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KUK - 753 001
_[c ieY : 2011
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Author :
Shakeel Ahmed
All rights reserved by the Author
Publisher :
Metro Manzil, Dewan Bazar
Cuttack-753 001
New Edition : 2011
Laser Typeset :
Sahoo Computer Unit, Cuttack
ISBN: 81-69881-55-2
Printers :
Junup Graphics, Cuttack
Price : 200.00

It is our pleasure to present one of the great works of brother

Shakeel Ahmed, a researcher in Islamic Studies & Comparative
Religion. The Author strives for peace and harmony and has been
writing on Islam to create a proper understanding of the religion. His
writings have received warm reception by the learned readers, both
Muslims and Non-Muslims from various parts of the state.

The present work of the author is first of its kind in Odia

literature which gives the readers a beautiful introduction to the
Prophet of Islam and his teachings. It describes in great detail the
truth about Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) which changed
the thoughts and lives of over one-fifth of the human race. The book
acclaims distinction for its logical presentation with documentary
records, critical analysis of the claim of Prophethood of Hazrat
Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and refutation of the false allegations
made against him by the western writers. The author has also brought
to light many similarities in various religious scriptures which can be
helpful in developing harmony. He has indeed, taken much pain in
quoting the historians, theologians, scholars, scientists and various
world scriptures.

The work of the author deserves sincere appreciation. We

hope the book will be very useful in dispelling the religious differences
as well as in understanding Islam and its Prophet .

Mufti Abdur Rahman Nadvi


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(WKe @a\f Ii\ L)

__K, IW@ abM
^c_W KfR, _e

Dr. M.Q. Khan
M.A. D.Litt.,
Former Vice Chancellor, B.U.
Emeritus Professor of English
Revenshaw University Kashana-I-Mubarak
President, All Orissa Association Saidani Bagicha
for English Studies Cuttack-753008
President, Researchers' Association Phone- 2361052
Chairman, Sayeed Seminary Mobile- 9437314522
Welfare and Educational Trust e-mail :

When we study the life of a great prophet or religious person

against the background of time in which he flourished, we encounter
hundreds of questions which call for various interpretations and
explanations. Although Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) is
acclaimed as a great silent soul who was to kindle the world,
the worlds maker had ordered so and yet, many queries and
questions still lurk in the minds of those who are still locked up in the
Castle of Doubts. The complex life of the holy prophet (Peace be
upon him), full of divine mirages and mundane elements, enriched
with the experiences of an able statesman, indefatigable fighter and
military leader, and creative thinker who opened the eyes of his
people to see the marvels of heaven, still remains mysterious and
strange to many people who have failed to visualize the world beyond
this life through his spiritual vision.

Mr. Shakeel Ahmed, in his present book on the life and sayings
(Hadith) of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him), makes
attempts to dispel these doubts and also answers the various questions
that arise in the minds of these people. Among the various books
written on the subject, this work by Shakeel Ahmed is unique in the
sense that it takes all the aspects of the subject including the deeds,
actions and hadith of the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) which
do need sound explanation and correct interpretation. Besides, the
author also attempts to make a comparative study of Islam vis-a-vis
other great religions and also furnishes an adequate account of great

men of the world on the life and mission of the prophet (Peace of
upon him). Above all, this is the first book in Odia, written in simple,
vivid and lucid language with clarity, felicity and explicitly of
expression. This indeed, is an additional value that the book acquires
particularly for those who are confined to Odisha and have genuine
desire to know Islam and its great prophet in this language.

In short, the book may be regarded as a gem in Odia language,

particularly in the realm of Islamic Studies and Mr. Shakeel Ahmed
deserves our sincere appreciation and good wishes in his noble mission
to bring Islam to innumerable people of our State.

(Dr. M.Q. Khan)

@ic \da^ @^ KeYgk @fju ^ce

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I @\g iKe _~ ]eY \A_ea
Gj M^e ~CV a\, aAaf a @^ ]cM^MWKe
CZ \@~AQ, Zj Kak @^ ]ce gl ij Aifce
ic^Z \gAa _A \@~AQ @^[ KjeK @l_ Kea
a Kj c^e K \a Gje Cg ^j Z[_ @RYZe
~\ Kje c^e c @NZ \C[G, Za i[_A lc_[^
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i^d cf^ _`ie id\ ce @jc\ Kic, cf^
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RYAf, _ea ieYe c Gje ig]^ Ke_ea
@g Ke M^U _VKc^u RY cj_ehu iKe @^K
_cYK Z[ ~MAa ijZ ]cd aScY lZe ijdK

(gKf @jc\)
Mc/_. : cK\g_e Z.31.05.2011
bd : __f
Rf : L
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M^c^ue _aZZ el Kea

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KZ .... 5
AZjie ia]K _bagk aq :
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[ci KfAf .... 8
@e aiI[ i[ .... 11
@f`^ W. fceUA^ .... 12
R^ CAfdc W_e .... 15
cAKf jU .... 15
UAc cMR^e ab^ a\^ .... 17
GWIW Ma^ .... 20
cRe @[e fI^W .... 21
RR aYW g .... 23
R^ Wb^_U .... 24
MW` jM^i .... 26
c^a^[ ed .... 27
cKi WWi .... 28
icGf R. MWeP .... 29
^f f^_f .... 30
R.Gc. WKU .... 31
W.Gi. cMfd[ .... 32
GP. @e. Ma .... 33
CAfdc cYMce IU .... 33
IgU^ Aebwi .... 34
ie CAfdc ce .... 35
ceW[ U^i .... 35
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\Zd @d
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cM\g^e Bge\Zue bcK .... 55
Bge\Zc^ue aghZ .... 60
cjc^ Bge\ZMY c^a .... 64
Bge\Zc^ue gl .... 74
aj ]c ie KeY .... 79
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Ke@^e PcKeZ .... 106
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ZUaj^ eP^ .... 110
@ia _^ea .... 111
Ke@^ _V g_\ .... 111
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gMWKe PcKe _^ea .... 112
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Ke@^e Pf .... 120
cjc^ cj\ ^ele .... 122
Ke@^ I aAaf ce icie KeY .... 130
Ke@^e bahaY iZ jf .... 131
Bge\Zu _Z @KU_ \aaY .... 133
Azae] \aaY .... 134
_*c @d
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aje C_ .... 139
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h @d
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MjY KeQ ij cj_ehc^u ce cjc^ cj\
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ic @PeYe Zu @^KeY Ke age gZKW 23bM
fK cjc^ cj\ue C_\gK Bgeu @m c^ Ke
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cjc^ cj\ 3

gge ja GK @_c^ af c^ Ke[f ~e a jA

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KYi giK ^[f _ZK i\de cL ba RY
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^Re a ^R i\de c~\ el Kea _A _Y _~
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M a i\d j [f ic^u _A iaKQ ic^
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I eq_Z fM ej[f gZK jZ Ke Z' ^K I K^
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ba Gjj [f @eaaiue ibZ
Gjbk GK aae I agvk icRe b^ GK PeZ
]eY Ke R^MjY Ke[f cjc^ cj\ iZ~_e _u
ce _\ icR ce aiai Ke[f i Gje KYi
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[f RY iek I iZ^ aq i ^ele [f
aaje @Z b\ I a^c KjeK KUK[ Kj ^[f
KYi @_g aaje Ke ^[f K @^agKd K[ c
Kj ^[f ]e K ge Kja Ga ge
4 cjc^ cj\

@]K ba_Kg Zue Kk [f K[a ak cje c\

ji QA ej[f Ra^e [e jf i cQ Kj^j
[ _eji ak c cQ Kj ^[f iZji aZZ
Cyee jiae Zu Kj Ka \L^j i KYi
aMj _R Ke ^[f c\ LC ^[f a R@ Lk
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iwi[u cke a cCR cRfie icd ^ ^Ke "je'
_jWe GK M bZeK Pf ~C[f Ga iVe GKe
^cM ej iue C_i^ Ke[f
cjc^ cj\u PeZ GZ CyKUe [f ~, icR
Zu ""@f-@c^'' @[Z "agi^d' C_] \A[f Zue
j\d [f @Z Kck \Leuu \L ij_e ^[f
Kj KQ ij~ cMf ]eKeR Ke ij~ Ke\C[f
C\eZ G_e ~ Kj Zu _Z \aaje Kf ij ^C[f
Ga lc Ke \C[f Zu _Z @^K @ZPe jf; K
i KYi @Kg eL^j \Z Keae gq [A c lc
KeQ iaKc^ bf Kf ic^u _Z aeq _Kg Keae
c Kj Ka \L^j @Z C\e I i~c _eh @^K
_[c gbz RYAa, a _dR^u C_je \a Ga _WZu
ilZ Kea, eM c _Le ai ZK @Cia, i^ \a
Ga Z'e @eM Kc^ Ke _[^ Kea @\ cjc^ cj\u
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i^ cj k jReZ L\ R u @K Ke [ f Gj a ] a
cjc^ cj\ 5

b\cjkRYue adi [f iZak Pkg ah cjc^

cj\u aqZ \e i GZ _baZ jAMf ~ _[c
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I i\Pe Zu @Zgd cM Kf Ga i Zu aaj _a
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MjY Ke Zu aaj Kf
RY iagd ]^gk cjku c jA i cjc^
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Ra^ @ZajZ Ke[f ]c\Z _\ _ _e i ^Re ia
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^A[f @c AZjie RY Zu Ne @^K icde Pf
Rk ^j bK C_ie ejaK _W Zue L\ [f
LRe a ~@ Z@e eU akak le a ci c ck~ G
i cU N e ej [ f Ga PcW a LR e _Z a Q Ye
gC[f ^R a ^R _eae _A i Kajf UKG
C^Zc^e Ra^ Kc^ Ke^j ]^ iPd Ke^j K
KVaW Z@e Ke^j ae Bgeu K_e ~j ck, ZK
@^K \^ Ke\@
Gj g-iek aqRYK cZ 23ah ce @eae
AZji a\kA \f aefl aMcAf @*ke @]aic^ue
@Pe-aaje Ga agi c a\kA \f ab^ _[-
_ee~q agvk i\dc^u MUG ]c I bZZ a^e
a \f icRe [a @agi I KieMWKe @
Kea ij ic _Ke \^Z I \ePee ck_U^ Ke ag
AZjie @^_c C\jeY i KeMf ~C icRe
jZ, Pe, WKdZ, abPe, c\_^ I R@ @\ @Z
i]eY K[ [f, \iZ _[e _Pk^ [f, cjkc^u _Z
6 cjc^ cj\

@ZPe Ke~C[f, ggK^c^u R@ _Z \@~C[f,

^MZ @C aaeZ Z[ _gaKZ [f; K c^aKZe Pja
^ [f, i icR _Y KU KU R^Zue GK @\g ic^
jAMf G_eK Zu aee hW~ Ke[a gZc^ c
Zu \iZ Ke Ke^f Ga Zu _A ^R _Y c
CM Ke\f j\de Rd j _KZ Rd, Gj i _cYZ
Ke\f cYh j\de i G_e _ea^ @Y\f ~
abPe ^R @i Zu ^KUe _Y\ bl Ke[f
@~e K[, Gia NUY cZ 23ah ce NUMf
GZ Kc icd ce Gbk Pc}eZ KYi gqgk e
_le c ia ^j A^iAK_W@ aU^K cjc^
cj\u KZe cfd^ Ke fLQ :
""Bge\Z Kke 23ahe @a] ce cj\ Gbk
K~ i\^ KeQ, ~j @ag c^a AZjie GK
@Z MeZ_ KZ e_ aaPZ ja ''(1)
ag AZjie Gbk KYi aqe \ ^j, ~je @Z
i]eY @PeYMWK c KU KU ^e^e _Y c^Ke
@^KeY Ke ic^ VK Zue bk L@, _@, g@ Ga
@^^ ^ZKcMWK Ke ~C bq I baaM ijZ cjc^
cj\u @\g _k^ Ke~G, Gje \ age aek

'Muhammed' Encyclopedia Britannica Ultimate Ref-
erence Suite, Chicago, 2011"During the 23 year period of
his Prophethood, Muhammed accomplished what by any account
must be considered among the most significant achievements of
human history.... It can therefore be argued that Muhammed's
mark on history was as profound and enduring as anything
recorded in the pages of human history."
cjc^ cj\ 7

AZjie ia]K _bagk aq:

ab^ cZ I ca
@^K aq KYi MUG ^ lZe _e\gZ ~M
K @R^ KeQ Kj Kk I ijZe Ga Kj am^ a
MYZge _e\gZ _\g^ Ke _i jf, Kj ^Z^ @ae
a Cna^ Ke agaLZ jf, Kj igi^ _A a Kj
@i]eY aeZ ~M "cj^' @L _Af, Kj icR ieK
e_ icR ia Ke cj_ehe c~\ _Af Ga Kj
@ZK Ze \M\g^ \A "cjZ' jae Mea @R^ Kf
K Ra^e _ZK lZe ic^ba i`kZe ghK QA
_e[a @^^ aq AZjie cjc^ cj\u aZZ @^
Kj \L~C^j
age GK-_*cge @]K ^e-^eu j\d Rd Ke[a
Gj cj^ _eh [f GK]ee RY ]c_Y cjh, ]c
_aK, i\l giK, am aPe_Z, _aY eR^Zm, \l
i^_Z Ga RY cj^ icR ieK RY beZd
a\^ _`ie K.Gi.ecK eIu cZe
""cj\u aqZe i iZZK RY_ea @Z
KKe c Kak Ze MUG SfK _A_eQ
i^ce \g_ bk K ^UKd @^Kc ! cj\
jCQ ]c_aK, cj\ jCQ ae_eh, cj\
aaid, cj\ eR^Zm, cj\ j aq, cj\
KZ\iue ielK, cj\ ^eRZe cq\ Z, cj\
^d]g, cj\ j i^ G ic Pc}e bcKe,
ic c^ad K~lZe i RY "^dK' i\g ''(1)
"The personality of Muhammed, it is most difficult to get
into the whole truth of it. Only a glimpse of it I can catch.
8 cjc^ cj\

age _LZ HZjiK I aRa Gj cj_ehue

iekZ, iZ^, ij\dZ, ^d_edYZ Ga c]e aajee
bdi _gi KeQ Ga Zu @^_c PeZK ic^u fL^
AZji _e lee f_a KeQ cifc^ fLKu
K[ CfL Keae @agKZ ^j, @Ycifc fLKc^ue
Kfc c cjc^ cj\u _gie gZcL @^K Zu
ag AZjie cj^Zc Z[ ia]K _bagk aq e_
a^ KeQ G_eK Gj cj_ehu Za icfP^ Ke[a
@^K _Z fLK c Zue MYM^ Kea _A a
jAQ gZ I cZ Cbdu \e cjc^ cj\ _giZ
_VKc^u Zue CRk PeZ I _bagk aqZe GK
PZ \a_A c KZK ag HZjiK I aRaue cZcZ
ic^u _Ke Ce KeQ CfL^d K[ jCQ ~,
Gc^ Kj cifc^ ^j
[ci KfAf
_i HZjiK [ci KfAf (1795-1881)
Afe 1840cij c' ci 8ZeL \^ ^Re Ld^
gZc^u C\a]^ \f Zue Gj HZjiK @bbhYe
ahda [f "The Hero as Prophet" @[Z Bge\Z e_

What a dramatic succession of picturesque scenes ? There is

Muhammed, the Prophet. There is Muhammed, the Warrior;
Muhammed, the Businessman; Muhammed, the Statesman;
Muhammed, the Orator; Muhammed, the Reformer; Muhammed
the Refuge of Orphans; Muhammed, the Protector of Slaves;
Muhammed, the Emancipator of women; Muhammed, the Judge;
Muhammed, the Saint. All in all these magnificent roles, in all
these departments of human activities, he is like a Hero." (Prof.
K.S. Ramakrishna Rao, Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, Ma-
dras, 1952, P.-16)
cjc^ cj\ 9

RY ae je ]c\Z ba i GcZ RY aqu

aQf ~GK i icde age iaVe @]K ^Z aq
[f, ~jue PeZ ije Kea _A _Z fKLc^ue
fL^ i\ P*k ej[f Af cUe @_a ijie ijZ
cjc^ cj\ue bdi _gi Kea iw iw Zu RY
"je ]c\Z' e_ C_i_Z Ke KfAf Afaiu
Ke\A[f Kak GZK ^j, de_d fLKc^ Zu
aee Ke[a @e_MWK \Xbae L^ Ke i _Z
RMZe GK @fW^ i Ke\A[f Zue Gj HZjiK
bhY age aj HZjiK I aRac^ue aPeK Mbe
ba _baZ Ke[f cjc^ cj\u RY ae Bge\Z
e_ a^ Ke KfAf Kj[f
""@ea RZ _A Gj @e ce @fKe R^
_e [f Gj ~M @ea Ra jACVf
i Kke MUG \e\ ch_kK RZ @mZba
cebce af[f RY ae Bge\Zu GK
agi^d a ij ic^u ^KUK _VMf
\L, MUG @RY RZ jAMf aga\Z Ga
MUG l\ e jAMf agcj^ ''(2)
cjc^ cj\u i\Pe I iZ^e bdi _gi
Ke KfAf Kjf

THOMAS CARLYLE, Heros and Hero Worship, London,
Original Text : To the Arab Nation it was as a birth from darkness
into light; Arabia first became alive by means of it. A poor shepherd
people, roaming unnoticed in its desert since the creation of the world
: a Hero-Prophet was sent down to them with a word they could
believe : see, the unnoticed becomes world- notable, the small has
grown world-great; (p.105)
10 cjc^ cj\

""Zu i[c^ Zu ^c \A[f "@f-@c^'

@[Z "agi^d' RY iyU I agi^d cYh,
iyU ^R K[e, ^R K~e @C aPe-
]ee... Zue i Ra^Kk ce @c Zu
RY L<, bZak I _KZ cYh e_ \LQ
RY Me ^_e PeZ, Z[_ @cdK, b\,
aak, G_eK _eji _d c... ''(3)
""^ Zu K[MWK cQ [f, ^ Zue K~]e,
^ KYi QkK_U [f _KZe agk aKe
@a b Z GK RZ c d Ra^]e RMZK
@fKcd Ke\a_A Gjj [f iue @\g
KYi \h\akZ, @_Z a ^j^Z Zu
ahde Gj _[cK iZK \jfA _ea ^j,
~\I Gbk KQ Zu aee ~q~q ba _cYZ
jA^j ''(4)
cjc^ cj\u bZe KfAf RY _KZ aeK
\L[ae a^ Ke Kj
""^R Ke ^R Zk _KC[a Gj aqRYKe
@\g ~Cbk bae _k^ Ke~G, KYi

His companions named him "Al Amin" The Faithful. A man
of truth and fidelity; true in what he did, in what he spake and thought.
Through life we find him to have been regarded as an altogether
solid, brotherly, genuine man. A serious, sincere character; yet
amiable, cordial, companionable, jocose even; (Ibid.p.73)
The mans words were not false, nor his workings here below;
no Inanity and Simulacrum; a fiery mass of Life cast-up from the
great bosom of Nature herself. To kindle the world; the worlds Maker
had ordered it so. Neither can the faults, imperfections, insincerities
even, of Mahomet, if such were never so well proved against him,
shake this primary fact about him. (Ibid.pp.64-65)
cjc^ cj\ 11

cKU]e icUe @\g c ibk _k^ Ke~G

^j \N ZAg ahe KV^ iNh ce Zu
bZe c \LQ RY _KZ jeK ''(5)
@e.aiI[ i[
Afe _i HZjiK @e.aiI[ i[ (1839-1908)
1874 cij `ade I cy cie edf A^PU @`
MUaU^e Afe R^Zu C\a]^ \A[f cjc^
cj\ue @i]eY aqZe bdi _gi Ke i Kj[f
""e I Pye cL bae i [f GK]ee
iRe I __, K __ [f ajWej^
Ga iRe [f i^aj^aj^ GK id i^
a^, ^e_el a^, eR_i\ a^ Ga GK
^ eR a^ ^d_ bae gi^ KeQ
af ~\ Kje Kjae @]Ke [G, Za i
jCQ cj\ KeY KYi i]^ a ijdZ
^[A c Zue ia K Q Ke _ e a e ic[
[f ''(6)
No emperor with his tiaras was obeyed as this man in a cloak
of his own clouting. During three-and-twenty years of rough actual
trial. I find something of a veritable Hero necessary for that, of itself.
R.BOSWORTH SMITH, Mohammed and Mohammedanism,
London, 1874, : Head of the State as well as of the Church, he was
Caesar and Pope in one; but he was Pope without the Popes
pretensions, and Caesar without the legions of Caesar. Without a
standing army, without a body guard, without a palace, without a
fixed revenue, if ever any man had the right to say that he ruled by a
right Divine, it was Mohammed; for he had all the power without its
instruments and without its supports. (p.235)
12 cjc^ cj\

cjc^ cj\u EhZf MYMWKe GK ^c^ e_

a^ Ke i Kj
""^ij bae cKe ie Ra^ cj\
EhZf MYMWKe GK _e_ cWf [f ''(7)
i[u aPee i [f AZjie GK @^^ aq
""ibMKc AZjie i @^^ cj\ [f
MUG RZe, MUG icRe Ga MUG ]ce
Za] _ZZ ''(8)
@f`^i W fceUA^
KfAfu "je _`U' C_e aqZ \ae 14ah
_e ZKe AZji fL[a _i `ei HZjiK @f`^i
W fceUA^ (1790-1869) cjc^ cj\u @]^K
AZjie iaVe cj^ aqe_ NhY Ke Kjf
""Cge cj^Z, i]^e @ba @C aidKe
_eYc cYhe _ZbK c_a _A ~\ Z^MU
c^\ jG, Za @]^K AZjie KYi cj^
aqu ij cj\u Zk^ Keae iji KG
Ke_ea ?......''
""age @Z _i aqc^ Kak @g, @A^
I icR MXf, GjVe @]K ~\ KQ Kf,
Za aa\ gqK R^\f, ~j ic^u
Mohammed himself, throughout his life at Mecca,
unquestionably was a perfect model of the saintly virtues... (Ibid.p.145)
By a fortune absolutely unique in history, Mohammed is a
threefold founder of a nation, of an empire, and of a religion.
cjc^ cj\ 13

@L@Me L L jA bwMf K Gj aq
cj\ Kak i^, gi^, icR I eRagMWK
\jfA \A^j, ae Z}k^ age GK
Z Z dg @] a iu j \ dK R Y _ e Q Ga
ic^ue _R c_K, ic^ue _Ru, ]cK,
aPeK, ag iK Ga ic^ue @ZK c _ea^
Ke\AQ ''
""\g^K, aq, ]c_PeK, ~, PZ^Rd,
iiwZ ]cag i I ^eKea\e _^i_K, KWGU
bMkK icR Z[ MUG @ZK icRe
_ZZ jCQ cj\ ''
""cYhe cj^ZK c_a _A ~ZMWG _ec_K
@Q, ia \e aPe Kf @c _g Ke_e !
ZuVe @]K cj^ @C Kj @Q K ?''(9)
ALPHONSE DE LAMARTINE, Histoire De La Turquie,
Paris, 1854 vol.II pp.276-277 : If greatness of purpose, smallness
of means, and astounding results, are the three criteria of human
genius, who could dare to compare any great man in modern history
with Muhammad?
The most famous men created arms, laws and empires only.
They founded, if anything at all, no more than material powers which
often crumbled away before their eyes. This man Muhammed moved
not only armies, legislation, empires, peoples and dynasties, but millions
of men in one-third of the then inhabited world; and more than that,
he moved the altars, the gods, the religions, the ideas, the beliefs and
Philosopher, orator, apostle, legislator, warrior, conqueror of
ideas, restorer of rational beliefs, of a cult without images; the founder
of twenty terrestrial empires and of one spiritual empire, that is
14 cjc^ cj\

fceUA^ cjc^ cj\u @i]eY _Zbe cfu^

Kf Zue cj^ZK c_a _A i Z^U K[ C_e
MeZ \AQfl, i]^ Ga _eYc
fl ? eRcKU a eRiji^ ^j, _Z a _Z_
^j, KVaW a ]^i ^j, ae fl [f c^a
RMZe iLg Kak @ea icRe ^j, age _ZK
icRe Ga _ZK cYhe icue AjfK I _efK
gcd jC, Gjj [f Zue GKcZ Kc^Zu Ra^e
GKcZ fl
GZ aW fl jif Kea _A Zu _Le i]^
K'Y [f ? Zk_K Rc _[a Ga LRe_Z _Ue
gC[a Gj ^ aqRYK ^KUe G[_A i]^ af KQ
^[f ]^ak a i^ak ^[f, @g a eRgq ^[f,
a\kde gl ^[f a Ze Zeae Pk^e a\ c
^[f KQ ^[A c fl [f cj^"agg'
KZ iZ KjQ aiI[ i[""KYi i]^ a
ic[^ ^[A c Zue iaKQ Ke_eae ic[ [f ''
@C ^R fle @_a i`kZ Zue Gj ic[e _cY c
_eYc ? KU KU ^e^eue Ra^gke @bZ_a
_ea^ _ei I ec bk cjgqMWK _eRZ Ke Gj
cjh age AZji i KeMf @R 1400ah _e c
i age GK _*cge D ^e^eu j\de eRZ KeQ

As regards all the standards by which Human Greatness may

be measured, we may well ask, IS THERE ANY MAN GREATER
THAN HE? & "The
Choice", Vol-I, pp.158-159.
cjc^ cj\ 15

R^ CAfdc W_e
R^ CAfdc W_e (1811-1882) ^dK aga \ kde
@_K i RY \g^K Ga _i HZjiK c^aicR
C_e cjc^ cj\ue @L _bae a^ Ke W_e
""R^d^u cZe Peah _e 569 Le
@eae cKe cj\ ^cK RY aq R^MjY
Kf, ~G c^aRZK ia]K _baZ KeQ
Ga ~ju de_dc^ _a*K af ^cZ
KeQ ''(10)
cjc^ cj\u _A Bge\Z _\a ~[[ af
cZ\A W_e Kj
""GK ZZdg c^aRMZK ic^u \^^
Ra^e cM\g^ Ke[a aj icRe Gj
]c]g, a]jG "Bge\Z' _\ae ~[[Z
_Z_\^ KeQ ''(11)
cAKf GP. jU
cAKf GP jU (1932) ag gZe RY _i
@ceKd fLK \N\^e MahY _e agAZjie aQ
JOHN WILLIAM DRAPER, M.D., LL.D., History of the
Intellectual Development of Europe, Vol.I, London, 1875 : Four
years after the death of Justinian, A.D. 569, was born at Mecca, in
Arabia, the man who, of all Birth of men, has exercised the greatest
influence upon the human race, Mohammed, by Europeans surnamed
the Impostor. (p.329)
"To be the religious head of many empires, to guide the daily
life of one-third of the human race, may perhaps justify the title of a
messenger of God. (Ibid.p.330).
16 cjc^ cj\

aQ gZ]K @Z _bagk aqc^u C_e ""\ jW :

G eK w @` \ c A^ ` G ^ i @ f _ei^ i A^
j'' ^cK _KUG fLQ Zue Gj _KUK @i]eY
_i ckf Gj _KUe _* fle DK_ aK jAQ Ga
Gj 15MU bhe @^a\ Ke~AQ jUu Gj _Ke
aj ag_i aque il Ra^ i^ _AQ ic^u ce
@eUf, MZc a, cjae, K^`idi, Ree, @ARK
^CU^, i< _f, @A^A^, MffI, Pfi WeI^, Kf
cKi, cjc^ ~g, cjc^ cii, ^_fd^, icU
@gK, icU @fKRe, Rfdi iRe I _U c @bq
g~q jU age gjRY cj^ _bagk aqu ZfKe
cjc^ cj\u _[c i^ \A KjQ
""cj\u age ia]K _bagk aqc^u
ZfKe @MbMe eLae c _i KZK
_VKu aiZ Ke_e Ga @^Ku c^e
_gaP c i Ke_e K AZjie Kak
i j GKcZ aq ~G ]c Ga ]c^e_lZ
ee ia]K i`kZ fb KeQ ''(12)
^R _ie KeY iKe jU Kj
""~jZ age Ld^c^ue iL cUcU
bae cifc^u @_l \AMY, ZY ~gLu
Zk^e cj\u Cyi^ \@~A[a @ee aPZ
fM_e Gbk ^ ^ae \AU cL KeY @Q
MICHAEL H. HART, The 100 : A Ranking of the Most
Influential Persons in History : My choice of Muhammad to lead
the list of the worlds most influential persons may surprise some
readers and may be questioned by others, but he was the only man in
history who was supremely successful on both the religious and secular
level. (p.33)
cjc^ cj\ 17

_[cZ L]ce aKg _A ~gL Ke[a K~

Zk^e Aifce _MZ _A cj\ MjY Ke[a
bcK ~[ @]K MeZ_ ~\I L]ce cL
gd I ^ZK @PeY a] _A ~g \d ej[f
(dj\ ]ce _[K [a _~), K i< _f jCQ
L]cZe _cL _PeK Ga aAafe ^Z^
^dce [a GK aje @ge ePdZ
cj\ K Cbd Aifce ]cZ, Gje cL
^Z^dc Z[ ^ZK i _A (aqMZ e_)
\d ejQ Gj aZZ i ^Z^ ]cagie
_ie Ga Aifce ]cK _eee ii_^e
@if bcK MjY Ke[f ''(13)
"UAc' cMR^e ab^ a\^
1974 cij RfA 15ZeLe @ceKe _i "UAc'
cMR^e ""AZjie g ^Zc^ KG ?'' ghK C_e
ab^ HZjiK, fLK, glaZ I aRac^ue aPe _Kg
_A[f "UAc' G ahde ic^ue cZcZ @j^
Since there are roughly twice as many Christians as Moslems
in the world, it may initially seem strange that Muhammad has been
ranked higher than Jesus. There are two principal reasons for that
First, Muhammad played a far more important role in the
development of Islam than Jesus did in the development of Christianity.
Although Jesus was responsible for the main ethical and moral precepts
of Christianity (insofar as these differed from Judaism), St. Paul
was the main developer of Christian theology, its principal proselytizer,
and the author of a large portion of the New Testament. Muhammad,
however, was responsible for both the theology of Islam and its main
ethical and moral principles. In addition, he played the key role in
proselytizing the new faith, and in establishing the religious practices
of Islam.(Ibid.pp.38-39)
18 cjc^ cj\

Ke[f @ceKe RY HZjiK Z[ PKM aga\kde

@_K CAfdc Gc.i. ^f ^Re cZcZ \A fLf
""~\ _baK @]e Ke ^Z Pd^ Ke~G,
Za @cK age cj^ ]c\Z ~g, a, cj\
Ga K^`idiu ^c ^aK ja ''(14)
@ag ^f ^R _i i_le KYi KeY a^ Ke^j
@ceKe RY @aie_ f`^< R^ef Rci
Mb^ ^Re aPe C_i_^ Ke cjc^ cj\u Zue
_[c _i af a^ Kf
""~M ~M ]e ~C R^^dKc^ue ia]K _ba
ejQ, c aPee ic^ jf cj\, ~gL
a]jG f^^ Ga iaZ cI ''(15)
Mb^ c agh KQ @fP^ Ke^j K PKM
aga\kde @_K Rfi cgec^ ^Re _i ij Gje
KeY c \gAQ i Kj ~ RY bf R^^Z
Z^U K~ Ke[a CPZ _[cZ R^KfYckK K~
^Re KfY ^j, ^R _A KVaW, MWawk a
auaf^ ^j, ae R^Zue ckK @agKZMWK _eY
Kea _A a]a ba aai Kea CPZ, ~j\e Kj
Ra^e ia^c @agKZe aPZ ^ j@ cjc^ cj\u
WILLIAM Mc NEILL: U.S. Historian (Chicago University),
Time, July 15, 1974, If you measure leadership by impact, then
you would have to name Jesus, Buddha, Mohammed, Confucius, the
great prophets of the world.
JAMES GAVIN, Retd. U.S. Ltt. General, Time, July 15,
1974, Among leaders who have made the greatest impact through
ages, I would consider Mohammed, Jesus Christ, may be Lenin,
possibly Mao.
cjc^ cj\ 19

_YZ a]^e icRe ia^c @agKZ _eY Kea _A

_~ aai Ke~A[ae i C_f KeQ
\Z dZ, cgec^u cZe R^Zue ]^-Ra^e iel
RY @\g R^^dKe _ec Ka G[_A KVe ^dc
eja CPZ Ga Gj K~Ke c ja CPZ, ~j`ke
jZ, Pe, WKdZ @\ ia_Ke @^d @ZPee icR
cq ej_ea Ga fKue ]^-Ra^ a_\_^ ja^j
cjc^ cj\u ^dce aq I icR _Z lZKeK ic
@PeYMWK i ^h ejQ icRe _ZK aqe ]^-
Ra^, c^-i^ I PeZ _Z lZKeK ia KcMWK Kak
^h Ke~A^j, Gbk \c _A KVe \aai c
Ke~AQ Gj ^ZK @]e Ke i GK agk icRK
gvkZ KeaK ic[ jf
ZZdZ, RY @\g ^Z R^Zue @ZK aKg _A
ic^u GK ]cd aPe]e \a CPZ af cgec^
cZ \@ Gje KeY jCQ ~ ]c j cYhK cYhKe
MX, Z' @ee Bgebq, \d, _c I _e_Kee aR
a_^ Ke Ga Z' ce Bgeu _Z Ce\dZa]e ba^K
RaZ eL Gj Bge agi Ga Zu _Z @^MZ j cYhK
gvkZ Ke Ga icRe g @Y @ZK iPZ^Z a^
Kak @A^K^^ a @g ij~e aq a icR ce
gvk @ia ia ^j Gj cgec^ bf bae C_f
Ke_eQ @i \La i K'Y cZcZ \f
""^Zc^ Z^MU K~ @ag Kea CPZ
R^Zu KfY _A _a Kea, ic^u GK icRK
iwV^ \a ~j\e ic^ ^RK @_lKZ ielZ
c^Kea Ga ic^u MUG ]cd aPe]e
\a _[c \KYe _e Ga gKu _e aq
20 cjc^ cj\

^Z e_ _eMYZ j@ MUG _U cjZM

I K^`idi Ga @^_U @fKRe iRe I
jUfe \Zd \KYe iaZ ZZd \KYe
^Z e_ MY ja CPZ cjc^ ~g Ga
cjZ au ^ZZ Kak ZZd \KYe cj\
a]jG ia icd _A iag R^^dK ~GK
Z^U~K K~ GKiw ZfAQ KQ Kc
_ecYe cii Zu bk KeQ ''(16)
HZ j i K GW I W Ma^ (1737-1794) cjc^
cj\ue _^ ia_K e ije D e af NhY Ke Kj
""cj\u ^Z ij I @Ze De Ga
Ke@^ GKgea\e GK Meacd il ''(17)
Aifce ag ajZ Ma^u @K KeQ
""C_iue aK Qa Kajf KYi iKe
_Zc \e @i^Z jA^j Ga Bge\Zue
JULES MASSERMAN, U.S. Psychoanalyst : Time, July 15,
1974, Leaders must fulfill three functionsprovide for the well-
being of the led, provide a social organization in which people feel
relatively secure, and provide them with one set of beliefs. People
like Pasteur and Salk are leaders in the first sense. People like Gandhi
and Confucius, on one hand, and Alexander, Caesar and Hitler on the
other, are leaders in the second and perhaps in the third sense. Jesus
and Buddha belong in the third category alone. Perhaps the greatest
leader of all times was Mohammed, who combined all three functions.
To a lesser degree Moses did the same.
EDWARD GIBBON, Life of Mahomet, London, 1881 : The
creed of Mahomet is free from suspicion or ambiguity; and the Koran
is a glorious testimony to the unity of God. (p.75)
cjc^ cj\ 21

i^ Kaa c^ad M Y e ic fN^

Ke^j.... ''(18)
cjc^ cj\u _Zbe _gi Ke Ma^ Kj
""cj\u _Zb @ce CziZ _gie ~M,
K Zue i`kZ a]jG @c _giK Mbe
ba @K KeQ ''(19)
cRe @[e M^ fI^W
cRe @[e M^ fI^W Aifce ^ZK I @ZK
cfa] iKe MUG _K fLQ Ga Gj _KU
Ri id\ @ce @fu cLa ij f^e _KgZ jAQ
cjc^ cj\u i RY cj^ Z[ iyU aq e_
a^ Ke fLQ
""Kak RY cj^ aq ^j ae icM c^a
RMZe R^fb Ke[a cj^ I _aZZc _ehc^u
ce i @^Zc Kak RY ]c\Z bae
cj^ ^j, ae RY \g_c I e^Z e_e
c i cj^ RY bZK Z[ @ZK ^cZ,
~G MX\f MUG cj^ RZ, GK agk icR,
@C GK cj^ ]c @]K Gj iZ, KeY i
iyU [f ^R _Z, ^R fKc^u _Z, @C ^R
Bgeu _Z ''(20)
The intellectual image of the Deity has never been degraded
by any visible idol; the honors of the prophet have never transgressed
the measure of human virtue .(Ibid.p.232)
The talents of Mahomet entitle him to our applause, but his
success has perhaps too strongly attracted our admiration.
Spiritual Value, London, 1909 : A man not only great, but one of
22 cjc^ cj\

""Zu I Zu K~K _ZK \Me aPe Kf RY~G

~ cj\ Kak RY ae ]c\Z ^[f, i [f
GjVe ~[ @]K RY eR Ga RY R^^dK
Z[ ic^ue giK Ga aPeK c Zue cf
KZ ~\ @c aPe Ke, Zue K~Kk_, Zu
\fb @aide _e_K `k Ga MUG jZe
Ke@^ @C @^ jZe Aifce Pye i QW
~A[a \X @ZK gq \e, Za @c @ag
Zu RY @i]eY I cj^ cYh e_ NhY
Kea GcZ RY aq, ~\ Zue _KZ cf Kj
aS_e, Za i AZjie @Z ZR ae-
gYe RY eR^ZK I ]cieK e_ \L~a
Gj aqRYK iZak ac^ @_l @je @]K
i^Z ja, ~Zak c^aRMZ Ma\
@_l @] K i i wZ ba c^aa\ jA~ a
aae cj\ RY @Z cj^ aq [f ''(21)
the greatest i.e. truest men that Humanity has ever produced. Great,
i.e. not simply as a prophet, but as a patriot and a statesman : a
material as well as a spiritual builder who constructed a great nation,
a greater empire, and more even than all these, a still greater Faith.
True, moreover, because he was true to himself, to his people, and
above all to his God. (p.21)
Looking at him and his work from every aspect, Mohammed
was not merely a heroic prophet. He was much more. A king and a
leader of men. A ruler and a judge over them. If we are to judge of
him, to take him for what he is worth, by his work the rich ripe fruit of
his rare and strenuous effort the Koran on the one hand, and, on the
other, the mighty spiritual force he has left behind him in the Church
of Islam, we must pronounce him to have been a great and
remarkable man. A man who, when his true value is understood and
appreciated, will stand out in history as a political and religious reformer
cjc^ cj\ 23

]ce i jiK @^c\^ Ke^[f af cZ\A

fI^W Kj
""~\ cYh ]e_e Bgeu _AQ, @C ~\
KYi cYh cjZ Ga cj^ Cg _A Bgeu
iae ^RK CM KeQ, Za ^Z e_
ij aq RYK jCQ @eae ]c\Z ''(22)
ie RR aW g'
^af _ee aRZ \g^K Z[ _i fLK RR
aW g' (1856-1950) ^R _K "\ R^A^ Aifc'e
cjc^ cj\u ahde Kj
""c Zu @d^ KeQ@nZ cYh c cZe
i Ld^ ae] c ^j, iZe Zu @ag
c^aRZe CeK Kj~a CPZ ''(23)
Gj @ead cj_ehu ce i @nZ ic[e i^
_A[f ZY Zu _Zbe CziZ _gi Ke aWg' Kj
""~\ Zu bk RY aq @]^K age ^eug
gi^be MjY Ke, Za agiciMWKe i

of a virile and heroic type. A man who will be regarded in even a

greater light than he now is, when humanity shall have become less
denominational and more rationally humanitarian. In reality Mohammed
was an ultra great man. (Ibid.pp.108-109)
If ever man on this earth found God, if ever man devoted his
life to God's service with a good and great motive, it is certain that
the Prophet of Arabia was that man. (Ibid.pp.18-19)
SIR GEORGE BERNARD SHAW, The Genuine Islam : I have
studied him - the wonderful man and in my opinion far from being an
anti-Christ, he must be called the Savior of Humanity.
24 cjc^ cj\

