permeability

Porosity

Poroelasticity constant

11

5/9/2014

Rock Properties

Shear modulus:

Rock Properties

Tensile Strength: The maximum stress that a material can tolerate without rupture in a uniaxial tensile experiment is

the tensile stress.

Fracture Toughness: The critical value of the stress intensity factor, or fracture toughness, characterizes a rocks

resistance to the propagation of an existing fracture.

Permeability: The larger the fluid leakoff, the less driving force is available for fracture growth.

where K is the bulk modulus (ratio of hydrostatic pressure to volumetric strain) of the dry rock material and Ks is the

same measured in a saturated sample.

12

5/9/2014

Required \ Known E, G, E ,G

Shear modulus, G E G G

21

Young's modulus, E E 2G 1 E

E 2G

Poisson ratio,

2G

E 2G

Plane strain modulus, E' 4G 2

1 2 1

4G E

p

Total Stress = Effective Stress + a[Pore Pressure]

Grains Force Pore Fluid

13

5/9/2014

The effective stress, s, is the

absolute stress minus the pore

pressure (p) weighted by the

poroelastic constant (a):

2) Pore pressure changes in time

Depth from original ground surface, m

Ground Surface

-500 0

Current Depth , m

-500

977 m

-1500 -1000

-2000 -1500

-2500 -2000

-3000 -2500

0 20x106 40x106 60x106 80x106

Stress, Pa

14

5/9/2014

Stress Gradients

Slope of the Vertical Stress line 1.1 psi/ft

Frac gradient

horizontal stress line 0.4 - 0.9 psi/ft

STRESS

oExample:

15

5/9/2014

Fracturing Pressure

Fracture Initiation Pressure or breakdown pressure is the peak value of the pressure appearing

when the formation breaks down and a fracture starts to evolve. Usually it is approximated by

where smin is the minimum horizontal stress, smax is the maximum horizontal stress, T is the tensile

stress of the rock material, a is the poroelasticity constant and po is the pore pressure.

Fracture Propagation Pressure is the stabilized value of the injection pressure for a longer period of

time during which the fracture is evolving.

Detection of formation

breakdown from a step-

rate test

16

5/9/2014

Fracture Closure Pressure. After a fracture calibration treatment, which is carried out without injecting

proppant material, the fracture volume gradually decreases because of leakoff (and also because of

possible back flow, if the injected fluid is flowed back through the well).

(2) fracture propagation pressure;

(3) instantaneous shut-in pressure;

(4) closure pressure;

(5) fracture reopening pressure;

(6) closure pressure from flow-back;

(7) asymptotic reservoir pressure;

(8) rebound pressure

Leakoff

Fluid leakoff is controlled by a continuous build-up of a thin layer, or filter cake, which

manifests an ever-increasing resistance to flow through the fracture face.

The leakoff velocity, VL , is given by the Carter equation:

CL

uL

t

Where CL is the leakoff coefficient (length/time0.5) and t is the time elapsed since the

start of the leakoff process. The ideas behind Carter's leakoff coefficient are that:

o if a filter-cake wall is building up, it will allow less fluid to pass through a unit area in unit time;

and,

o the reservoir itself can take less and less fluid if it has been exposed to inflow.

17

5/9/2014

0.007

0.006

0.005

AL 0.004

0.003

y = 0.0024 + 0.000069x

0.002

Sp 2CL

0.001

CL

uL 0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

t Square root time, t1/2 (s1/2)

VLost m3

= S p 2CL t CL unit :

m

or

AL s m2 s

units : m mm Sp unit : m

media and/or filtercake build-up

CL

Concept of leakoff coefficient uL

t

m m / s1 / 2

1/ 2

s s

Where are those twos coming from?

Integrated leakoff volume:

VL 2 AC L t

Leakoff Width

VL

wL 2CL t

AL

What is the physical meaning? m mm

18

5/9/2014

and permeable height

Width Equations

Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) Kristianovich-Zheltov-Geertsma-DeKlerk (KGD)

19

5/9/2014

the point at which a "square fracture"

has been created, i.e., when

physical assumptions behind the KGD

equation are more realistic.

width equation is physically more

sound.

20

5/9/2014

Types of Fluids

Water-Base Fluids

hydroxypropyl guar (HPG)

hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC)

carboxymethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (CMHEC)

Oil-Base Fluids

Lease oil and gelled oils.

Acid-Base Fluids

Used in limestones or dolomitic formations.

Emulsions

Mixtures of oil and an aqueous material (either water or acid).

Gas/Foam Fluids

Specialized emulsions using nitrogen or carbon dioxide gas as the inner phase of an aqueous mixture.