Gbk ic]^ Ke ~, ~C iLge ac^

_dR^ @Q, Zj @Y_e ''(24)
R^ Wb^ _U
R^ Wb^ _U cjc^ cj\u _Z Ke~A[a
@e_MWKe L^ Ke _KUG fLQ Ga Gj _KU
1869 cije f^e _KgZ jAQ cjc^ cj\u
aaje I PeZ C_e ca \A i Kj
""aWc^u _Z Zue a^cZ, a^Zc^u _Z
@eK ba Ga \Kc^u _Z g I c~\_
aaje Zu _A i^, _gi I i\e ic[^
@Y \A[f... iAbk cj\u ^Z ij I
@Ze De [f ''(25)
Zue @i]eY aqZ iKe Wb^_U Kj
""RY i]eY cYh cj\ ^R _eae \e
c Bge\Z e_ c^Z fb Ke[f RY
iek @ead jA i ^R \ge ab, ablZ
I ^M i\dMWK MUG iiM Z[ @^MZ
iN cce GKZZ Ke ag R^icRe ic^u
GK ^Z^ _ePd I ^Z^ PeZ \A C_i_Z
If a man like Mohamed were to assume the dictatorship of
the modern world he would succeed in solving its problems in a way
that would bring it the much needed peace and happiness.("The
Choice" Ahmed Deedat, KSA, 1993, Vol.I p.117 and p.25)
John Davenport, An Apology for Mohammed and the
Koran, London, 1869 : His politeness to the great, his affability
to the humble, and his dignified bearing to the presumptuous, procured
him respect, admiration and applause(p.52) Mohammeds creed
was likewise free from suspicion and ambiguity.(p.73)
cjc^ cj\ 25

Ke_e[f Zeg ahe Kc icd ce Gj

aai K^^U ^_fe icUc^u _eRZ Ke[f ,
_eie ic Uu M\ P Z Ke [ f , i e @ ,
ci_Ucd I AR_K c agbZ Ke^A
[f ''(26)
KfAfu cZK \X ic[^ Ke Wb^_U Kj
""Gj ae Bge\Zu iKe [ci KfAfu
\bw GKae L< @C ~qiwZ Ga GVe
Cf L ~MiA RZ c d K ^d^]e
ce_ee j\da^ i^e i\ C^q [a j\d
ce Cybkh ^j, KQ @^ P [f i
[f RY g cj^ @Z Ga iAc^u ce
RY [f ~Cc^ Kak iZ^ jaQW
@C KQ jA_e ^j, ~ju ^a^ e_
_KZ ^~q KeQ ''(27)

Mohammed, a private man, made himself to be looked upon
as a prophet by his own family. Mohammed, a simple Arab, united
the distracted, scanty, naked and hungry tribes of his country into one
compact and obedient body, and presented them with new attributes
and a new character among the people of the earth. In less than
thirty years, this system defeated the Emperor of Constantinople,
overthrew the Kings of Persia, subdued Syria, Mesopotamia,
"The view taken by Thomas Carlyle of this hero-prophet is too
original, just and striking to be here omitted :- The deep-hearted son
of the wilderness writes he, with his beaming black eyes, and open,
social, deep soul, had other thoughts in him than ambition. A silent,
great soul, he was one of those who cannot but be in earnest; whom
Nature herself has appointed to be sincere.(Ibid.pp.53-54)
26 cjc^ cj\

MW` jM^i
HZjiK MW` jM^i (1772-1833) @Z \L_Kg
Ke Kj
""\bMe K[, @^K ]cK aq ^Re _Wg
]ce _ZZu PeZK ]K \A ^R ]ce C^Z
KeQ af c^ Ke... _KZ L]c Gbk
_Zel @agK Ke^j ~\I @^ cYhc^u
_e cj\ue \hZU [f, Z[_ Zu PeZ
ahde ~Z @]K cZcZ iMj Ke~a, iZ
e_ i RY @Z cj^ _eh e_ Cb
ja, RY ae, RY \g^K , @C RY Ld^
e_e; Ga _KZe i RY Ld^ [f,
KeY ~gue \a cg^ I Zu ^ZMWKe
iZZe agi eLa _A i gl \C[f ''(28)
cjc^ cj\u ic[^ Ke fL[a _Ke i
Kj ~, icU ^_fd^ue Aifc ahde ]eY Zu
P]e ijZ ic^ [f

GODFRAY HIGGINS Esq. It is unfortunate that many
religious persons should imagine that they are promoting their own
religion by running down the character of the founders of those of
their neighbours genuine Christianity requires no such
defences,though Mohamed was liable to faults, like every other
human being, yet that the closer his character is canvassed, the clearer
it will appear that he was as very great man, both considered as a
hero, a philosopher and a Christian, the latter of which he really was,
as he professed to believe in the divine mission of Jesus Christ, and
in the truth of the doctrines taught by him. (Gentlemens Magazine,
C[1830):112) (Source : Clinton Bennett, Victorian Images of Islam,
1992, London, p.12)
cjc^ cj\ 27

""c baQ cj\u iKe cj^ ^_fd^

~C cZ_hY Ke[f, Zj be CjR^K
@C c ZK GVe CfL Keae @MjK eK_e
^j Gje KeY ^j ~ Zu cZ c P]e
ij ck LCQ, ae c GK[ RYa _ae ~j
fL\A[f Z' ijZ icUue cZcZe ic^Z
ejQ ^_fd^ KC iZe Ke@^e ZeL
iKe GK RYgY K[ KjQ c RY^ K
icU AZjie iZK am_Z Ke cj\u _Z
Ke~A[a ia @e_MWK @agi Ke[ae
NhY Ke[f ''(29)
cjc^ cj\u PeZ C_e ca \A jM^i Kj
""Zue PeZ @Z Cc [f ''(30)
c^a ^[ ed
beZd HZjiK Gc.G^. ed (1887-1954)
""Aifce _ZZu PeZ PZY Ke~AQ ~,
ij aq RYK c^aRZK icu @_l @]K
An Apology for the Life and Character of the Celebrated
Prophet of Arabia called Mahomed, or the Illustrious, London,
1829 : I conceive that the opinion which the great Napoleon
entertained of Mohamed, must be interesting; and I cannot resist the
pleasure of recording it, as it not only in some measure agrees with
what I thought, but with what I had written, before I saw it. I know
not the authority for the date of the Koran which Napoleon seems to
speak of as an acknowledged, well-known fact. The Emperor
adverting to the truth of history, expressed his disbelief of all that was
attributed to Mahomet.(p.65)
His morality is allowed to be excellent. (Ibid.p.28)
28 cjc^ cj\

_baZ KeQ (W_e, de_e aK aKge

AZji, _[c L, _-329)''(31)
cjc^ cj\ RY cj^ Bge\Z e_ c^Z _Aa
CPZ af cZ\A HZjiK ed Kj
""_ZK Bge\Z ^Re ~[[ \aK i Kea_A
Pc}eZ _\g^ Ke i \e cj\ ~Z\e
ia Zu _aa I _ea Bge\Zc^u ce
iaVe cj^ e_ c^Z _Aa CPZ Aifce
_ie j ia Pc}eMWK @_l aW Pc}e ''(32)
cKi WWi
cKi WWi (1834-1900) jCQ aAafe RY
a\^ Ga i GW^aMe ^Uc<e @_K ej@iQ
"cj\, a G KG' ^cK i GK _K fLQ, ~j
1877 cije f^e _KgZ jAQ ajUe i cjc^
cj\ue CRk PeZe a^ Ke fLQ
""\dgk, @jKej^, ]~a^ Ga iaKc^u
_Z i [f @Z C\e, @_ePZc^u _A
@KhYd, ~G ^R ghc^uVe be @\e
_C[f...... KYi blKeK "^' Kja Zu
_l _d @ia [f Ga @Z i]eY fKue
"M. N. ROY, The Historical Role Of Islam, Bombay, 1938 :
THE founder of Islam has been characterised as the man who, of
all men, has exercised the greatest influence upon the human race.
(Draper, History of the Intellectual Development of Europe, Vol. I,
p. 329). (p.57)
Every prophet establishes his pretension by the performance
of miracles. On that token, Mohammad must be recognised as by far
the greatest of all prophets, before or after him: The expansion of
Islam is the most miraculous of all miracles. (Ibid.p.5)
cjc^ cj\ 29

^cY a ccf C_jeK c MjY KeaK i

Kajf KYa] Ke ^[f ''(33)
Zu iyUZe _cY C_i_^ Ke WWi Kj
""Zu iyUZe Rk _cY jCQ Gj ~ Zue
_[c I @Z ag ghc^ [f Zu ^R NefK
Z[ Zu _ePZ fK, ~Cc^ ia @aie Zu
UK^L bae _el Ke[f Zu _Z, iaK,
_Ze I ggeGc^ PeZa^ [f Ga icR
ce ic^ue GK ^ i^ [f ''(34)
icGf R. MWeP
icGf R. MWeP "_P^ Kke _i aq' ^cK
Zu _Ke K^`idi I cjc^ cj\u age ia]K
_bagk aq cZaq Ke KjQ
""a]jG PA^R \g^K K^`idiu QW\f
c^aRMZe aPe]eK @^ ~KYi fK @_l
Gj aq ia]K _baZ Ke[f, ~GK @eae
cKe 570 Le R^MjY Ke[f ''(35)
MARCUS DODS, D.D, Mohammed, Buddha And Christ,
London,1877 : He was gracious, unassuming, most patient and kindly
to his slaves, adored by his followers, captivating to strangersHe
found it almost impossible to say No to any petitioner, and he
never declined the invitation or small offering even of the meanest of
the people. (p.90)
It is a striking proof of his sincerity that his earliest and most
devoted disciples were those of his own household, and his familiars,
who had known him in all circumstances and scanned him in all moods
his wife, his slave, his cousin, his father-in-law the latter themselves
men of character and position. (Ibid.p.21)
Samuel G. Goodrich, Famous Men of Ancient Times,
Samuel, Boston, 1852 : This individual, who has exercised a
30 cjc^ cj\

^f f^_f
^f f^_f (1854-1931) RY HZjiK Z[
Waf^ aga\kde @eaK WRe _`ie cjc^
cj\ue a^cZ I iZ^ Zu aiZ KeQ i Kj
""@~ ! ^Re fb^d K~]e ijZ Zue
a^cZ KZ cj^ ! fKc^u \e Zu C_e
f\ \@~C[a Bged MYMWK_A i Kbk
^RK @~M c^ Ke[f Zue i Ra^
iZ _Z @^MZe GK \N aZK [f Zue
C_iKc^u _A Zu ^KUe i\ak MUG
Ce [fc RY cYh cZ RY cYhVe
@]K KQ ^j
@Bg _PefK'Y Bgeu K_ a^ Kj
Mfb Ke_ea ^j ?
i Ce \f^, Kj, ^j
K'Y @_Y c ^R ~MZ be aKY
_ Ke_ea ^j ?_Pef @Ag
"~\ _ecge c _Z K_ ^Ke, Za c
c Me _ag Ke_ea ^j ' Ce \f
cj\ ''(36)
greater influence upon the opinions of mankind than any other human
being, save, perhaps, the Chinese philosopher, Confucius, was born
at Mecca, in Arabia, A.D. 570. (p.7)
STANLEY LANE-POOLE, Studies In A Mosque, London, 1883
: It is wonderful, with his temptations, how great a humility was ever
his, how little he assumed of all the god-like attributes men forced
upon him. His whole life is one long argument for his loyalty to truth.
He had but one answer for his worshippers, I am no more than a
cjc^ cj\ 31

[ci KfAf cj\u RY "ae Bge\Z' e_

_i Ke ~[[e VK KeQ af cZ\A f^_f Kj
""KfAf Zu "je-Bge\Z' e_ aQ La aX@
Kf cj\u @_l @]K g I @bkhi^
aq [A_e, K G_e KYi aq ^R fle
ba]ee _e_e c{ ~A^j K Gbk aeZe
ij Kj ^R cg^K K~Ke Ke^j ''(37)
R.Gc. WKU Aifce RY icfPK K cjc^
cj\uVe RY Bge\Zu flYMWK Zu \ ]e_eQ
i Kj
""KYi L@^ ^Z a i^u @_l _P^ ja
]c\Zc^u ij cj\ue @Z ^KUZe i\g
ejQ ''(38)
cjc^ cj\u eR^ZK \KYe aPe Ke WKU
""@^ KYi ]cK ^Z ^Re ^ZK GK ^Z
eR^ZK aPe]e ij GZ ^aW bae @a
man, I am only human. Do none enter Paradise save by the mercy
of God ? asked Aisha. None, none, none, he answered. Not
even thou by thy own merits? Neither shall I enter Paradise unless
God cover me with His mercy. (p.81)
Well did Carlyle choose him for his prophet-hero ! There have
been purer lives and higher aspirations than Mohammads ; but no
man was ever more thoroughly filled with the sense of his mission or
carried out that mission more heroically. (Ibid.p.85)
G.M. DRAYCOTT, Mahomet Founder Of Islam, New York,
1916 : Mahomet bears closer resemblance to the ancient Hebrew
prophets than to any Christian leader or saint. (p.11)
32 cjc^ cj\

Ke^j cj\ Kak \aae RY cc

^ [f, ae Ra^e gh _~de _v^_v
^Z^dc [a GK RMZK ee ecL [f...
@^^ \ge eR^ZK iwV^MWK Zk^e
Zue iZ [f @^_c ''(39)
W.Gi. cMfd[
W.Gi. cMfd[ (1858-1940) RY HZjiK Ga
@K`W aga\kde @ea @_K I Py @` Afe ]c~RK
ej@iQ Aifce RY icfPK jiae i ag RYgY
Z[_ cjc^ cj\u ^R _K "cj\ G \ eAR @`
Aifc'e bcKe i RY cj_eh e_ Ke KeQ
""c cj\u RY cj^ aq bae i^ Ke,
~G MUG @Z RUk icie ic]^ Ke @ea
R^RZu ce MUG e I MUG icR
MV^ Ke[f i ~bk Gj fl jif Kf
Zj a^ Kea _A, Zu aK \lZ _Z
CPZ ^d Kea_A Ga Zu cj^ aqZ
~C i^e i ~M, Zj _\g^ Kea_A c
_di KeQ @^[ Gj _KU Zu_Z ic[^
a @b~M ^j ''(40)
No other religious leader has ever bound his creed so closely
to definite political conceptions. Mahomet was not only the instrument
of divine revelation, but he was also at the end of his life the head of
a temporal state with minutest laws and regulations His position
with regard to the political institutions of other countries is unique.
D. S. MARGOLIOUTH, Mohammed And The Rise Of Islam,
New York, London, 1905 : I regard Mohammed as a great man,
who solved a political problem of appalling difficulty, the construction
cjc^ cj\ 33

GP.G.@e. Ma
HZjiK jcfU^ @fKRe eiK^ Ma (1895-
1971) jbW aga\kde @ea bhe @_K ej
@iQ ^R _K "cjW^Rc GK HZjiK ialY'e
i cZaq KeQ ~, cjc^ cj\ue i\MY Ga
aqZ j fKue j\d RY ^C[f
""@c _A Gj Kja @^agK ~ cj\ Zu
@^Mcc^u j\dK ^R aqZe _ba \e j
Rd Ke[f Gj jA^[f ic^ Bge\Zu
K[_Z KYi MeZ \A^[ ]c_Pe ~M
^j, ae cj\ue i\Pe ~M c\^ai
Zue ijdZ bl Ke[f ''(41)
CAfdc c<Mce IU
CAfdc c<Mce IU (1909-2006) RY AeR
HZjiK Ga GW^aM aga\kde @eaK I AifcK WRe
@_K cjc^ cj\ icRe RY Cc I iyU aq
e_ _ePZ [f af a^ Ke i ^R _Ke fLQ

of a state and an empire out of the Arab tribes. I have endeavoured,

in recounting the mode in which he accomplished this, to do justice to
his intellectual ability and to observe towards him the respectful attitude
which his greatness deserves ; but otherwise this book does not aim
at being either an apology or an indictment. (Preface vi-vii)
H.A.R. GIBB, Mohammedanism, An Historical Survey, New
York, 1962 : For us it goes without saying that the hold which
Mohammed gained over the wills and affections of his Companions
was due to the influence of his personality. Without that they would
have paid little heed to the claims of the Prophet. It was because of
his moral qualities, not because of his religious teaching, that the men
of Medina invoked his assistance. (pp.33-34)
34 cjc^ cj\

""Cbd cK I c\^ Kke cj\u icKk^

fKc^ Zu RY Cc I iyU aq af
RY[f Ga AZji \e i jCQ RY
^ZK Z[ icRK ieK ''(42)
Aifc i\e_ie jae KeY iKe i Kj
""i RY Gbk aq [f ~ju bZe iR^gq
@Z Mbe ee K~ Ke[f Ga c^a @Z
iKd _cL _gMWK ahde aPec^ C_^
Ke[f, ~j `ke Zu ]c Kak Zu icde
^j, ae _ea gZMWKe c i\e_ie
@KhY fb Kf ''(43)
IgU^ Aebwi
IgU^ Aebwi (1783-1859) Aifce RY
icfPK Z[_ Zue fL^ cjc^ cj\ue ^d I
i\Pee _gi KeaK bf^j
""Zue aqMZ @Pe aaje ^diwZ [f
i _ePZ I @_ePZ, ]^ I Mea, iak I
\ak icu ijZ ic^ ]eYe aaje Ke[ f,
@C ^ R e b\ P Z aaje ~M Ga

London : In both Meccan and Medinan periods Muhammads
contemporaries looked on him as a good and upright man, and in
the eyes of history he is a moral and social reformer. (p.234)
He was a man in whom creative imagination worked at
deep levels and produced ideas relevant to the central questions
of human existence, so that his religion has had a widespread
appeal, not only in his own age but in succeeding centuries.
cjc^ cj\ 35

fKc^ue @_ @b~M gY[a ~M i

i]eY fKue @Z _d [f ''(44)
ie CAfdc ce
Aifce icfP^ Ke[a Ld^ _Z CAfdc
c e (1819-1905) cjc^ c j \ue i] Z I
^d_edYZK Ke Ke fLQ
""Zue ic @PeYMWK ~[[ I ^diwZ
[f Ga adi aXa ijZ Zue i^Z aqZ
Zu_A "@f-@c^' @[Z "agi^d' C_] @R^
Ke[f ''(45)
ceW[ U^i
ceW [ U^ i ^ R _ K "c j \ \ M U
@ead^'e Gj cj^ @eadu iKe fLQ
""RY eRKce I R^^dK jiae Zu PeZ
aa\d jA^_e ^R PeZK QaK La Kc
\Mcd Ke AZjie KYi aq GZ gh

WASHINGTON IRVINGS, Mahomet And His Successors,
Vol.I, New York, 1868, In his private dealings, he was just. He
treated friends and strangers, the rich and poor, the powerful and
the weak, with equity, and was beloved by the common people
for the affability with which he received them, and listened to
theirs complaints. (p.331)
SIR WILLIAM MUIR, Mahomet And Islam, 1887 : In all
his dealings he was fair and upright, and as he grew in years
his honourable bearing won for him the title of Al Ameen, the
faithful. (p.19)
36 cjc^ cj\

_~ CV_e ^j K Zu @_l @]K ie,

^ck I @Uk acZ _\g^ Ke^j ''(46)
_a*^e @e_
AZjie @fKe @c cjc^ cj\ue il
Ra^PeZ I aqZ ahde @fP^ Kf ~Cc^ Zue
Ra^PeZ @d^ KeQ, ic^ Gj cj_ehu aqZ
\e @ag _baZ jAQ @^ ai Kj
""~G ij cj^ @ead Bge\Zu Ra^ I
PeZe @d^ KeQ, ~G Gj RYQ ~ i
Kbk gl \AQ Ga Kbk Ra^~_^ KeQ
Z' c^e ij iagqc^ iay Kue RY
cj^ Bge\Zu _Z bqba aZZ @^ KYi
ba^ i ja @ia ''(47)
ij_e cjZ M Kj
""c ij aqu Ra^PeZ RYa _A CK jf
~G @R KU KU fKu j\de ^Re @L
_ba ae KeQ... _a_l ce @]K j\a]
jf ~ Gj Zeae ^[ f ~j Z}k^
Ra^]ee Aifc _A i^ ^e_Y Ke[f Gj
MEREDITH TOWNSEND, Mahommad, The Great Arabian,
NEW YORK,1912 : "Upon his character as a prince, a leader of men,
there can be little controversy. No man in history ever rose to
dominion with fewer heavy stains upon his character; none ever
exhibited more constancy, or a more serene unwavering wisdom."
ANNIE BESANT, The Life and Teachings of Muhammad,
Madras, 1932, p-4 : "It is impossible for anyone who studies the life
and character of the great Prophet of Arabia, who knows how he
taught and how he lived, to feel anything but reverence for that mighty
Prophet, one of the great messengers of the Supreme..."
cjc^ cj\ 37

[f Bge\Zue iekZ, ^R _Z ^MY ba, aP^

_Z ^_eZ, cZ I @^MZc^u _Z Mbe
@^eM, Zu iji I ^bKZ Ga Bgeu _Z I
^R cg^ _Z Zue _ agi ''(48)
\Le K[ ~C aqRYK ie Ra^e [ejf cQ
Kj^j, gZ I icfPKc^ ~jue iZa\Z I i\PeK
Ke Ke, Zu aee KU KU fKu _ZeZ Keae
@e_ KeQ KZK @ij _Z fLK ic^ Zu
'Imposter' a _a*K e_ @bjZ KeQ, ~j`ke @^Ku
c^e Gj cj_ehu iKe bf ]eY i jAQ
cjc^ cj\u iKe abKe aaeY \A
ic^ Zu PeZ I glK aKZ Ke C_i_^ KeQ
ZY Zue _KZ _ePd fKfP^K @ia ^Z @agK
Gj\e @^K ij \e jA_ea Ga i] _VKc^
C_f Ke_ea ~ @e_MWKe iZZ KZ ? AZjie
ia]K _bagk aqe_ c^Z fb Ke[a RY iek,
iyU I PeZa^ aq ~\ ^RK Bgeue RY _Z^]
af \a KeQ, Za Zue \aK _ZK \Me _el
Ke~A_e ^e_l c^ba ij Bgeu _Z i ^a^
ej ~\ Kj aPe Ke Za _KZ iZ @ee _KU
^ jae KYi KeY ^j

MAHATMA GANDHI, Young India, 1924 : "I wanted to know
the best of the life of one who holds today an undisputed sway over
the millions of mankind... I became more than ever convinced that it
was not the sword that won a place for Islam in those days in the
scheme of life. It was the rigid simplicity, the utter self-effacement
of the Prophet, the scrupulous regard for pledges, his intense
devotion to his friends and followers, his intrepidity, his fearlessness,
his absolute trust in God and in his own mission."

c\^e [a cjc^ Age\Zue ciR\

cjc^ cj\
d @d

Bgeu _Z^]Z - GK \a _ee

]c ii_^ _A ~M ~M \a_ehc^ue @aba
NUQ g _Z Ga @^d @ZPee af_ _A age
ab^ i^e Gj cj_ehMY _KUZ jAQ i]eY
i]i^ a c^Ehc^uVe Gc^ b^ Gc^ ]e_e
d Bgeue _Z^]Z Ke Ga GAc^u cce c^h
_A iue a]^ \@~G, ~jK @c ]c Kj c^he
_[_\g^ _A Gj GK \a _ee
^^ \ge b^ b^ bhe ]ce _Pe Ke[f c
Gj cM\gKc^ue ckK gl I i ic^ [G, KeY
ic^ ic GK Bgeue _Z^] Ga MUG \_e
RZ ~C gl ic^ c^hK \@, Zj ic^
KYi _Vgke _X ^[, ae \aaY j ic^u
m^e cL cc bh @^ie ic^ _`U, ^a,
eif, @aZe a Eh @\ ab^ ^ce _ePZ K icue
GK cg^ Ga GK fl ~C _ehcc^u \e
\aaY cce i c^he cM\g^ Ke, ic^u
@ea bhe "^a' a "eif' Ga AeRe 'Prophet'
a 'Messenger' Kj~G a\e ic^u "Eh' Ga
aAafe "_`U' Kj~AQ @K`W WK^e @^ie
_`U @[ "Bgeu Aze aL Ke[a aq'
a\K Ehc^u @ee aju \e a\ _KU
jA[f a\ age\c^ Kj ~, ie _ee c^he
KfY _A cjh @M, cjh ad, cjh @\Z Ga cjh
40 cjc^ cj\

@we @\ Ehc^u @ee Bge ~C m^ _KU Ke[f,

Zjj "gZ' a "a\' iZe Gj "Eh' ge @^e_
gU @ea bhe jCQ "^a' IW@ bhe ic^u
Bge\Z, ]c\Z a aaj c Kj~A_e
iZe "@aZe' g c "^a'e @^e_ jA_e
af KZK j a\^ cZ \@ _Z gec gc
"@aZe' ge _ebh a^ Ke Kj
""icRK _ZZ @aie C^Z @WK ^C[a
cjc^a ^Z af "@aZe' ge aL Kf
@^PZ ja^j ''(1)
_Z a\_Kg C_d Kj
""c Ke\aK Pj ~ iZ g "@aZe'
AeRe Prophet Ga @eae "^a'e
@^e_ ''(2)
g C_d @aZe ge aL Ke Kj
""ck g "@a' Ga "Z'e i~M \e @aZe
g MVZ, ~je @[ jCQ "Bgeu \e _KUZ
jA[a ae age _Pe _A RY cj_ehu
@aba ''(3)
age ab^ bMe fl]K cM\gKue @aba NUQ
ic^u ce KZKue ahde Ke@^, aAaf Ga
ab^ j ge c a^ Ke~AQ

@c i, _-35
KkK @aZe I cj\, \Zd @d
Muhammed in the Hindu Scriptures, P-50.
cjc^ cj\ 41

]eZe _[c _eh @\c I Zu _Z Abu (@eae

jI) a^ Ke@^ I aAaf KeQ _eYe c Gc^u
ahde CfL ejQ bah _eYe (_[c L, PZ[
@d, i_a) Gc^u ahde @^K Z[ \@~AQ, ~[
au \e @\c I Zu _Z "jIaZ' (Eve)ue Kck
cKe i ja, aue @\g Cfx^ Ke ic^u \e
__ale `k LAa, iAZ^ (Devil)e i_ e_e @i
aue @\g Cfx^ Kea_A ic^u _aAa Ga
_e au \e i \ARYu iieK _VA \@~a bk
@^K Z[e CfL @Q, ~jK Ke@^ I aAafe aZ
Z[ ij _d ic^ GjQW Cq _eYe cjc^ ]c\Z
^j (iZe ^j-vegn) Zu _Z gc (iZe ic-efmece),
cjc^ Aajc (iZe @aec-DeefJejece) @\ @je @^K
Ehue ^ce CfL @Q, ~Cc^u aAaf _`U Ga
Ke@^ ^a a eif KjQ
Gj aZZ Gj _eYe au \e cjh c^u (Ke@^
I aAafe cjc^ ^j) GK cjaZe Lae \@~a,
MUG Ww Z@e Ke a^ak i[e ^R fKu ij
_ZK _g_lu ce jk fLG eLae @\g \@~a,
_\g @^ie cjh c^u \e 300`U f I 50`U
Iiee MUG Ww Z@e Ke~a K[e CfL @Q Gj
_kdue a^ 40\^ ]e fM ej[a, _ak ah ~M
PeU ic\ ic^ ba cg~a Ga beZah aW ~A[ae
c CfL @Q Gj NUYU Cbd Ke@^ I aAafe c
ic^ _ea^ ij a^ Ke~AQ
cjc^ ~g L u a h de c _ e Ye a ^
Ke~A[a \LaK ck (4) i[e Zue ^c "Ai cij'
bah _eY, i_a, 3d L, \Zd @d
42 cjc^ cj\

af CfL @Q i Kce c@uVe R^ jA[a RY

Bge\Z ~G K iZe _Pe Kea_A _eZ af a^
Ke~AQ cjc^ "Ai' (~g) cjc^ cj\u @abae
bahaY Ke[a ahd Ga Zue KZK C_\ge c
Gj _eYe a^ ejQ WKe a\_Kg C_d"efR@i
d^U A^ \ fAU @` \ a\R' _Ke G ahde
@^K Z[ \AQ (5)
~\I _d GKfl Pag jRe Bge\Z @i[a K[
Aifc KjQ, K ic^u ce Kak @ KARYue
^c a^ \LaK ck Aifc K cifc^ ja _A
GK ckK i eLQ ~, _[a _e @i[a
ic Bge\Zu
Bgeu _Z^] af agi KeaK ja, ic^u ce
QUaWe KYi _b\ Ke~a ^j Ga Kje _Z @i^
Ke~a ^j Gj aZZ Kak Ke@^ ^j, _[ae
_KUZ ia \aM^MWK ~ RY Bgeu \e _eZ, Gj
c RY cifc^ agi eLa Gj \AU ckK agi a^
RY aq cifc^ ba _eMY ^j
Ke@^ @cK Kj ~, age _ZK i\d _A
RY Bge\Z @iQ
""G_e KYi i\d ^j, ~j ^KUK KYi
iPZK (Bge\Z) @i^j ''
Ke@^, 35 : 24
ZY, c^he cM\g^ _A ^Re _Z^] _VAa
Bgeue GK _ee ej@iQ

Mahammed in the Hindu Scriptures, P.-85-87
cjc^ cj\ 43

cM\g^ KjK ?
c^h GK a-aaK i^ Ra ^Re a, ahdm^
I @bmZ ake i VK-bf a ^d-@^d ce
@^Kge Z`Z aS_e _Y Z'e cM\g^ Keae
@agKZ K'Y ? KjK cjc^ Bge\ZMY @i Ga
KjK c^hK \aa]^ \@~G ?
@c RY ~, aRee `R, Ke a caAf `^UG
KYf ^cZu Ze`e Z' ijZ MUG A^Ki^ c^@f
a MAW aj \@~A[G i ajUe ij C_KeYUe
iVK aaje iKe C_\gc^ ej[G ^cZ RY
~, Zue ia MjK @glZ ^j ic^u ce aW
aW glaZ, Wqe, A^de, _`ie I am^K c @Q
Z[_ ^cZ KjK cM\g^ Ke ?
Gje KeY jCQ ~, ae ^cZ j ^R a
iKe iVK ba RY[@ ~jZ i aUK MXQ,
Ze _ZU ~ge MY I K~_Yk iKe i bfe_
@aMZ [@ Ga aUe aaje Kbk fb\dK a lZKeK
ja Zj i RY aUK MX^[a fKue ij m^
^[G ZY, ZK VK e_ aaje ^Ke MjKc^ lZM
jae @gu [G Gj KeY ~M ae C_~M iKe
^cZ cM\g^ Ke[@ Gj Zue _[cK Ka
~\ aU KYi RUk ]eYe jA[G, ~[ KYi
cf a KkKeL^ AZ\, Za Kak MAW ajU
MjKc^u _A ~[ jG^j Gj ijZ K^ Ze`e
44 cjc^ cj\

RY MAW a _Z^] ^~q Ke~G, ~G ci^Ue aaje

iKe MjKu cLK e_ aSAa ij Gje aajeK
m^ iKe iP^ \A[
@ag c^h KYi ~ ^j, i eq-cie MX
cYh K Z'e ^cZ ZK ~bk C^Zc^e KeMe
Kgke MXQ, iiee Z'e Zk^ ^j c^h jCQ
iiee iaVe g Ga RUkZc i i iZ I @iZ
Cbd K~ Ke_e _YK~ Ke i \a\Zu c
ak~A_e Ga __ Ke i elic^u c _Qe
_KA\A_e ab^ i\MY ]eY Ke[a cYh bZe
c[-K_U, fb-cj, Kc^-ai^, K]-Bh, Ma-@jKe
@\ @^K \MY c ejQ ~cZ i \d, _c I
_e_Ke Ke_e, ij_e i jZ, fY^ @\ ~aZd
@^d, @ZPe c Ke_e ZK _el Kea Cge
Bge c^hK iZ I @iZ Cbd Kc Keae ic[ _\^
RY icRK _Y bae _eaeK Ra^Ve @e
Ke ed Z[ @ed e _~ @MYZ R^Zu ij
c^h ig [G jRe jRe ^e-^eu C_e Z' Kce
_Zl I _el _ba _W[G Ga Z'e _ZU iZ a @iZ
Kc ZK _baZ Kea ij icRe ab^ lZK c _baZ
Ke ~cZ iZKc \e Ra^ g jG I icRe KfY
jG, ij_e @iZKc \e icR lZM jG ~\ c^h
Z'e Ka VK VK _k^ ^ Ke, Za i ^Re Z[
icRe Ne @^ Kea Ga i I i_Z @^d @ZPe
Ke \^d ja K cYhe Ka K'Y i K_e RYa ?
i K_e RYa ~ KC K~U VK Ga KCU bf ? i
KjK iieK @iQ, KG ZK i KeQ, GVe Z'e
cjc^ cj\ 45

Ka K'YGMWK RYa _A "m^' @agK Gj m^

cYhK Z^U C_de ck _[cU jCQ _KZK C_d
Bge cYhK G[_A @L, K^, _U, ^K @\ Ad \AQ,
~j\e i @^K bf-c ahde RY_ea GMWK Z'
m^ I @bmZ ae ij~ Ke Gj AdMWK c^h
aZZ _g_l I RaR @\u c \@~AQ, ~j ic^u
Ra^ ^aj Keae ij~ Ke
K cYhe Gj AdMWK VK e_ K~ Ke[a i i
@^K K[ RY_e ^j GMWK Z'e cM\g^ KeaK i
@ic[ j@ ZY cYhK "m^'e @C MUG cc \@~AQ,
~jK "a' Kj a @c ^KUe C_f [a Z[MWK
aghY Ke @ce cM\g^ Ke ~C lZe AdMWK
K~ Kea _A @ic[, iVe a @cK aU aZG K
ae ic[ c icZ @^K lZe a c Kc Ke^j
@i, MUG C\jeYe Gj aSaK P Kea
c^Ke, Kj RY @cK Jh] aUKUG \LA _g
Kf ~ "GAU KY ?' @c @Z ijRe Gje Ce
\A_ea @Le \L Kj_ea ~ Gje ew ]k,
jZe g Ke Kj_ea ~ Gj PKY Ga ^Ke gx
Z' M c Kj\A _ea ~\ @cK @C MUG _g
_Pe~G ~, Gj aUKU @_ @_ Z@e jAQ a
Gje Kj ^cZ @Q ? Za GVe @c @L, K^, ^K,
jZ KQ Kc Kea ^j KeY Jh]U @_ @_ Z@e
jAMf a KYi KeL^e ZK Z@e KeMf, Zj
@c @L \L^j G i^e @c m^e \Zd cc "a'
_dM Ke Ce \C ~, KYi eMe C_Pe _A
ie WRA^e MX~A[a aUKU K\_ @_ @_ Z@e
jA^[a ^d Gje Kj ^cZ @Q
46 cjc^ cj\

K Gj_e ~\ @cK @C MUG _g _Pe~G ~,

GA aUKUe C_~MZ K'Y a GjK KC eM _A
K_e aaje Ke~a, Za GVe @c a Kc Kea
^j @c N< N< ]e PKf c Z'e aaje iKe
RY_ea ^j Gj i^e @cK Jh] ^cZu \M\g^e
@agKZ _W RY PKK, ~ju Jh] ^cZ Jh]e
KRi^ I aaje iKe iP^ \A[, @cK Kj
~, Gj KC eMe C_Pe _A C Ga Gje aaje
a] K'Y
a ~[ ^j
cYh Ra^e @^K aW aW _g ejQ ~je Ce
a \A_ea ^j C\jeYe_, a \e aju i
C_f Keja; K Zue e_ K'Y RYja ^j Bge
\LaK K_e a Zue aghZMWK K'Y, Gj RYja
^j a\e ajm^ ia ^j
a Bgeue ia-C_i^e ~[[Z _Z_\^ Ke_e;
K Gj ia-C_i^ K_e Ke~a Zj RY_ea ^j
ij_e cYhe Ka a iue a]a]^, M, ^K,
\a\Z, _efK, _^Ra^ @\ @^K _cL _ge Ce
a \A_ea ^j
^d _Y I @^d __ af cUcU ba cYh
RY_ea; K MUG ^ Kc ^d a @^d ia lZe
Gj RY_ea ^j C\jeYe_, cYh j@ a @^
RaR, RajZ ~ "@^d' Gj @c RY_ea K
KC _eiZe Gj "^d', Zj Kak a \e @c
RY_ea ^j
cjc^ cj\ 47

GjQW, ~C Kce fb I lZe Cbd \M ej[G,

K KcU RYK _A fb\dK jC[aak @^ Kje
_A lZKeK jG, ibk Kc ^d a @^d, Zj cYh
^ Ke_ea ^j i \e _W~a Gbk lZe c
a cM\g^ KeaK ic[ ja^j
GjaZZ a @c Ad ^dYe [G, ZY _l_ZZ
c Ke
ZY ~C lZe a K~ KeaK ic[ ^j, i
lZe aU \LAa _A i cYhK m^e ZZd cc
c \AQ, ~jK "\aaY' Kj @ea bhe GjK
"Ij' Ga AeRe 'Revelations' Kj~G Gj jCQ
m^e iay cc Ga Gj iue Z _Z^] a
aaju cce @i
~\ cYh Kak a ake i\ Ra^~_^e cM
RY_e, Za _[ae KYi \aM^ a \a_ehue
@aba jA ^[@ cM\g^ GA[_A Ke~G ~,
c^h _Le iZ I @iZ ce [a _[K jA~C
Ga @iZKc Ke _efKe i ^K ~Y ^ bM
^dc ^eY iue @]Ke
cYh icRK _Y icRe Z'e @^K @agKZ
@Q Ze L\ \eKe, a \eKe Ga Pka _A C_R^e
GK _^ \eKe ZK aaid a PKe KeaK _W, aaj
KeaK _W Ga i^iZue _Z_hY KeaK _W ZK
_eaeK I icRK iK c el KeaK _W K~ i I
cl_ _A ZK iu ij iK c el KeaK _W
GMWK cYhe baK @agKZ Ga GjK _eY Keae
GK]K aU ejQ KQ fK MUG ^ aUK VK af
48 cjc^ cj\

Kj[aak @^ KZK ZK bf c Kj _R C_i^e

MUG L\K RY a]iZ ba[aak @C RY ZK ^h
cY _e]^e MUG gkK KQ fK @gk^ c^
Ke[aak @C KQ fK ZK @]^KZ ba ij_e
C_R^e MUG _^K RY iZ_^ Kj Z @C RY ZK
@iZ c^Ke Gj_e _ZK lZe cZb\ ejQ @ag
Cbd aUe cYhe @agKZ _eY jA~a Pe _Aie
@i[a eU LK bK c<AaK c^ Kea ^j K bCYK
aj jA_Wf i^ _e KYi a] i ja^j K
Gj cYh I Z' icRe Ne @^ i]^ Kea
ZY VK aU KCU @C bf aU KCU, Zj KG
^ Kea ? iZ I @iZ ce _[K ZK KG Kja ?
KG _[ae KU KU ^e-^eu i\ Ra^~_^ _A
cM\g^ Kea Ga ic^ue @ZK, ^ZK, icRK,
@[^ZK I ^MeK Ra^ _A a]a]^ \a ?
K'Y cYh \A_ea ? ~G bf Ke ?
bf~a ~je ba ?
~G Ad a^e cq ^j ?
~je c^ad \akZ ejQ ?
~G @_Y I _e ce _b\ aPe _Ze-@e
Ke ?
~je m^ icZ ?
~G ^Re bf-c c RY_e ^j ?
~G \e _W~G Ga ^R aUaY jA~G ? i
\ak c^h K'Y age KU KU ^e-^eu iZcM
cjc^ cj\ 49

\LA_ea Ga ic^u Ra^e _ZK lZ _A ^bf

^Z^dc \A_ea ?
^Z bae ^j Kak icRK gvkZ eLa _A
a @_e] ^eKeY _A cYh KQ ^dc MX[G ~jZ
Gj ^Z^dcMWK icZ m^ I @bmZ @]ee MX ~A[G,
i[e c^ad \akZe _ba [G, ~C[_A Gj @A^
K^^MWK aee ig]^ Keae @agKZ _W Gj
^Z^dcMWK i]eYZ icR a \ge @^gi^ _A C
[G GMWK cYhe @ZK a ^ZK \M\g^ Ke_e
^bf cM\g^ Kak i j Ke_ea KeY iA j
ac^, bZ I bahZe mZ Zue m^ @^ iA j
\hg^, Zue \ icu ic^ bae \L Ga iA j
icM c^a RZe KfY Kc^ Ke Gj aZZ ~jZ
i cYhe i Ga Zue K_ ake cYh RaZ ej, Z'
_A Ra^gk ^eY Kea Zue @]Ke c ^cZ ~_e
^R ^cZ a _A ^dc MX, ij_e i cYh _A a]^
MX Zu \e _KgZ ^g^cK "\aM^' Ga Zu
\e ^~q _Z^]K "Bge\Z' a @eae "^a' Kj~G
~_e ^cZu ^gK C_l Ke Jh]e aaje lZKeK
jG, ij_e iu @mae] @PeYMWK cYh _A @ag
@^Ke ja, G[e ij ^j
~\ Bge cM\g^ ^Ke, cYh ^R Ka _k^e
bf Ke Ga _efKe aPe icde ~q aX ~
Z'e bf K'Y ? Bge Z Z' _A KYi cM\gK _VA
^[f a KYi ^Z-^dc \A ^[f ZY ^R a-
aPe @^ie i ~j VK baf, Kf ZY i \
KjK _Aa ? Ke@^ GjK Ke KjQ
50 cjc^ cj\

""Bge\Zc^ (iZKc _A MiLe) gbi\

\@ Ga (KKc _A ^K~Y ahde) iZK
Ke, ~_eK Bge\Zc^ue @i~a _e @fju
^KUe fKc^ue KYi aj^ ^ ej ''
Ke@^, 4 : 165
Gj KeY ~M Bge ^R _Z^]u cce ^Z-
^dc \@ ZY _ZKu _A iZcMe @^i^ Kea
@_ej~ ~C eRe cYh ej, i eRe gi^Ku
^dc-K^^ ^ RYa ZK ^h _cYZ Ke_ea ^j
ij_e Gj RMZ ce ai Ke RMZKu ^dc ^
RYa MUG aW @_e] ~cZ @c PK ahde
bfe_ @^i^ Ke C_~q Wqe _i Ke, cfcKc
ahde C_~q IKf aQ[C, ]c iKe c ij iZ
_dM Ke~a CPZ
cjc^ cj\ 51

cM\g^ _Z
alfZ MZgk ^j, ZY ic^ue @je _\Zk
ck~G _g_l Pfaf Ke_e, ZY ic^u @je
]e_e al bae [G, ~jK ic^ iMj Ke
^Re ~Z I iel ahde c ic^u gl \@~A[G
c^agg R^_e ^R L\_d a bfc ahde
_g_lu _fuVe c @je @]K @ijd @aie [G
ZY Z' fk^-_k^ a_-c@u \e Ke~G c' c^e
ccZ be \@~G i ^R ^ LA _fK L@G, ^R ^
_ _fK _G eZ CRMe ej Z' ia Ke[G _f
LUe Li_W[f c' ZK LiaK \G^j K i ^@K
]eaK ~C[f c' Z' jZ ]e_KG i\ak i Z'
~Z ^C[G
]e ]e ggU ~Zak aW jA ^R bf-c
aS_e, Z' ~Ze aai a\k~G @_Y fl Kea,
~C c' ^R jZe _fe ia~Z Ke[f, i Zj Kea
QW\G ^R jZe L@A\a, M]A\a a _V [_WA
g@A\a QW\G Ga i ZK Kak cLK C_\g
_fU ~Zak _ ad jA~G, _Y Gj Hged
aaie _ea^ jG _Z_hYe \dZ a\k ^R
@je i ^R iMj Ke ^R iel \dZ ^R aj^
Ke Ga ^R bf-c ahde ^R ^ ^A[G GjVe
52 cjc^ cj\

c^hK Ra^~_^ Kea_A al bae _W[a @^K

Pf_[e iL^ jaK _W, @C aUaY jae ia^
[G ^Re gZc ie \M\g^ _A _ecge G lZe
@^ aai Ke i c^h ^KUK aaj _V ~G K
Zue _Z^]Z Ke Zue cce \aM^ @i Ga
i j Z'e aL Ke ~C cce ic^u ^g
\@~G, ZK \aaY Kj~G ac^ Bgeu "]c\Z'
Ga "\aM^' _ZcZue bcK MjY Ke fLZ I
cLK Cbd C_de c^he cM\g^ Ke~A[G Gj
_d ij_e, ~_e ae @]Keu \e ieKe ^g
\@~A[G, K eR\Zc^u \e _Rc^u eRu @\g
_\^ Ke~A[G Gj @aie c^h Z'e c^^Z cM
_A Bgeu ^KUe Ce\d ej
cjc^ cj\ 53

cjc^ Bge\ZMY ~C C_\g \@, ~j Keae
@\g \@ a ~j aeY Ke, Bgeu ^g @^~d
Ke Gj ^g ic^u ~C cce \@~G, ZK
"\aaY' a @ea bhe "Ij' Kj~G Gj Z^U
C_de jA[G (1)
_[cZ, Bge\Zu @ee i]ikL \aaY _KU
jG, ~jK i gY
\ZdZ, i @X@ke ej ^R ]c\Zu ij ak_
Ke ]c\Z g^e g gY; K KG KjQ, \L~G
^j GjK g^aY a @KgaY Kj~G
ZZd ccU jCQ \a\Zu cc \a\Zu
AeRe 'Angel' Ga Ce "`e' Kj~G cjc^
\a\Z ]c\Zu ^KUe C_iZ jA Zu Bgeu a
_\^ Ke
KZKu \aaY cce "\aM^' c _\^
Ke~AQ, ~j ag ajaY Ga i[e ]c\Zu K[ cg
^[G ajaYe iKk^K \aM^ a @eae "KZa'
Kj~G Ga Bge\Zu aYMWK "K[' a @eae "j\i'
Kj~G GVe ^\a CPZ ~ ajaY (KZa) Ga
Bge\Zu aY (j\i) Cbd \aaY; K _[K GZK
~, _[cU @aKk BgeaY ~j Kak Bge\Zu cLe
Ke@^ 42 : 51
54 cjc^ cj\

^iZ jG Gje _ZU g I ba Cbd d Bgeue

@^ _le Bge\Zue aY a "j\i' Bgeu @m; K
BgeaY ^j \aaY \e ^R _Z _KU jA[a
^gMWKe baK Bge\Z ^R ge _Kg Ke[@
@[Z, j\ie ba[ Bgeue; K ge_ Bge\Zue @C
MUG K[ GVe RYeLa CPZ ~, ]c\Zue _ZK
K[ ~j i aqMZ e_ RY c^a jA[a \e Kj,
Zj \aaY ^j, K Zue _ZK gl, ~j i
Bgeu _Z^] e_ \@, @^a~ e_ \aaY
\aaY jCQ Bgeue ag jZ_\g ~Cc^
\aaY @^~d Ra^~_^ Ke Ga ZK j ^R _A
@c a]^ c^, ic^ _[b j@ ^j, KeY ic^
d Bgeu @\g @^ie Pk \aaY aZZ @^
KYi gle ZU [ae ia^ ejQ, ~j cYhK _[b
Ke_e _dM aga\kde RY MahK _Z a\_Kg
C_d G ahde Kj
""]c ahde iVK a]McZ ^[a KYi
aq, ~\ KYi bMee @ @^KeY Ke,
Za @ag i Lfe _Wa ZY Gbk _Z^e
^RK el KeaK jf, ]ce _KZ @[ RYa
@agK _g CV, iZm^e C K'Y ? Ce
jCQ, Gj Kak Ehc^u _Z Bgeu \e
_KUZ jA[a \aaY Gj \aaYMWK
_e ]cM^e iKk^ Ke~A[f ''(2)

Religious Unity in the Light of Vedas (Foreward)Dr.
Ved Prakash Upadhyay.
cjc^ cj\ 55

cM\g^e Bge\Zue bcK

c^he cM\g^ \aaY cce Ke~G, K G[e
cjc^ Bge\Zue bcK @Z MeZ_ KeY iA j
\aM^e cc Ga Gje aL c iA Ke \aM^
]ce i I ckK ^Z^dc a^ Ke, K GjK K~Ke
Keae aZ aaeY \G^j C\jeYe_ i[e ab^
C_i^ ~[_[^, C_ai, \^ I Z[ @\e @\g [G,
K GMWK Keae ag\ a] a KcKe a^ ^[G ZY,
iMWK bae aL Kea Ga aajeK ba ^R
_k^ Ke \LA\a _A Bg e \ Z ^ ~ q jA[@
c^Ke, ~\ ieKe MUG aW KV a aR ^cY KeaK
ie Ke, Za i ^K ij ^R A^de c ^~q Ke
A^deu C_iZe _RKe UK^L aaeY ^Ke CfL
Keae @agKZ _W^j i ahde @agKd ^g
A^de \@ ]c\Zu cM\g^ a^ Kak Bged M^
CPZ cM\g^ Ke_ea ^j @i, MUG C\jeYe
Bge\Zu bcKe MeZ aSaK P Kea
c^Ke, KYi @*ke _ak a^ jf L\,
_^d, Jh] I ae @ba ~M jRe jRe aij^ fK
Ne \g bM[ae Lae ieKeu \K @if ZY
ieKe ic^u ijdZ _A beZd i^e MUG d^UK
^g \f ~ ic^ Ze a^ __WZ @*kK ~A
fKu Ce Ke Ga ic^u eja, LAa I PKe
@agKd aai Ke ieKeu Gj ^g i^e _ZK
KcPe _LK @i^j, ae Kak i^@]Keu _LK @i
56 cjc^ cj\

Zj c UfM c a `K ~M GK il ^g a_^c^u
K_e ij~ Ke~a, Z'e ag\ aaeY i[e ^[G ij
@*kK i^\k KC aU\A ~a, aU \e ~a a
jfK_e \e ~a, KjK K_e ij~ Kea, KCV @gd
aai Kea, ic^u _A L\_^de Kbk aai Kea,
PK _A KC WqeL^K ^aGMWK ahde aZ
bae ij ieKe ^g^ce CfL Ke~A ^[G GMWK
i^]Keue \dZ ij @]Ke iVKe @ai I @agKZ
@^ie ieKeu ij _Zl ~MiZ el Ke i^K ^g
\@ Gjbk bae K~U ieLee i\Z jA~G
Bge c _d Gjbk aai c^he cM\g^ Kea_A
Ke[@ G[_A i ^Re _Z^] ^~q Ke Ga Zu
ij ia\ ~MiZ el Ke[@ ZY \aM^e iaK[
aZ bae CfL Kea \eKe _W^j Gj ia]R^K
c j@ ^j ~jZ Bge\Z Bgeu ia-C_i^e
^dc Kj Ga BgeaYe aL Ke, Zu @c^ Kea
Bgeu @c^ Kea ij ic^ VK ~_e ieKeu \e
^~q @]Keu @ac^^ ieKeu @ac^^ ij ic^
~\ RY ^MeK Z' _A ^~q _\]Keu @am Ke,
Za i ieKeu @am Kf iZe \^d ja
ieKeu c^a @[ Zu Ze`e ~Zak ~C @]Ke
^~q ja, Zu c^aK _Wa Gjj ieKeu ^dc
ij_e Bgeu c^a @[ Zue ~C _Z^] ~Zak
^~q ja, Zu c^a CPZ Ga Zu C_\g MjY
Kea CPZ @^[ Gj d Bgeu _Z @ac^^ ja
\aM^ ~[ ^j
KZK fK Kj ~, Kak Ke@^ j cM\g^
_A ~[ Ga Bge\Zu gle KYi @agKZ ^j
cjc^ cj\ 57

ic^ Bge\Zue glK @\eKe c^ Ke Gj GK

a_R^K P]e
@c RY eLa CPZ ~, ^R _Z^]u cce
c^he cM\g^ Kea _ZK ~Me Bgeue GK _ee
ej@iQ K _ZK Bge\Zu iZ e_ MUG fLG
\aM^ \a Zue _ee ^j ie age fl]K
Bge\Zue @aba jAQ, cZ fl]K M^ @i^j
akak GKKk^ @^K Bge\Z K~eZ ejQ, K
icu MUG MUG M^ \@~A ^j @agKZ @^~d
KZK Bge\Zu M^ \@~AQ K Bge\Zue gl j
iaak Bgeue a]^ ej@iQ @c RYa CPZ ~
BgeaY aj^ Ke[a M^ Bge\Zc^u gle GK @gagh
gd aLe @ag Gje cL Z[ ^dcK bcK ejQ
K Bge\Zu _Z M^ _KU ^ jf c] Zue @\g
_k^d ~C Bge\Zc^u M^ \@~A ^[f, ic^ue
gle @^_k^ c Z}k^ icR _A @^a~ [f Ga Gj
KeYe ^R ^R icde ij Bge\Zc^u @iKe Ke[a
fKc^u Ke@^ ^K Ga @amKe e_ NhY KeQ
Ke@^ cjc^ Bge\Zu gle GK @g ~\ Gj @aZ
jA ^[@, Z[_ cjc^ cj\ue ^g _k^ Kea
@c _A @^a~ jA [@, KeY @^ Bge\Zu gl
_e Zu gl c \aaY Bge\Z Kajf ^R c^e
KYi @\g \@ ^j Gj KeYe Ke@^ Kj
i (cj\) ^R Aze aga jA KQ Kj
^j ae Zu _Z @\aY jG ''
(Ke@^ 53 : 3-4)
GjaZZ ~cZ _ae @fP^ KeMf, _ZK @\ge
aZ aaeY a _ZU C_i^ a] ~[^cR, C_ai, RKZ
I jR @\ _k^ Keae a] c Ke@^e a^ Ke~A ^j
58 cjc^ cj\

Bge\Zue gl @^ie j GMWK _k^ Ke~G Ke@^

@^ie Gj Bge\Zue \dZ (Ke@^ 16 : 44, 3 : 164)
ZY, ~G Zue ^g _k^ Ke, i _KZe Ke@^e j
@^_k^ Ke Ke@^ e_ NhY KeQ
~G Bge\Zue @m _k^ Ke, i @ag
@fjue @\g _k^ Ke ''
(Ke@^ 4 : 80)
c^ Ke, RY cifc^ i ^ele Ga i Ke@^
_X ^j, K i ^be ~M iZe cjc^ cj\ue glMWK

iMj Ke ^e ij _k^ Ke Gj fKU ~\I Ke@^
_Xae ibM _A^j, Z[_ i Ke@^e j @^_k^
KeQ Gje KeY jCQ ~ cjc^ cj\ue gl jCQ
i Ke@ ^e aL @^ _le, ~\ KYi fK cj\ue
glK @\eKe c^ Ke ZM Ke\G Ga ^R Az @^~d
Ke@^e @^_k^ Ke, i Aifc ]c _k^ Ke^j
Bgeu _c Ke[a bqc^ Zu aajue @m
_k^ Ke af C_\g \A Ke@^ KjQ
(j cj\) Kj(j c^hMY) ~\ Zc @fju
_c Ke[@, Za cZ @^ieY Ke, Za @fj
Zc^u _c Kea Ga Zc^ue \h lc
Ke\a Ga @fj @Z lcgk, i\ KeYcd ''
(Ke@^, 3 : 31)
Bge\Z jCQ Bgeue _Z^] Ga i Zue Ze`e
Kj Zu @\ge @ac^^ id Bgeue @ac^^ ZY
Ke@^ Gbk fKu ia]^ Ke KjQ
""iZe ~Cc^ Bge\Zu @\ge aePeY
Ke, ic^ ia]^ ja CPZ ~, ic^
KYi a_e gKe jA ^ ~@ K ic^u
cjc^ cj\ 59

_Z(@fju Ze`e) KYi ~Y\dK g _j*

^ ~C ''
(Ke@^, 24 : 63)
ZY ]ce Bge\Zue bcK ~ KZ MeZ_, Gj
ijRe @^cd ~\ Bge\Zue C_\g @\eKe a
@^KeK jA [@, Za Ke@^ G ahde @\g
\A [@ cZ Ke@^ aee Bge I Bge\Z Cbdue
K[ c^ae @\g \AQ i[e KCV jf Bge\Zue
K[ ^ c^ae @\g ^j
@^ _le Gj a_{^K P]e ahde iZK Ke
cjc^ cj\ Kj~AQ
""ia]^ ! cZ Ke@^ \@~AQ Ga Z' ijZ
@C K Q c \ @ ~AQ Z[_ icd @i Q
~Zak _U_e bR^ Ke ^ec M\ C_e
ai[a fK Kja(Kak) "Ke@^K j ]e,
i[e ~j a] @Q ZK a] Ga ~j @a]
@Q ZK @a] MjY Ke ' ia]^ ej !''
(@a \C\, j\i 4587)
""^ec M\ C_e @CR ai[a GcZ KYi
fK ahde c ~_e ^ gY ~G c \e
a] a @a] Ke~A[a Kc ahde gY
Kj@c RY ^, ~j @c @fju M^e
_Af, Zj _k^ Kf ''
(@a \C\, j\i 4588)
Bge\Zue @^ieY Kea Ga Zue @m _k^ Kea
]ce GK ckK i KYi i a ckK ^dcK
@iKe Ke[a aq ]ce _eie ce aje~G
Bge\Zc^ue aghZ
RY i]eY cYh Ga RY Bge\Zu ce @Kg
I _Zke _b\ [G iu _Z^]Z Ke[a _ehcMY
~\I eqcie MX cYh; K @c _e i]eY c^h
^j ic^ue KZU cL aghZ [G
(1) _[cZ, ic^ @i]eY e_ PeZa^ I i\MY
i^ j@ Gbk PeZ i]i^c^ue c ^[G
ic^ iZ^, i\Pe jA R^MjY Ke[@ Ga
@iZ I @^d _Z ic^ue baZ NYba [G,
~cZ KQ fKue _KZK ba KZK ^ L\
_Z a K~ _Z NY [G Zki \A_Ze aif _e
afKke j ic^u cj^Ze iP^ ck[G Bgeu
_Z^]Z Kea _ae c ic^ @^d I @_KcVe
\eA ej ~jZ ic^ bahZ icR _A
RY Cc cYhe ^c^ j@, ic^ue gl \a
a]^ jG Ga KU KU fK Zu @\g e_
MjY Ke ic^ue @^KeY Ke, i[_A ic^u
Bge KW iel ce eL[@ ^Re c^^Z
_Z^]c^u i @^d-@_Kc KeaK \@ ^j
(2) Gj cj_ehc^ iZ_c Ga iZe _Pe _A
^~q jA[@ ZY ic^ Ka c[ Kj
^j gZc^ c ic^ue iyUZK Ke Ke
(3) ic^ gZ_ZgZ agi^d Ka Kje agi bw
Ke ^j K KjeK _ZeZ Kea \L~G ^j
ic^ K[ \f K[ el Ke RY c[a\
a _ZeKK Kj KjK agi Kea ?
(4) ic^ue GK Z ag jCQ ~, ic^u _Z
_Zl \aaY jG
(5) cjc^ Bge\ZMYue K[ I K~e KYi _b\
^[G ~C gl ic^ @^c^u \@, ^R c
Zj ^e ij _k^ Ke ~C iZKce C_\g
\@, Zj _[c ^R @PeY Ke Ga ~C
@_KcMWK QWaK Kj, ^R @PeY \e Ze \
(6) Gj \a_ehc^ue @^ MUG aghZ jCQ ~
ic^ @^e cwk _A ^R K Ke Ke; K
^R iL _A @^K K \@ ^j
(7) cjc^ Bge\ZMYue GK ci^ [a ~M ic^
_eeK ic[^ Ke KYi ]c\Z @^ RYK
icfP^ Ke ^j a Zue @i^ Ke ^j
(8) ic^ b^ b^ ]ce _Pe Ke ^j a KYi
^Z^ ]ce gl \@ ^j ae ic _a \agle
_^i_^ Ke ~jZ icRe ^^_Ke Kie
I @agi _g~A[G Ga fK ab^ _[ I _ee
a^e a jA~A [@, ZY _ZK Bge\Z
ia _[ QW Zue _[ @^KeY Keae C_\g \@
Gje @[ ^j ~ ic^ GK ^Z^ ]ce gl \@
a _a \aglK bf af NhY Ke, ~jZ
Zue gl _PkZ _ee ae] jA[G ZY
fKu Gj ^@ ]c _e fM
62 cjc^ cj\

(9) ic^u bZ bahZe @^K Lae \aaY cce

\@~G ZY ic^u bahaY Kajf c[
(10)ic^ @^K @fKK K~ _\g^ Ke, ~jK
Pc}eZ Kj~G ic^ ^R GMWKe i ^j
a Az @^ie Pc}e \LA_e ^j ~Zak
Bge Pj a fK ic^uVe Bgeu _Z^]Ze
_cY LR, iZak ic^u\e Gj Pc}eZ
_Kg _G
(11)cjc^ ]c\Zc^ue gl ia ~Me iaR^^ iZ
e_ _cYZ jG i[e am^K ZU, @iZ a
@gkZ ^[G
(12)Gj cj_ehc^ Ad aga j@ ^j AdMWK
C_e ic^ue i ^dY ej[G RY Bge\Z
eR_eaee R^Mj Y Ke[ f c bM-akiVe \ee
ej iiee ai Ke ; K iiee cj
ic^ue ^[G
(13)ic^ @ia e_ @Zagi KYi a]aN
ic^u ^R _[e aPZ Ke_e ^j K ]^-i
I ~g-Ke fki ic^u cMPZ Keae ic[
jG^j ^R Ka _k^ Kfak ic^ Ra^
_Z c cj eL ^j Gje KeY jCQ ~,
ic^ ~ Bgeue _Z^] Ga Zue @\g _k^
KeQ G ahde ic^ue Zk jf ij ^[G
G[e @~ jae KQ ^j ic^u _Z _Zl
\aaY jG, ajaY ic^ ^R K^e gY,
\a\Zc^u ^R @Le \L, ic^u \e @^K
cjc^ cj\ 63

@fKK K~ i\Z jG Ga ic^u _A AjfK

I _efKe @^K ejie _e\ CVA \@~G
ZY Bgeu _Z ic^ue @Uk agi [G, ~j
`ke @^ Kje _Z ic^ue KYi _Ke bd
(14)cjc^ ]c\Zc^ue @C MUG aghZ jCQ ~
ic^ ^RK Bgeue _Z^] e_ _ePd \@
ic^ ~ cYh Ga Bgeue iaK, GjVe @]K
\a Ke ^j ic^u ce Kj ^RK d Bge
a aje i af Kj ^j
(15)ic^ue gl @Z iek Ga i]eYfKu _A
a]Mc jA[G KYi @a gl a ejia\e
gl ic^ \@ ^j
64 cjc^ cj\

cjc^ Bge\ZMY c^a

Bgeue _Z^]MY c^h a Bge ^R c^a e_
]eY Ke @aZeY Ke, G ahde ab^ ]ccZa\ ejQ
j i\d ce @^K @aZea\e agi Ke Gj
agi @^ie Bge ab^ gee ]eY Ke _[a_e
@aZeY Ke aue \gU @aZe [ae j bAbCYc^
agi Ke @^ KZK j i\d ~[ @~icR I
ajicR @aZea\e agi Ke ^j ic^u cZe
Bge KYi gee ]eY Ke ^j j]ce iay M^
a\e @aZea\ ^j ~C Ehc^u @ee a\ _KU
jf, ic^ ~ c^h [f G iKe c KYi
cZb\ ^j a\ G lZe Ke@^e gle ic[^ Ke
EM a\ Kj
""Bge Gj ce ic c^hu jZ ^c
C_\g \CQj c^hMY ! Zc^ cZ
QW @^ KYi C_i \au K\_ Ke
Kea CPZ ^j, KeY GKcZ cZ QW @^
\Zd Bge Kj ^j ~Zak a\e
G_e C_\g @Q, iZak ~C c^h @^K
Bge a Zue @aZeK c^Q, i icuVe
aW cX @U ''
(EMa\, _[c ck, iq-7, c-10)
ij_e Bge Ka \j]e jA^j a cZ bM
Ke ^j af NhY Ke ~Ra\ Kj
cjc^ cj\ 65

""j c^hMY ! ~ Ka \j]e jA^j,

~jue KQcZ _ecY ice KeY ^j, ~jue
@me _k^ ^c ieY @U ~ C_iZ jA
^Re C_iKc^u C_e @^Mj KeQ, a\e
@^K ike ~jue cj Kj~AQ, ~ ce
^j, aKZ j@ ^j, ^ j@ ^j, Zjue
C_i^ Zc^ ^ee Ke ~ GjuVe
b^ue C_i^ Kea, i cj^ __ \e ~q
jA ^R \LKge ^ jA~a ''
(~Ra\, 32 : 3)
a\ Kj ~ ~G @R^ I @^\e_, ij Bge
a\ \e c^hK C_\g \f
""j c^hMY ! ~ @^ gq~q, @R^, ^ee,
i\cq, ^dKe, ^ck, iam, icue il,
^d, @^\e_, ajKe @ee Rac^u ^R
K[Z a\ \e g, @[ Ga Zje iK
RYa ~M @U, i ~\ a\e C_\g ^
\@ Z Kj a\^ jA_ea ^j K ]c,
@[, Kc Ga cle `k bM KeaK ic[
jA_ea ^j i[_A ij ajue ia\
C_i^ Ke ''
(~Ra\ 40 : 8)
RY a g a \ ^ cjh \a ^ [ VK e ^ R e
@ZRa^e Bgeu ahde Kj
""Bge d KYi e_ ]eY Ke ^j ''(1)

"He himself did not became anything." : The Autobiogra-
phy of Maharshi Devendranath Tagore, London, 1914 (p.-175)
66 cjc^ cj\

Bge d KYi e_ ]eY Kea "@aZe'e @[

^j af a^ Ke WKe Gc.G. gaa Kj
""@aZe @[ Gj @\ ^j ~ Bge d
igeee ]eZe @aZeY Ke, ae _KZe
i ^R aaj Ga @aZe _V cYhe
Ce, KfY I cM\g^ _A i ^R @aZe,
aaj Ga eif _eY Kf Gj _[ jReZ
cj\u ij ic Ke\@Mf c aaK^
Ga Me ^^Ku _e cj^baMY c aaj^
I Bge\ZZ ]eYe ic[^ KeQ ae
a\^c^u ce _Z ieff, g akec
ij _eje, WKe a\_Kg C_d, WKe _.GP.
Pa, WKe ecg _i\ MM, _Z \Mgue
iZ[ @\ "@aZe'e @[ "c^a KfY _A
Bgeu \e ^Re aaj a \Z_eY' af
Kj Q _ Y^[ i \ de _ i P K g
Kgeff bMZ c Gj Z[e ic[^
KeQ ''(2)
ij_e aAaf c cjc^ ~gu "Bge' af Kj^j,
~\I @^K Ld^ bAbCY U^U Ze agi Ke
Gj Z @^ie Bge (_Z), cjc^ ~g (_Z) Ga
_aZ @Z (M\Z)G Z^RY b^ b^ jf c RY
Ga @b^ Gj U^U g aAafe ^j K cjc^ ~g
Gj Z e g l \A[ a e KYi _ c Y ^j _ i
G^iAK_W@ aU^K G iKe fLQ ~, U^U g a
jReZ cj\ @Ce beZd ]cM^ (j), WKe Gc.G.
gaa, fl (cLa)
cjc^ cj\ 67

U^U cZa\ aAafe ^Z^ ^dce ^j K cjc^ ~g

I Zue g h c^ aAaf e _ e Z^ ^ d ce ej [ a
GKgea\e gle ae] KeaK Pj ^[f aU^K
Gj c fLQ
""@^K gZ ]e aj a\^a\ _e ]e
]e Gj U^U cZa\ aKgZ jf ''(3)
_d ic^ cZcZ Ld^ a\^ @fb^ fci^ Zu
_K "\ Py @` \ ` [ i*eR'e \AQ (4)
AZjie @c RYaK _C ~, cjc^ ~gu icde
Gj U^U cZa\e KYi @Z ^[f Gj _d ~gu
300ah _e i jf L.@. 325e icU K^^UA^u
@lZe @^Z KC^if @` ^Aie @^K aZK I
a\^ a \ ce Gj cZa\ M j Z jA[ f Ga
L.@.381e K^<^_f KC^if GjK PW e_ \f
ij icdVe ece icUc^ U^U Ze agi Ke

Trinity, Encyclopedia Britannica, Ultimate Reference Suite,
Chicago, 2011 : "Neither the word trinity nor the explicit doctrine
appears in the New Testament nor did Jesus and his followers
intend to contradict the 'Shema' in the Hebrew Scriptures
"Hear, O Israel, The Lord, our Lord, is one Lord. (Deutronomy
6 : 4)"... The doctrine developed gradually over several centuries
and through many controversies."
Alvan Lamson, DD, The Church of the First Three Cen-
turies, Boston, 1860, p.34 : "In consistency with the view we
maintain that the doctrine of Trinity was of gradual and com-
paratively late formation, that it had its origin in a source entirly
foreign from that of the Jewish and Christian scriptures; that is
grew up and ingrafted on Christianity through the hands of the
Platonizing fathers."
68 cjc^ cj\

^[a Ld^c^u g \a_A NhY Kf L.@.383e

icU [IWidi _[c Gj NhY Ke[f (5)
ie @ARK ^CU^ aAafe c RY a\^ [f
i cjc^ ~gu cYh Z[ Bgeue RY _Z^] e_
MjY Ke[f @Z ie ~q C_i_^ Ke @ARK ^CU^
""Kak RY j Bge, ~G K i, i\ Ra, iaa_,
ia\g, iagqc^, ]eZ I @Kge i Ga Bge I cYh
ce RY j cic^a ~g _Z @\g Bge, ~ju
KYi @L \L^j a \L_ea ^j @^c^ KYi
^ KYi icde \gc^ j@ ic C_i^ (_gi,
_[^ a Z) ~j ~gu @aba _ae iue @]Ke
[f, iMWK Ga c Zue @]Ke ~g _Zue C_i^
ji Ke\a_A @i ^[f ''(6)
Hugh H. Stannus, A History of the Origin of the Doctrine
of the Trinity in the Christian Church, London, 1882, p.1 : "The
origin and development of the doctrine of Triune Diety in the
Church is clearly traced to Platonic and other influences during
the third and fourth centuries. Its introduction caused consider-
able discussion, agitation and strife during the period named. The
Council of Nice (AD 325) voted in favour of the Diety of
Christ; the Council of Constantinople (AD 381) fixed the doc-
trine of the Trinity. From that time, the Roman Emperors re-
solved and proclaimed, they would punish all Christians who
would not believe in and worship three persons in one God."
SIR ISAAC NEWTON : "There is one God, the Father,
ever living, Omnipresent, Omniscent, Almighty, the maker of
heaven and earth and one Mediator between God and menthe
man Christ Jesus. The Father is the invisible God, Whom no
eye hath seen or can see. All other being are sometimes
cjc^ cj\ 69

_i HZjiK GWIW Ma^ G ahde Kj

""U^U Ga @aZea\e eji GKgea\
ie ae] c^jG ic^ i bae
Z^U ic^ C_iu _a^ Kf Ga c^a
~gu Age_Ze e_eZ Ke\f... ''(7)
ij_e R^ Wb^_U fLQ ~, Ma^, ^CU^
Ga _ei^ @\ ag a\^ Gj U^U cZa\K ]ce
_l_Y af KjQ (8)
aAaf @^K aajc^u ahde a^ KeQ K
ic^u ce Kj jf ^RK d Bge af Kj^j
ae ic^ ^R Bgeue bq [f Ga Zue C_i^
Ke[ f
cjc^ ~g Bge ^[f ae Bgeu \e _eZ
jA[f af d ^R Kj
visible. All the worship (whether praise or prayer or thanks
giving) which was due to the father before the coming of Christ,
is still due to Him. Christ came not to diminish the worship of
his father." (Ibid.p.29)
Edward, Gibbon, Life of Mahommed, London : "The
mystries of the Trinity and incarnation appear to contradict the
principle of divine unity. In their obvious sense they introduced
three equal dities and transform the man Jesus into the sub-
stance of the Son of God...." (p.75)
John Davenport, An apology for Mohammed and the Koran,
London, 1869 p.74 : "The celebrated text of three witnesses
(John i.v.7) which is the foundation of the docrine of Trinity has
been proved by the labours of Newton, Gibbon, Person and
other to have been an interpolation and calmet himself acknowl-
70 cjc^ cj\

""c @_Ye KQ Ke_e ^j, c ~_e gY,

ij_e aPe Ke, @C cje aPe ~[[,
KeY c @_Ye Azi]^ KeaK P ^ Ke
cje _eYKue Az i]^ KeaK P
Ke ''
(aAaf, ~j^ 5 : 30)
aAafe @^K i^e cjc^ ~gu RY Prophet
@[Z, aaj af a^ Ke~AQ (9)
cjc^ Bge\ZMY ~ "c^h' Gj c Ke
aAaf KjQ
""_[c Gj mZ j@ ~ ge KYi baaY
Z bae aL Keae ahd ^j; KeY
KYi baaY Kaj c^he Aze C_^
jA^j; cZ Bge _eZ c^hc^ _aZ @Zu
\e PkZ jA K[ Kj[f ''
(aAaf, 2 _Ze-1 : 20-21)
edges that this verse is not found in any ancient copy of the
Bible. Jesus taught the belief of one God, but Paul with the
Apostle John, who was a Platonist, despoiled Christ's religion of
all its unity and simplicity; by introducing the incomprehensible
Trinity of Plato...."
"This is Jesus, the Prophet of Nazareth in Galilee."
(Mathew 21 : 11) "After the people saw the miraculous sign that
Jesus did, they began to say, "Surely this is the Prophet which
to come into the world." (John 6 : 14). "They were all filled
with awe and praised God 'a great Prophet has appeared among
us' (Luke 7 : 16). "About Jesus Nazareth they replied 'He was
a Prophet powerful in world and deed before God and all the
people." (Luke 24 : 19) "On hearing his words some of the
people says ' Surely this man is the Prophet" (John 7 : 40)
cjc^ cj\ 71

iZe L]ce ~^U ed^ (Unitarian) i\d U^ U e

agi Ke ^j, ae ag GKgea\e agi Ke
ic^ cjc^ ~gu RY cYh Z[ Bge\Z af
c^; K Bge af MjY Ke ^j a\ I aAafe
gl ahde GVe @fP^ Keae Cg Kak
_VKc^u Gj aSA\a ~ Ke@^ G ahde KYi
^@K[ Kj^j, ae Gj ij _eY K[e _^ea KeQ,
~j a\ I aAaf KjQ K Ke@^e gl , Ga
G[e KYi ig]^ a _l_Y jA^j Gj ic
Bge\Zu c^h NhY Ke KjQ
""Ga (j cj\), Zc _ae @ ~Cc^u
(aaj e_) _eY Ke[f, ic^ c
R^aiZ e aiai Ke [ a _ e h j [ f,
~Cc^u _Z @ \aaY Ke[f ''
Ke@^ 12 : 109
@aZe Kj~C, Eh Kj~C, ^a a eif Kj~C,
K _`U Kj~C, Bgeu cjc^ _Z^]MY ic
eqci]e cYh ic^ L@, _@ Ga Neiie
Ke ic^u c \L a_\ @i Ga \a ijdZe
@agKZ _W ic^ ic Bgeue C_i^ Ke
ic^ Bge jA[f ^R ^Re C_i^ Ke ^j
K Gj _ehcc^ue @i]eY aqZ I @fKK K~
~M _ea icde @^K ic^u ilZ Bge c^
Ke ic^ue C_i^ Ke \agle _l_Y I _ea^
~M Gj jG
~C @fKK K~MWK ic^ Ke, iMWK
ic^ue ^R ^j Bgeu @\ge ic^ Gj
Pc}eZ \LA [@ fKue c^e^ Kea a ^RK
72 cjc^ cj\

Bge af _cYZ Kea ic^ue Cg ^[G ic^

~ Bgeue _Z^], Gje _cY e_ ic^ Pc}eZ
_\g^ Ke, ~j `ke fKue ic^u K[ _Z agi
jG @^[ ic^ ^R c Bgeue a]a]^ _k^
Ke @^c^u _e ic^ c ^R Kc _A Bgeu
^KUe Ce\d
Aifc agi @^~d ic Bge\ZMY c^a Gje
KeY jCQ ~ i I i ce @^K MYZK _[K
ejQ ~C \aMYMWKe d Bge @]Ke, KYi c^a
iMWK ]eY Kea _A ic[ ^j, KeY c^ad Ga
Bged MYMWK _eee i a_eZ C\jeY e_
c^h R^^G ; K Bge @R^ c^h ceYgk; K Bgeue
cZ ^j c^he @e I @ @Q; K Bge @^\ I
@^ i ie _ee [f Ga ie afd _e c
a\c^ ej[a c^h bf Ke; K Bge \hejZ
cYhe LAa, _Aa, gAa @\e @agKZ [G; K
Bgeue Giae @agKZ ^[G c^h i\ ^begk,
@^e ijdZ a^ a*_ea ^j; K Bge di Zu
Kje ijdZe @agKZ ^j c^he m^ I gq icZ;
K Bgeue m^ @ic @C gq @^ c^he ^ e_
[G Ga ZK \L jG; K Bgeu \L jG^j, i
^eKe Bge G_e iaMYi^ ~ aje Zue KYi
C_c ^j Gj KeYMWK ~M Bge c^a e_ ]eY
Ke ^j af Aifc Kj c^a e_ ]eY Kf @C
i Bge eja ^j, KeY Zue Bged MYMWK eja
^j bf Kea, bf~a, c[ Kja, R^ ja, cea,
LAa, _Aa, gAa @\ c^ad MY RY Bge [A
c cYh, Gj K_e ia ? RY aq R^ ^G, _Y i
@R^, bf Ke Ga \hejZ, cZ bM Ke Ga
cjc^ cj\ 73

Ke^j, ^eKe Ga iKe cCbd K[ GKKk^ K_e

ia ?
GjaZZ ]cii_^, icR ie a \\c^
~C[_ A cjc^ Bge\Zc^ue @ab a jG, iMWK Kak
c^h j Ke_ea c^a QW @^ KYi _Y \e ]c
ii_^ a icR ie ia ^j c^ae cM\g^ _A
c^a j @\g jA_e
RY i]eY ecL c ^R @A^K Ne Ne af
_Pe Ke ^j i c ^R _Z^] ^~q Ke ZY,
d a]Zu ^Re a]^ \a_A a cM\g^ Kea _A
_[aK @iae ~[[Z c ^j
Gjia KeYe _ZK ~Me c^a j Bgeue _Z^]Z
Ke af cifc^c^ agi Ke Ga Gj agi _Z
a\ I aAafe c ic[^ ejQ af @c @fP^
74 cjc^ cj\

Bge\Zc^ue gl
~jZ cjc^ Bge\ZMY MUG \_e RZ Ga
RY Bgeue _Z^ ] Z Ke, ic^ue ckK gl a ie
KYi `eK ^[G ~\I @]Kgu ce gj gj ahe
aa]^ [G Ga _ee ijZ \LilZ c jA^[G,
Z[_ icue ckK gle gZ _ZgZ ic^Z [G ~_e
KYi ieKe a ecL ab^ eRe ^R _Z^] ^~q
Ke; K ia eR-_Z^ ] c ^ MUG i]^K K~Ke Ke,
ij_e i^ @^ie bh a\k, K BgeZ a\k ^j a
c^aK cfa]e c^\ a\k ^j Bgeue i
_ea^gk ^j ~M ~M c^he _KZK ba ic^
ej@iQ ag, \g, bh I ae ahc i cYhe _KZK
@agKZ, Z' AdMWKe K~]e Ga Z' c^aifb \h
\akZe KYi _ea^ jA^j ZY Z'_A _[K _[K
gvke KYi ~[[Z ^j
cjc^ ]c\Zc^ _[c c^hK ajm^ \@ aj a
Bge KG, Zue MY I cjc K_e @^_c, Zue gq K_e
@ic, KjK i @cK i KeQ Ga Zu _i^ Keae aU
K'YGj ic^ Ke ^Re i I _k^Ku RYa
I Pja c^he _[c Ka ~G Zu Pjae bf Ke, i
@C ia[e bf Kea ~\ RY bZ ^R cfKK RY ^j
a RY _Z ^Re _ZK Pj ^j, Za i K_e Z'e ia
Ke_ea ? Bgeu RY[a aqK a\K bhe "ajY' Kj~G
"aj R^Z AZ ajY ' @ea bhe ZK "@e`' Kj~G
cjc^ cj\ 75