21

5/9/2014

Fracturing Additives

Breakers N2and CO2 gases

Clay-stabilizing agents Scale inhibitors

Demulsifying agents Sequestering agents

Dispersing agents Sludge inhibitors

Fluid loss additives Surfactants

Foaming agents Temperature-stabilizing agents

Friction loss reducers Water blockage-control agents

Proppant duties:

Be capable of holding the fracture faces apart

22

5/9/2014

Types of Proppants

Naturally occurring sand

White Sand ("Ottawa" sand)

Manufactured proppants

Sintered Bauxite

23

5/9/2014

Design Logics

Amount of proppant to place is given (from NPV)

Target length is given (see opt frac dimensions)

Fluid leakoff characteristics is known

Rock properties are known

Fluid rheology is known

Injection rate, max proppant concentratrion is given

How much fluid? How long to pump? How to add proppant?

characteristic dimension (half length or half height)

24

5/9/2014

Two approximations:

Perkins-Kern-(Nordgren)

Vertical plane strain

Kristianovich-Zheltov - (Gertsmaa-deKlerk)

Horizontal plane strain

Perkins-Kern-Nordgren PKN

width: w, wo, wwell,o qi x f

1/ 4

ww,0 = 3.27

viscosity: E'

w 0.628ww,0

inj. rate (1 wing): qi

half-length: xf Kristianovich-Zheltov

Geertsma-De-Klerk KGD

plain-strain modulus: E' 1/ 4

qi x 2f

ww = 3.22

height: hf E' h

f

Vf = w(h f x f ) w 0.785ww

25

5/9/2014

maximum width at the wellbore is:

1

n

1 2.14n 2 n 2 2 n 2 qi h f x f 2n2

1 n 1 n 1 n

3.98 2n2

K

n E'

ww,0 K: Consistency (lbf/ft2)sn

n: Flow behavior index

Vf = w(h f x f ) 2qi

Vf = w A Vi = qi t e

xf

Vfe = Vi - Vlost

Average

w(xf)

qi

A

hf Lost: spurt +leakoff

26

5/9/2014

Design of frac treatments

Pumping time and fluid volume:

Injected = contained in frac + lost

length reached, width created

Proppant schedule:

End-of-pumping concentration is uniform,

mass is the required

Given:

Mass of proppant, target length, frac height, inj rate, rheology, elasticity

modulus, leakoff coeff, max-possible-proppant-added-conc

1. Calculate the wellbore width at the end of pumping from the PKN (Power Law version)

1

n

1 2.14n 2 n 2 2 n 2 qi h f x f 2n2

1 n 1 n 1 n

3.98 2n2

K

n

E'

2. Convert max wellbore width into average width

we 0.628ww,0

3. Assume a k = 1. 5 and solve the mat balance for inj. time, (selecting sqrt time as the new unknown)

qi

4. Calculate injected volume t 2 C t (we 2S p ) 0

h x L

f f

V fe h f x f we

e =

Vi Vi

27

5/9/2014

1 e

1. Calculate the Nolte exponent of the proppant concentration curve

1 e

2. Calculate the pad volume and the time needed to pump it V pad Vi

t pad te

M

3. The required max proppant concentration, ce should be (mass/slurry-volume) ce

eVi

t t pad

4. The required proppant concentration (mass/slurry-volume) curve c ce

t t

e pad

c

5. Convert it to added proppant mass to volume of clean fluid cadded

c

1

propp

(mass/clean-fluid-volume)

2qi

Vi = qi te

Vfe = Vi - Vlost

2D design: hf is given

A

hf

rp= hp /hf

28

- Alpaxl CirUploaded bymendez529
- PETR2510Lectures5 Hydraulic FractureUploaded byMohammad Waffy Fazil
- 509Uploaded byShashank Kasliwal
- Hydraulic Fracture Treatment Design & ExecutionUploaded byAndre Yudhistira
- 7842679769Uploaded byJohn Scott
- IASUploaded byRajeshJoshi
- Theory of Lost Circulation PressureUploaded bymarik417
- Borehole StabilityUploaded byZaid Zaffar
- 36548021-Deflection-of-BeamsUploaded byMaithriVB
- Borehole Geomechanics and Well DesignUploaded byMourad B. Wassef
- 1992 Ochoa & Reddy - Finite Element Analysis of Composite LaminatesUploaded bysofianekha204243
- handbook.pdfUploaded byMohammad Suriyaidulman Rianse
- Rubber Roller DesignUploaded byGanesh
- GENERAL%20-%20GUIDELINES%20FOR%20PLANNING%20RUN–OFF–%20RIVER%20PROJECTSUploaded bynileshhydro
- Flexural analysis of prestressed concrete structuresUploaded byFabio Okamoto
- A Fully Coupled Hydro Logical (1)Uploaded byAngel Ramiro Rojas Perez
- 7357.pdfUploaded bySandip Nepal Uprety
- jointed rock massUploaded bysesh
- Lecture 24Uploaded byFirdha Firdaus
- Yamamoto 2002Uploaded bySyafiq
- Alpaxl Cir!Uploaded byTuanQuach
- D14_assignment01_ASAWUploaded byNeven Ahmed Hassan
- 2.LAb Manual for Torsion Experiment Two-v2.pdfUploaded byEngr Ashfaq
- fea reportUploaded byapi-384123617
- ReportUploaded byAleem Ullah
- Wire Rs for Lng ElseUploaded byrajabala
- fulltext_006.pdfUploaded bykhamis
- CE 595 Section 1Uploaded bySuresh Babu A
- 534-Article Text PDF-4589-1-10-20130303Uploaded byAnduel Selamaj
- 123-converted (1).docxUploaded byyashupalgowda