~\ _g CV KC aj ? Za ajiZ Ce \G"GKc aj
\Zd ^' aAafe cjc^ ~g iA K[ Kj
""@cc^ue Bge GKcZ _b @U ''
(aAaf, cK 12 : 29)
Ga Ke@^ c Gje ic[^ Ke Kj
""Kj\@, i @fj GK @U ''
(Ke@^, 112 : 1)
GjaZZ dj\, Ree@^ Ga gLc^u ]cM^e
c GKgea\e ic^ gl ejQ _[ae @i[a Bgeue
ic _Z^]ue Gj jCQ _[c gl ic c^hK a
\@ ~, Bge GK Ga iA j _ZK Ra-RWe i I
_k^K Kak Zue K_ ake ic RaZ i j
@ce _b, j-K I bMa]Z @ZGa Kak i j
@ce ia C_i^e @]Ke ic^ ^R c GK Bgeue
C_i^ Ke GjK GKgea\ Ga @ea bhe "Zj\'
Kj~G Kak cifc^ ^j, jc^u ce @~icR,
ajicR; @fL i\d, Ld^c^u ce d^Ue@^
i\d, gL i\d Ga dj\ I Ree@^c^u ce
KZK i\d c GKcZ ^eKe ajue C_i^ Ke
cjc^ ]c\Zc^ue \Zd i jCQ c^a]Ke
ic^ ic\d agK MUG _eae Ga ia cYhu
"@\c'u i^ "@\c' @[Z cYh Kj, ~jK iZe
"ai]a KU Kc' Kj~G Ke@ ^ GjK ^R bhe KjQ
""c^a icR MUG i\d ''
(Ke@^, 2 : 213)
c^h ~_e @^e cwk Kea Ga Kje @^ Kea
^j, G[_A ic^ ^Z^d c \@ aqe ckK @]KeMWK e
76 cjc^ cj\

iel _A I icRe g I _MZ _A Bge\ZMY a]a]^

\A[@ aqe ]^-Ra^, c^-i^ I PeZ _Z @^Ke
@PeYMWK ic^u gle ^h [G GjaZZ, ^d I
^ZKZe i icu gle ic^ [G ic iZ, ^d,
_c I _e_Kee gl \A[@ _ZcZue ia I bq
c^a]Ke ZfKe iaMe ej MeR^u bq, mZKUu
ijdZ, \^\Lc^u _Z C\eZ Ga @Pe aajee
gZ @\e gl ia ]c\Z \A[@ jZ, fY^, ghY
I abPe AZ\ ia ~Me ^h ej Ga Kc, K], fb,
cj, K_U, Bh I @jKe @\ \MYMWK aR^d [G i~c
@PeY Kea _A ic C_\g \A[@ Ga AdRdc^
ia ~Me i]i^u ZfKe ej
ic^ue ZZd i jCQ "_efKa\' cjc^
]c\ZMY cZ _e @^ GK fKe @aiZ iKe c^hK
iP^ \A[@, ~jK @eae "@LeZ' Kj~G c^h ~
MUG Ce\d Ra Ga iiee Ke[a KcMWKe i
@ag `k bM Kea, ~C[_A M I ^Ke (@eae R^Z
I Rj^c) aai Ke~AQ af ic^ iZK Ke[ ic^
M I ^Ke aZ aaeY c _\^ Ke[@ @^Z iiee
cje _W c^h iu @am ^ Kea_A ic^ ia]^
cjc^ Bge\Zc^ue ckK glMWK iaR^^ iZ
C_e _~agZ [G Ga Ra^e _ZK lZK _eiebq
Ke[G il_e Kjf, ic^ MUG Ra^gke _Pe
Ke, ~jK ]c Kj~G a\ I aAaf MUG "]ccM'
K[ KjQ (1) Ke@^ c ~M ~M ]c MUG ejQ
af NhY Ke KjQ
@]K Z[ _A \L fLKue _K "Aifc _ePd',
cjc^ cj\ 77

""i Zc^u _A iA ]c ^eZ KeQ,

~je @\g i ^ju \A[f Ga ~j @
Ga Zc_Z \aaY Ke@Q Ga ~je @\g
@ Aajc, ci Ga Ai (~g)u \A[f
Ga Zj Gj ~ Gj ]ce @Uk ej Ga
G[e abR^ Ke^j ''
(Ke@^, 42 : 13)
_ZK Bge\Z MUG ]ce _Pe Ke[f Gje
iP^ \A cjc^ cj\ Kj
""Bge\Zc^ue cZ b^ b^, K ic^ue
]c MUG ''
(ij aLe, 4[ L, j\i 652)
~\ I ia Bg e \ Z MU G ]c c M e g l \AQ ;
ic^ue gle KQ @ic^Z c \L~G Gj KYi
^ZMZ _[K ~M ^j, KeY ]ce ckK ^Z^dce
KYi ~Me _ea^ jG^j Kak Gje _k^ a]e
KQU _ea^ jG C\jeY e_, KQ icd ^dcZ _[^
Kea _ZK ~Me GK _cL C_i^ ej@iQ ~C[e
Bgeue Z Ke~G Ga Zue aY _V Ke~G @ea
bhe GjK "ifZ' Ga C bhe "^cR' Kj~G a\e
GjK "~M-C_i^' af Kj~AQ dj\c^ GjK "gc'
(Shema) Kj Ld^c^ue "ibi' c Gj ]eYe _[^
ab^ ~Me Gje e_ I _k^ a]e _ea^ jAQ
~M-C_i^e a\c _V Ke~C[f dj\c^u \^K
\A[e icaZ _[^ Keae @\g \@Mf ~C[ e aAafe
KZU aY _V Ke~C[f ij_e ^cRe Ke@^ @a
Keae @\g \@Mf ~j @baK ^j Gj\e _[^
gke _ea^ jG GjQW cjc^ cj\u @^Mcc^u
78 cjc^ cj\

_A \^K ^cR \A[e _ea _*[e Ke\@Mf G[e

c @~ jae KQ ^j, KeY a\ eM _A eM
@ai \L Jh]e cZ Kc a ag Ke_e Bge ^R
`A\_A c^ h K _ R -C_i^ a a Z -C_aie @\g
\A^j cYh Zue C_i^ Kf Zue Mea aX~a
^j Gj c^he ^R `A\ _A j C ZY _b ~cZ
@m \a, iaK icZ Kea CPZ
Kak _R-@y^e KcK id _Z, aaj-az\e
@PeY a], @_e] ^eKeY id ^Z-^dc AZ\e
Bge\Zc^u gle KQU @ic^Z \L~G Gj i^-
Kk-_Z e a b\ ~M j G , ~_e KYi \ge
eR_Z^]c^u K~gke _[K [G ~\I ic eR-
_Z^]c^ue fl GK, K ab^ @*kK ici Ga Gje
^eKeY _A _[K K~_^e @agKZ \e ic^ue
K~]e _ee ij @aKk ic^ jG^j ~C icRe
~C @_Kc a Kiee cZ @]K [G, iVe @i[a
]c\Z iAMWKe ie _A @]K Re \@ akak
icRK icdK ba KQ ^g c \@~A[G, ~j _ea
]c\Zu gle ^[G C\jeY e_ aAafe dj\c^u
_A ije g^ae \^ cQ ]ea ^h Ke~A[f, ~j
_ea ]c\Zc^u gle ^j Ke@^ Kj ~ GK
\e_ ic^u Gj @\g \@~A[f Gj _d ij_e,
~_e KQ QZ \c Kf glK \e_ ic^ue jcIK
aXA \@ Gj icu _A _~R ^j ]ce ~C
@PeYa] _ea^gk, ZK @eae "gedZ' Kj~G
cjc^ cj\ 79

aj]c ie KeY
c^e _g CV ~ ~\ cYh _A Bge MUG cZ
]caai \AQ, Za age GZMWG ]ce i K_e
jf ? Gj ij_e jf ~_e _ZK ]ce abR^
jA @^K M I gL _gL i jf a, R^,
L, dj\, j I AifcGMWK Z @Z MUG MUG
Z ]c e_ KZ ? _Y iMWK ce abR^ KjK
jf ? K'Y Gj Bge Kf ?
c^hRZ Bgeue MUG _eae _e i Z' _A
b^ b^ a]^ KjK \a a ZK ^R L L KjK
Kea ? GMWK cYhe i @ajc^ Kke Bge cYh_A
MUG cZ ]ccM \AQ ij MUG @\]ce c^h
aj ]c i KeQ cL KeY jCQ \agle c^cL
aL Ga G[e a_K _ea^ I ig]^ ab^ Kke
^jZ [ _A @i] ]cMe I _Zc^ \agle _ea^
@Yf @^K K[ M^e _l_Y KeMf Ga @^K
K[ i[e KX ^@Mf ic^ ^R `A\ _A ^@ ^@
^dc MX ]c ^ce _Pk^ Kf Ga fKu c[ \g^
I K^K KjYe gl \f, ~j `ke fKue
P]ee aKZ @if ic^ \aM^K i]eY fKu
_A @a af Kj i[e ic^u \eA eLf Ga
]cM^MWKe AzcZaK aL Kf \agle ab^ _Ke
aL \e @^K cZa\ i jf
80 cjc^ cj\

]ce ejia\e ie c Gjj KeY \aM^ La

iek I i]eY fKue aSf bk C_\g \@ Bge
ibk @\g \@ ^j, ~j c^h aS_ea ^j ~C
@\g _k^ ^ Kf ^K bM KeaK _W, iMWK Bge
\a a ejicd KjK Kea ? ~\ Bge ibk Ke,
Za cYh ^R KKc i_le ~q aX i Kj
_b ! ce \h K'Y ? @_Yu M^ e [a RUk ]cZMW K
c aS_ef ^j _Z I ]cMec^ cZ ~cZ Kjf
c icZ Kf ZY c KjK \ _Aa ? ZY aj ]c
cYhe j i
~Cc^ Bgeu ]ce abR^ i Kf Ke@^
ic^u ia]^ Ke KjQ
""~Cc^ ^R ]cK L L Ke\f Ga
ab^ \ke abq jAMf, Zce ic^u ij
KYi iK ^j ic^u a_e @fju C_e
^ ej Q ic^ ~jK Q Ke Q , Zj
ic^u RYA \@~a ''
Ke@^, 6 : 159
cjc^ cj\ 81

ZZd @d

cjc^ cj\ K'Y RY Age\Z ?

cjc^ Bge\Zc^ue @abae KeY, ic^u gl
I aghZ iKe @c RYf Bgeu _ee @^ie
_[ae fl]K cM\gKue @aba NUQ cjc^ cj\
c ^RK ic^u ce RY af NhY KeQ ac^
@c Zu \ae iZZ iKe @fP^ Kea ~ _KZe
i Bgeu \e @\ jA \aae _Pe Ke[f a
Bgeu ^ce c[ Kj[f age 157KU R^Z ~C
cj_ehue _\u @^ieY Ke, _KZe i KG ?
NUYU ag _eY ^j Zu @abaK 1500ah
c jA^j Zu gl I Ra^PeZe i aaeY
AZjie ielZ ejQ HZjiK aiI[ i[ Kj
""Zue @aba Ga Zu \^^ Ra^e _v^_v
aaeY @c ^KUe ielZ ejQ ''(1)
G^iAK_W@ aU^K c G iKe fLQ
""i MUG ajZ ag]ce GKcZ _ZZ ~G K
AZjie _ _Kg ce Ra^~_^ KeQ ''(2)
Minute accounts of his appearance and of his daily life have
been preserved to us. (Bosworth Smith, Mohammad and
Mohammedanism,London, p.83)
He is the only founder of a major world religion who lived in
the full light of history (Muhammad. Encyclopedia Britanica,
2010. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 24 Dec. 2010)
82 cjc^ cj\

ZY Gj ij~e cjc^ cj\u \ae iZZ

iKe @^i^ Kea La ijR
AZjie @c RY ~, Z}k^ icRe @]MZ ~M
cjc^ cj\ aPkZ ej[f Ga @^d I @ZPe_
icR ij i ^RK L_L@A _e^[f ZY i GKe
eja _i Ke[f i[_A i cKVe _d Z^cAf
\ee [a "je' ^cK GK _jW MK Pf ~C[f
iVe i ^cM ej[f Ga iue C_i^ Ke[f
iZak Zu C_i^e e_ K'Y [f, i iKe
AZjie KYi CfL ^j M bZeK ~aak i
iwe KQ L\ I _Y ^A ~C[f
610 cij ecR^ cie GK eZe Gj M ce
M\Z RaAfu \e Zu_Z _[c \aaY jA[f
cjc^ M\Z d C_iZ jA Zu Ke@^e KZU
gK @a KeA[f
_Z jReZ @Ag Kj ~, Gj NUY \e cjc^
cj\ @Z bdbZ jA_W[f NeK `e i _Z
L\Ru Kj[f ""cZ NWA\@ '' UKG _KZi
jf_e i jeMe NU[a @nZ NUY a^ Ke[f
Ga ^R Ra^ _Z a_\e @gu _Kg Ke[f cu
ij \N _eahe \Z Ra^ @ZajZ Ke[a jReZ
L\R, ^R cu GK i] I iyU aq af bf e_
RY[f ZY i cu \X @gi^ \A Kjf
""@\ ^j c @fju eY LA KjQ ~,
@fj @_Yu Kajf f{Z jaK \a
^j @_Y Z @Zdc^u ijZ bf iK eL,
\e\ I @ijd fKu ij~ Ke @Z[c^ue
cjc^ cj\ 83

Cc i}e Ke Ga a_\ @_\e _W[a

fKue ijdZ Ke ''
(ij aLe, 1c L, j\i i.3)
@[Z, @_Y Z fKue cwk Ke, Bge KjK
@_Yu fZ a @_c^Z Kea ? ZY @_Y @\ a
j@ ^j Z'_e jReZ L\R Zu ^R iKd bA
IeK a^ ^`fu _LK ^AMf, ~G K RY L@^
[f Ga aAafe RY a\^ jA[ae \aaY I Gje
e_ iKe Zue bf m^ [f cjc^ cj\uVe
je Me NUY gYie i Kjf
""G jCQ ij M\Z RaAf ~G ciu _LK
@i[f c ~aK [@ Ga ij icd _~
RaZ ej K ~Zak Zc fKc^ ZcK
aZWZ Ke\a !''
cjc^ cj\ _g Kf
""iZe K'Y ic^ cZ ZW\a ?''
IeK j Kjf Z'_e i Kjf ~, ~G
c @_Yu bk \aaY ^A @iQ, Z' ij
gZZ Ke~AQ @C ~\ c @_Yu aZWZ
Kea _~ RaZ ej, Za ^d @_Yu
\X ic[^ Kea ''
(ij aLe, 1c L, j\i 3)
aae je Me NU[a Gj NUYU cjc^
cj\u _A GK @nZ I @_ZgZ NUY [f ~je
_ZKd e_ i bdbZ jA_W[f, G_eK Zu Ra^
a_\_^ jA _W[ae _Kg Ke[f je Me Zu
_Z jA[a _[c \aaY [f
84 cjc^ cj\

@ic \da^ @^ KeYgk @fju ^ce

1) _X ^R _bu ^c
^A ~G i Kf
2) i Kf c^aK GK eq_e
3) _X, Ga Zc _k^K
aW C\e
4) ~G Kfc \e (a\e)
gl \f
5) gl\f c^aK, ~j
i RY^[f
(Ke@^ 96 : 1-5)
\Zd \aaY @^K \^ _e jf cjc^ cj\
""c aUe ~C[a icde jVZ g^e MUG
g gYf ZY c c UK C_eK Pjf Ga
\Lf ij M\Z ~G je Me c ^KUK
@i[ f, ]eZ I @Kg cbMe MUG PCKe
ai[f c bde NeK Pf@if Ga Kjf
cZ NWA \@ Z'_e @fj c _Z ^c
\aaY Kf(3) :
1) j aa aq
2) CV Ga ia]^ Ke
3) Ga ^R _k^Kue
cjc M^ Ke

ij aLe 1c L, j\i 3, ZecR, j\i-3325
cjc^ cj\ 85

4) @C ^R _e]^ g eL
5) Ga @gZVe \eA ej
6) Ga C_Ke Ke^ @]K
_Z_Ke @ge
7) Ga ^R _k^Ku _i^Z
_A ]~ ]e
(Ke@^ 74 : 1-7)

c[a\ ?
~Zak cjc^ cj\u _Z \aaY jf ~
"i\de @Zdc^u ia]^ Ke', i g` ^cK GK
_jW C_e PX ab^ i\de fKc^u Cyee WKf,
~j`ke ic^ ic iV e jAMf ~Cc^
^R @i ^ _ef, ic^ K'Y jCQ RYa _A ^R
fK _VAf Keg i\de cjc^ cj\u KK @a
fja ijZ @^c^ c C_iZ jf Gj_e cjc^
cj\ ic^u Kjf""~\ c Zc^u Kj ~ Gj
_jW Zk @gej gZ Zcc^u C_e @KcY Kea
_A @_l KeQ, K'Y Zc^ cZ agi Kea ?''
ic Ce \f""@ag agi Kea, KeY @_Y Ka
cQ Kjae @c gY ^j ''
Gj gY cjc^ cj\ Kjf
""c Zcc^u (_efKe) GK bdue a_\
iKe ia]^ KeQ '' @afja (cjc^
86 cjc^ cj\

cj\u KK) iw iw Kjf""Zc jZ

QW_W, K'Y GA[_A Zc @cK WK[f ?''(4)
C_eq NUYe Gj _cYZ jG ~ ^RK Bge\Z
af NhY Kea _ae Zu iZa\Z I agi^dZ _Z
icR I mZKUc^ue i @i [f Kak _aRu
_ee ae] jA[ae ic^ Zu K[e ae] Ke[ f
Gj aq Zu Ra^e Ka c[ Kj ^j K Zu
cje Ka @ZKa\ C_e @fP^ gY~A^[f i
Gj _ae Ka Bgea\, _efKa\ a M ^K ahde
@fP^ Ke^[f K ~Zak i icRK ^R _Z
_KUZ jA[a a \f iw iw Keg i\d ZK
@Mj Ke\f, KeY Gj ic^u KkK _[e aePeY
Ke[f cjc^ cj\ ic^u GK Bgeue C_i^
Kea _A Kj[ f; K ic^ @^K Bgee ag i Ke[ f
Ga _ZK i\de RY fLG C_i [f
^Re 63ahe Ra^Kk ce Ka i c[ Kj[ae
AZjie CfL ^j gZ j@ a cZ, ic Zu RY @Z
iyU Ga agi^d aq af RY[f Zue Gj MY
~M icR Zu "@f @c^' @[Z "agi^d' C_] c
\A[f HZjiKc^ Zue Gj iZ^K f_a KeQ
cjc^ cj\u iZ^Z ahde [ci KfAf Kj
""Zu i[c^ Zu ^c \A[f "@f-@c^' @[Z
"agi^d' RY iyU I agi^d cYhiyU
^R K[e, ^R K~e @C aPe]ee ''(5)
ijaLe 6 L, j\i i. 293
His companions named him Al Amin. The Faithful. A man
of truth and fidelity; true in what he did, in what he spake and thought
...(Thomas Carlyle, Heros and Hero Worship, London, p.73)
cjc^ cj\ 87

CAfdc c<Mce IU Kj
""Cbd cK I c\^ Kke cj\u icKk^
fKc^ Zu RY Cc I iyU aq af
RY[f Ga AZji \e i jCQ RY
^ZK Z[ icRK ieK ''(6)
^f f^_f Kj
""Zue i Ra^ iZ _Z @^MZe GK \N
aZK [f ''(7)
cRe @[e M^ fI^W Kj
""@]K Gj iZ, KeY i iyU [f ^R
_Z, ^R fKc^u _Z @C ^R Bgeu _Z ''(8)
_`ie CAfdc ce Kj
""Zue ic @PeYMWK ~[[ I ^diwZ
[f Ga adi aXa ijZ Zue i^Z aqZ
Zu _A "@f-@c^' @[Z "agi^d' C_]
@R^ Ke[f ''(9)
In both Meccan and Medinan periods Muhammads
contemporaries looked on him as a good and upright man, and in the
eyes of history he is a moral and social reformer. (William
Mantgomery Watt, Prophet and Statesman, London, p.234)
His whole life was one long argument for his loyalty to truth.
(Stanley Lane-Poole, Studies in a Mosque, London, p.81)
True, moreover, because he was true to himself, to his people,
and above all to his God. (Major Arthur Glyn Leonard, Islam : Her
Moral and Spiritual Value, London, p.21)
In all his dealings he was fair and upright, and as he grew in
years his honourable bearing won for him the title of Al Ameen, the
faithful. (Sir William Muir, Mahomet and Islam, p.19)
88 cjc^ cj\

HZjiK aiI[ i[ cZ \@
""^ij bae cKe ieRa^ cj\ EhZf

MY icje GK _e_ cWf [f ''(10)
UKG P Kea K[ ~ ~C aq Ra^e Pkg ah
ce [e jf c[ Kj^j, i 40ah _e jVZ
GZ aW cQ K_e Kj_ef Ga \N ZAi ah Kk
^R Ne, _eae ce, icR @Me, C_i^ Mje Ga
~lZe c c[e _Pe KePff ? Gj K_e ^d
~ Pkg ah adie ~C aqu _Z c[a\e @e_
Ke~CQ, Zu Ra^ AZjie [e jf cQ Kj[ae
CfL ^j ? Gj GK c[e_ aZZ @C K'Y jA_e ?
Cybkh ?
KZK _Z icfPK Kj Q ~, cjc^
cj\ue lcZe CyKl [f, ~C[_A i ^RK RY
]c\Z af NhY Kf ~\ Kj~G ~, i lcZ a
_Z _A ^RK Bge\Z af \a Kf, Za c^e
_g CV ~ lcZf_i aq K'Y GcZ j@ ? ic^
bf L@, cfa^ _hK _, _i\e eja _i
Ke ic^ le \j ^j jZe fM ifA Ke
^j Zk_K fM _ ^j, RZ ifA Ke ^j K
\^ \^ ]e bK C_ie ej ^j
Bge\Z af NhY Kea _ae cjc^ cj\
i age RY ib ~aK [f Zu RR cKe RY
ie [f ZY icRe cjc^ cj\ue ~[ @\e
Mohammed himself, throughout his life at Mecca,
unquestionably was a perfect model of the saintly virtues... (R.
Bosworth Smith, Mohammed and Mohammedanism, London, p.145)
cjc^ cj\ 89

I i^ [f ae ]c\Z af NhY Kea _e Zu

@_c^Z KeMf, f^ \@Mf Ga Zu _Z ^^ _Ke
@ZPe KeMf Zu jZ Keae ~R^ c KeMf,
~C[_A i ^R R^i^ cK QW c\^ Pf~aK a
~\ ~g a i^c Zue fl jA[@, Za Zu
^KUe G[_A @je ijR C_d [f i ^RK _aZ
Ke@^ bk cj^ M^e i af \a Ke_e [@ Ga
Zu ^c lee Ka _Ve K^e Pe\^ _A fL
jA ej[@ fK Z i^c @R^ Kea _A @^e
KZ a eP^K ^Re af Kj\@, K i icZ Kf^j
fK Kjf ~, i Ke@^ ^R fL \AQ; K
cjc^ cj\ GjK \Xbae @Ke Kf
GjaZZ Gbk RY ag_i cj_eh ~\ ^RK Bge
af Kj[@, Za @^K cj_ehu _e cjc^
cj\ue _R @y^ jA[@ GjVe ak @]K i^
cYh _A @C K'Y [A_e ?
@^K _i aq ~g a i^ _A ^Re _Zc
i_^ Ke cjc^ cj\ K ^Re PZ eLae c
@^cZ \A^j Zue @gu [f ~ fK Zu `UK
`fck _Aa Ga Zue _Zc ^cY Ke _R Kea
G_eK ^R ic]K C_i^ _V ^ KeaK I iVe
KYi ck-cja ^ KeaK c i ^g \AQ (11)
ac^u MjYe i Gbk ai ~ ic^u ce
cjc^ cj\ KG af RYa KKe jA_W[f fK

@a \C\, j\i 2037
90 cjc^ cj\

Zue @Z]K _gi Ke, Gj i _i Ke^[f G

iKe ^g \A i KjQ
""ceu _Z ~gue _gi Ke~a _e ce
cZ]K _gi Ke^j, ae cZ @fjue bq
I aaj af Kj ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, j\i 817)
i ^RK RY cYh Ga Bgeue iaK af _ePd
\C[f Zue a^cZ _Z @~ _Kg Ke ^f
f^_f Kj
""@~ ! ^Re fb^d K~]e ijZ Zue
a^cZ KZ cj^ ! fKc^u \e Zu C_e
f\ \@~C[a Bged MYMWK _A i Kbk
^RK @~M c^ Ke[f ! Zue i Ra^
iZ _Z @^MZe GK \N aZK [f Zu
C_iKc^u _A Zu ^KUe i\ak MUG
Ce [fc RY cYh cZ, RY cYhVe
@]K KQ ^j ''(12)
KYi Cybkh a _Z Zue @\ fl ^[f
af cZ\A [ci KfAf Kj
""Cybkh ! icM @ea Gj fKU _A K'Y
Ke_e [@ ? K'Y \A_e [@ Zu Mie
jeKfiu eRcKU Ga _eie Lic^ue
It is wonderful, with his temptations, how great a humil-
ity was ever his, how little he assumed of all the god-like
attributes men forced upon him. His whole life is one long
argument for his loyalty to truth. He had but one answer for
his worshippers, I am no more than a man, I am only hu-
man. (Stanley Lane-Poole, Studies in a Mosque, London, p.81)
cjc^ cj\ 91

eRiji^ @C age ia~K icR ? Gc^

ic Zu K'Y \A_e [@ ? i Z c
K[ gY^ [f gY[ f Kak M @C ^Ke K[
eRM\ jC a @]_Z, KZ ah eja ? cK
a @eae cL jA~a Ga Sfcf Ke[a _MWU G
_^a \e K'Y cYhK cl ck~G c GcZ
ba^j Gj _a*^e _eK^ @c _A @MjYd,
@ij Ga i e_ _ZL^ ~M ''(13)
G iKe HZjiK aiI[ i[ Kj
""aae, _eiZ PKe i jA~A[f giK,
i^l, @A^ _YZ Z[ icM @eae cL
aPe_Z; K Gj_ae I _e c i [f
Bgeue RY i]eY aaj, ~G GK^
j\de Bgeue a _\^ Ke[f Ga ~[gq
Zue @m _k^ Ke[f K Kajf ^RK
Bgeue RY \ak I @_e] iaKVe @]K
KQ c^ Ke ^[f ''(14)
Ambition ! What could all Arabia do for this man; with the
crown of Greek Heraclius, of Persian Chosroes, and all crowns in
the Earthwhat could they all do for him ? It was not of the Earth
he wanted to hear tell ; it was of the Heaven above and of the Hell
beneath. All crowns and sovereignties whatsoever, where would
they in a few brief years be ? To be Sheik of Mecca or Arabia,
and have a bit of gilt wood put into your handwill that be ones
salvation ? I decidedly think, not. We will leave it altogether, this
impostor hypothesis, as not credible; not very tolerable even, wor-
thy chiefly of dismissal by us." (Thomas Carlyle, Heros and Hero
Worship, London pp.76-77)
He became indeed, by the force of circumstances, general
and ruler, lawgiver and judge of all Arabia ; but above all and
92 cjc^ cj\

ZY ~g, LZ a lcZ _A ~ cjc^ cj\

^RK Bge\Z af \a KeQ, Gj agi~M ^j
Gj GK @bickK c[e_
fb ?
\Zd ia KeY jCQ ]^ jGZ ]^i fkie
cjc^ cj\ ^RK RY Age\Z af c[ \a
Ke[A_e af Kj Kj ~q aX_e K Gj c
ia ^j KeY i icde cjc^ cj\ RY ]^
aaid cjku c [f Ga RY _ZZ aaid e_
^RK _cYZ Keie[f Ra^e ia iL z Zu
^KUe C_f [f Ga @[K @ai La zk [f @c
AZjie RYaK _C ~ Bge\Z _\ _Af _e i
\e\ Ra^ ^aj Kf @^K icde Ne Pf Rk^[f
Ga _eae C_i ej[f Zu _Z jReZ @Bg Kj
~, akak \A \A ci Ne Pf Rk ^[f, KeY
ehA _A Ne KQ ej^[f ic^ LRe I _Y
\e bK c<C[f _Wgc^ akak KQ le
\A\@ (ij aLe, 3d L, j\i 741)
i LRe_Z a PcW aQYe gC[f ~jKQ
C_je e_ ck[f, ZK c @^K \A \C[f RY
]^fb aq K'Y ia KQ \^ Ke\G ? GA jCQ
Zue \e\ I a\^Ze KjY G iKe GK PZ
\A G^iAK_W@ aU^Ke fLK fLQ

before all, he was still a simple prophet delivering Gods message

in singleness of heart, obeying, as far as he could, Gods will, but
never claiming to be more than Gods weak and erring servant.
(R. Bosworth Smith, Mohammed and Mohammedanism, London,
cjc^ cj\ 93

""Zue PeZ PZY Ke[a agh MYMWK

jCQa^d I \e\, a\^Z I C\eZ Ga
i]Z I iyUZ ~gLu _e cj\ @ZK
\e\K _i Ke[f Ga \^\e\c^ue @Z
^KUZe c [f G_eK MUG agk age
@]_Z jA~a _e c i @Z iek Ra^~_^
Ke[f ''(15)
cKe iec^ [e KK @a Zfau cce cjc^
cj\u _a \f ~ ~\ i Zu ae _Pe ZM
Ke\@, Za ic^ Zu @Ri ]^i \a Ga
cKe ie Ke\a (16) _aU ^Z bae @KhYd
[f RY ]^ a _Zfb aq _A Gbk _a GK
ia i~M [f K cjc^ cj\ue Ce gY i
Ce \f ~, ~\ ic^ c WjY jZe i~ Ga
ac jZe P @Y eL\@, Za c cZ _~ c c
fle _QK jUa ^j (17) ZY ]^i fkie a lcZ
fbe cjc^ cj\ ^RK Bge\Z af \a Ke[f
af Kj~A ^ _e
Za KC KeYe i _aRu ]cK MjY Kf^j ?
^R _eae ij iLge ^ ej KjK i GK iNh_
The virtues that characterize him are humility and poverty,
magnanimity and nobility, and sincerity and truthfulness. Like Jesus
Christ, Muhammad loved spiritual poverty and was also close to
the economically poor, living very simply even after he had become
the ruler of a whole world. (Muhammad. Encyclopdia Britannica
Ultimate Reference Suite, Chicago, 2011)
Martin Lings, MuhammedHis Life from Earlier Sources,
pp. 60-61.
Sirat Ibn Histan, Al-Falah Foundation, Cairo, p. 44.
94 cjc^ cj\

\e\ Ra^K @\e ^f ? Zu ac^u ^~ Z^ \@Mf,

jZ KeMf, ^R R^cUe ic^u ZW \@Mf ~ I
eq_Z c jf Z[_ KjK i ^R aPe a\kAf
^j a ^R K~ a Kf^j Gje Cee i Kj
~ i ^R Aze ^j, ae Bgeu \e @\ jA Zu
]ce _^i_^ KeQ
Gbk RY iyU I iMYi^ aq ~\ ^R _Z
\aaY jA[ae _Kg Ke Ga ia _Kee a]aN
i ^R fle Zu @Uk ejae \L~G, Za GjK
jfK bae MjY Ke^a CPZ ^j Zu bfe_
_el Kea CPZ Ga Zu \a i_le ~q~q _cY @Q
^ ^j, Zj \La CPZ Ga @i, @c G ahde
UKG aZ bae @fP^ Kea
cjc^ Bge\ZMY ia_[c icRK ^Re PeZK
_cY \@ ic^ ^R i]Z I PeZK zZ cce
_cY \@ ~ ic^ Bgeue @\ _eh ic^ue
^ck PeZ Kj\G ~ Gc^ i]eY c^h ^j GK
^LY PeZe c j @^e PeZ MV^ Ke_e KYi
i]eY PeZe aq cYhe agiK a\kA\ae ic[
jG^j RY c[a\, b, fU a \ bae aqK
ac^c^ @\g e_ MjY Ke ^j @^K i\_\g
\C[a aq ^R c ij cMe Pf[a @agK Z'
aaa, @ZdR^ Ga Z' icR ^KUe i RY ^LY
PeZe aq e_ MjYd jA[a \eKe cjc^ cj\u
PeZ ~ KZ CyKUe [f Ga Zu aqZ ~ KZ
_bagk [f, Gj @c _[c @de AZjie @fKe
@fP^ KeieQ GVe _^ea Keae @agKZ ^j
cjc^ cj\ 95

GVe @c \La ~ KZ ijRe i @^e j\dK

Rd Ke_e[f
ia_[c ~Cc^ cjc^ cj\u K[K iZ af
agi Ke^f Ga Zu Bge\Z e_ MjY Kf, ic^
[f Zue @Z ^KU iKdZu _Z, Zu iaK, Zu
_ec cZ Ga Zu KKu _@ Gc^ Zu @Z ^KUe
\L[f Zu jaba, PfPkY, @Pe aaje Ga Zu
P]e ij ic^ La _ePZ [f Ga Zu PeZe
KYi \M ic^u \e fP ej^[f RY aq jGZ
KQ icd @b^d Ke aje fKu _ZeY Ke_e; K
^R NefKu i _ZeZ Ke_e ^j, KeY ic^ Z'
@if e_K bf e_ Pj [@ cjc^ cj\u Gj
iKdc^u \e a^ \]e Zu K[K Ke Ke^a
Ga ^Re KkK ]c ZM Ke\a Gje Rk _cY \G
~, ic^ Zu aqZ \e KZ\e _baZ [f
cKi WWi aAafe RY @_K Ga ]cZaZ
Aifce RY icfPK jA[a i i cjc^ cj\u
^LY PeZe _cY C_i_^ Ke Kj
""Zu iyUZe Rk _cY jCQ Gj ~,
Zue _[c I @Z ag ghc^ [f Zu ^R
NefK Z[ Zu _ePZ fK, ~Cc^ ia
@aie Zu UK^L bae _el Ke[f
Zu _Z, iaK, _Ze I gge Gc^ PeZa
[f Ga icR ce ic^ue GK i^
[f ''(18)
It is a striking proof of his sincerity that his earliest and most
devoted disciples were those of his own household, and his familiars,
who had known him in all circumstances and scanned him in all
96 cjc^ cj\

ia_[c _Z jReZ L\R Zu Bge\Z af MjY

Kf jReZ L\Ru adi iZak _*a^ ah [f
Ga i cu ij \N _eah aZA[f ZY Zue
KYi \akZ Zu \_[e fP ~A[a ia ^j a^
\]e i cu K[ c^ ^Re agi a\kA\f
RY ^R cK ~[ i^ \A_e, @M] bq
Ke_e, Z'e bfc K~e ij~M c Ke_e; K
c K[e iw iw ^Re KkK ]c _ea^ Kea
ijR ^j ~jZ jReZ L\R ^R cu ^eU iZa\
I @Z PeZa^ af RY[f, ZY c ~ cQ Kj^j,
G ahde i \X^Z [f
@^ RY aq jf Zu iaK jReZ R\ a^
jei i _eah ]e cjc^ cj\u Ne ia Ke
@i[f Ga cfKu bfe_ RYae i~M _A[f
RY bZ a KcPe cfK _Z i ag jA_e,
\^eZ Z' ia Ke_e, ZK ~[ i^ \A_e, K
cfKe GK ^Z^ ]cK ^R ]c e_ MjY Ke^a ajZ
KKe @ag i ^R cfKuVe \aMYe SfK _A[a
Ga Zu \e c[ Kja ia ^j af \X ^Z [a,
~C[_A i cjc^ cj\u Bge\Z af Ke
Ke^f jReZ R\ ^R cfKu \e Kbk _baZ
[f, Zj MUG NUYe RY_W
jReZ R\u iZak Zeg ah Zu a_ I \\
Zu NeK ^A~a _A @i _j*f Ga cjc^ cj\u
Kjf ~, @c R\u ^A~a _A @iQ, Zu QW \@
moodshis wife, his slave, his cousin, his father-in-law the latter
themselves men of character and position. (Marcus Dods,
Mohammed, Buddha and Christ, London, p.21)
cjc^ cj\ 97

cjc^ cj\ Ce \f ~, VK @Q, c Zu WK\CQ

~\ i Zc iwe ~a_A Pj Z ~A_e Z'_e i
R\u WK _PefZc a_ ZcK ^a_A @iQ, ~\
Zc ~aK Pj, Za ~A_e R\u a_ I \\ c ZK
iwe NeK ~a_A WKf K ^R _bu aqZ Zu
Gbk ba _baZ Ke[f ~, i cjc^ cj\u QW ^R
a_u ij ~aK c^ Ke\f
@C RY aq jf cjc^ cj\u _ec cZ jReZ
@aaKe iK \N KWG ah Kk Cbdu ce N^
aZ [f GKV L@-_@, ai-CV jC[f, ZY i au
@Z ^KUe \L[f Ga Zu PeZ ij bfe_ _ePZ [f
~Zak cjc^ cj\ Zu Kjf ~, Bge Zu_Z
\aaY KeQ Ga Zu ]c\Z ^~q KeQ, i ZZlYZ
a^ \]e Gj iZ af c^^f Ga ^R ]c _ea^
Ke\f RY a, a _A ajZ KQ Ke_e Ga \eKe
_Wf Z' _A Ra^ c \A_e K a K[e ^R
KkK ]c ZM Ke GK ^Z^ ]c MjY Ke^a ijR K[
^j KWG ahe @ew iK ce i ^R au Gbk
i] I iyU c^ Ke[f ~ Gbk aq Bgeu _Z^]
ja KYi aW K[ ^j af Zue \Xagi [f
^Re _bagk aqZ \e cjc^ cj\ cYhe c^K
RY _e[f af a^ Ke _i HZjiK Ma Kj
""@c _A Gj Kja @^agK ~ cj\ Zu
@^Mcc^u j\dK ^R aqZe _ba \e j
Rd Ke[ f Gj jA ^[f ic^ Bge\Zu
K[ _Z KYi MeZ \A ^ [@ ''(19)
For us it goes without saying that the hold which Mohammed
gained over the wills and affections of his Companions was due to
98 cjc^ cj\

cRK bk cjc^ cj\ @MYZ j\d Rd Ke

Pff cZ 23ah ce fl]K fKue agi I
Ra^gke i _ea^ @Ya ij GK agk icR
MX\a bk Pc}e K'Y Bgeu _Zl ijdZ a^ ia ?
HZjiK aiI[ i[ Gj C_e @fK_Z Ke Kj
""GK id i^ a^, ^e_el a^, eR_i\
a^ Ga GK ^ eR a^ ^d_ bae
gi^ KeQ af ~\ Kje Kjae @]Ke [G,
Za i jCQ cj\, KeY KYi i]^
a ijdZ ^[A c Zue iaKQ Ke_eae
ic[ [f ''(20)
cjc^ cj\u aqZe cfu^ Ke `ei HZjiK
@f`^i W. fceUA^ Kj
""~\ Cge cj^Z, i]^e @ba @C aid Ke
_eYc cYhe _ZbK c_a _A Z^MU c^\
jG, Za @]^K AZjie KYi cj^ aqu
ij c j \u Z k ^ Ke a e iji K G
Ke_ea ?''(21)

the influence of his personality. Without that they would have paid
little heed to the claims of the Prophet. ( H.A.R. Gibb,
Mohammedanism, An Historical Survey, New York, 1962, pp.33-34)
Without a standing army, without a body guard, without a
palace, without a fixed revenue, if ever any man had the right to say
that he ruled by a right Divine, it was Mohammed; for he had all the
power without its instruments and without its supports. (R. Bosworth
Smith, Mohammed and Mohammedanism, London, p.235)
If greatness of purpose, smallness of means, and astounding
results, are the three criteria of human genius, who could dare to
cjc^ cj\ 99

Gbk cj_ehu Bge\Z Kja a]jG ~[[ ja

af cZ\A HZjiK Z[ ^dK aga\kde @_K R^
CAfdc W_e Kj
""GK ZZdg c^a RMZK ic^u \^^
Ra^e cM\g^ Ke[a
aj icRe Gj ]c]g
a]jG "Bge\Z' _\ae ~[[Z _Z_\^
KeQ ''(22)
icU jeKfi Ga cjc^ cj\
ece icU jeKfi (575-641)RY L]caf
Ga am aq [f Zu \e cjc^ cj\u iZZ
ie _el Aifc AZjie GK CfL^d NUY
628 Le cjc^ cj\ jeKfiu ^KUK
GK _Z fL Zu Aifc M j Y Ke a _A @c Z
Ke[f (23) ZY cjc^ cj\ _KZe Bge\Z K ^j,
Gj bfe_ @^i^ Kea _A icU ie Kf
@a i`d^ a^ jea ^cK cKe RY aq ~G K
iZak cjc^ cj\ue RY aW gZ [f, ij
icde aaid Cge _fA^ ~A[f
cjc^ cj\u _Z _Aa_e jeKfi @a i`d^
Ga Zu i[c^u ^R \eaeK WKAf ZY ic^
compare any great man in modern history with Muhammad?"
(Alphonse De Lamartine, Histoire De La Turquie, Paris)
To be the religious head of many empires, to guide the daily
life of one-third of the human race, may perhaps justify the title of a
Messenger of God". (John William Draper, History of the Intellectual
Development of Europe, London, p.330)
Dictionary of Islam, J. P. Hughes, London, 1885, P.-173.
100 cjc^ cj\

ReRfce jeKfiu ilZ Kea _A _j*f ae

_\]Kec^ \eaee C_iZ [@ jeKfi ^Re
@^a\K cce @a i`d^ Ga Zu i[c^u _Pef
""Zcc^u ce Bge\Z af \a Ke[a aque
@Z ^KU iKd Kj @Q ?''
@a i`d^ Ce \f""c Zue ^KU iKd ''
ZY icU Zu ^R _LK WKf Ga Zu i[c^u _Qe
QW ja_A @\g \f i ^R @^a\KK Kjf ~
i @a i`d^u KZU _g _Pea _A Pj Ga ~\
i KYi i^e cQ Kj Za Zu i[c^ ig]^
Kea @a i`d^ Kj ~, ""Bgeu eY ! ~\ iwc^
cZ cQ@ baae We ^ [@, Za c cj\u ahde
@\ iZK[ Kj^[@ '' @a i`d
^ue i icde cjc^
cj\u ij gZZ [f i Kj
_[c _g cj\u ahde i cZ _Pef""ij
aq RYue ag _ee K'Y ?''
c Ce \f""i @c ce RY CyagR ''
jeKfi _Y _Pef""Zcc^u ce Kj Ka
Zu _ae Gbk \a Ke[f ?''
c Ce \f""^ ''
i _g Kf""Zu _aRu ce Kj eR [f K ?''
c Ce \f""^ ''
jeKfi _Pef""@z ]^gk I i fK
Zu _Z @^MZ _Kg Ke a Mea gYe fK ?''
c Ce \f""Meac^ ''
i _Pef""Zu @^Mcu iL aXQ a KcQ ?''
cjc^ cj\ 101

c Ce \f""\^K \^ aXQ ''

Z'_e i _Pef""Zu ]c MjY Ke[a fKc^u
ce _e Kj @i jA ]c _eZM KeQ K ?''
c Kjf""^ ''
jeKfi _g Kf""GcZ \a Kea _ae i Ka
cQ KjQ K ?''
""i K[\A K[ bw Ke K ?''
""^, ac^ Zu ij @ce i jAQ c RY^
~ i @MK K'Y Kea ''
@a i`d^ Kj, ""c Zu aee GjV @]K KQ
Kjae i~M _Af ^j ''
jeKfi _Pef""Zcc^ Zu ij Ka ~
KeQ K ?''
c Ce \f""j''
""~e `k`k K'Y jG ''

c Kjf""KZak i aRd j@ @C KZak

@c RZ~C ''
jeKfi _Pef""i Zcc^u Kbk Kc Keae
@\g \@ ?''
""i @cK Kak @fjue C_i^ KeaK Kj Ga
@fju aZZ @^ Kje C_i^ ^ KeaK Kj, @c
_aRu _[MWK QW\a _A Kj i _[^ Kea,
ia\ iZ Kja, iZ^ ja Ga @Zdc^u ij iiK
el Keae @\g \@ ''
102 cjc^ cj\

jeKfi ^R @^a\K Re@e Kjf

""c ZcK ij aqu ag ahde _Pe[f Ga
Zc Ce \f ~, i RY Cyagd _KZe
ia Bge\Zc^ Cyage R^MjY Ke c
_Pe[f ~ _ae Kj Zcc^u ce Gbk \a
Ke[f K ? Zc Ce \f"^' ~\ Zc
"j' Kj[@ c ba[ ~ i Zu _aR u @^KeY
KeQ _Y c _Pef ~, Zu _aRu ce
Kj eR [f K ^j Zc ^j Kf ~\ "j'
Kj[@ c ba[ ~, Gj fK Z' _aRu
eR @]Ke Kea _A PjQ _Y, GcZ \a
Kea _ae i Ka cQ KjQ ^ ^j af c
_Pef Zce Ce ^aPK [f GY c @~
jf ~ RY fK ~G @^KYi ahde cQ
Kj^j, Bgeu ahde K_e cQ Kj_ea ?
Z'_e c _Pef ~, ]^ K Meac^ Zue
@^ieY KeQ Zc Ce \f ~, Meac^
_ K Z e Me a g Y e fK j Bg e \ Z c^u
(_[c) @^KeY Ke Z'_e c _Pef ~,
Zu @^Mcc^u iL aXQ a KcQ ? Zc
Kjf "aXQ' Ga _KZe Gjj iZcMe ag,
~_~ Gj i ^ jAQ _Y c _Pef ~,
Kj Zu _PeZ ]c MjY Kea_e @i jA
]cZM KeQ K ? Zc ^j Kf iZe, Gj
iZ]ce iuZ Z' RZ @e ce _ag
Ke f^ jA~G c _Pe[f ~ i agi bw
Ke K ^j ? Zc ^j Kf Ga Bge\Zc^
K\_ agiNZKZ Ke ^j Z'_e c _g
Ke[f ~, i Kbk Kc Kea _A Kj Ga
cjc^ cj\ 103

Zc Kjf i GKcZ @fjue C_i^ Kea Ga

Zu aZZ @^ Kje C_i^ ^ Kea, aMj
_R ^ Kea, _[^ Kea, iZ Kja, ]c^
ja _A Kj ~\ Zc Kj[a K[ iZ
jA[G, Za La gN i Gj i^e c ja
~CVe c _\ ejQ c RY[f ~ i
(Bge\Z) @ia; K Gj RY^[f ~ i Zcc^u
ce _KU ja ~\ c Zu ^KUe _j*_e,
Za ^d Zu ilZ Ke Ga Zue _\
_Lk^ Ke ''
(ij aLe, 1c L, j\i-6)
jeKfiu ahde IK_W@ fLQ ~, i Aifc
_Z agi Ke[f Ga cjc^ cj\ ~ _KZe RY
Bge\Z Gj c agi Ke[f (24)
icU jeKfiu ^KUK cjc^ cj\ fL[f :
""@^ \da^ @Za KeYgk @fju ^ce
ece icU jeKfiu ^KUK @fju iaK I
aaj cj\u Ze`e ~Cc^ iZcM @^ieY
Ke, ic^ue cwk jC c @_Yu Aifc
_Z @cY KeQ Aifc MjY Ke^@, gfb
Kea @fj \MY _Z\^ \a ~\ _ZL^
Ke, Za @_Yu _Rue __be c @_Y j
aj^ Kea j M^]ec^ ! @i G_e GK
(^dPZ) K[ _Z ~j @c I Zc ce ic^
bae MjZ (Ga Zj jCQ) Gj ~, @c
@fju aZZ @C Kje C_i^ Kea ^j Ga
He was a true believer of Islam and viewed Mohammad as
the true prophet (Heraclius Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia)
104 cjc^ cj\

@^ KjeK Zu ij icKl Kea ^j Ga @c

^R ^R ce Kj KjeK @fju aZZ ^Re
_b (c) Kea ^j ~\ ic^ ^ c^,
Za _ee Kj\@ ~ Zcc^ il ej ~
@cc^ Bgeue @m]^ ''
(ij aLe 1L, j\i i. 6)

(jeKfiu ^KUK cjc^ cj\u _Z)

@^K fK cjc^ cj\u Bge\Z af @e ij
agi Ke[f Zu _Z ic^ue KYi _Ke ij
^[f K ^R _aRc^ue KkK ]c QWf Kkc~\
j^ ja a ic^u icRK _Z l ja af ic^
Aifc MjY Ke^[f cjc^ cj\u ^R KK @a
Zfa, ~G Zue fk^ _k^ Kf Ga cZ _~ Zu
ia _Ke iel \f, _Ze ~ iZ KjQ Gj i agi
Ke[f, K icR ^KUe ^Re _Z l jA~a af
i Aifc ]c MjY Kf^j
PZ[ @d

cjc^ cj\ue Pc}eZ

Kak Cc PeZ a aqZ \e ^j, ae Bgeu
cjc^ _Z^]MY icRe agibR^ ja_A GcZ KZK
@fKK K~ Ke[, ~j RY c^h _le Kea ia
^j GMWK Pc}e a ^\g^ Kj~G cjc^ Bge\ZMY
Bgeu _Z^]Ze _cY e_ Gj Pc}e _\g^ Ke[@,
~j`ke i]eY fKu _le ic^u Bge\Z af
MjY Kea ijR jG R^K Pl\^ Kea, cZ aqK
Ra\^ Kea, g \e eM \e Kea @\ K~MWK
Pc}eZ Kj~G GcZ @^K Pc}eZe a^ ab^
]cgMWKe c \LaK ck cjc^ cj\ c @^K
@fKK K~ Ke ^R \a i_le _cY \AQ L\
a _^de @ba jf i @^K [e _[^ a g \e
Gj @ba _eY Ke\@, ~j\e gj gj fKue @agKZ
_eY jA~G ''(1)
c\^e [e ceW _W[a icde _[^ \e cjc^
cj\ iw iw ah KeA \A[f (2)
cKai KYi GK Pc}e \LAaK Kjae cjc^
cj\ @wk ^g \e PK \AbMe abq Ke \LA
\A[f (3)
ij aLe 4[ L, j\i 771, 772, 773, 774,
775, 777, 778, 779, 781
ij aLe 4[ L, j\i 782
ij aLe 4[ L, j\i 831, 832
106 cjc^ cj\

Gjbk @^K Pc}eZ i _\g^ Ke[ae AZjie

CfL ejQ K Zue iag Pc}e jCQ _aZ Ke@ ^
Ke@^ K'Y ?
Ke@^ @[ "_V' cjc^ cj\u ci^e cM\g^
Ke Ga c^aRMZ _A a]a]^ ]eY Ke \N ZAg ah
ce Zu _Z ~C \aaY _KU jf Ze iKk^K
"Ke@^' Kj~G Gj 610 Le @ea bhe _KU
jf G[e 114U @d @Q
Ke@^e Pc}e
cKai cjc^ cj\u KQ @fKK K~ Ke \LAa
_A Kj[f ic^ Kj[f@c @_Yu K[e agi
Kea ^j ~_~ @_Y Gj cebce SeYUG i ^ KeQ
a @Kge PX Me @c _A M^UG ^ @YQ a Bge Ga
M\Zc^u @c iLe C_i_^ ^ KeQ, Za ~A @c
agi Kea ~ @_Y Bge\Z Ke@^ G iKe Kj
""Ga ic^ KjQ ~ KjK Zu Bgeu
^KUe Zu _Z ^\g^ (Pc}e) @i^j ?''
(Ke@^, 29 : 50)
ic^u Gj _ge Ce Ke@^ _ea gKe \A
""K'Y ic^u _A Gj ~[ ^j ~, @
Zc_Z GK M^ (Ke@^) @a KeQ, ~jK
_V Ke ic^u gYA \@~CQ ?''
(Ke@^, 29 : 51)
@[Z ic^ ~\ KYi Pc}eZ cMQ, Za
Ke@^ _Z ^ \@ Gj GK aeU Pc}e ic^
cjc^ cj\ 107

Z ^R i[ cj\u bfe_ RY, ~G KQ fL_X _e

^j Zu cje Ke@^ ^cK ~C aY ^iZ jCQ,
Zj K'Y Kc Pc}e ?
@i, Ke@^ ij _ePZ ja, Gje agMWK
iKe RYa Ga Gj c RYa ~ Gj Kbk Pc}e ?
@^_c gk
Ke@^ ~\I @ea bhe _KU jf, K Gje
bh _PkZ @ea ijZe bhVe Xe C^Z Gj M\
I _\e GK @_a i~R^ bhe fkZ, ge c]~,
Zk I fde @_a ic^d ij @bZ_a ijZK gke GK
Ra^ijZ C_i_^ Ke Ke@^ @ea ijZ RMZK
@~PKZ Ke\A[f f^e _KgZ G^iAK_W@
aU^K Ke@^e @nZ gke _gi Ke fLQ
""ie fkZ I bhe gZ ij Ke@^ @eae
iaVe @]K b\ I @bRZ i^ Keg i\de
bhe fL~A[a iaR^^ ba KZ ''(4)
ic^ cZcZ R^ fei aKue `cf G^iAK_W@
c \AQ (5)
ic gZe @ea ijZe ag ic [f K
Ke@ ^ GK i b^ ]eYe ijZ KYi @ea KaKaZ,
ijZ K d cjc^ cj\ue aY (j\i) c Gje
The Koran is universally allowed to be written with the utmost
elegance and purity of language in the dialect of the tribe Koreish,
the most noble and polite of all the Arabians(Encyclopedia
Britannica or A Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, London, Vol.III, p.10)
The Family Encyclopedia of Useful Knowledge and General
Literature, John Lauris Blake, New York, 1834, p.507.
108 cjc^ cj\

icZf ^j @ea bhe m^ [a aq Cbd aY

ce [a _[KK @Z ijRe C_f Ke_ea ~\I
\AU~K aY cjc^ cj\u cLe ^iZ, Z[_ Cbdu
ce @Kg _Zk _b\ ejQ Gj aZZ Ke@^K
ijRe @a Ke~A_e, K j\i a cjc^ cj\u
aYK @a Ke~A_e ^j @^K _Z fLK
Ke@^e gke _gi KeQ RY L@^ ]c~RK
U._. jMi Zue "WK^e @` Aifc'e G ahde
C\jeY ij @fP^ KeQ (6) @i Ke@^e @_a gke
GK ^c^ \La
(@ic \da^, @^ KeYgk @fju ^ce)
1) IAff Kf jcRZf fcR
(_ZK PMf@ I _eQ\^he ia^g )
2) @f-fR Rc@ c fC I @\-\\
(~G ]^ iPd Ke I ZK MY[G )
3) djia @^ c-fj @Lf\
(i c^Ke ~, Z' ]^ ZK PeRa KeeLa )
4) Kf fdc aR^ `f jZc
(Gj K\_ ja^j, i ^d iaMi ^eKe ^l ja )
5) Ic @\eK cf jZc
(j cj\) ZcK K'Y RY ~ iaMi ^K K'Y ?)
6) ^ef-fjf c K\
(Gj @fju \e _RkZ @M )
A Dictionary of Islam, Thomas Patrick Hughes, London, 1885,
cjc^ cj\ 109

7) @f-fZ ZZ-ZfC @ff @` A\

(~j j\de @ik b\ Kea )
8) A^j @fjc ci\
(Z'_e ZK ia \Me a Ke\@~a )
9) ` @c\c cc\-\\
(ic^ Cy Cy e a jA[a )
(Ke@^, 104 : 1-9)

_e_gK _ba cq
RY Ka a fLKe P]e Z' eP^K _baZ
Ke[G fL, fLKe c^iK I _e_gK @ai \e
_baZ jG Ga i[e Ze _c, \L, K] a aZ
bae _Z`k^ \L~G ~je @e \L-a\^_, Z'
Kfc ji KaZ fL_e ^j ~Zak Z' Ra^e
iL @i, iZak _Y Z' fLe ba]e c a\k~G
cjc^ cj\u Ra^ aj iNh c\A MZ KeQ
Zu f^ \ @ Mf, icR K ai KeMf, Zu
ij~Mc^u ^^_Ke ^~Z^ \@Mf, KZKu jZ
c Ke \@Mf, G_eK Zu Zu R^cUe ZW \@Mf
Gbk \L cYhUG ~\ KQ fL, Za Z' @ee Kj
K'Y KMR_e `UCVa ^j ? \L, @ai\, aZ a
@k^ZK ba Z' fLe _Z`kZ ja baK K
Ke@^K \L, @ee gh _~ MUG c\e ejQ
cjc^ cj\u \La\^ a aqMZ ba^K _Z`kZ
^Ke Gj g I ^aKe bae ^R fl iKe aeae
^g \A PfQ
110 cjc^ cj\

Bge iL-\L @\ _bae cq ZY Zu aYe

c^ad \akZe KYi SfK ^[G ajaYe gk ia
~Me Ga ia @aie ic^ [G bh a\k; K
K[e ba]e a\k ^j Ke@^K @d^ Kf RY_W
~, ZAg ah @a] ce Gj Kak ^R cg^K KbZ
KeQ Gje KYi aKe c^ad \akZe Pj ^j
ZUaj^ eP^
cYhcZ bf Kea baK ~Z aW fLK jC,
i Gj \a Ke_ea ^j ~ Z' fLe KYi \h
\akZ ^j a bhMZ, a^MZ a Z[MZ KYi ahc
^j @c PV L fLf i[e c bf jA~G Ga
@cK KU ig]^ KeaK _W Ke@^ MUG agk
M^ jA[a i i[e KYi _Ke ZU \LaK
ck^j Gj ZUcq af ^R NhY Ke Kj
""K'Y ic^ Ke@^K c^~M \A @^^
Ke^j ? ~\ Gj @fju aZZ @^ Kj
\e eP^ Ke~A[@, Za G[e ^d ajZ
ahc \LaK ck ''
(Ke@^, 4 : 82)
KYi cYh ^R eP^K ZUc q
af NhY Ke^j
i ~Me @ea ijZ ~[ ic [f Ga Ke@^K ajaY
af MjY ^ Ke[a @^K fK c @ea ijZe
_aY [f Ke@^e \h \akZ _Z ic^ue @Mj
[a baK ~\ Gj M^e KYi _Kee ZU [@,
ic^ ^d Zj _Kg Ke Ke@^K c^a eP^ af
_cYZ KeaK P Ke[@ K ic^ c Ke@^e
aMZ iLe @ijd jA _W[f
cjc^ cj\ 111

@ia _^ea
cYh ajUG
fLf MUG K[K gj gj [e _^ea
Ke^j ~\ i KYi K[K _]^ \G, Za @Z
age ab^ i^e \A Pe [e a _* [e CfL
Ke_e gj gj [e fL^j Ke@ ^ K _cL glMWK
gj gj [e _^ea KeQ, ~[Kak RY Bgeue C_i^
Kea, ^cR i_^ Kea a \^ \ae ^g gk a\kA
gj gj [e _^ea Ke~AQ ij_e cj_kd, _^Ra^,
M I ^K ahde c gZ]K [e _^ea jAQ KYi
c^h MUG K[K aee GZ[e ^R _Ke fL^j
ZY Gj ~ c^a eP^ ^j, Gj ijRe aSj G

Ke@^ _V g_\
AZji, bMk a am^ jC K ^bf a KZjkR^K
KYi KjY, [e a \A[e a _*[e _Xa _A RYKe
@Mj [A_e Z'_e ij ajUK aee _XaK Az
jG^j, ae aeq fM K ajaYe MUG aghZ jCQ
~ ZK ~Z _Xf c @je _XaK Az jG aeqa]
jG ^j gee K jA~A _e, K c^ [K~G ^j
c^a ePZ _KMWK cYhK @^ \A_e a c^ Li
Ke_e; K @Ze Zh ^aeY Ke_e ^j BgeaY
@ZK _eZ Ke Ga c^K g \G KeY GjK _V
Ke[a aq Bgeue i^ fb Ke
Bgeu _aZ ^cR_ a ieY \e c c^K g
ck Ga cYhe @ZK gq a _G L\ I Rk ~_e
geee GK _KZK @agKZ, ij_e iue ^c ieY
@Ze GK _KZK @agKZ, ~j\e @Ze Zh ^aeY
jG Ke@^ Gj iZK _Kg Ke KjQ
112 cjc^ cj\

""RYeL, @fju ieY Kea\e j\dMWK g

_ Ke ''
(Ke@^ 13 : 28 )
KU KU fK \^K Ke@^ _V Ke Ga @^K
GjK _Z cie cke gh _~ _V Ke Z[_ ic^u
aeqa] jG^j Gj aZZ ~Cc^ @[ aS, ic^u
Ke@^ _Z[e b^ b^ \ \G ajaYe Gj jCQ GK
@ZK Pc}eZ c^a eP^e Gj aghZ ^[G

GK _e_ a]^
Gj M^U GK @i]eY M^ Gj c^he ia icie
GK id ic]^ \AQ age GcZ KYi fLK ^j,
~G c^he @ZK, ^ZK, icRK, @[^ZK, eR^ZK
Z[ Ra^e ic lZ _A ic^ bae ^bf ^Z ^eY
Ke M^UG fLQ Gj c^a _le ia_e c ^j

gMWKe Pc}e _^ea

Gj _aZ M^Ue _ee ijZ iq [a KZK
ge @~R^K ba _^ea \LaK ck (7) @i,
KZU C\jeY \La
Ke@^e "i @Kg' K[ iZ[e CfL [aak
"@Kge i' c iZ[e CfL Ke~AQ
"\^' ge GK aP^e 365[e _^ea Ke~A[a
ak ajaP^e Gj 30[e Ga "ci' ge Pc}e
ba 12[e _^ea jAQ

Harun Yahia, Learning form the Quran, Turkey, 2003, pp.535-
cjc^ cj\ 113

"AjfK' (\^@) gUe 332[e _^ea jAQ

ij_e Gje a_eZ "_efK' (@LeZ) gUe c 332
[e _^ea jAQ
"M' (R^Z) Ga "^K' (Rj^c) Cbd ge 77[e
_^ea Ke~AQ
"agi' (Ac^) Ga "@agi' (K`e) Cbd g ab^
i^e 25[e fLG _^ea jAQ
"_eh' I "' Cbd ge 23[e _^ea NUQ
"M\Z' Ga "\^a' Cbd ge 88[e _^ea
"i~' 33[e CfL [aak "@fK' c 33[e
CfL ejQ
ij_e "Kc' I "Kc`k' Cbd g _ZK 108[e
aaje Ke~AQ
\N 23ah ]e @ @ _KU jA[a Gj agk
M^Ue gMWKe @~R^K _^ea c KYi Kc
Pc}e ^j
@bZ_a iel
[ci KfAf Kj
""Kj~A_e ~ ag Z I aaZ jCQ Ke@ ^
M^Ue _[cK ag ''(8)

One would say, the primary character of the Koran is this of
its genuineness, of its being a bona fide book(Thomas Carlyle, Heroes
and Hero Worship, p.90)
114 cjc^ cj\

Ke@^ Bgeue GKcZ M^ ^j Gj _ae GK]K

\aM^ @aZeY jAQ K Ke@^ j GKcZ \aM^
~je i iel _A i aP^a iZe i Ke@^e
NhY Ke
""@ j Gj Ke@^K @a Ke@Q Ga d
@ j Gje ielK ''
(Ke@^ 15 : 9)
_Z I ]cMec^ ^ [ _A ab^ ~Me
\aM^MWK ig]^ Kf Ga iMWKe c^Az _ea^
@Yf, ~j`ke Bgeu ]c Zje e_ jeAf Ga
icRe @^d, @^Z I Kie _ag Kf ZY Ke@^e
iele \dZ d Bge aj^ Kf Ga i[e GK[
NhY c Ke\f
PC\ gj ah ]e Gj M^e _ZKU @le ielZ
ejQ Ga bahZe c eja age _ZK \ge ic^
Ke@ ^ _PkZ Gje KYi ig]Z ieY ^j HZjiK
Ma^ Kj ~, Ke@^e ab^ ieYMWK Pc}e bae
ic^Z I gZ el KeQ (9)
ie CAfdc ce c _aZ Ke@^ ahde fLQ
""a]jG age @^ KYi fL GZ ag
e_ aegj gZ ]e Z ej_e ^j ''(10)

The various editions of the Koran assert the same miraculous
privilege of a uniform and incorruptible text. (Edward Gibbon, Life
of Mahomet, pp. 86-87)
There is probably in the world no other work which has
remained twelve centuries with so pure a text. (Sir William Muir,
The Life of Mahomet, London, 1861, Vol.I, p.xv Introduction)
cjc^ cj\ 115

_aZ Ke@^ 610 Le ]e ]e _KU ja

@e jf Ga Z' ijZ Gje ielY c @e jf
~jZ _a \aM^c^ue ig]^ I _l_Y jA
~A[f, ZY Ke@^e iel _Z cjc^ cj\ @]K
iZKZ @af^ Kf cLZ \AU C_de Ke@ ^e ielY
jfKYi ja \e Ga fL \e
Ke@^e gKMWK _KU jalY cjc^ cj\
iMWK KYi Ke ^C[f _ee \aaY jacZ
i ZK c^ eLa _A a jA _W[f Ga \aaY
jC[a icde bf~ae @gu Ke i ZK aee @a
Ke[f K \aaYK KYi Keae KYi _di ^
Kea _A Zu Bgeu \e aeY KeMf
""(j cj\) Gj \aaYK gN gN cLi
Ke^a _A Zc ^Re Rj Pk^ Ke^j
GjK cLi KeAa Ga (Zc\e) _XA \a
@e \dZ iZe, ~Zak @ GjK
_V Ke, Zc Ze @^KeY Ke _Y Gje
aL c @e \dZ ''
(Ke@^, 75 : 16-19)
Gj\e Ke@^K Zu iZe ielZ eLae aP^
\@Mf ZY cjc^ cj\ @C Gbk Keae _di
Kf^j KYi Keae KYi @bi ^ Ke i i
Ke@^ Zu c^ [f Ga i ZK _X gYA _e[f
KYi fLK Z' M^K ^ \L a cLi ^ Ke @ckPk
_X \A_ea ^j
116 cjc^ cj\

\ZdZ Zue @^K ij~M i Ke@^ KYi

Ke[f (11) Gj aZZ \^K ^cRe Ke@^ _V @^a~
jA[a ~M _ZK cifc^ c Gje KQ @g cLi
Ke[f (12) Gbk fKc^ue iL cjc^ cj\u @c
icde GK fle @]K [f
Ke@^ ielYe \Zd C_d [f Gje fLZ ielY
\aaY ja _e _e cjc^ cj\ ZK ^Re KZK
ij~Mc^u \ e _g P c , @i a g k e fLA
^C[f (13)
CAfdc ceu aZZ HZjiK Ma^ c fLQ ~,
BgeaY Ga Bge\Zu aY Cbd Zu ghc^u \e @Z
~Ze ij f_a Ke~C[f (14) \aaY f_a Kea_A
Z bae KZK f_Ke ^~q [f ic^u ^KUe
(William Muir, The Life of Mahomet, London, l861, Vol.I, p.xxi
The Coran was accordingly committed to memory more or
less by every adherent of Islam (Ibid, p.v Introduction)
At the moment of inspiration or shortly after, each passage
was recited by Mohammad before the friends or followers who
happened to be present, and was generally committed to writing by
some one amongst them, at the time or afterwards, upon palm-leaves,
leather, stones, or such other rude material as conveniently came to
hand.(Sir William Muir, The Life of Mohammed from Original
Sources, l923 p.xiv)
The word of God, and of the apostle, was diligently recorded
by his disciples on palm-leaves, and the shoulder-bones of mutton;
and the pages, without order and connection, were cast into a domestic
chest in the custody of one of his wives. Two years after the death of
Mahomet, the sacred volume was collected and published by his
cjc^ cj\ 117

Ke@^e @fLMWK ielZ ej[f Ga cjc^ cj\

d ^R _Le c eL[f GjQW Zue @^K gh
c Ke@^ fLZ e_ eL[f (15)
cjc^ cj\u adM _e jReZ @a aKe iK
(632-634) _[c Lf` jf jReZ Cceu _ecge
i Ke@^e @fLMWK GKZZ Ke cjc^ cj\u ^g
@^~d @dMWK Kc \f G[_A cjc^ cj\u
Z f_Ke jReZ R\ a^ iaZu \dZ \@Mf
Ke@^ KYi Ke[a j`Rc^u \e @fLMWKe
Zk^ZK _el Ke~A i Ke@^e GK _Zf_ _Z
jf _aZ Ke@^e Gj ck K_UK jReZ @a aKe
iK ^R _Le eLf Zu cZ _e Gj _ea
Lf` jReZ Cce (634-644) Ga Zu _e Zu K^
Z[ cjc^ cj\u _Z jReZ j`iu Za]^e
ejf (16) PZ[ Lf` jReZ Cic^ (644-656) Gj
ce K_e Ke@^e KZU ^Kf _Z Ke ab^ AifcK
ie CAfdc ce Kj
""Cic^u \e _Z ij Ke@^e _Zf_ Ga
@c ^ K Ue @_e a Z e _ ej Q GZ
ia]^Ze ij Gj ielZ ~ G[e KYi
CfL~M _b\ ^j, @c Kj_e ~ Aifce
agk \^@e QA ej[a Ke@^e @iL
friend and successor Abubeker (Edward Gibbon, Life of
Mahomet,1735, p.85-86)
ij aLe, 6 L, j\i 525
ij aLe, 6 L, j\i 509
118 cjc^ cj\

_Zf_MWK ce @\ KYi _b\ \LaK

ck^j ''(17)
aUg HZjiK aiI[ i[ c fLQ
""^ij bae @c ^KUe [a Ke@^e
cj\u cLe ^iZ jA[a @aKk ij gMWK
ejQ, ~C[e KQ Kc ag jA^j '' (18)

ic gZVe @R _~ Gj M^U ie age VK

ij e_e ejQ Gje MUG @le c a\k ^j age
iMjkdMWK e ij Ke@ ^e _Zf
_ Ga c ielZ

aUg cRdce [a 7c gZe Ke@^

The recension of Othman has been handed down to us
unaltered. So carefully, indeed, has it been preserved, that there are
no variations of importancewe might almost say no variations at
allto be found in the innumerable copies scattered throughout the
vast bounds of the empire of Islam. (William Muir, The Life of
Mohammed, Edinburgh, 1923, p.xxii, Introduction)
In the Koran we have, beyond all doubt, the exact words of
Mohammed without subtraction and without addition. (Bosworth
Smith, Mohammed and Mohammedansim, p.21)
cjc^ cj\ 119

ZKe U_K_ cRdce [a jReZ Cic^u Ke@^

ZiK< cRdce jReZ Cic^u eq fM[a Ke@^

Ke@^ ac^ KU KU fKu \e i KYi,
~Cc^u "j`R' Kj~G KZjk K[, RY Q@ a
iZ ahe _f, ~je cZbh @ea ^j K i @ea
aSaK c ic[ ^j, @Z ijRe i Ke@^ KYi
Ke^G Gj c Ke@^e GK @^Zc ag Gbk
bae KYi c^a ePZ M^ KYi jae \L~G ^j
120 cjc^ cj\

ejicd g
i]eYZ cYh KQ fLf Zj ^d KQ ^ KQ @[
_Kg Ke KYi fLK, Ka a ijZK ^Re eP^e
GcZ KYi g aaje Ke ^j ~j KYi @[ _Kg Ke
^j Ke@ ^ M^e 29U i ^e G_Ke ejicd g aaje
jAQ MUG a GK]K @ea @leK ^A Gj gMWK
MVZ, ~[K`, ^^, j-cc, @f`-fc-cc, d-i^, Z-
j AZ\ KZjk K[ ~, Gj gMWK Ke@^e @g e_
_V Ke~C[f c KYi @[ _Kg Ke ^j cjc^
cj\ GMWKe KYi aL Ke ^j Gj ejicd gMWK
c _aZ Ke@^e @^Zc ag ~j c^a eP^e GjK
_[K Ke
GMWK [f _aZ Ke@^e KZU i]eY ag
G[e @i RYa ~ Gj M^Ue i KG ?
Ke@^e Pf
@_Y GcZ KYi _K \LQ ~C[e Gje fLK
icM c^aRMZK Pf KeQ ~, Zu bk fL Kj
fL_ea ^j ? KYi cYh Gbk iji Ke^_e ? K
GcZ MUG M^ @Q, ~jK Ke@^ Kj~G Gj M^Ue
i icM c^a RZK @j^ Ke KjQ
""Kj\@~\ ic c^a Ga R^ cg Gj
Ke@^e @^e_ (GKM^) @YaK GKZZ j@
Ga ic^ _eeK ij~ c Ke, Z[_
ic^ Gje @^e_ (M^UG) @Y_ea ^j ''
(Ke@^, 17 : 88)
@^ GK i^e Gj PfK UKG ijR Ke Kj~AQ
cjc^ cj\ 121

""Ke@^ G_e M^ ^j ~ @fju aZZ GjK

Kj eP^ Ke_ea, ae Gj _a _KUZ
M^c^ue _ KeQ Ga \aM^e aZ aaeY
_\^ KeQ G[e KYi ij ^j ~ Gj
aje @]_Zu \e _KUZ
K'Y ic^ KjQ ~ GjK i (cj\)
^R fL \AQ ? Zc ic^u Kj\@
Zcc^ ~\ iZa\, Za Gje @^e_
MUG @d eP^ Ke @Y Ga @fju aZZ
~ju Az ij~ _A WK@Y ''
(Ke@^, 10 : 37-38)
iZak c cjc^ cj\u ae]c^ Kj[f
~, i ^R Ke@^ fL \AQ ZY Ke@^ cjc^
cj\u i]^ Ke ic^u Cge KjQ
""Ga (j cj\) Gj M^ @a ja_ae
Zc KYi ]cM^ _V Ke^[f K ^R WjY
jZe fL ^[f, ~\ Gj jA[@, Za
c[e_Kec^ ij Ke[@ ''
(Ke@^, 29 : 48)
Ke@^e i ~q C_i_^ KeQ ~, ~\ cj\
fL_X RY[@ a _ae KYi M^ _X[@, Za
jGZ i Ke@^ fL\A _e[@ af ij Keae
KQ ~[[Z [f K @^ KYi M^e ^Kf Ke[A_e
af Kjae KQ cf [f K i Z i ^ele [f
Zu\e Gbk CyKUe ijZ eP^ K_e ia ?
122 cjc^ cj\

cjc^ cj\ ^ele

cjc^ cj\ KYi _Vgke _X ^[f i
@le c gL ^ [f, ZY ^R ^ c fL_e ^[f
KYi _Z fLae jf i @^c^uVe fLA ^C[f
Ga Zk \LZ i^e ^R c\e [a MUG cje ce
\C[f @c PV fLf Zk ^ fL a \LZ Ke
~\ @`i@f PV jA[G, Za Zk \LZ eja ^jZ
cjc^ cj\ ec, Ae^, aje^, AR_, A[I_@
@\ \ge giKc^u ^KUK PV fLQ; K KYiUe
Zue \LZ ^j Gj Zu ^eleZe Rk _cY RY
aq eR-cjeRc^u ^KUK _Z fLa, @[P Zk ^R
^ fLa ^j, Gj GK @baK K[ _VKc^ue j\a]
ja_A ab^ cRdce ielZ Zue KZU _Ze
`UPZ ^ce \@~CQ

Mii^e eRu ^KUK fL[a _Z

cjc^ cj\ 123

AR_e giKu ^KUK fL[a _Z

cifc ^KUK fL[a _Z

cjc^ cj\u cje

124 cjc^ cj\

@eae RY giKu ^KUK fL[a _Z

i Ra^Kk ce cjc^ cj\ KQ fL[a a
_X[ae _cY AZjie ^j Cbd cifc I @Ycifc
HZjiK G ahde GKcZ [ci KfAf Kj
""@C MUG K[ @c bf~a CPZ ^j ~
a\kd gl Zue @\ ^[f ''(19)
""aMZe Gj \lZ ij cj\ RY ^ele
MCf fK [f Zu ~aKk fL_Xe Kk
\e _glZ jA^[f ''(20)

One other circumstance we must not forget that he had no
school learning of the thing we call school learning, none at all.
(Thomas Carlyle, Heroes and Hero Worship. P.72)
With these powers of eloquence, Mahomet was an illiterate
barbarian; his youth had never been instructed in the arts of reading
and writing. (Edward Gibbon, Life of Mahomet,1735, p.68)
cjc^ cj\ 125

R^ Wb^_U cjc^ cj\u gl ahde Kj

~, i @\ @le RY ^[f (21)
ceW[ U^i c fLQ ~, cjc^ cj\
^ele [f (22)
ij_e aiI[ i[ Ke@^K ^ele cj\ue GK
Pc}e af Kj
""^ele Ga fLa a _XaK i @ic[
[a i i Gbk MUG M^e _YZ, ~jK
GKKk^ GK Ka, GK a]^, i]eY _[^
M^ Ga GK aAaf, Ga @R GK hcg
c^a RMZ Gj M^UK gZ, gk, m^ I
iZe GK Pc}e e_ g I i^ _\g^
Ke Ga aae Gj GK Pc}e ''(23)
K KZK _Z fLK @e_ KeQ ~ cjc^
cj\ ^R Ke@^ fL \AQ RY ^ele aq \e
Ke@^ bk M^e eP^ ia K ?
John Davenport, An Apology for Mohammed and the Koran,
London, 1869, p.52.
That a man obscure in all but birth, brought up among an
unlettered race, with no learning and no material
resources(Meredith Townsend, Mahommed, The Great Arabian,
Boston & New York 1912, p.17)
Illiterate himself, scarcely able to read or write, he was
yet the author of a book which is a poem, a code of laws, a Book
of Common Prayer, and a Bible in one, and is reverenced to this
day by a sixth of the whole human race as a miracle of purity of
style, of wisdom, and of truth. It was the one miracle claimed by
Mohammed, his standing miracle he called it; and a miracle indeed
it is. (R.Bosworth Smith, Mohammed and Mohammedanism,
London, p.237)
126 cjc^ cj\

Ke@^ GK i]eY M^ ^j a Kak GK @ZK

\M\g^Ke M^ ^j Gj Kak _R-C_i^e a]
\A^j Gj cYhe ^ZK, _eaeK, icRK I @[K
iciMWKe @Z ie ic]^ \AQ c^a Ra^e _cL
_gMWKe Ce Gj M^ aj^ KeQ Bgeu _Z, cYh
_Z, RaRu _Z Ga _Z-cZ, bAa, _Z-_Z I
ij_Wgu _Z c^he Ka K'Y, Zj Gj M^ a^
KeQ PKe I aaid, aaj I az\, ~ I ge ^Z
c ^eY KeQ GjQW Ke@^e @^K HZjiK NUY
I am^K Z[c^ i^ _AQ Raam^, _Yam^,
Cn\am^, _\[ am^, ic\ am^ Ga cjKg am^
_eiebq @^K Z[ ejQ Ga age cj^ am^Kc^
Gj Z[MWKe iZZe _ KeQ, ~j @c _ea
@de @fP^ Kea Kak GZK ^j, Gj M^ aje
@^K eji iKe iP^ \AQ, M, ^K I cj_kd
iKe c @fP^ KeQ Gj aa] m^e GK ic\
~G Gj M^UK c^^ \A _XQ, i j\dwc
Ke_e[a ~ Gbk GK M^e eP^ _A KZ m^ @agK
KYi c^he m^e _eie GZ aZ ja ia ^j
@R i KYi aq GKKk^ GZMWG ahd C_e KYi
ickK M^ fL^j cjc^ cj\ fL_X RY[f
c Ke@^e eP^ Zu _le ia ^ [f ~Cc^
baQ ~, Ke@^ cjc^ cj\ue i, ic^ UKG
^\a CPZ ~, ~\ cjc^ cj\ ^R icde RY aW
glaZ jA[, Z[_ ^R m^ ake Ke@^e eP^
Zu _le ia ^[f Kak i GK ^j, icM
c^aRMZ cg c Ke@^ bk M^ eP^ KeaK ic[
ja ^j af Ke@^e Pf Ga c akae ejQ
cjc^ cj\ 127

@C KQ fKue @e_ jCQ ~ cjc^ cj\

L@^ I dj\c^u ]cM^e Ke@^K ^Kf Ke\AQ Gj
_Z @e_Kec^ i]eYZ L@^ Ga dj\ ]caf
~jZ ic^u M^e KZK gl ij Ke@^e ici ejQ,
ic^ baf ~ Ke@^ ic^u ]cM^e ^Kf Ke~AQ
Gj GK bf ]eY ^Kf Kea_A c fL_Xe m^ \eKe,
~jK cjc^ cj\ue ^[f GjQW K_ Kea _A aAaf
@ea bhe C_f [a \eKe K i icd _~ aAafe
@ea bhe @^a\ jA^[f aAafe _eZ^ ^dc a
Old Testamente @ea @^a\ cjc^ cj\ue 227ah
_e 900 Le _Z jf Ga ^Z^ ^dc a New
Testamente @ea @^a\ 1616 Le _Kg _Af Ga
Gj Ke@^ _KgZ jae GK jRe ah _e jf
eWIf Zue Ke@^e @^a\e Gj CfL KeQ
Ga L@^ cg^e [ci _UK jMi c Gj Z[ Zu
WK^ee \AQ (24)
Gj aZZ UiWf c cZ \@
""cj\u icde ^Z^ ^dce @ea @^a\
[ae KYi ihR^K _cY ^j ''(25)
It should be born in mind that we have no clear traces of
the existence of Arabic versions of the Old or New Testament
previous to the time of Mohammad The earliest Ar. Version of
the Old Testament of which we have any knowledge, is that of
R.Saadias Gaon, AD 900 and the Oldest Ar. Version of the New
Testament is that published by Erpenius in 1616. (J.M.Rodwell,
El-Koran, London, 1876, Preface p.xix and also in A Dictionary of
Islam, Thomas Patrick Hughes, London, 1885, p.516)
W.St.C. Tisdall, The Original Sources of the Koran, London
and New York, 1911, p.140.
128 cjc^ cj\