- seismic interpretation .pptxUploaded byNguyễnTrường
- WQU Econometrics Group Work ProjectUploaded byNguyễnTrường
- C7 Matrix AcidizingUploaded byNguyễnTrường
- C6 Sand ControlUploaded byNguyễnTrường
- L - MOCUploaded byNguyễnTrường
- C5 Formation DamageUploaded byNguyễnTrường
- C4 PerforatingUploaded byNguyễnTrường
- C3 Well PerformanceUploaded byNguyễnTrường
- C2_Wellbore Completion ConfigurationsUploaded byNguyễnTrường
- C1_Wellbore Completion ConceptsUploaded byNguyễnTrường
- Shell DTS PrimerUploaded byshatalin
- WangZhe2012Uploaded byNguyễnTrường
- Coiled-Tubing.pdfUploaded byNguyễnTrường
- 51_63Carbon Reservoir Stimulkation SLBUploaded byNoha Najem
- 9120Uploaded byNguyễnTrường
- Matrix StimulationUploaded byNguyễnTrường
- Alex University CourseUploaded byNguyễnTrường
- Pipe - It Software AssistantUploaded byNguyễnTrường
- introductiontocustodytransfer-161204083749Uploaded byNguyễnTrường
- Monte Carlo - EgemenUploaded byNguyễnTrường
- Monte Carol MethodUploaded byNguyễnTrường
- Misuse EOS DCA UpscalingUploaded byNguyễnTrường
- R - Wrap UpUploaded byNguyễnTrường
- P - Texas CityUploaded byNguyễnTrường
- N - Legal&PSMUploaded byNguyễnTrường
- M - ER II AuditUploaded byNguyễnTrường
- K - Human FactorsUploaded byNguyễnTrường
- J - OperateUploaded byNguyễnTrường

- 246.00boiler Operating ProcedureUploaded bySubburajMech
- Welding Part 2xzUploaded bysbs271187
- Aircraft Basic Construction 1Uploaded byVijayanandh Raja
- Installation and Operating Manual for Pneumatic Control ValvesUploaded byFairos Zakariah
- Rear Axle ConstructionUploaded byMohseen Karche
- joomla.pdfUploaded byAnonymous N74GLGLcPp
- 19327617_Industrial Planetary Gearmotors SEWUploaded byDaniel Sms
- EnglishnhjngnUploaded byAyano Ni
- Venturimeter Exp. 250412Uploaded byabhishekpatil21
- SC4127-4535TA-CA GB 6053.111Uploaded byRachid Smaili
- Assignment 2Uploaded bypeter_stokes2287
- Selection and Analysis of the Landing Gear for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Sae Aero Design SeriesUploaded byIAEME Publication
- 00813 0100 4485 Data(Rosemout for Orifice Details)Uploaded byThiagaraj
- A Component Approach for the Hysteretic Behaviour of ConnectionsUploaded byDaniela Galarza Altamirano
- Report StructureUploaded byEjad Adha
- 3KJ PARTS4FB9_2000Uploaded byGregory Rodriguez
- 793D_Manual de Partes Vol 2 (Abril 2009)Uploaded byYan Jimenez
- JD Sr Engg Design civil.docUploaded bydmahajan_2013
- Slope Deflection MethodUploaded byann torralba
- Design of Couplings ProcedureUploaded byloganathan
- Dodge Sleeve BearingsUploaded byVishal V Bhagwat
- Dokumentation Prueffeld Englisch v5Uploaded byBharat Nandula
- cyclic_loading finite.pdfUploaded bykishan kini
- Distillation DesignUploaded byvicopip
- chapter 2.pdfUploaded bynguyenthaixuan1905
- How Engine Timing WorksUploaded bysuneel
- Application Digest - 27-12-07Uploaded byBuzurjmeher
- Menu_635641019064208796_PG 2015 Information Brochure - 08 April 2015Uploaded byAnirwan Bhargav
- SKF Differential CatalogUploaded byKH
- Intro FlexibilityUploaded byZaid Raslan Ayoub