\Zd K[ jCQ ~, ~\ Ke@^K aAafe ^Kf

Ke~A[@, Za Cbd M^e ckK gle _[K ej
^j Gj GK RYgY K[ ~, \^K _*[e ^cR,
ecR^e GK ci C_ai, GK ^ _ecYe @^a~ \^
(RKZ) Ga Ra^e [e jR Kea cifc^c^u _A
Ke@^e ckK @\g K G[ce MUG jf
aAafe ^j _Y aAafe KC i^e Gj ^Kf jf ?
ij_e Ke@^e GcZ @^K gl ejQ, ~j aAafe
^Z^ a _eZ^ ^dce ^j C\jeY e_ c MW`
jM^iue cZcZ Ce KeQ jM^i fLQ
""cj\u ^dce ic _Kee R@Lk \X
bae ^h ejQ Gj ^dce `A\K Kj
@Ke Ke_ea ^j cj\u Zu ^ZKZe
ic cfe GA[_A a*Z Ke~CQ ~, i
K@W aAafe ia K_ Ke\AQ K c
aAafe _eZ^ ^dc K ~gLu ]caYe
KC V c Gj K K c ^ h jA[ a
\L^j.... ''(26)
jM^i _Y fLQ
""@ead @A^\Z Zu ^dce cifc^c^u
ij L@^ I dj\ cjkc^ue GK c~\_
aaje aai eLQ; K ic^u aaj ^ Ke
By the law of Mohamed, all games of chance were expressly
prohibited : the beneficial tendency of this law surely no one will
deny. He is refused all merit for his morality, because it is said that
he only copied it from the Bible. I have not observed the prohibition
of this vice either in the Decalogue or the gospels(Godfray Higgins,
An Apology for the Life And Character of the Celebrated Prophet of
Arabia called Mahomed or the Illustrious, London, p.35)
cjc^ cj\ 129

elZ e_ eLa ^h KeQ K'Y dj\ a

L]ce Gbk KYi _ee^a aai
@Q ?''(27)
Ke@^e aZ @^K HZjiK NUYe CfL c
aAafe ^j C\jeY e_ cjc^ ~gue MUG Pc}e
[f ~ i R^MjY Kea _e _e gg @aie fKc^u
ijZ K[a Ke[f Ga Gj c Zue @C MUG @fKK
K~ [f ~ i cUe _l Z@e Ke Bgeu ^ce ZK
Ra\^ \A \C[f (Ke@^, 3 : 49) cjc^ ~gue
Gj Pc}eZ ahd Ke@ ^ a^ Ke[a
ak aAafe Gje
KYi iuZ ^j Za aAafe K_e Gj ^Kf jf ?
ij_e Ke@^ I aAafe KZK ic^Z [fak
@^K ZK I Z[MZ ahc c ejQ C\jeY e_
cjc^ ~gu ahde aAaf Kj ~, dj\c^ Zu
Kga Ke jZ Kf; K Ke@^ a_eZ K[ KjQ ~
ic^ Zu jZ Ke^j K Kga Keae i`k c
jA^j ae Bge Zu igeee MK CVA^f ~\
Ke@^ aAafe ^Kf Ke~A[@, Za i[e Gbk
IfU K[ KjK ej ? cjc^ cj\ aAaf cZK ic[^
Ke ~gu cZ af KjK Ke Kf ^j ? ~jZ
Ke@^ Zu ^R eP^ ^[f, i[e KYi _ea^ Kea
_A i ic[ ^[f ZY aAafe Ke@^ ^Kf jAQ
af _Z fLKc^ue @e_ @ag GK @bickK
The Arabian lawgiver provides for the honourable marriage
of Jewish and Christian women with Mohamedans, but prohibits
them as concubines. Have either Jews or Christians ever thought of
making any reciprocal provision? (Ibid.p.35)
130 cjc^ cj\

Ke@^ I aAaf ce icie KeY

ac^ _g CV_e ~, Cbd M^e _Y @^K
ici K_e ejf ? ici Kak Ke@^ I aAafe
^j, Bgeue ia \aM^e eja baK aAaf I
Ke@^e GKgea\, _efKa\ ij @^K ^ZK gle
ici ejQ ij_e aje i, @\c I Abu i,
cjc^ ^ju icde a^, cjc^ ciu Pc}e, i^
aQe, cjc^ @dau ]~, iae eY afKi Ga d^iu
cQ Mbe cq, cjc^ Aajc, \C\, ifc^, dKa I
di` @\ Bge\Zc^u a^e c Cbd M^e ici
@c RYa CPZ ~ Bgeu \e c^h RZ MUG
j _eae ZY Ze cM\g^ _A i ab^ ~Me
\aM^c^ _VAQ, ~jK ab^ i^e, ab^ bhe
Ga ab^ Bge\Zu cce _KUZ jAQ ZY, age
ab^ i^e aiai Ke[f i c^h _A Bgeu ^eZ
^Z^dce ici eja baK ab^ ijee ej[a
_Zc^u a_ fL[a _ZMWKe ~\ ic^Z \L~G,
Za Gje @[ K'Y _@c^ _eeVe PVMWK ^Kf
Ke^AQ ?
Ke@^ @eae _KU jf ZY Gj ^ bae
ij M^MWK ahde @fP^ KeQ, ~j ijZ @eaai
bfe_ _ePZ [f Ga Kak ij Bge\Zc^ue
NUYak a^ KeQ ~Cc^u ic^ bfe_ RY[f
_a Bge\Zc^ue glMWK ic^u c^ _KA\a j
[f Ke@^e Cg
ia \aM^MWK ce ic^Z @Q af Ke@^
C_\g \A KjQ
cjc^ cj\ 131

""(ic^u) Kj, j M^]ec^ ! @i G_e

GK (^dPZ) K[ _Z ~j @c I Zc ce
ic^ bae ejQ ''
(Ke@^, 3 : 64)
GjaZZ _ZK i\d _A Bge\Z @iQ af
c^hK ieY KeA Ke@^ KjQ
""G_e KYi i\d ^j, ~j ^KUK KYi
iPZK @i^j ''
(Ke@^ 35 : 24)
K Ke@^ ia Bge\Zu ahde a^ Ke^j ~\
fl]K Bge\Zue ahde Gj a^ Ke[@, Za Kak
ic^u ^e j M^U _ jA~A[@
ZY Ke@^ I aAafe [a icie KeY Gj
^j ~ Ke@^K aAafe ^Kf Ke~AQ Gje _KZ
KeY jCQ ~ Cbdue i RY Ga Cbd ic^ iZe
@iQ ZY ac^e aAafe [a ~C \aaYMWK
ig]^ a _ea^ Ke~A^j, iMWK Ke@^ ij ck
LAae KYi aPZZ ^j
Ke@^e bahaY iZ jf
ec aRd : BgeaY c[ ja ia ^j
Ke@^ KZK bahaY Kf, ~jK _ea icde iZ
_cYZ jf C\jeY e_, 620 Le Gj M^ GK
_i HZjiK NUYe bahaY Ke icu @~PKZ
Ke\f NUYU jCQ Gj_e
ec I Ae^ ce _d ~ fM ej[f 615
Le ecdc^ Ae^ \e gP^d e_ _eRZ
jf ~e ece a_k ldlZ jf Ga @^K ecd
132 cjc^ cj\

_\c^u jZ Ke\@ Mf _ic ^ Z}k^ ec^ icRe

aj @g ~[ie@, _fA^, AR_, @ec^@ AZ\
\Lf Ke^f cifc^c^ ece ic[K [f; K
ic^ue cKai gZc^ Ae^K ic[^ Ke[f ~e
ece _eRd `ke cifc^c^ \LZ jf gZc^
ic^u Zf Kf ~, \L Zc ecd bAc^ KcZ
@c _i bAc^u \e jeMf Gj cifc^c^u a][f
~ `ke ec^ icR GZ \ak jA _W[f
~, @C Ka Z' _le Ae^ Rd Kea @ia fM[f
GcZ GK icde Ke@^ bahaY Kf
""ecdc^ ^ K Ua b L e _e
jA~AQ; K ic^ Gj _eRd _e KQ
ah ce _Y aRd ja _a Ga _e
c @fj j lcZgk Ga i\^ @fju ijdZ
_A cifc^c^ @Z @^Z ja @fj ~jK
_i Ke, ZK ij~ Ke Ga i _eKc
I KeYcd Gj @fjue @wKe; @fj ^R
@wKe bw Ke ^j; K @]Kg fK GK[
aS ^j ''
(Ke@^, 30 : 2-6)
Ke@^e Gj @_ZgZ NhY fKc^u @~
Ke\f K bahaY iZ jf Gje ^@ah ce
624Le _Y [e ec Ga Ae^ ce bdue ~
jf Ga ~e ec aRd jf Gj \L cifc^c^
La @^Z jA[f Gj NUYU ag AZjie GK _i
cjc^ cj\u iele aP^ : ij_e @C MUG
NUY jCQ cjc^ cj\u iel \ae bahaY cK
cjc^ cj\ 133

Ga c\^e gZc^ Zu jZ Keae ia _Ke _di

Ke[f ZY cjc^ cj\u Ra^ _Z ia\ a_\
fM ej[f GcZ @aie Ke@^ Zu i @bd _\^
Ke aP^ \f
""Ga @fj ZcK fKc^uVe @ag el
Kea ''
(Ke@^, 5 : 67)
iZe Ke@^e bahZaY iZ jf ~\I @^K
Bge\Zc^u jZ Ke~AQ; K cjc^ cj\u \aiel
ckf @^K ~lZe i C_iZ [f, ~e @jZ c
jf, Zu jZ Kea _A ^^_Ke ~R^ KeMf,
dj\c^ Zu ah c \f; K gZc^ue iKk P
i cjc^ cj\u Ra^ ielZ ejf
~\ Ke@^ cjc^ cj\ue ^R eP^ jA[@,
Za Pe@W gZc^ Ne ej[aak GcZ GK @ic^
NhY KeaK i iji Ke[@ K ?
Bge\Zu _Z @KU_ \aaY
cjc^ cj\u aqMZ Ra^ iKe _aZ Ke@^
GcZ KZK K[ a^ KeQ ~jK cjc^ cj\ ^R
Gje i jA[f, @\ i[e fL ^[@, aghKe
~\ i^ a _Z Zue fl [@ c KZU C\jeY
[e cjc^ cj\ Keg i\de KZK ^Zi^d
aqu ij Aifc ahde @fP^eZ [f Gj icde
@fj a^ C cKZc ^cK RY \j^ aq iVe _j*
Zu ]c id KQ _g _Pef K[a ce a]
C_Rae cjc^ cj\ @ih _Kg Kf Ga Zu cje
134 cjc^ cj\

aeqba _Kg _Af i ij @ aqu _Z ^ ^ \A

^Re K[a Re eLf ^R ]c\Zue Gbk @PeY Bgeu
_i jf^j ZZlYZ Zu @KU Ke ^c \aaY jf
""i (@[Z cjc^ cj\) bK*^ Ke cj
`eA^f, KeY Zu ^KUK RY @ @if
(j cj\) Zc K'Y RY, jGZ i i]e
~A[@ K C_\g MjY Ke ~G C_\g
_Z bl_ Ke^j, Z' _Z Z Zc ^ \CQ,
@[P i ^ i]ef Zce KQ \h ^j @C
~G Zc _LK \CW @i Ga (Bgeu _Z)
bd c eL, Z'@W Zc cj `eA ^CQ
G_e Kea CPZ ^j Gj Z GK jZ_\g,
~je Az i MjY Ke ''
(Ke@^, 80 : 1-12)
Ke@^e C_eq fL K'Y cjc^ cj\ue ?
fLe gke RY_WQ ~, Zu GK_Ke @KU Ke Kj~AQ
~ ~G Aze ]c ahde KQ RYaK @Mj, i RY
@Z i]eY fK jC_Q, Z' _Z _[c ^\a @agK
ZY GcZ @C Ke^j ~\ cjc^ cj\ ^R Ke@^e
fLK jA[@, Za i[e i ^R _Z Gbk @KU_
K[ KjK fL[ ? Gj Zue @Zi^ l Ke^j K ?
Azae \aaY
@^ GK NUY jCQ cjc^ cj\u KK @a
Zfaue, ~G K Zu La bf _C[f Ga @Vah adie
Zue fk^-_k^ Ke@i[f Kak GZK ^j, Keg
i\dVe _Zeu i \N \gah iel \A[f cjc^
cj\ c KKu be bf _C[f Ga _eaee @^
i\ic^u _e KK c Aifc MjY Ke^@ af i
cjc^ cj\ 135

Pj[ f KKu _A i Bgeu ^KUe _[^ c Ke[ f

K Ke@^ cjc^ cj\u Az aee NhY Ke
""(j cj\) Zc ~jK Pj, ZK iZcMe
^A_ea ^j, ae Bge ~jK Pja iZcMe
^a ''
(Ke@^, 28 : 56)
Ke@^e Gj NhY \e cjc^ cj\ @Z ccjZ
jf, KeY i RYMf ~ KK @a Zfa Aifc MjY
Kea ^j _KZe Ra^ [a _~ @a Zfa Aifc
MjY Kf^j Ke@^e C_eq aKU K'Y cjc^
cj\ ^R fL\f ? i Ke@^e fLK jA[f
Gbk K[ K\_ i[e fL ^ [@
@^ MUG NUY jCQ, d cjc^ cj\u ^R
_Zue c\^e @fj Aa^ CaA ^cK RY aq cjc^
cj\u ae e ab^ hW~ Ke@i[f
Zu i^K ]ki Z
Ke\a Cg ^A i [e Zu _Z jReZ @Bgu
^e KeU^ Kf KQ Lk_KZe fKu ij cg i
GK c[ MRa Pe@W _Pe Kf KZK cifc^ c
G[e @gMjY Ke[f ^R _Zu ahde @_a\ cjc^
cj\u _A @Z K\dK [f i \Le bw_Wf
_Z @Bg c Gj \ ^ c ~M ciKk g~gd
jA_Wf Gj NUY cjc^ cj\u i^ I icRK
_ZK ~[ l Kf i K'Y Kea RY_ef ^j
@aghe jReZ @Bg ~ i ^h Ga \c^ Gj
@_a\e i af NhY Ke Ke@^e ^c \aaY _KU
136 cjc^ cj\

""~Cc^ Gj MeZe @_a\ MXQ, ic^

Zcc^u ce [a MUG M Zcc^
GjK ^R _A @^Ke aPe Ke^j, ae Gj
Zcc^u _A cwkKe ic^u ce _ZK
aq Gj @_a\R^Z __e ~j @R^ KeQ, Ze
`k bMa Ga ~G ^R C_e Gje Mebe
MjY KeQ, ZK KV^ g cka ''
(Ke@^, 24 : 11)
i]eYZ Gbk ]eYe @_a\ \e cYhe icRK
_Z Mbeba l jG ^R _Z ahde aReNUe
@fP^ jC, Gj Z' QZe Ze cef _e fM
KYi aq Pj ^ ~ Z' _eaee GcZ GK @_a\R^Z
NUY fL @Kee iai]eYu _Xa_A _Kg _C Ga
fK ZK ~M ~M ]e _Z\^ _X[@ ^R @ZRa^e
c Kj @Z^ Kea _i Kea ^j Ke@^ M^UK
_Z\^ KU KU fK _X K'Y cjc^ cj\ @Z^
Kea _A Ke@^ fLf ?
~Cc^ Kj ~, cjc^ cj\ ^R Ke@^e
ePdZ, ic^ UKG P Kea CPZ ~ i ^R Ke@^
fL[f Zu _Zu ahde NU[a GcZ GK NUYK K'Y
Ke@^ bk M^e i^ \A[@ ? G[e KYi ij
^j ~ C_eq aKMWK Zu Az aee Ke@^e
i^ _AQ Ga Gj _cYZ KeQ ~ Ke@^ cjc^
cj\u ^R eP^ ^j
cjc^ cj\ 137

_*c @d

Ke@^e am^K Pc}eZ

iZ ia ~Me iZ \aaY ia icde ^Re
iZZ _Z_\^ Ke[G GjK ijZK, ZK, ^ZK,
a]^K a am^K ~KYi \e _el Kf c Gj
_ZK \KYe iZ _cYZ ja ac^ @]^K am^e
~ M ZY a m ^ K \ KYe c K e @ ^K _el
am^ jCQ KYi NUYe _KZK Z[K RYa_A
@^i^e GK @d^ lZ, ~CV @Z Cyc^e _el ^el
\e KYi NUYe _KZK iZiZ ^d Ke~G
@^K fK Kj ~, "]c' @C "am^' Cbd _[K
_[K lZ ZY ]cK am^ ij ~Wa CPZ ^j ic^u
]eY VK ^j ]c jCQ c^h _A iu \e ^eZ
^dc ~je i iiee _KZK ^dc @^ie MX~AQ
\aM^e i ie @^K Z[ \@~A[G, ~je iZiZ
am^ \e _el Ke~A_e cZ ~jZ am^e _eie
c icZ, Gj \aM^MWKe [a _ZK ahdK @^i^
Ke RY_ea ^j BgeZ, _^Ra^Z, M I ^K, \a\Z,
@fKKZ @\ ]ce @^K ahd am^e _eiebq ^j
am^ GZ C^Z Ke^j a Gia RYa _A G_~ KYi
~_Z Cna^ jA^j K \aM^e ~C ahdMWK am^e
_eie ce ejQ, iMWK @ag am^iZ ja CPZ
~\ \aM^e aZ Gj Z[MWK @]^K am^ \e _cYZ
KYi iZe _e_^ jG, Za Zj ajaY ^j, ae
138 cjc^ cj\

"c^aaY' C\jeY e_ ~\ KYi \aM^e CfL [G

~ _[a ie ejQ Ga i~ Z' Pe_U afQ, Za GK[
iZ ^j af am^ _cYZ KeieQ ZY Gbk c[
\aM^e @g jA^_e ZY ]cK _el Keae @ag
am^ ij~ Ke ~\ @c am^K ]ce i @fM Ke\a
Za @^K c[K @cK ]c af c^aK ja _LZ
am^K @faU @A^A^ Kj[ f"Science without religion
is lame and religion without science is blind." @[Z, ]c a^
am^ QU Ga am^ a^ ]c @ K ~\ Kj Kj ~
]ce ia ZMWK am^ \e _cYZ ja \eKe, Za i
^d bf Kea C\jeYe_ ~\ i M a ^Ke am^K
_cY LR, Za Gj ia ^j KeY GMWK GK @\g
RMZe @g ~jK am^e _eiebq ^j GMWK ^ \L
\aaY ake agi Kea j ]c
iZe Gje iek C_d jCQ ~ M^U Kje,
Kak GZK @^i^ Ke~C Ze _ZK aYe eji
b\ Kea c^h _le ia ^j _iK_i^U Wqeue
K ^j, Zj _el Kea ijR, K i[e fL~A[a
_ZK K[K _el Kea ijR ^j KYi @\g^cU
eRue K ^j, Zj @ag _el Ke~A_e ~\ Gj
eRue @\g af _cYZ jA~G, Za @\g^ce
[a _ZK @\g a C_\gK _[K _[K _el Keae
@agKZ ^j Gj ia c ^j
Ke@^, ~jK cifc^c^ ajaY af agi Ke,
GK Pc}e M^ ic gZe Gj M^Ue Gbk Z[c^
ejQ, ~j Ga ^KUe am^ @ae KeQ ic gZe
KYi aq _le Gbk ^bf am^K Z[ \a @\
ia_e ^j ^ce c KZU C\jeY _Z KeQ
cjc^ cj\ 139

aje C_
^lZ_e i _ae icM aj GK ]@ bk Mid
_ (Nabula) [f Gj GK _i am^K cZ _e Gj
Mid _U `U~A GK aeU aeY jA[f ~jK
Bigbang K j ~G Gj a eY `ke ^lZ _
(Galaxies)MWKe i jf Ga Gj ^lZ_MWKe i~,
P, Mj, ^lZMWKe i

aje C_ ahde Gj am^e GK i\Zc @ae

K GK[ PC\gj ah _a Ke@^ ge KjQ
""Z'_e i (Bge) @Kg _Z ^ \f ~j
iZak ]@ (_e) [f ''
(Ke@^, 41 : 11)
i~, P, Mj, Ze Ga ^lZ_ @\ ic Gj
Mid_e i jAQ, ~jK Ke@^ "]@' af KjQ
iaMWK cg _[c MUG i [f Ga Bge iMWK
@fM @fM Ke\f af a^ Ke Ke@^ KjQ
140 cjc^ cj\

""K'Y @agi Ke[a fKc^ fl Ke ^j

~, Cbd @Kg I _[a _ee i~q jA
(MUG i e_) ej[f; _Y @ iMWK
_[K Ke\f ?''
(Ke@^, 21 : 30)
_ `ie @f ` W K ^e Rc ^e [ a c
aga\kde aLZ bZam^ i Ke@^e [a Gj
aidKe Z[ ahde cZ\A KjQ
""~C _eage cj\ @iQ... c baQ Gj
i @ia ~ aje MUG C [abk
ahde i RY[a KeY am^Kc^ aMZ
KQah _a @Z RUk Ga C^Z ~K Kgk
_dM Ke Gj NUY iKe RYQ
PC\gj ah Zke RY fK ~G ^Kde
_\[am^ ahde KQ RY^j, c cZe Z'
c^e _[a I @Kge GK C a iA ]eYe
@^K _g ahde ~j @c GVe @fP^
Kf, RYaK ic[ ja^j ''(1)
Thinking where Muhammad came from... I think it is almost
impossible that he could have known about things like the common
origin of the universe, because scientists have only found out within
the last few years with very complicated and advanced technological
methods that this is the case.Somebody who did not know
something about nuclear physics 1400 years ago could not, I think,
be in a position to find out from his own mind for instance that the
earth and the heavens had the same origin, or many others of the
questions that we have discussed here.. (Prof. Alfred Kroner,
Chairman, Department of Geosciences, University of Mainz,
Germany) [Video clips of the scientists can be watched at the website]
cjc^ cj\ 141

@~e K[ jCQ ~, ic gZe c^aRMZ G

ahde i @m [f _Y cjc^ cj\ KC iZe Gj
RYf ?
_[a MfKe
_a agi Ke~C[f ~ _[a icZk K am^
\e @c RYf ~ _[a Mf @ag Gj i MfKe
^j, ae KQU @KZe 1597cije ie `^i WK
Gj _cY Kf, _[a icZk ^j, ae MfKe ic
gZe _ee Ke@^ Gje iP^ \A KjQ
""Zc^ K'Y fl Ke^j ~ @fj eZK
\^ ce Ga \^K eZ ce _ag Ke ?''
(Ke@^, 31 : 29)

\^ a eZ jVZ jA~G ^j eZ ]e ]e
\^e Ga \^ ]e ]e eZe _ea^ jG _[a
MfKe jf j G_e ia ~\ _[a icZk jA[,
142 cjc^ cj\

Za \^ I eZe _ea^ GKae jVZ jA~@

@C iKk a i \LaK ck ^j Ke@^ @^ GK
i^e GjK Ke KjQ
""i @Kgck I _[aK iZe ijZ i
KeQ i eZK \^ C_e Ga \^K eZ
C_e MWA \@ ''
(Ke@^, 39 : 5)

_[a ^R @l Pe_U 24N<e [e Ne[G Gj

Nea\e i~@WK cj Ke[a @*kMWKe \^ I _Q
Ke[a @*ke eZ jG eZ \^ \e a \^ eZ \e
MWA ja Kak _[a MfKe [f j ia
1600 gZe @aZ Gbk am^K Z[ iKe
ic gZe ~C M^ iP^ \CQ Zj c^aeP^ jA_e
K ?
cjc^ cj\ 143

cjKge Kl_[
cjKge @iL Kl_[ (Orbit) [a K[ _a
c^aRMZK RY ^[f MjMWK ^R ^R Kl_[e af[a
Ga am^ @ae KeQ K Ke@^ cjKge @^K
Kl_[ [ae Lae PC\gj ah _a \AQ
""@^K _[ag @Kge eY ''
(Ke@^, 51 : 7)
144 cjc^ cj\

MjMWK Kl_[e afQ

_a Gj agi Ke~C[f ~, _[a ie Ga i~
_[a Pe_U afQ am^ Ga @ae Kf ~ Kak
^j, i~ , P I ic MjMWK
^R ^Re @l Pe_U
afa ij ^Re Kl_[e c aPeY KeQ aje _d
200 ZeK_ (Galaxies) [a K[ am^ KjQ _ZK
ZeK_e _d 200KU ^lZ @Q Ga ic ^R
^Re ^eZ Kl_[e afQ cjKg ahde Gj am^K
Z[e Lae Ke@^ ic gZe \A KjQ
""i~e i ^j ~ i PK ~A ]e _KAa
K eZ \^K @ZKc Ke~a Ga ic (^R
^Re) ^ Kle bcY KeQ ''
(Ke@^, 36 : 40)
cjc^ cj\ 145

@^ GK i^e KjQ
""Ga i eZ I \^ Ga i~ I PK i
KeQ ic (Mj^lZ) ^R ^Re ^ Kle
biQ ''
(Ke@^, 21 : 33)
cjc^ cj\u bk RY ^ele aqu _le
cjKge [a Kl_[ Ga Mj ^lZMWKe MZa] iKe
iVK e_ RYa @\aY a^ ia K ?
i @Kgck
_[a_ C_e @Kge iZU e [a @]^K am^e
GK i\Zc @ae am^Kc^ Kj ~, bck C_e
MUMU Ke iZU e ejQ (2) iMWK jf
Scientists have found that the atmosphere consists of
several layers. The layers differ in such physical properties
as pressure and the types of gasses. The layer of the
atmosphere closest to Earth is called the TROPOSPHERE.
It contains about 90% of the total mass of the atmosphere.
The layer above the troposphere is called the
STRATOSPHERE. The OZONE LAYER is the part of the
stratosphere where absorption of ultraviolet rays occurs. The
layer above the stratosphere is called the MESOSPHERE.
The THERMOSPHERE lies above the mesosphere. The
ionized gases form a layer within the thermosphere called
the IONOSPHERE. The outermost part of Earths
atmosphere extends from about 480 km out to 960 km. This
part is called the EXOSPHERE. (Carolyn Sheets, Robert
Gardner, Samuel F. Howe; General Science, Allyn and
Bacon Inc. Newton, Massachusetts, 1985, p. 319-322,
referred to by Harun Yahya in Miracles of the Quran,
Canada, 2000, p.29)
146 cjc^ cj\

(1) U_i`d
e (Troposphere), (2) i Ui`d
e (Strato-
sphere), (3) IR^de (Ozonesphere), (4) cii`de
(Mesosphere), (5) [ci`d e (Thermosphere), (6) @AI^i-
`de (Ionosphere), (7) GKRi`de (Exosphere)

U_i`de jCQ adcke iaVe ^cbM Gj

b_e _d 13e 15K.c. C_eK a_ ejQ GjVe
ae` I cN i jG Gj e b_e C_eK ~C[a
aK N^bZ Ke _Y ah e_e _[aK `eA\G
Gje C_e IR^ e ejQ ~jK iUi`dee GK
@gagh Gj e b_e _d 13e 40KfcUe De
@aiZ Gj cjg^e @i[a @^K lZKeK egMWK
@ae] Ke _Y cjg^K _VA\G RaRMZ _A @agK
jC[a fbKe KeY IR^e \e QY jA b_K
@i Gj C_e @^ eMWK ejQ
cjc^ cj\ 147

_aZ Ke@^ iZU @Kgck ej[a ahde a^
Ke KjQ
""i j Zcc^u (jZ) _A _[ae [a ic
_\[ i Kf Z'_e i @Kg _Z ^
\f Ga iZU @Kg VK e_ ^cY Kf
Ga i ia ahd RY ''
(Ke@^, 2 : 29)
@^ GK i^e a^ Ke~AQ
""@fj iA, ~G i @Kg i KeQ Ga
_[aK c Z'e iL^~d MXQ ic^u
ce Zue @\g @a jC[G, ~_eK
Zc^ RYa ~ @fj _ZK a C_e
lcZgk Ga @fj _ZK aK ^R m^\e
Ne eLQ ''
(Ke@^, 65 : 12)
148 cjc^ cj\

@Kg GK iel _\^Ke QZ

Nee QZ @cK Le ah @\e iel \G; K @Kg
~ iel \G Gj cYh RY ^[f Gj iZK am^ ag
gZe @ae Kf ~ b_e C_ei aZaeYe GK
iiwVZ iel aai K~ KeQ ~j _[aK @^K a_\e
el KeQ Ke@^ @KgK GK "iel _\^Ke QZ' af
""Ga @ @KgK GK ielZ QZ e_ ^cY
Ke@Q Z[_ ic^ Gj ^\g^MWK _Z acL
jCQ ''
(Ke@^, 21 : 32)
1400 ah _a ~Cc^ Ke@^e @Kg\e iel
\aK[ _X[a ic^ Gje @[ KQ aS_e ^[a KeY
@Kg @c _[aK K_e iel _\^ Ke Zj Kak ag
gZe am^K @ae am^ @cK Gj aKUe cc
bfe_ aSA\AQ
_[cZ Cn\MWKe `Ui^[ii _Kd _A @agK
jC[a @fU bAIfU eg i~ Ve IR^e \e QYjA
b_K @i IR^e Cn\ I RaRMZ _Z lZKeK
KeYK b_K @iaK \G^j, ae GjK a]\A _Y
C_eK _VA\G
\ZdZ, cjKge @iL ajKe gkL (Meteors)
a CfK biQ ~Cc^u ce iNh c jG Gj
`ke iMWK _[ae cKhY gq\e @KhZ jA
\ZMZe _[a @WK @i, ~jK @c _[a_A @Z
a_{^K K Gj gkLMWK _[ae _j*a _ae
adcke NhY\e ^ jA~@ ~\ b_ C_e
cjc^ cj\ 149

ad c k ^[@, Za Gj a g kKd Cf K LM W K
_[a_e _W
ZZdZ, C_ei adck i~ Ve @i[a C_K ^dY
Ke b_K QW ~\ _[aK Gj adck e NejA
ej ^[@, Za i~e ZR KeY iaKQ _W _Cg
ZY @Kg @c _[a _A GK iel KaP _e K~
KeQ, ~jK Ke@ ^ "iel _\^Ke QZ' e_ a^ KeQ


IR^ e 1913 Le `ei am^K Charles

Fabry Ga Henri Buissonu \e @aZ jf (IK_W@)
_gCVQ ~, GK[ cjc^ cj\ ic gZe K_e
RYf ? Gj Kak i j Kj_ea ZY Ke@^
cjc^ cj\u \e fL~AQ af Kja GK caW
bf ^j K ?
150 cjc^ cj\

_jWMWK b_ C_e Kk
bZa\c^ Kj ~ _[ae ai _d 3750
cAf Gje C_ee ~C[e cYh aiai Ke, KV^
gkcd, ~j 6K.c.e 70K.c. _~ Mbe GjK Crust
Kj~G Gje ^c eMWK K @Z C Zek fb
C_ee _Zk jA[ae _[a jfae ia^ [G _jW
_aZMWK _[a_K ie eL GMWKe ck cAf cAf
MbeK ~AQ Ga b_e Lf a Kk _e K~ KeQ,
~j`ke _[a jfPf ^ jA ie ej _aZgwk
(Mountain ranges)MWKe _i 10-100K.c. Ga \N
1000K.c. _~ a_[G
bZe GK _V_K "Earth" age @^K aga \ kde
_X~G Gje \ARY fLKu ce RY jCQ `u
_i ~G aeah @ceK iA^ GKWce @l ej[f
Ga @ceKe _aZ ^ e_Z Rc KUeu
am^K _ecg\Z
[f Gj _Ke _jWe Pe b_ bZeK Mbe _~
f[ae KjQ i cZ \@ ~, b_e C_ebMK ie
eLae _jWMWK cL bcK MjY Ke (3)
^c PZMWK GjK aSae ij~ Kea

(Earth, Press and Siever, P.-413)

Earth", Press and Siever, p. 453.
cjc^ cj\ 151

(Anatomy of the Earth, Cailleux, P.-220)

(Earth Science, Tarbuck and Lutgens, P.-158)

Ke@^ c^hK Gj Z[e Lae\A KjQ

""K'Y @ b_K GK (icZk) g~ e_
MX^j Ga _aZMWK Kk e_ (_Z^j) ?''
(Ke@^, 78 : 6-7)
_jWMWK ~ ZkK @^K cAf MbeK ~AQ, Gj
1865 cije Royal Siv George Airyu \e @aZ jf
Ke@^ KjQ ~, _[aK ie eLa _jWMWKe
""Ga @ b_e i\X _aZc^ i_Z Ke@Q
~_eK Gj ic^u ^A jf ^~G ''
(Ke@^, 21 : 31)
152 cjc^ cj\

PC\gj ah _a _jW _aZMWKe K~ iKe

cjc^ cj\ KC iZe RYf ?
ic\ Mbe @\g @ed
am^e GK ^Z^ @ae jCQ ~, \AU
ic\ _ee ij cg; K ic^u cga i^e MUG
_ZaK @Q Gj _ZaK ~M Cbd ic\ ^R ^Re
C_, iZ I faYZ aRd eL (4) _ee ce cg~ a
i ic^ue MY a\k ^j C\jeY e_, bc iMee
Rk Ch I faYq Ga Gje iZ 36% [aak @Uf<K
cjiMee ChZ I faYZ @]K Ga Gje iZ 36.5%
~Zak bc iMed Rk Ra fUe c\A @Uf<K
cjiMee _ag Ke, Zj ^Re ChZ, iZ I faYZ
ij @Uf<Ke gj gj KfcUe \e _~ Pf~G
~\I Cbd ic\ _ee i cg~A[a \L~@
Ga icRZd _ZZ j@, Z[_ MUG @\g _ZaK
\ju RkK ic\ bZe cgaK \G^j

_aZ Ke@^ ic\ ce [a Gj @\g _ZaK K[

a^ Ke KjQ
Davis, Richard A., Jr. 1972, Principles of Oceanography, Don
Mills, Ontario, Addison-Wesley Publishing, p. 92-93.
cjc^ cj\ 153

""i \AU ic\K G_e ba _ajZ KeQ

~, ic^ _ee ij cg~@, (K) ic^u
cSe MUG _Za K ejQ ~jK ic^ Cfx^
Ke ^j ''
(Ke@^, 55 : 19-20)
Gj Z[ Rke C_, iZ I faYZ @\ c_a_A
C^Zc^e ~_Ze Cna^ _e @ae jf ^jf
Cbd ic\e ck^ ike ic^u ce KYi _Ke _[K
@Q af @LK \L~G ^j
Gj Z[K ag ic\am^ Ga @ceKe KfeW
aga\kde bZam^e @_K WKe CAfdc j (Dr.
William Hey) c ic[^ KeQ
Mbe ic\ @Kecd
_aZ Ke@ ^ Mbe ic\ ce [a N^ @Ke iKe
iP^ \A KjQ
""@[a (@agiKec^u @ai) Mbe ic\e N^
@Ke _e, ~CV Zew C_e Zew icz^,
C_e cNck, MUG _e @C MUG N^
@Ke (e), RY fK jZ aXAf (^R)
ZjK \L_ea ^j, KeY @fj ~jK @fK
_\^ ^ Ke, Z' _A KYi @fK ^j ''
(Ke@^, 24 : 40)
Mbe ic\e 200cUe Zk @Ke [G i~ fKe
[a iZMU ew ce @]Kg ew _d 200cUe ce
af^ jA~G ic\e 10e 15cUe MbeZ ce [a
Rk @fKe ^f ew gh^G 30e 50cUe Zk
Kck ew, 50e 100cUe ce jk\@ ew, 100e
154 cjc^ cj\

200cUe ce iaR Ga 200cUe _e ^kew af^

jA~G Gj_e MUK _e MUG KcMZ bae iZU
ew 1000cUe ce i af^ jA~G ZY ic\e
1000cUe Zk i @e [G (5)

Kw @f @RR aga\kd, Re ceA^ RIfRe

@_K \R eIu Ke@^e [a C_eq iP^ iKe
cZcZ \a_A @^e] Ke~A[f _`ie eI Ce
""GK[ K^ Kea KKe ~, _d 1400ah
_a G ]eYe m^e @Z [f KZK ahde
ic^ue i]eY ]eY [A_e, K iMWK
ahde iagh a^ Kea @Z KKe ZY
^Z bae Gj KYi cYhe m^ ^j RY
i]eY cYh Gj NUYMWK GcZ _v^_v bae
Oceans, Elder and Pernetta, p. 27.
cjc^ cj\ 155

a^ Ke^_e ZY c baQ Gj Z[ ^Z
bae GK @fKK iZe @iQ ''(6)
Ra I RWRMZe ~Mk i
_aZ Ke@^ Kj
""_ec _aZ ij i, ~G ic ae ~W
i KeQ, (Zj) _[a C_^ Ke[a a jC,
ic^ ^R j@, Ga @^^ _\[ jC ~jK
ic^ RY^j ''
(Ke@^, 36 : 36)
Ke@^ @^ie ie _ZK iRa I ^Ra ~W
~W jA i jAQ cYh, _g_l, Cn\, KU_Zw
icu ce @e I cB @Q a\Zgqe ~jK ic
gZe @aZ jA^[f, ^MUb I _RUb Cbd PR
ejQ ie _ZK _\[ G_eK _ZK @Ye c Cbd
AfK^ I _U^ ejQ aUg am^K Paul Dirac _\[
(Matter) ~Mkba i jAQ af @ae Ke[f Ga
1933e i ^af _ee _A[f
Gbk GK am^K Z[ ie ^bf Z[ \a ic
gZe KYi am^K _le c ia ^[f ZY Ke@^
~ \a iZe @iQ, G[e ij ^j
It is difficult to imagine that this type of knowledge was existing
at that time, around 1400 years back. May be some of the things they
have simple idea about, but to describe those things in great detail is
very difficult. So this is definitely not simple human knowledge. A
normal human being cannot explain this phenomenon in that much
detail. So, I thought the information must have come from a
supernatural source. (Prof. Durja Rao, Department of Marine
Geology, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia)
156 cjc^ cj\

i^e fw_A _eh \d

@]Kg \Z ^R _A K^i^ Zk^e _Zi^
_i Ke @^K ike K^i^UG R^ jf ggc^
ajK KUK[ Kj, iZ~cZ K^i^ _A aj \d
K Ke@^ Ga am^ Cbd Kj, i^e fw _ehe
gK Kh ^ eY Ke Ga e WYe G[e KYi ^d ZK
bcK ^[G
_ehe gKYe 'XY' KcRc Ga e WYe
'XX' KcRc [G, 'X' KcRce K^ I 'Y' KcRce
_Z ]eY Keae lcZ [G
e \AU~K KcRc 'XX' [aak _ehe Cbd
KcRc b^ b^ @[Z 'X' Ga 'Y' [G Ga _ehe
KcRce _ee ij ck^ jf i^ i jG ~\ e
WYe [a 'X' KcRce _eh gK Ye [a 'X' KcRc
ij ck^ jf Za K^i^ jG Ga ~\ Gje _ehe
'Y' KcRc ij ck^ jf Za _Zi^ jG @[Z
i^e fw _eh gKYe [a KcRc C_e ^be Ke,
KeY Z' KcRce _Z I K^ Cbd ]eY Keae
ic[ [G Gj iZe iP^ \A Ke@^ Kj
""Ga i j ~Mk e_ cB I @e i KeQ
^l Ke~C[a MUG a a~e ~Zak
Gj ^l jG ''
(Ke@^, 53 : 45-46)
Ke@^ GVe ^l Ke~A[a a~ K[ KjQ, ~j
Kak _eh \e j jG
Gj gK @C MUG K[e iP^ \CQ ~, _Z a
K^ cZMbe ^l jA[a ic gKe ^j, ae Gje
cjc^ cj\ 157

MUG @ge RZ jG, ~jK Ke@^ U_G gK af

ijaie _d 250 ^dZ gKY _eh \e ^MZ
jG K Wgd _~ _d 1000 gKKU _j*aK ic[
j@ aKZK aUe ce~@ Gc^u ce [a cZ
MUG gKKU \e c^abY MVZ jG Ke@^ @^ GK
i^e c U_G gK K[ KjQ
""K'Y cYh baQ ~ ZK GcZ @ugaj^
ba QW \@~a ? K'Y i (cZMbe) ^l
jA[ a MU G a~ a ^[ f ? _ Y i
eq_e _eYZ jf, Gj_e (@fj) ZK
MXf Ga _ada Kf ''
(Ke@^, 75 : 36-38)
U_Pj _ePd_Z
_ ZK aq e U _ P j Z \ A RYue U _ P j
Kajf cg^j G_eK \AU ~@k _fue U_Pj
c _ee ij ck LG^j Gj iue GK aidKe i
~, cYhe _ePd Z' @wV U_ ce eL\@~AQ Gj
KeYe cYhe U_Pj ie age GK ^be~M _ePd_Ze
bcK MjY KeQ @]^K aeKW aai ijZ Gje
Zk^ Ke~A_e

U_Pj cce _ePd RYae

am^K _Z 1880 cije ie
`^i MfUu MahY _e _PkZ
jf K _aZ Ke@^ PC\gj ah
_ae Gje iP^ \A KjQ
158 cjc^ cj\

""K'Y cYh c^KeQ ~ @ Z' jWMWK

GKZ Ke_ea ^j ? ^, ^ ! @ Z Z'
@wVMWK c @aKk MX\aK ic[ ''
(Ke@^, 75 : 3-4)
@fj di` @f \Zd aKUK GAbk @^a\
KeQ"Nay, we are able to put together in perfect order the
very tips of his fingers."
Kc`k bM Kea_A Bgeu @c aPe\^ cYh
_^RaZ ja K ^Kc^ Kj[f ~, jWci cUe
cgMf _e cYh _Y K_e _^RaZ ja Ga ZK K_e
PjU Ke~A_ea ? Gje Cee Ke@^ C_eq K[
KjQ @[Z jWciK ~W\a KC aWK[, Zcc^ue
U_Pj [a @wkMWK c _abk _^i_Z Ke \@~a
Zcc^u _^ae i Kea Ga VK VK PjU Kea iu
_le La ijR

Ke@^ iKe ag am^Kc^ue cZcZ

Ke@^e [a KZU Z[ iKe @c @fP^
Kf KYi NUYe am^K @aee @^K gj ah _ae
G ahde Ke@^ ^bf e_ a^ Kea @~e K[
^j K ? ~Cc^ cjc^ cj\u Ke@^e ePdZ af
@e_ KeQ, ic^ aPe Kea CPZ ~ cjc^ cj\
^ele [f Gj Z[MWK ahde 1400ah _a ^bf
Lae\a KYi cjam^K _le c ia_e ^[f
age cj^ am^Kc^u Ke@^e aZ Gj Z[MWK
@~PKZ KeQ Ga ic^ Ke@^ c^a eP^ ^j
af Ke KeQ [Afe idwcd aga\kde
cjc^ cj\ 159

@^Uc abMe @l _`ie ZRZZ ZRi^ ed\Ve

@^Z @c cWKf K^b^i^e Ke@^e am^K
Pc}eZ \e _baZ jA Aifc MjY Kf K^b^i^e
C\a]^ \A i Kj[f
""aMZ Z^ah ce c Ke@^ _Z @Mj jf
c @d^e Ga ~j c Gj ik^ cce
RYf, ce ag i ~ PC\gj ah _a Ke@ ^e
CfLZ jA[a _ZK K[ @ag iZ ~jK
am^K C_de _cYZ Ke~A_ea ~jZ
cj\ fL_X RY^[f, cj\ @ag RY
aaj ~G iu \e Zu _Z m^fK e_
_KUZ jA[a Gj iZK _ieZ Kf Gj
i @ag Bge a @fj ZY c baQ
"fAfj@fju aZZ Kj C_i ^j Ga
cj\ eiffjcj\ @fju aaj' Kjae
Gj _K icd
Gj i^K @i c ~C @cf aU _Af, Zj
jCQ "fAfj Affj cj\e eiffj' @[Z
cifc^ jf ''(7)
In the last three years, I became interested in the Quran...
From my studies and what I have learned throughout this conference,
I believe that everything that has been recorded in the Quran fourteen
hundred years ago must be the truth, that can be proved by the
scientific means.
Since the Prophet Muhammad could neither read nor write,
Muhammad must be a messenger who relayed this truth which was
revealed to him as an enlightenment by the one who is eligible
Creator. This Creator must be God, or Allah. Therefore, I think this
is the time to say La ilaha illa Allah, there is no god to worship
160 cjc^ cj\

ij_e 1981e ic cWKf K^`e^e K^We

Ue< aga\kde RaZaZ _`ie K[ ce Kjf
""c^ae aKg _Kd iKe Ke@^e [a
aqaMWKe _KeYe ijdZ Kea c _A
@Z @^e ahd c _Z Gj jA~AQ
~ Gj aqaMWK ^d Bge a @fju ^KUe
cj\u _LK @iQ, KeY _d iaMWKe m^
_ea @^K gZ _~ @aZ jA^[f
Gj _cYZ Ke ~, cj\ ^d Bge a
@fjue RY aaj ''(8)
R_^e cjKgam^ W di\ Ki^ Kj
""Ke@^e RZam^ id ^bf Z[MWK
\L c @Zgd _baZ jAQ Ga @c RY ~
@]^K RZam^c^ aje @Z l\ @g

except Allah (God), Muhammad Rasool Allah, Muhammad is

Messenger of Allah.
The most precious thing of all that I have gained by coming to
this place (Conference) is La ilaha illa Allah, Muhammed-ur-Rasul-
Allah and to have become Muslim. (Prof.Tejatat Tejasen, Chairman,
Department of Anatomy and former Dean of the faculty of Medicine,
University of Chiang Mai, Thailand )
It has been a great pleasure for me to help clarify statements
in the Quran about human development. It is clear to me that these
statements must have come to Muhammad from God, or Allah,
because almost all of this knowledge was not discovered until many
centuries later. This proves to me that Muhammad must have been a
messenger of God, or Allah. (Prof. L.Keith Moore, Professor
Emeritus, Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, University of
cjc^ cj\ 161

C_e @d^ Ke@iQ @c _PK @c

@Z l\bM ce KbZ KeQ, KeY \ealY
~ \e @c i aj ahde K^ ^Ke
Kak Gje @Kge KQ @gK \L_eQ
ZY c baQ Ke@^e @d^ \e Ga Gj
_gMWKe Ce \a\e c bahZe aj
ahde @^i^ Kea_A _[ _A_ea ''(9)
ic\am^ _`ie CAfdc j Kj
""GA ]eYe iP^ Ke@^ bk _P^ M^e
ej[a cZ be KZjkR^K fMQ Ga GMWK
iVK K_e @if Gj RYae c _Le KYi
aU ^j K c baQ Gj @Zgd KZjkR^K
~, iMWK i[e @Q Ga Gbk K~ Ke@ ^e
@^K gKe @[ @ae Kea ''
Ke@^e ePdZ KG af _g Ke~ae _`ie j
Ce \f
""c baQ Gj ^d Hged i ''(10)
I say, I am very much impressed by finding true astronomical
facts in Quran, and for us the modern astronomers have been
studying very small piece of the universe. We concentrated our efforts
for understanding of very small part. Because by using telescopes,
we can see only very few parts of the sky without thinking about the
whole universe. So by reading Quran and by answering to the
questions, I think I can find my future way for investigation of the
universe. (Dr. Yoshihide Kusan, Director of the National
Astronomical Observatory, Tokyo, Japan)
I find it very interesting that this sort of information is in the
ancient scriptures of the Holy Quran, and I have no way of knowing
162 cjc^ cj\

K^We c^Ua aga\kde am^K U.b.G^.

_ei\ Kj
""ce c^jG ~ cj\ RY @Z i]eY
aq [f, ~G _X a fL _e^[f Ga
_KZe ^ele [f
@c 1400ah _aK[e @fP^ KeQ @_Y
\LQ ~, RY ^ele aq am^ id
Z[MWK ahde @~R^K e_ @Z ^bf
c ^R RY_e ^j ~ Gj Kak @KiK
bae K_e ia (KeY) ajZ ^bf Z[ ejQ
Ga WKe ceu _e ce G[e iZ jae
KYi @i a ] ^j ~ Zue (c j \ue)
aqaMWK \a_eY a \aaY ake
\@~AQ ''(11)

where they would have come from. But I think it is extremely

interesting that they are there and this work is going on to discover
it, the meaning of some of the passages.
And when he was asked about the source of the Quran, he
replied, Well, I would think it must be the divine being. (William
Hay, Professor of Oceanogprahy, University of Colorado, Boulder,
Colorado, USA.)
It seems to me that Muhammad was a very ordinary man, he
couldnt read, didnt know how to write, in fact he was an illiterate.
Were talking about 1400 years ago, you have some illiterate
person making profound statements that are amazingly accurate, of
a scientific nature...
cjc^ cj\ 163

cei aKGu Ke@^ C_e MahY

WKe cei aKG _ei aga\kde `* GKWc
@` cWi^e RY ib Ke@^e [a MUG aK _X
i @~ jAMf Gj aKUe cgee RY \ePe
giKe gaK ielZ eLae _ZgZ ejQ
""K @R @ Z geeK Ce Kea ~e
Gj Ze _ea fKc^u _A GK gle
_ Z K jAej a Ga @] K g fK @
^\g^MWK _Z (@\) ^ \C^j ''
(Ke@^, 10 : 92)
`e (Pharaoh) ^cK Gj @ZPe giK ahde
Cbd Ke@^ I aAafe a^ Ke~AQ i _Rc^u
_Z @K[^d @ZPe Ke[f Ga Bge\Z cjc^ ciu
]ea _A ~a icde ic\e aW _Y jeA[f Ke@^
Kjf ~, aW~A[a i Z' ga ielZ eja ij
`ee ga ac^ KGe cRdce edf cc jfe
ielZ ejQ W aKG ~jZ RY Ld^ [f, aAafe
Gj NUY ahde _X[f i @~ jf ~, Ke@^
Bge\Z cjc^ ciu Kke RY giKe ga ahde
Gbk K[ K_e Kj_e ? ZY i ^R ~A KGe
cRdce [a `ee gaK _el Kf Ke@^e iZZ

I personally cant see how this could be mere chance, there

are too many accuracies and like Dr. Moore, I have no difficulty in
my mind reconciling that this is a divine inspiration or revelation
which lead him to these statements. (Prof. T.V.N.Persaud, Professor
of Anatomy, and Professor of Paediatrics and Child Health, University
of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada) [Video clips of the
scientists can be watched at the website]
164 cjc^ cj\

\e i Gbk _baZ jf ~ _Pgah adie i

@ea bh gL Ke@^e i @d^ Kf Z'_e i
Aifc C_e MahY Ke 1976e ^Re _i _K
"The Bible, The Quran and Science" fLf Gj _Ke
W aKG Ke@^ I aAaf C_e ab^ \Me aghKe
am^K \KYe Zk^ZK @fP^ KeQ Ga ^R
_Ke i Gj _cYZ KeQ ~ Ke@^ i am^iZ
Ga G[e KYi am^K ZU ^j WKe aKG Kj
""_[c ce Aifce agi ^[f c i
Lf c^e Ga i ^e_l ba (Ke@^e)
fLMWK _el Kea @e Kf ''
""Ke@ ^K _Xa Ga Gje icfP^ckK @d^
_A \eKe jC[a ab^ bhMWK ij~e
Gje _ZU aKK aghY Kea ce _[c fl
[f ''
""aAafe aW ]eYe ZU ej[aak c
Ke@^e MUG jf ZU LR_Af ^j
UKG ej c ^RK _Pef~\ RY cYh
Ke@^e i jG, Za K_e i ic gZe
Gbk Z[MWK fL[a ~jK @Re @]^K
am^\e i ic[Z ?
cj\u Ke@^e fLK af c^ Ke[a
fKc^ue @^c^ ~[[ ^j af C_eq
_~alY _cYZ KeQ RY ^ele aq K_e
icM @ea ijZ RMZe ijZK cfa]
bK GK cj^ M^ fL\A_ea ? K_e i
am^K _KZe KYi iZe NhY Ke_ea,
cjc^ cj\ 165

~jK i icde KYi cYh \e RYa

ia ^[f Ga Zj c ahdae [e jf
ic^ ZU ^ Ke ?''(12)
Ke@^e [a ~C am^K Z[MWK iKe @c
@fP^ Kf, iMWK ^bf bae RYa ic gZe
KYi cYh _le ia ^[f Gj e_ _cYZ
Ke ~, _aZ Ke@^ cjc^ cj\u ^R i ^j,
Gj BgeaY

In the beginning I had no faith whatsoever in Islam. I began
this examination of the texts with a completely open mind and a total
My first goal was to read the Quran and to make a sentence-
by-sentence analysis of it with the help of various commentaries
essential to critical study..
Whereas monumental errors are to be found in the Bible, I
could not find a single error in the Quran. I had to stop and ask
myself : if a man was the author of the Quran, how could he have
written facts in the Seventh century A.D that today are shown to be
in keeping with modern scientific knowledge ?...
The above observation makes the hypothesis advanced by
those who see Muhammad as the author of the Quran quite
untenable. How could a man, from being illiterate, become the most
important author, in terms of literary merit, in the whole of Arabic
literature? How could he then pronounce truths of a scientific nature
that no other human being could possibly have developed at the time,
and all this without once making the slightest error in his
pronouncements on the subject ? ( Dr. Maurice Bucaille, The Bible,
the Quran and Science, Idara Isha'at-e-Diniyat, New Delhi, 2002,
166 cjc^ cj\

h @d

cjc^ cj\ue bahaY

Bgeue cjc^ _Z^]MY ^R _ePde ~C _cY
\@, iMWK ce bahaY @^Zc ic^ @ZZ I
bahZe NUYak iKe ^bf Z[ \@ KYi MY^
a RZha\ \e ^j, ae ic^ d Bgeue
_aq jA[ae Zue \e @\ jA Kj ZY
ic^ue ba h ZaY c [ ja ia ^ j @^
Bge\Zc^u _e cjc^ cj\ c @^K NUY ahde
Kj[ae AZjie CfL @Q, ~jK _ea icde iZ
_cYZ jA[f GVe @c KZU _i NUYak
C_e @fP^ Kea

^Re I ^R S@ue cZ
Ra^e @c icde cjc^ cj\ bhY bae
@ii jf Gj @iiZ ak i ^Re I ^R S@ jReZ
`Zcu cZ ahde bahaY Ke[f cjc^ ]c\Zu
_Z jReZ @Ag (e.@.) Kjcjc^ Bge\Z eMg~e
S@ jReZ `Zcu WKA Zu K^e M bae KQ
Kjf, ~j gY `Zc KaK fMf ZY cjc^
]c\Z _Y[e Zu K^e KQ Kjf G[e jReZ `Zc
jif jReZ @Ag Kj ~, c `Zcu Gje KeY
_Pef `Zc Ce \f, ""cjc^ Bge\Z _[c[e
Zu K^e Kjf ~, i Gj eMe cZaeY Kea
~j gY c KaK fMf Gj \L _Y i c K^e
cjc^ cj\ 167

Kjf ~, Zu cZ_e Zu _eaee ia_[c c \jZM

Ke Zu ij bU ja ZY c jif ''(1)
Gj bahaY iZ jf KQ\^ _e cjc^ cj\
\jZM Kf Ga Gje _d Q'ci _e Zu S@ jReZ
`Zc^u cZ jf
^Re a ^R i^e cZ ahde Gbk ^bf
i]eY cYh _le ia ^j

~e ^jZ jaK [a gZ
cKe c\^ i^e jae ahK _e cKe gZ_lu
ij cjc^ cj\ue _[c ~ jA[f Gj ~ a\e
^cK GK i^e jA[f Ga G[e cZ 313RY
cifc^u \e 1000 ig cKai gP^d ba _e
jA[f Gj ~ ja _ae cjc^ cj\ gZ_le
KZK i^u cZ ahde bahaY Ke[f i Kak
~e ^jZ jaK [a gZe ^ Kj^[f, ae KC aq
KC RMe ^jZ jA _Wa MU MU Ke ~ RMMWK
\LA\A[f Ga ~e @aKk ij i^c^ue ij
fKc^ ^jZ jA[f (2)

A[I_@ eRu cZ
A[I_@e RY eR "^Ri' _[c Ld^ [f
Ga _e Aifc MjY Ke[f "^Ri' Zue C_]
[f Zue cZ jAMf i\e @`Ke cZaeY Ke[a
Gj giKu cZ\^ j cjc^ cj\ c\^e ^R i[c^u
ij aLe, 4[ L, j\i 820
ij cifc, 3d L, j\i i. 1779
168 cjc^ cj\

Zu cZe Lae \f Ga Zu @Ze i\MZ ^c

icaZ _[^ Kf ~jK @eae "R^R' Kj (3)
Ae^ I ec aRd
Ae^e giKu "Li' Ga ece giKu "iRe'
Kj~C[f Gj \AU \g iZak \AU cjgq [f
cjc^ cj\u Ze]^e @^K ah _e Gj \A \g
cifc^c^u @]^K @i[f K ^R Ra^Kke cjc^
cj\ cifc^c^u \e @ea, ec Ga _i@ (Ae^)
aRde bahaY Ke[f (4)
GjaZZ i Gj c bahaY Ke[f ~, Li
_eRZ ja_e @C Kj "Li' ja^j Ga "iRe'e
c _Z^ ja Ga Z'_e ece Kj iRe ja^j (5)
_KZe Zu K[ iZ jf Ae^ I ec icRe
_Z^ NUf Ga Gj_eVe KYi giK Li a iRe C_]
]eY Ke^j Gj aZZ cjc^ cj\ AR_ aRd(6)
Ga ied I AeK aRd iKe c bahaY Ke[f (7)
~j _e iZ _cYZ jA[f
CIg Ke^u c\^ @Mc^
dc^ e CI g Ke^ ^cK RY ]c ^ aq
bahZe c\^ @ia af ^R i[c^u cjc^ cj\
Kj[f i Zue _ePd \A Kj[f ~, Gj aqRYue
ij aLe, 2d L, j\i 337, 406, 412
ij cifc, 4[ L, j\i i. 2900
ij aLe, 4[ L, j\i 815, 816; ij cifc,
4[L, j\i i. 2917
ij cifc, 4[ L, j\i i. 2543
ij cifc, 3d L, j\i i. 1388
cjc^ cj\ 169

]kQC [f, ~j _d bf jA~AQ; K Gj MUG c\

@Kee ej~AQ ij aqRYK @Z cZbq Ga ^R
c@ue La ia Ke i GZ ]c_Y ~, ~\ i
Bgeu ^c ^A KYi K[ Kj, Za ABge Zu K[
c[ jaK \a^j (8)
Gj NUY cjc^ cj\u @^K ah _e jReZ
Cceu gi^ Kke iZ _cYZ jA[f
jReZ Cce I Cic^
[e Cj\ _jW C_e jReZ @aaKe, Cic^ I
Cceu ij [a icde cjc^ cj\ bahaY Ke[f
~ jReZ Cce Ga jReZ Cic^ gj\ ja, @[Z
Zu gZc^ jZ Kea (9) Cbd jReZ Cic^ Ga
Cce Lf` [a icde gZc^u \e ^jZ jf
^Z jReZ ji^
[e cjc^ cj\ ^R ^Z jReZ ji^u ahde
bahaY Ke Kj[f ~, Zu\e \AU cifc^ M
ce aScY ja (10) _KZe jReZ @fu _e Zu _Z
jReZ ji^ _d 6ci Lf` [f Ga \A M ce GK
bdue ~K GWA \a_A i jReZ @ce c@Idu ij i
Ke[ f
Lf`Z Kke @a]
Lf`Z @[ Bge\Zue _Z^
] Z Aifce Lf`c^ue
gi^Kk 30ah ja af cjc^ cj\ Kj[f (11)
ij cifc, 4[ L, j\i i. 2542
ij aLe, 5c L, j\i i. 46
ij aLe, 4[ L, j\i i. 823
@a \C\, j\i i. 40 : 4629
170 cjc^ cj\

Gj iZ jf cjc^ cj\u _e jReZ @aaKe

2ah, Z'_e jReZ Cce 10ah, jReZ Cic^ 12ah,
Ga jReZ @f 6ah gi^ Ke[f
cZ ~e ]e aaeY
cjc^ cj\ aiee giKu ^KUK RY \Zu jZe
MUG PV _VA[f K \Z aie _j*a _ae cZ
^cK GK i^e ec icUu \e ^~q iVe giK cjc^
cj\u \Zu Me` Ke Zu jZ Ke\f Gbk @^de
Lae gYa_e cjc^ cj\ 3000 i^ ijZ jReZ
R\ a^ jeiu i^_Z ^~q Ke CZ ecd _giKu
CPZ gl \a_A _VAf cZ ^cK i^e 3000
cifc^ue _d GKfl ecd i^u ij NcNU ~ jf
iV cZe ~ Pf[aak GV c\^e cjc^
cj\ \aaY ake ~e aaeY _\^ Ke[f i
fKc^u GKZZ Ke Kjf ~, jReZ R\ _ZK ]e
~ _ePk^ Kf Ga i gj\ jAMf, Z'_e jReZ
R`e ^ZZ ^f, i c gj\ jAMf, Z'_e
@fj a^ eIj ~e ^ZZ ^f Ga i c gj\
jAMf Gj Kjfak cjc^ cj\ue @L QkQk
jA CV[f Z'_e i Kjf ~, ghe jReZ Lf\
a^ If\ ~e ^ZZ ^f Ga aRd jf (12)
iZak ~e `k`ke Lae c\^e _j* ^[f
Gj bahZaYMWK c _cYZ KeQ ~, cjc^
cj\ Bgeue @\_eh [f

ij aLe, 2d L, j\i 338; 5c L, j\i 561,
102; 4[ L, j\i 298, 824
cjc^ cj\ 171

ic @d

cjc^ cj\ _KZ e RY

Gj cj^ aqu iKe _a @dMWKe ag\ bae
@c @fP^ Kf Ga ab^ \Me Zue \aK _el c
Kf Gj\e @c ~j RYf Ze ie cc jCQ ~
 i RY ^eU iZa\ aq [f
 Zu PeZ @Z CyKUe [f
 aaje @Z c]e [f
 icR Zu RY iyU I agi^d aq e_
MjY Ke[f
 i RY a\^, ^d_d I _e_Ke aq [f
 i @Z iek Ra^ ~_^ Ke[f
 Zue ]^-ie cj a _Z I _Z_e
Cybkh ^[f
 AZjie ia]K _bagk aq e_ i c^Z
fb KeQ
 i Ke@^e i ^j ae Gje cc
 i @^K @fKK K~ KeQ
 Zue bahZaYMWK iZ _cYZ jAQ
172 cjc^ cj\

 _ae @i[a
ic ]cM^
Z[ ia Bge\Zc^ue
i ic[^ KeQ
 i KYi ^Z^ ]c _Z Ke ^j, ae _a
\a]ce _^i_^ KeQ Ga i[e _g @i[a
Kiie I @agiMWK \e KeQ
 @^c^u \C[a C_\gMWK i ^R c
_k^ KeQ
 i Kajf ^RK Bge af Kj ^j, ae
ia\ Bgeue RY _Z^ ] af _ePd \AQ
Bge\Zc^ue ~C ag [G, i iaMWK cjc^
cj\ue ejQ ZY Zu i_le ~[ _cY _Aa _e
Zu K[K @ag i Keae KYi KeY ^j KYi aPegk
aq Zu Bgeue _Z^] e_ iKe KeaK \]a] Kea
^j Gj KeYe age gj iZa^ KUe D ^e^e Zu
Bgeue _Z^] e_ MjY KeQ
_Z @e_MWK
cjc^ cj\u _Z _ZeY a _a*^e @e_
@ij _Z fLKc^ue iu c^bae _ePd \G
j^ Cg i]^ _A de_d fLKc^u \e G_Ke
KeU^ Ke~AQ af @^K HZjiK I a\^ cZaq
KeQ KeU^ GZ _ecYe KeMf ~ "Z^ Ze
Qk KKe' _e GK _aZ ]c a\^c jAMf K
aPegk aqc^u Gj ZkcZ _baZ Ke_e ^j
@^K _i HZjiK I a\^ cjc^ cj\u _Z
Ke~A[a c[e_MWKe \Xee L^ Kf @i,
ic^u cje gYa
cjc^ cj\ 173

[ci KfAf c[e_MWK L^ Ke Kj

""cj\u ahde @ce ac^e K^ ~ i
RY PKKe _a*K, RY ^Kf @aZe [f
@C Zue ]c GK Pec ^a]Z Ga cL a\e
PK bk [f, Ga fKc^u _A MjY~M
^j Gj aqRYKe Pe_U M\ Ke~A[a
Wj cQMWK @c_A Kak @_c^ aZZ @C
KQ ^j ''(1)
""Gj _a*^e _eK^ @c _A _e_e @MjYd,
@ij Ga i e_ _ZL^ ~M ''(2)
""RYcZ fK @C ie ag agi KeMf !
RY fK icu aee ? MUG Zeae
]e i ]c _Pe Kf af Kj\f Zue
KQ ja^j ''(3)
""(Kj~CQ ~) RY ^Kf cYh MUG ]c
_Z Ke\f ? KjK ? RY ^Kf c ~\
THOMAS CARLYLE, Heros and Hero Worship : Our
current hypothesis about Mahomet, that he was a scheming impostor,
a Falsehood incarnate, that his religion is a mere mass of quackery
and fatuity, begins really to be now untenable to any one. The lies,
which well-meaning zeal has heaped round this man, are disgraceful
to ourselves only. (p.61)
We will leave it altogether, this impostor hypothesis, as not
credible; not very tolerable even, worthy chiefly of dismissal by us.
(Ibid. p.77)
One man alone of the whole world believes it; there is one
man against all men. That he take a sword, and try to propagate with
that, will do little for him..(Ibid.p.84)
174 cjc^ cj\

af, cU I ic< @\e MY]c a bMc_ ^

RYQ, Za AUe NeUG MX_ea ^j i
MUG cU _ j Z@e Kea ~j 180 ^dZ
fKu i^ \a_A aegj ah Z _ea ^j
Gj bw _Wa ''(4)
MW ` jM^u aPegk ^@e i GK ^diwZ
~qaX Kj
""cj\ue PeZ @Kk^ Kfak Zu RY
gV, K_U, c[a\, Lk^dK I RY ^Zj^
aq af baae @ce @]Ke ^j ae i
RY iKUi [f af ]e^aK ja
~Zak c Zu _Z jA[a Gj @e_MWK
ahde gY, iw iw c Zue i]eY aaje
I PeZe @gd ^G, ~je i Zu @\ I c
Ra^e @]Ke [f af Cbd _l Ke Ke
c \L Zj i ^LY _Y c GjK GK Qk^
af K _ e a g i Ke ^a ? cZ c^ a K
Kj~CQ ~, _Pg ah adie Pkg ah adi
_~ cj\ Gj ^UK Kf _Y 25ah adi
_ae Zu Ra^ [f i\Pee GK g Ga Zue
i]Z ia_Ke ije De [f ''(5)
A false man found a religion? Why, a false man cannot build
a brick house ! If he do not know and follow truely the properties of
mortar, burnt clay and what else he works in, it is no house that he
makes, but a rubbish-heap. It will not stand for twelve centuries, to
lodge a hundred-and-eighty millions; it will fall straight-
GODFRAY HIGGINS, An Apology For The Life And Character
Of The Celebrated Prophet Of Arabia : In estimating the character
cjc^ cj\ 175

AifcK @~[e @_c^Z Ke~CQ af cZ\A i

""@Z fRR^K @agi ~M iZ I _aZ
AifcK @_c^Z Ke~CQ ''(6)
CAfdc c<Mce IU Kj
""CMWK Z^ Z^ Ke _el Kf jA~G
~, cj\ue ~C K~Kk_MWK @]^K
RMZ \e MjYd jf^j, iMWK Zue
icKk^ fKc^u icfP^e fl ^[f
_eYc bde @agi_ _l_ZZ ~M ic^
Zue KZK K~Kk_K icfP^ Ke[f
cj\u ae]e MUG i]eY @b~M jCQ
~, i RY _a*K [f ~G ^Re Cybkh
I ai^e _eZ _A MUG ]ce _Pe Kf,
~jK i ^R bf af RY[f Gbk
^j^Z ~j iKe @c (_-17e) @fP^
of Mohamed, we have no more right to assume that he was a most
consummate rogue, hypocrite, liar, and villain, totally destitute of all
principle, than we have to assume that he was a Socrates. And when
I hear him accused of being the former, I immediately have recourse
to the general character and conduct which both parties agree he
maintained in the early and middle part of his life. I find this to have
been irreproachable. Then am I to believe at once that this was
mere hypocrisy? Fourteen or fifteen years together, I am told to
believe, that he carried this farce onfrom twenty-five years old to
forty. That until he was twenty-five years of age his life was that of
meritorious industry: his integrity unsuspected. (pp.25-26)
The religion of purity and truth, the foundation of Mohamedism,
is yet disgraced by the most degrading superstitions.(Ibid.p.43)
176 cjc^ cj\

Kf, Aifc ]ce _MZK i \a Ke\CQ

@RVe gjah Zk [ci KfAf "ae'c^u
ahde ^R bhYe Gj K[UK @Z \X bae
C_i_^ Ke[f Ga iaVe a\^ck \e
Gj @]K MjYd jae fMQ cj\ I Zu
cg^ _Z @M] agi j Gj Ke\G ~,
cKe K I ^~Z^ ija _A i Kbk i\
_Z [f ~Zak ]c^e_lZ \KYe
c i`kZe KYi @g ^[f, iyUZ a^
K_e i @aaKe Ga Cceu bk iyU I \X
PeZe cYhc^ue bq I @^MZ Rd Ke_e
[@ ? Bgea\c^u _A @C MUG _g
jCQ ~, Bge K_e Aifc _e GK cj^
]cK c[ I _a*^ @]ee @MMZ Kea _A
@^cZ \f ? ZY cj\ iyU af Kjae
\X @]e ejQ ~\a Zu\e KYi \hZU
jA~AQ, Za Zue Gj bf zKZ c[
a _a*^ ~M jA^j
cj\u icde \KYe \Lf Zu _Z
jA[a _ZeY I Ad_edYZe @b~M @\
MjYd jA^_e Zue icicdK fKc^
ZuVe KYi _Ke ^ZK ZU \L^j
@^ _le _Z fLKc^u\e KZK
K~ Kk_e icfP^e _ c Y Z j G ~,
cj\ue ^ZK c^ Zu icde fKc^u
@_l CyZe [f Zu icde I Zu _Xe
i [f RY icR ieK Ga ^ZKZ lZe
ieK c i MUG ^Z^ icRK ^e_
aai I MUG ^Z^ _eaeK X* MV^ Kf
cjc^ cj\ 177

Ga \AU~K aai _a_PkZ _eeVe Xe

C^Z [f ~~aec^ue iac ^ZKZK
^A @^K RZe fKc^u _A i MUG
@]e MXf Gbk K~ RY _ZeK a
Adiq aq Ke^j
G_~ cj\u iKe HZjiK \KYe
@fP^ KeMf Z[_ MUG ag]ce _ZZ
e_ i GK ZK aPe @agK Ke
C\jeY e_, Acf a^e Zue (cj\ue)
Bge\Ze \aK aPe Ke cZ \@ ~, ~\I
\aaYe _KZ Z[ @^ie Gj ~q~q c^
jC^j, K Ke Ke ~ ~\ cj\ @eae
RY _K-Ld^ ]c\Z jA[@, Za
Bgeue _KUZ m^ _A _[ _Z Ke[a
]c\Zc^u ZfKe Zu a\ \a GZ ijR
jA ^ [@ ''(7)
WILLIAM MONTGOMERY WATT, Prophet and Statesman,
London : "When the sources are closely scrutinized, it is clear that
those of Muhammads actions which are disapproved by the modern
West were not the object of the moral criticism of his contemporaries.
They criticized some of his acts, but their motives were superstitious
prejudice or fear of the consequences. (p.233)
One of the common allegations against Muhammad is that he
was an impostor, who to satisfy his ambition and his lust propagated
religious teachings which he himself knew to be false. Such insincerity,
it was argued above (p.17), makes the development of the Islamic
religion incomprehensible This point was first vigorously made over
a hundred years ago by Thomas Carlyle in his lectures on Heroes,
and it has since been increasingly accepted by scholars. Only a
profound belief in himself and his mission explains Mohammads
178 cjc^ cj\

@[e M^ fI^W Aifce ]c\Zu iKe Kj

""ZY KfAf \X ca \AQRY ^Kf
fK MUG ]c _Z Ke\f KjK RY
^Kf c AUe NeUG c MX_ea ^j c
_ae KjQ ~ cj\ ^Kf a c[a\ ^j ''
readiness to endure hardship and persecution during the Meccan
period when from a secular point of view there was no prospect of
success. Without sincerity how could he have won the allegiance
and even devotion of men of strong and upright character like Abu-
Bakr and Umar ? For the theist there is the further question how
God could have allowed a great religion like Islam to develop on a
basis of lies and deceit. There is thus a strong case for holding that
Muhammad was sincere. If in some respect he was mistaken, his
mistakes were not due to deliberate lying and imposture. (p.232)
From the standpoint of Muhammads time, then, the allegations
of treachery and sensuality cannot be maintained. His contemporaries
did not find him morally defective in any way. On the contrary, some
of the acts criticized by the modern Westerner show that
Muhammads standards were higher than those of his time. In his
day and generation he was a social reformer, even a reformer in the
sphere of morals. He created a new system of social security and a
new family structure, both of which were a vast improvement on
what went before. By taking what was best in the morality of the
nomad and adapting it for settled communities, he established a religious
and social framework for the life of many races of men. That is not
the work of a traitor or an old lecher. (p.234)
So far Muhammad has been described from the point of view
of the historian. Yet as the founder of a world-religion he also demands
a theological judgement. Emil Brunner, for example, considers his
claim to be a prophet, holds that it * does not seem to be in any way
justified by the actual content of the revelations , but admits that,
had Mohammed been a pre-Christian prophet of Arabia, it would not
be easy to exclude him from the ranks of the messengers who
cjc^ cj\ 179

""@ea \^@e @aZeY Ke[a Aifc KYi

c[ a @_KZK @aMe ^j, ae Mbe
^_eZ I @eKZ ij Cbd @ZK I aa\
\KYe ^Re \XZ _cYZ KeieQ, ~j
ac^e `k`k Kj Gj Kjf ~[ ja
~, MUG ]c_^ ~je @^Mcc^ue iL
250,000,000e @]K a c^aRMZe gZKW
15bM (@]K jA_e) Kak GK ii I ZR
aRe j C_^ jA_e Ga Gj aRU c^aK
ica\^ Z[ @g I @gi^e fw \e
_Z_kZ jA Ra ejQ ''(8)
R^ Wb^_U ^R _Ke cLae KjQ
""cj\u AZjiK c[ @_a\ I @^\e
@b~MMWKe cq Kea _A Z[ c^aRZe

prepared the way for the revelation (Revelation and Reason,,translated

by Olive Wyon, London, 1947, pp.230) (pp.237-238)
Spiritual Value : So Carlyle pithily observes: A false man found a
religion ? Why a false man cannot build a brick house ! I have
already shown that Mohammed was not false. (pp.31-32)
Launched upon the world of Arabia in no false and unreal
spirit, but with the spirit of grim sincerity and earnestness, Islam has
proved its stability spiritually and materially, the present result of which
speaks for itself. It is enough to say that a creed whose followers
now number over 250,000,000, or some 15 per cent, of the human
race (an under rather than an over-estimate), could have sprung from
a healthy and vigorous seed only a seed that has been nourished and
kept alive by the vital spark of human sympathies, hopes and
aspirations. (p.32)
180 cjc^ cj\

RY @Z cj^ jZKe e_ Zue \ae ~[[Z

_Z_\^ Kea _A Gj _K jCQ GK a^c
@eK_ C\c ~C fLKc^ ^Re @
@aMe aga jA GK Bgeu C_i^e
_^i_Ku ^ku Qa _Z @KcY KeQ,
ic^ ~ Bge gLA[a a\^Ze baaM
\e @\ _baZ jA^j, Zj ^j, ic^
CPZ ^d Keae c bf KeQ ''(9)
HZjiK ^f f^_f cjc^ cj\u aee
Ke~A[a @b~MMWK \Xba L^ KeQ
""de_d Ra^ fLKc^u \e cj\u
Ra^e @]Kg NUYakK aKZ Ke~AQ Ga
j^ Cg i]^ _A Zu_ Z c [ e_
Ke~AQ ''(10)
cjc^ cj\u _Z ^dZe @e_ aee ~q
C_i_^ Ke i Kj
JOHN DAVENPORT, An apology for Mohammed and the Koran
: The present work is an humble but earnest endeavour to free the
history of Mohammed from false accusations and illiberal imputations,
and to vindicate his just claim to be regarded as one of the greatest
benefactors of mankind. The writers who, misguided by a blind zeal,
have thus assailed the fair fame of the Restorer of the Worship of
the UNITY, have not only shown themselves to be wholly
uninfluenced by the spirit of that charity so strongly and emphatically
inculcated by the Saviour himself, but have also erred in judgement
STANLEY LANE-POOLE, Studies in a Mosque : Many
of the events of Mohammads life have been distorted and credited
with ignoble motives by European biographers; (p.76)
cjc^ cj\ 181

""Zu _Z ^dZ, Ad_edYZ I ^j^Ze

@e_ Ke~AQ Ga Zu RY eq_ _ i ,
zPe, aki I _a*K Kj~AQ ^dZe
@e_ _d aPe~M ^j c dj\c^ue
\ K[ KjieQ, ~j @b~Me bbc _Z
Ke a\e ~ _e ~ac^u _Z cj\u
aaje @c \La CPZ @c \La CPZ
c\^e gZc^u _Z Zue ]~ I ij^gkZ,
fKc^u _Z Zue b\PZ aaje, QU_f
I cK _g_lu _Z Zue ij Ga ia_e a^
eq_Ze Zue cKe _ag Ga \La CPZ
~ cKe ~C gZc^ \N 18ah Kk Zu
^^_Ke f^ I ^~Z^ \A@i[f Ga Zu
ijZ ~ Ke[f, ic^u K_e i i eRlc
\A\f G K[MWK _cYZ KeQ ~ cj\u
bae ^dZe KYi Pja ^[f ''(11)
cjc^ c j \u _ Z a k i I A d _edYZe
@b~MK L^ Ke f^_f Kj
He has been accused of cruelty, sensuality, and insincerity;
he has been called a bloodthirsty tyrant, a voluptuary, and an impostor.
The charge of cruelty scarcely deserves consideration. I have already
spoken of the punishment of the Jews, which forms the ground of
the accusation. One has but to refer to Mohammads conduct to the
prisoners after the battle of Bedr, to his patient tolerance towards his
enemies at Medina, his gentleness to his people, his love of children
and the dumb creation, and above all, his bloodless entry into Mekka,
and the complete amnesty he gave to those who had been his bitter
enemies during eighteen years of insult and persecution and finally
open war, to show that cruelty was no part of Mohammads nature.
182 cjc^ cj\

""cj\ aki [f Kja bf Ra^e gh

icd _~ ^R \^^ Ra^e i bM[a
\LK, gAa _A Zue UY _Ue aQY, Zue
cU aMW L\, Aze PKe _e Zue
QU QU NeKc, ia} ge Zu RY
"aki' ^j, ae RY "aeM i^i' _cYZ
Ke ''(12)
cjc^ cj\u _Z Ne @aPe jAQ af
@b~M Ke i KjQ
""^Z bae cj\u PeZ _Z Ne @aPe
Ke~AQ ''(13)
HZjiK Gc.G^. ed GK b^ ~q C_i_^ KeQ
G[e ij ^j ~, @c beZdc^ue ]cd aScY I
ijZ ie age @Zk^d ]c ahde ic^ue _i
b^ b^ [f i ic MUG _eae bk aiai Ke
ic^ @^e ]cagiK icfP^ Ke Z' ba^K @NZ
Ke ^j cifc^c^ Z @\ Ke ^j KYi
cifc^ cjc^ ~g, ci, gK, ecP, a\a, cjae
a Me ^^Ku _Z KYi @i^iPK g Kj[a gY~G
^j Aifce GjK ^h Ke~AQ @c \ge @Ycifc
bAbCYc^ @^ \g Zk^e ~[ @]K C\e I
But to say that Mohammad was a voluptuary is false. The
simple austerity of his daily life, to the very last, his hard mat for
sleeping on, his plain food, his self-imposed menial work, point him
out as an ascetic rather than a voluptuary in most senses of the word
Surely the character of Mohammad has been
cjc^ cj\ 183

ij^gk cjc^ cj\u PeZ ije Ke[a fLKc^

_d ic _Z \ge ic^ Zu RY _a*K af
_Pe Kea ijZ Zu_Z @i^R^K g c _dM KeQ
_KZe aPe Kf, GcZ KYi ]c ^j ~jK
gZ_ZgZ agai MjY Ke^AQ K GcZ KYi cj_eh
a ]c_aK R^ jA^j ~G Kje icfP^e gKe
jA^j cjc^ ~gu bk RY ^_ \a_ehu _Z
Z _Y @ZPe KeMf ! Zue \X ae] KeMf Zu
_Z c[e_ Ke Zu jZ Keae j^ C\c KeMf
Ga Zu c _a*K a imposter KjMf ~Cc^
cjc^ ~g I ciu _Z c[ @e_ Kf, ^Z bae
ic^ Ne @^PZ K~ Kf iAbk cjc^ cj\u
_Z _a*^e c[e_ Ke[a _Z fLKc^ c CPZ
K~ Ke^j Gj K[K Ke HZjiK ed KjQ
""Ld JZ @ead ]c\Zu "_a*K' @L
\f, cZ Gj bfMf ~ Zu icZ cii
I ~gu c Gj @L \@~A[f c~Me
gh@WK de_e Pjk _KA[a _i a^c
_K "Z^ _a*K' Ld^ eR `WeK
aeaei Ga cifc^ \g^K @beRu
^ce @e_Z ''(14)
M. N. ROY, The Historical Role of Islam, Bombay : Christian
arrogance called the Arabian Prophet an Imposter. But it has
been forgotten that he was given that name together with Moses
and Jesus. The authorship of the famous book, anonymously
published, Three Imposters which created sensation in Europe
towards the close of the middle-ages, was attributed to the
Christian King Frederic Barbarossa as well as to the Muslim
philosopher Averroes."(pp.57-58)
184 cjc^ cj\

cj\ KYi _a*^ Ke^j Ga \g^K bfUde

c C_eq ~q aX[f af CfL Ke g ed Kj
""G[e KYi _a*^ ^j ~qa\ bfUde
@ead ]c\Zu i_le VK ij ~q C_i_^
Ke ^[f K ?''(15)
aiI[ i[ cZ \@
""Zu iyU_Y@e @C @]K aW _cY K'Y
\eKe ? Ra^e gh cj _~ cj\ ^R
_A Kak ij _\a _i Ke[f ~C _\a
ij i ^Re K~ @e Ke[f, ~jK ce
agi \^ iag \g^ @C iyUZc L]c
c Zu RY Bge\Z, RY _KZ Bge\Z e_
Ke Kea ''(16)

"There was no imposture in it. Did not the rationalist Voltaire
put forward the same argument more than a thousand years after it
had found favour with the Arabian Prophet ? (Ibid.p.58)
R. BOSWORTH SMITH, Mohammed And Mohammedanism :
What more crowning proof of his sincerity is needed? Mohammed
to the end of his life claimed for himself that title only with which he
had begun, and which the highest philosophy and the truest
Christianity will one day, I venture to believe, agree in yielding to
him that of a Prophet, a very Prophet of God. (p.238)
cjc^ cj\ 185

c^aRMZe cM\gK
ac^e ag iuPZ jA MUG _eae _fU ~AQ
_P^ Kke [a \eZe _ZaK @C ^j iP^ I
_ieYe aKg `ke _Pe I _ie @Z ijR jA~AQ
MYcc \e KYi Lae cZ KZU c^Ue age KY
@^KYe _j* _eQ Pe _* jRe ah _a ibZe
Gbk aKg jA^[f M], NW, jZ a IU aZZ
~ZdZe KYi Cc i]^ ^[f cYh j i\ _eYe
GKcZ cc [f KeY i icde i\_Z, _K a
eWI @\ Cna^ jA^[f Gj KeYe KYi \ge
Lae @^ GK \ge _j*a _A ci ci icd fM[f
GcZ @aie age ab^ @*ke aiai Ke[a
fKc^ue iZcM \g^ _A _[K _[K cM\gKc^ue
@agKZ [f KeY RY cM\gKu C_\g ie age
_PeZ ja ia_e ^[f ZY, ab^ i\d _A RY
fLG cM\gK ^~q jC[f ~Cc^ K GK icZ
@*k ce ]cii_^ a _^i_^e K~ Ke[f _aZ
Ke@^ Gje iP^ \A KjQ
""_ZK i\d _A RY aaj [f ''
Ke@^, 10 : 47
@^ GK i^e Ke@^ KjQ
""G_e KYi i\d ^j, ~j ^KUK KYi
iPZK @i ^j ''
Ke@^, 35 : 24
186 cjc^ cj\

_a KYi Bge\Zu ic\d age ]c_Pee \dZ

\@~A ^[f Gj KeYe GKKk^ @^K cM\gK age
ab^ @*ke K~eZ ej[f, ~C[_A ic^ue iL
GKfl Pag jRe _~ _j*Q af cjc^ Bge\Z
_Kg KeQ
Kc ab^ \gc^ue iK MXCVf Ga aaid
aYR ^c ik_[ I Rk_[e ~ZdZ @e jf
ab^ \ge L]ce _ie akK ic\d ag_A
GK ic^ a]^ _Yd^ jae icd _d @i ie[f
ic gZe _ee Bge ^Re RY _Z^]u ic\d
ag _A MUG a]^ \A ^~q Ke\f Gjj ij
iZ ~jK @]Kg fK RY^j af Ke@^ Kj :
""Ga @ Z u icM c^a icR _A
iicPe\Z I PZa^\Z e_ _eY Ke@Q,
K @]Kg fK Gj RY ^j ''
(Ke@^ 34 : 28)
ZY cjc^ Bge\Zu Gj NhY KeaK @\g
""Kjj c^hMY ! c Zc icu ^KUK ij
@fjue _Z^] e_ _eZ jAQ ~G ]eZ I
@Kcke @]_Z ''
(Ke@^ 7 : 158)
Zu gle \aiel c KeMf cjc^ cj\u
_ae _KU jA[a KYi \aM^K iel _\^ Kea
_A i aP^a ^[f, KeY Gj \aM^MWK GK ^
@*ke ie @Ya_A C [f Ga @id _KZe
[f \aiel ^[a ~M iMWKe ig]^ I _l_Y
cjc^ cj\ 187

c jf iaVe i\Zc \agl [f Bge\Z cjc^

~gue K Gj Ga @C ij agZ el Ke^j
G[e @^K ig]^ jAieQ
Bge\Zu gle ielY
id I iaR^^ cjZ [a \e cjc^ cj\u
gle \aiel KeMf Bge NhY Kf
""@ j Gj Ke@^K @aZ Ke@Q Ga (d)
@ j Gje ielK ''
(Ke@^, 15 : 9)
i Kak Ke@^ _KU Ke^j, ae i d Gje
aL c KeQ _aZ Ke@^e Gj NhY Ke i
""_Y Gje aL c @e \dZ ''
(Ke@^, 75 : 19)
Ke@^e Gj aL Z \aaY cce Ke~C[f,
~jK cjc^ Bge\Z ^R K[ a @PeYe _Kg Ke[ f
ZY, cjc^ Bge\Zu K[, Kc, @\g, @^c\^ a
gl jCQ _aZ Ke@^e aL Ga GMWKe _cYK
aaeYK @ea bhe "j\i' Kj~G cjc^ Bge\Zu
Ra^ I gle UK^L aaeY AZji _e ielZ ejQ
HZjiK aiI[ i[ fLQ
""Zue @aba Ga Zu \^^ Ra^e
_v^_v aaeY @c ^KUe ielZ ejQ ''(1)
Minute accounts of his appearance and of his daily life have
been preserved to us. (Bosworth Smith, Mohammad and
Mohammedanism,London, p.83)
188 cjc^ cj\

_i HZjiK GWIW Ma^ Kj ~, Bge Ga

Bge\Z, Cbdu aY Zu ghc^u \e @Z ia]^Ze
ij f_a Ke~C[f (2)
cjc^ cj\u _e age @^ KYi Bge\Zue
Ra^ PeZ GZ aZ bae AZjie ^j G_eK Zue
L\_d, _hK _ez\ I ^ZKc bk i]eY \^^
NUYe i aaeYMWK c HZjiKc^ f_a KeQ
cLZ Z^U C_de cjc^ Bge\Zu gle ielY
_[cZ, Bge\Zu aYMWK Zu ghc^ c^
eL[f fLa _A i]^e @ba ~M _P^ Kke
\aglMWK KYi Kea GK i]eY _ee [f ZY
ghc^ Bge\Zu aYMWK KYi Ke^C[f ~Cc^
Zu \g^ Keae a Zue _aZ aY gYae ibM
_AQ, ic^ue iL fl]K
\ZdZ, @^K gh Bge\Zue aYMWK fLZ
@Kee c eL[f (3) i icde _aZ Ke@^ @aZeY
Ke[ae ZK c f_a Ke~C[f ZY Kk Bgeu
aY ij ^R aY cg~a, Gj @gue cjc^ Bge\Z
Ke@^ f_a Ke[a ghc^u Zu ^R aYMWK ^ fLa
_A C_\g c \A[f Gj KeYe KZRY gh
Bge\Zu aYMWK f_a Kea_e Zu _X gYA

Edward Gibbon, Life of Mahomet, PP.-85-86 : "The Word of
God and of the apostle was deligently recorded by his
ij aLe, 1c L, j\i i. 113
cjc^ cj\ 189

ZZd C_dU [f iaVe cRaZ cjc^ Bge\Zue

glMWK Ze K~Ke jC[f Ga icRe @PeYe
_ea^ jA~C[f Zu Ra^Kke j Zue gl
Z}k^ cifc icRe GK _eee e_ ^A ie[f
Gj Z[ G^iAK_W@ aU^K c \AQ (4) K
iZak j\iMWK igvkZ bae KYi M^ @Kee
_Kg _A^[f cjc^ cj\u _e Zue @^K gh
Zu Ra^ I glMWK iMj Kf ~jK _ea icde
aj _el ^el Ke~A j\i M^e e_ \@Mf
_KZe \LaK Mf, i icde cjc^ Bge\Zu
ia aYMWK fL @Kee ielY Kea ia c ^[f
~C ~Me KMR Cna^ jA ^[f, fLa _A PcW a
Zk_Z AZ\ aajZ jC[f Ga La Kc fK fL_X
RY[f, i icde RY Bge\Zue \N ZAg ahe
\^^ Ra^e ic aaeY Ga Zue _ZU @\g a
C_\gK fL eLa ijRi ^[f j\i iMje RY~G
~, fl fl iLe j\i iMj Ke~AQ
~Cc^ j\i iMj Ke iMWK bfe_ _el^el
Kf Ga iMWK _Za bae M^e_ \f, ic^u
@eae "cji' Kj~G ic^u ce ^c iMjKc^
_i :
cj\ Aa^-AgjK (704-767)
cfK Aa^ @^i (711-795)
cj\ Aa^ AicAf aLe (810-870)
Within the first century of the Prophet's death tradition had
come to be a central factor in the devlopment of law and the shape of
the society." (HadithEncyclopedia Britannica, Ultimate Reference
Suite, Chicago, 2011)
190 cjc^ cj\

cifc Aa^ @f jRRR (827-875)

@a \C\ @f iR^ (817-889)
@a Ai cj\ @Z-ZecR (Ze]^ 892)
@a @e ejc^ @^ ^iA (830-915)
@a @fj Aa^ cR (824-886)
@^K c[ c Bge\Zu ^ce _Pe jA[f
ZY Gj aY iMjKc^ ~[i iZKZ @af^ Kf
_ZK aYK @Z iZKZe ij ab^ \Me _el KeMf
Ga j\ie iZZ _el Kea _A Z ^Z^dc c
MXjf cjc^ Bge\Zu iKe \@~C[a _ZK
aaeY iKe Z[\Ze i _ePd, PeZ, ag, ieYgq
@\ ahde @Z il bae UK^L @^i^ KeMf Ga
@iL c[ I Rf j\i ~CMWK _aZ Ke@^e gle
ae]PeY Ke[f, iMWK iKk^e a\ \@Mf
^be~MZ @]ee j\iMWK ab^ gYbq c KeMf
j\i iMjKc^ Gj K~e ic^ue i Ra^ CM
cjc^ cj\ 191

@c Bge\Z
cjc^ cj\ ~ Bgeue RY _Z^] G iKe
~[ _cY @c _AieQ Ga i ~ iZ KjQ, G
ahde c @ce KYi ij ^j KYi aq iKe
RY KZ_ PKK jA[ae ihR^K _cY _Aiea
_e Z' C_\gMWK @C _el^el ^ Ke MjY Ke^@ ~G
Z'e _ZK C_\g a aai_ZK Z bae _el Ke~G
^j ~jZ i @c PKK, @c Z' K[ c^^C ij_e
cjc^ cj\u _el Ke Zu Bge\Z af MjY Keiea
_e _Y Zue _ZK K[e iZZK @fM @fM _el
Keae @agKZ ^j ~jZ i Bgeue _Z^], Zue
@\g _k^d KYi ahde Bge a Bge\Zue
@\g ej[aak i ahde @C aPe @fP^ a ~qZK
Keae ]^Z cYhe ej^j GjK Ke _aZ Ke@ ^e
_ecge Kj
""KYi agiKe _eh a ^e _le Gj icP^
^j ~ @fj I Zu aaj KYi ahde ^
Keiea _e ic^ i iKe ze KYi
^ ^A_ea, @C ~ Kj @fj I Zu
Bge\Zue @am Ke i _Kg ab e _W~ G ''
(Ke@^, 33 : 36)
cjc^ cj\ ~ @c Bge\Z G ahde Bge I
Bge\Z Cbdue a ejQ \aM^e GK aW aghZ
jCQ ~, i[e MeZ_ glMWK @Z ge Kj~G,
192 cjc^ cj\

~_eK RY i]eY cYh ijRe aS_ea ~C @\ge

@ac^^ `ke ^K\ bMae ia^ [G, ibk
@\gMWK La _ee bae \@~G _ecge @fj
Ke@^e bae NhY KeQ
""cj\ Zc _ehc^u ce Kje _Z ^j;
ae i @fjue aaj Ga Bge\Zc^u
ce @c Ga @fj ia ahde RY ''
(Ke@^, 33 : 40)
\ZdZ, cjc^ Bge\Z c @^K [e ^RK @c
Bge\Z af NhY KeQ Zue KZU aY ^ce
Ce Ke~CQ ^Re \ \A cjc^ Bge\Z Kjf
""_aa Bge\Zc^u Zk^e ce \ G_e,
~_e Kj RY MUG ie @kK ^cY
Kf, ~je MUG KYe MUG AUe i^
Lf ejQ fK @kKe i~e acjZ
j@; K Kj ~, L AU Gj Lf i^e
fMa iZe, c ij g^i^e AU Ga
Bge\Zc^u ce @c ''(1)
(ij aLe, 4[ L, j\i-735)
^RK @c aaj af NhY Ke Bge\Z Kjf
""Bge\Zc^ AiGfaiu ^dY Ke[f Ga
ic^ue _[ _\g^ Ke[f ~Zak RY
Bge\Zue Ze]^ jC[f, @C RY Zue
i^ MjY Ke[f c _e @C Bge\Z @ia
^j ''
(ij aLe, 4[ L, j\i i.661)

ij aLe, 4[ L, j\i i. 735
cjc^ cj\ 193

""cZ icM c^aRMZ _A ^~q Ke~AQ

Ga c ijZ Bge\Zc^ue @iae _eeK
a Ke\@~AQ ''
(ij cifc, 1c L, j\i i. 523)
@^ GK j\ie cjc^ Bge\Z Kj
""_KZe aaj^ Ga Bge\Ze _eee
_z\ _WieQ ZY c _e KYi aaj
a Bge\Z @ia ^j ''
(ZecR, j\i i.2272)
Bge\Z ^Re ZaK ~Z icde jReZ @fu c\^e
iel \dZ @_Y Ke Zu ^Re ijKe e_ ^~q Ke[ f
ZY, jReZ @f Zu KjfK'Y @_Y cZ cjk I
_fc^u ce QW ~CQ ? Bge\Z Ce \f
""Zc K'Y G[e Li ^j ~, Zc c _A
VK icZ ~cZK ciu _A je^ [f K
c _e @C Bge\Z ^j ''(2)
(ij aLe, 5c L, j\i i.700)
ZZdZ, cjc^ Bge\Z bahZe jaK [a @^K
NUY ahde _a iP^ \AQ gh ~Me jaK [a
icRe ab^ ^ZK @]_Z^, _KZK \a_K Ga cj_kd
ahde i @^K bahaY KeQ ~\ Zu _e KYi
Bge\Zu @abae ia^ [@, Za Gje _aiP^
@ag \@~A [@ ~_e cjc^ cj\u @Mc^
ahde ab^ ]cM^c^ue _aiP^ \@~AQ, ij_e
@iaK [a Bge\Zu iKe Ke@^ K Bge\Zu aYe
jReZ je^ cjc^ ciue bA [f Ga RY Bge\Z
c [f
194 cjc^ cj\

Gje CfL ej[@ ~jZ ia Bge\Zu MjY Kea

Ga ic^u _Z @i _KU Kea Aifce GK ckK
agi, Gbk MeZ_ K[K Bge a Bge\Z K\_ fPA
eL ^j K Cbdu aYe Gje KYi CfL ^j;
ae KZK c[a\ ^RK Bge\Z af \a Kea af
cjc^ cj\ ia]^ KeQ i KjQ
""~_~ Zeg RY c[a\ue @aba ^
jAQ Ga ic^u ce _ZK ^RK @fjue
aaj af \a Ke^j, i _~ cj_kd
ja^j ''(3)
(ij aLe, 4[ L, j\i 806)
cjc^ Bge\Z Gj c iZK Ke KjQ
""Ga _KZe c @^Mcc^u ce ZegRY
_a*K @ia Ga _ZK ^RK RY Bge\Z
af \a Kea, K c @c Bge\Z Ga c
_e Bge\Z ^j ''
(ZecR, 4[ L, j\i 2219)
PZ[ KeY jCQ ~, ]c ii_^ a _^i_^ j
cjc^ Bge\Zc^ue cL K~ \agle _ea^,
ig]^ a ^@ ^@ ^Z ^dce _l_Y ~M icRe
ab^ Kie I @agi _ag Ke Gje ck_U^
_A cjc^ cj\u cce @i[a M^e \aiel
KeMf, ~C[ e KYi _Ke ig]^ a _l_Y Ki^ K k
ia ^j ZY ~C gle _ea^ ja^j, ij gl
^A _Y RY Bge\Zu @iae @agKZ c ^j
ij aLe, 9c L, j\i-237; ZecR, 4[ L, j\i-
cjc^ cj\ 195

cjc^ c j \ue ic g l iel Z Ga Gj

c^aRZe cM\g^ _A ~[ ZY ^Z^ Bge\Zue
@aba ja^j @ag i], i^, _aq, _aPK I
_PeKc^u @abae aU C^q ejQ
cjc^ cj\u _aa KYi Bge\Z ^RK @c
Bge\Z af Kj^j K Ke@^ aZZ KYi \aM^
^R aaju @c aaj NhY Ke^j
cjc^ Bge\Zue ghc^ Zu @c Bge\Z e_
MjY Ke[f Ga ij icde cifc^c^ Zu gh
aaj Ga Zu cce @i[a M^K @c \aM^ e_
MjY Ke@iQ Gje @[ ^j ~, _a \aglMWK
ic^ @Ke Ke ia \aM^MWK _Z agi eLa
Ga ic Bge\Zc^u _Z i^ _\g^ Kea cifc^
ja_A GK ckK i K Ke@^ @^~d _a
\aglMWKe @^K _ea^ I _l_Y jAieQ, ~je
ig]^ Ke@^ KeQ Gj \a ]c]ee @c ieY
Ga ag ajaY ZY Gj cYhK _[b Kea ^j
\ZdZ, Bgeu a aj^ Ke[a aaj j ajaYe
@[ Ke Ga ]c a]e aL Ke[ ab^ C_i^ I
KcKe _Z Zue @ee _KUZ jA[G Ga i ^R
c iMWK _k^ Ke ZY Zue @^KeY Kea_A
Z}k^ R^icRK ^g \@~A[G iZe ij ]c\Zue
\^^ Kccd Ra^e AZji a^ Bgeue @\gMWKe
_k^ ia ^j ac^ Kak Ke@^e a @Y[a
aajue i Ra^ AZji ejQ, ~j ijdZe Zue
@^KeY Ke Bgeue ia C_i^ Ke~A_e cjc^
]c\Z cj\u aZZ Bgeue @^ KYi ]c_aKue
Ra^ ag\ bae AZji _e ^j
196 cjc^ cj\

ZZdZ, @c \aM^ jA[a \e c Ke@^e

@\g _k^d C\jeY e_, RY _Z \ee ej[a
^R i^K ab^ C_\g \A GK]K _Z fL[@
i^e adi, a, _e_gK @ai Ga Z}k^ icde
@agKZK ^A _Zu ab^ C_\gMWK e KZK _ea^
c NU[G c^ Ke, RY _Z ^KUK _ZuVe ab^
icde GK]K PV @iQ Kge Ra^, KfR Ra^
Ga aajZ Ra^e i _ZK ab^ C_\g \A @iQ
MUG PV Ga i\ @iQ ac^ _@ a_ue ia
PVMWK ]e aiQ Ga iMWK ce i KZK b^Z
c fl KeQ ic PV Z Z' ^R a_ue, K i
ac^ KC PVe @\g _k^ Kea ? ^Z bae @c
@\g _k^ Kea CPZ Gjj RY cifc^ Ke i
ic \aM^MWK Bgeue af agi Ke[f c Ke@^e
@^_k^ Kea _A a
@c @d

cj^ M^c ^ue
cjc^ cj\
~cZ Bge Kak GK ^ RZ a i\de ^j,
ij_e cjc^ cj\ Kak cifc^c^ue ^j i
ic\d c^h RZe Ga ic Zu gle fba^ jA_ea
age ab^ M^c ^ue cjc^ cj\u @ab ae _K iP^e
RY_W iZ~_e jRe jRe ah _ae ag Gj cjc^aue
_ZleZ a, _i, dj\ I L ]cM^ aZZ j]ce
_P^ M^c^ue c Zu ahde G_e bahaY
Ke~AQ ~j K @^ Kje _A _R~ jA ^_e
_i ]cM^

cjc^ Reeu _PeZ ]cK Reed^ a _i
]c Kj~G Gj Ae^e ia _P^]c Gj ]ce cL M^
jCQ R @b Ga \iZe R @b Z^ bMe
abq, ~[b\\, d Ga M[ Reed^c^ Bgeu
@je-cR\ Kj @je @[ _b Ga cR\ @[ m^
@[Z m^ _b \iZe M^e @eae RY Bge\Zu
@aba ahde bahaY ejQ, ~jK Kak cjc^
cj\u aZZ @^ Kje _A _R~ jA ^_e ck
bahZaYe `UK_ ^ce Ce Ke~CQ (1)

Muhammad in the World Scriptures Vol.III,2nd Edition,
Lahore, 1975 p.990, @c i, fl, _-76
198 cjc^ cj\
cjc^ cj\ 199

ba[ :
~Zak Reed^c^ ]c _eZM Ke
\eZ jA~a, iZaak @ea \ge RY
aq _KU ja ~jue @^Mcc^ Ae^ Rd
Ke CZ _ic^u \c^ Kea cee @M
C_i^ Kea _ea ic^ Aajcu ^cZ
KaK aMjcq Kea Ga Ae^c^ue cjK
_[^ (^cR) _A Ka @WK afA\a (@ea
Bge\Zue) Gj @^Mcc^ RMZ _A K_ i\g
ja ic^ _ei, c\d^, Zi, afL Ga
_Wg eRMWK \Lf Ke^a ic^ue
]c\Z aMZi_^ Ga PcKe aY~q ja(2)
\iZe bahaY KeQ ~
1. _i ]c KkhZ ja
2. @MK ]cieK @ea ^ai ja
3. Ae^ bk cjgq c @ea \e _eRZ ja
4. Ka _V aMjcq ja
The sum and substance of the prophecy is, that when the
Zoroastrian people will forsake their religion and will be-
come disclosure, a man will rise in Arabia whose follow-
ers will conquer Persia and subjugate the arrogant Persians.
Instead of worshipping fire in their own temples, they will
turn their faces in prayer towards Kaba of Abraham which
will be cleared of all idols. They (the folowers of the Ara-
bian prophet), will be a mercy unto the world. They will
become masters of Persia, Madain, Tus, Balkh, the sacred
places of the Zoroastrians and the neighbouring territories.
Their prophet will be an eloquent man telling miraculous
things. (Muhammad in the World Scriptures, Vol.III, 2nd
Edition, Lahore,1975 p.991)
200 cjc^ cj\

5. ^Z^ Bge\Zue @^Mcc^ Ka @WK cj Ke

^cR _Xa
6. ]c\Zue aY Pc}eZ_ ja
7. icM Ae^ cifc^c^u @]^K @i~a
C_eq K[MWK Kak Bge\Z cjc^ cj\u
aZZ @C Kj _A __R jA_e ?
a ]cM^

MZc a ^Re @c icde gh @^u MUG
cjZ_ bahaY Ke[f ~j ^ce CZ Ke~CQ :
Ga @^ ^Re KjK ^dY Ke MZc au
_Pef@_Yu _e KG @ce cM\g^ Kea ?
a Ce \fc iiee @i[a _[c K
gh a ^j _K icde @C RY a
_KU ja ~G K @Z _aZ, m^fK_,
i\PeY~q, gc^, RMZm^, @^_c R^^dK
Z[ \a I c^aue ic i ij Pe^ iZ
_Kg Kea ~je gl c Zcc^u \AQ, i
Zue ij ]ce _Pe Kea ~je @\ I @
Cc, fl Cc Ga bh I ba c Cc
i GK ag I _e_ ]c aaie _Pe Kea
~_e c ac^ KeQ ce gh iLe cZ
KA gj, cZ Zue gh jRe jRe iLe
ja @^ _Pef@c Zu K_e Pja ?
a Ce \fi cZ d e_ _ePZ ja,
~je @[ \d ''(3)
And Ananda, suppressing his tears, said to the Blessed One:
Who shall teach us when thou art gone? And the Blessed
cjc^ cj\ 201

MZc aue K[e Gj RY_W ~, @^K a

@iQ Ga ic^u ce MZc a @^Zc i Gj
c Ke Kjf ~, i @c ^j; ae Zu _e RY
a @ia ~G K KYi ^Z^ ]ce ^j; ae _a \a]ce
_^i_^ Kea Ga GK ag I _e_ a]^ \a
@MK a RYK cZd a "\da^' ^ce _ePZ ja
iZ g "cZd' a _f bhe "cZd' Cbde
@[ \da^ Ga Gje @[ c \d @ea g "ejcZ'
"cZ d'e @^e_ cjc^ cj\ue GK MYZK ^c jCQ
"ejcZf ff @fc^' @[Z "RMZ _A K_' ~jZ cjc^
Bge\Z ic\d age KfY Kc^ Ke[f, Ke@^ Zu
"RMZ _A K_' af @bjZ Ke KjQ
""(j cj\) @ ZcK ic\d RMZ ^c
K_e_ _eY Ke@Q ''
(Ke@^ 21 : 107)
One replied : I am not the first Buddha who came upon
earth, nor shall I be the last. In due time another Buddha
will arise in the world, a Holy One, a supremely enlight-
ened One, endowed with wisdom in conduct, auspicious,
knowing the universe, an incomparable leader of men, a
master of angels and mortals. He will reveal to you the
same eternal truths which I have taught you. He will preach
his religion, glorious in its origin, glorious at the climax,
and glorious at the goal, in the spirit and in the letter. He
will proclaim a religious life, wholly perfect and pure; such
as I now proclaim. His disciples will number many thou-
sand, while mine number many hundred. Ananda said :
How shall we know him? The Blessed One said : He
will be known as Mai-treya, which means he whose name
is kindness. (Gospel of Buddha, Paul Carus, 9th Edition,
Chicago, 1904, pp.217-218)
202 cjc^ cj\

WKe a\_Kg C_d Zu _K "^egi I @c

Eh'e h @de cjc^ cj\ ~ cZd Z[ @c
a, Gj _cY KeQ (4)
ij_e WKe a\[ c "_i, j I aM^e
cj\' ^cK GK MahY]c M^ fLQ, ~C[e i
MZc au bahaY C_e aZ bae @fP^ Ke
Gj cjc^ cj\u _Z C, Gj _cYZ KeQ (5)

Muhammed in Hindu Scriptures." P.36.
"Muhammed in Parsi, Hindu and Buddhist Scriptures."
cjc^ cj\ 203

j ]cM^

_P^ ]cM^ a\e @^K i^e "^egi' ^cK
RY Ehu @aba ahde iP^ \@~AQ iZ g
"^egi'e @[ "_giZ aq' ^e @[ c^h Ga @gie
@[ _giZ @ea bhe @^a\ Kf Gj ja "cj\'
_Z a\_Kg C_d fLQ ~, "^egi' Ga "cj\'
Cbde GK @[ (1) WKe C_d Gj c _cYZ KeQ ~,
cjc^ cj\ j ij @c Eh ~ju @aba ahde
a\, _eY, aAaf Ga a ]cM^MWKe bahZaY
Ke~AQ a\e ^egiu ahde Kj~AQ ~
1. i ^egi (@eae "cj\')
(@[aa\ 20 : 127 : 1)
2. ^egi IU @ejY Ke[a RY Eh
(@[aa\ 20 : 127 : 2)
Gj gKe CfL ejQ ~, bahZe @iaK
[a EhRYK ceik ^ai ja bah _eYe c
Kj~AQ ~, i ceik ^ai ja (2)
cjc^ Bge\Zc^ age ab^ bMe R^Mj Y Ke
ic^ ~CV R^MjY Ke, ij i^e bh Kj, ij

"^egi I @c Eh', WKe a\_Kg C_d
bah _eY, _ZiM, 3d _a, 3d @d, c-6
204 cjc^ cj\

icRe _PkZ _e]^ _ Ga i icde iVe

C_f ~^aj^ @\e aaje c Ke ZY cjc^
cj\ IU @ejY Ke[f @^ KYi beZd Eh IU
@ejY Ke^[f, KeY jg @^ie ajYc^u _A
IU @ejY Kea ^h [f (3)
EMa\e c Kj~AQ ~, ^egi fKc^u __e
Ce Kea (EMa\, 1:106:4), i ck_ ja Ga
Zu \am^ _\^ Ke~a (EMa\-1:3:2) GjaZZ
@[aa\ agKe 127Zc iqe c iL 1e 13e
cjc^ cj\u iKe @^K bahaY ejQ
cjh aiu ePZ 18U _eY ce bah_eY, bMaZ
_eY Ga KkK _eY @^Zc bah _eYe cjc^
cj\u ahde ^c bahaY ejQ (4)
c^ijZ, 11 : 202
A malechha (belonging to a foreign country and speaking
foreign language) spiritual teacher will appear with his compan-
ions. His name will be Mohammad. Raja (Bhoj) after giving this
Maha Dev Arab (of angelic disposition) a bath in the
Panchgavya and the Ganges water (i.e. purging him of all
sins) offered him the presents of his sincere devotion and showing
him all reverence said, I make obeisance to thee, Oye! The
pride of mankind, the dweller in Arabia, Ye have collected a
great force to kill the Devil and you yourself have been pro-
tected from the malechha opponents. O Ye, the image of the
Most Pious God the biggest Lord, I am a slave to thee, take
me as one lying on thy feet.(Bhavishya Purana, Prati Sarga,
Parva-3, Khanda-3, Adhyaya-3, Sloka No. 5 to 8) [Bhavishya
Purana published by Venketeswar Press, Bombay and referred
cjc^ cj\ 205

cjh ai C_eq gKMWKe _ee KjQ ~,

1. @aba jaK [a @P~ a Ehue ^c "cj\'
2. i ceik ^ai ja
3. i \c^u a] Kea
4. gZc^uVe Zu iel \@~a
_*c gKe cjc^ cj\u ^c _k ba CfL
ejQ Ga Zu RY cz @P~ af Kj~AQ iZ
g "cz' iKe fKc^ue bf ]eY ejQ Gj
KYi Le_ @[a]K g ^j Gj g @Y-@~c^u
_A aajZ jG ~cZ @Y-@eadc^u _A "@Rc' a
@Y-dj\c^u _A "R^UAf' ge _dM jAQ
by A.H. Vidyarthy in his work Muhammad in Parsi, Hindoo
and Buddhist Scriptures pp.36-39]
206 cjc^ cj\

_ea gKMWKe Gj c NhY Ke~AQ ~ i

ceik a @ea ^ai ja GjaZZ GVe bah_eY
MUG CfL^d K[ KjQ ~, gZc^uVe Zu el
Ke~a AZjie @c RYaK _C, cjc^ Bge\Zu
aee cK I c\^e gZc^ @^K[e Zu jZ Keae
hW~ Ke[f; K _ZK[e a`k jA[f Zu jZ
Kea_A Z fK ^~q jf, Zu L\e ah c
\@Mf ~lZe c Zu _Y ^ae ia_Ke P
KeMf Z[_ i i ielZ ejf Gje KeY jCQ
~, Bge Zu iel \ae _Zg Z Ke@ ^e \A ie[ f
""Ga @fj fKc^uVe ZcK el Kea ''
(Ke@^, 5 : 67)
bah _eYe Gj @de gK iL 10e 27e ^c
bahaY ejQ (5)
The Malechha have spoiled the well known land of the
Arabs. Arya Dharma is not to be found in the country. Before
also there appeared a misguided friend whom I had killed; he has
now again appeared being sent by a powerful enemy. To show
these enemies the right path and to give them guidance the well-
known Mohamad (Muhammad), who has been given by me the
epithet of Brahma, is busy in bringing the Pishachas to the right
path. O Raja, you need not go to the land of the foolish Pishachas,
you will be purified through my kindness even where you are at
night, he of the angelic disposition, the shrewd man, in the guise
of a Pischacha said to Raja Bhoj, O Raja! Your Arya Dharma has
been made to prevail over all religions, but according to the com-
mandment of Ishwar Parmatma, I shall enforce the strong need of
the meat eaters. My follower will be a man circumcised, without
a tail (on his head), keeping beard, creating a revolution announc-
ing Adhan (call for prayer) and will be eating all lawful things.
He will eat all sorts of animals except swine. They will not seek
purification from the holy shrubs, but will be purified through
cjc^ cj\ 207

warfare. On account of their fighting the irreligious nations, they

will be known as Musalmans. I shall be the originator of the
religion of the meat-eating nation (Bhavishya Purana, Prati Sarga,
Parva-3, Khanda-3, Adhyaya-3, Sloka No. 10 to 27)
208 cjc^ cj\

G[e Kj~AQ
1. \ePec^ @ea bcK \hZ KeQ
2. i \ge @~]c f_ _AQ
3. Bge\Zue @aba @~]c agi (GKgea\)e _
4. _i cj\ \ePec^u iZcM _\g^ Kea Ga
_[bc^u aUK @Ya
5. Gj ]c\Zu @^Mcc^ ZK-Q\^ Kea, a "i^Z'
6. ic^ ce PU eLa ^j; K \X eLa Ga
_[^ _A Cyee WKa @[Z ciR\c^ue ^cR
_A @R^ \a
cjc^ cj\ 209

7. ic^ ia g L\ LAa; K Nhe ci LAa

8. ic^u "cifc^' Kj~a
9. ic^ cije ja
Gj bahZaYMWK Kak cjc^ Bge\Z cjc^
cj\u _Z _~R GjaZZ Gj _eYe Bge\Zu icde
@~]ce @ai Ga Aifce aaKZ ahde @^KZ
a^ ejQ (6)
G[e Kj~AQ ~
1. Aifc ]cafc^ iji I ac^ ja
2. cifc^c^ ia_Ke gbMY~q ja Ga @~bce
ia _Kee \ePe _ag Kea
3. Aifc beZ I Gje cj\_MWK gi^ Kea
ij_e bMaZ _eY I KkK _eY c cjc^
cj\u iKe _ee bahZaY Ke Zu KkK @aZe
e_ a^ KeQ
KkK @aZeu @aba ik ahde _eY Kj ~,
i gf Mce a~gu Ne Zu _Z icZu Mbe R^
ja (KkK _eY, 2:4)
Corruption and persecution are in seven sacred cities of
Kashi etc. India is inhabited by Rakshas, Shabar, Bhil and other
foolish people. In the land of Malechhas, the followers of the
Malechha dharma (Islam) are wise and brave people. All good
qualities are found in Musalmans and all sorts of vices have ac-
cumulated in the land of the Aryas. Islam will rule in India and
its islands. Having known these facts O Muni, glorify the name
of thy Lord. (Bhavishya Purana, Parv III, Khand-1, Adhaya 4,
Shloka 21-23.)
210 cjc^ cj\

bMaZ _eY KjQ ~, i "gf' Mce cL ajYu

Ne R^MjY Kea Ga Zu _Zu ^c "a~g' ja
mecYeue ie^ece cegKeme ye^eeCeme cenelceve ~
YeJeves efJeM<CegeMeme keefuke He^eogYeee|Je<eefle ~~
(bMaZ _eY, 12:2:18)
Zu cZu ^c "icZ' ja
MecYeues efJe<Ceg eMemees ie=ns He^eogYe&Jeecenced ~
megceleebceeleeefj efJeYees ! Helveereeb lJeefVeo&Mele ~~
(KkK _eY, 2:4)
_Z a\_Kg C_d fLQ ~, "gf' @[ "ge
Ne' Ga cK ijeK "ge Ne' a @ea bhe "\ef-
@c^' Kj~G (7)
C_eq gKe KkK @aZeu cZu ^c "icZ'
af CfL @Q, ~je @[ "g bae cjk' Gje
@ea @^a\ jCQ "@c^' cjc^ cj\u cZu ^c
"@c^' [f
_Zu ^c ja "a~g' _Z a\_Kg C_d
Kj ~, a~ge @[ "a a Bgeue _Re' cjc^
cj\u _Zu ^c [f "@f j', ~je @[ "@fj a Bgeue
_eY Kj ~, @c @aZe RM\Me a RMZe elK
ja (bMaZ _eY, 12:2:19) cjc^ cj\u c
Bge RM\Me e_ ^~q KeQ ZY Ke@^ Kj

Kalki Avatar and Muhammad, Dr. Veda Prakash
Upadhaya, Ch.VII.
cjc^ cj\ 211

""(j cj\) @_Y Kj\@, j c^hMY ! c

Zcc^u ^KUK iA @fjue aaj jA
@iQ, ~G K ]eZ I @Kgcke c ''
(Ke@^, 7 : 158)
ij_e, _eY Kj ~ M\Zc^u \e @c
@aZeue ijdZ Ke~a (KkK _eY, 2:7) cjc^
cj\ue M\Zc^u \e a\e ~e ijdZ Ke~A[f
(Ke@ ^, 8:9)
bMaZ _eY Kj ~, KkK @aZeu geee iM
ajea (bMaZ _eY, 12:2:21) @c AZjie RY
~, Bge\Zu geee iM @i[f
KkK @aZeue @C MUG ag jCQ ~ i
@gejY Kea Ga Zeae ]e \ \c^ Kea (bMaZ
_eY, 12:2:19) cjc^ cj\ Gj Ke[f ac^e
@Z]^K ~Me @g_Ve ai Zeae \e ~ Ke[a
RY @aZeue _Zl ~q~q ^j
_eY Gj c KjQ ~, KkK @c @aZe ja
(bMaZ _eY, 1:3:24) Bge\Zc^u ce Kak
cjc^ cj\u j @c cM\gK e_ ^~q Ke~AQ
g~q a\_Kg C_d "KkK @aZe I cj\'
_Ke fLQ
""KkK @aZeu bMaZ _eYe "@c @aZe'
af a^ Ke~AQ KZjk K[ ~ Ke@^
c cj\u "@c aaj' (Ke@^, 33:40)
af NhY KeQ ''
KkK @aZeue R^ iKe _eY KjQ ~, i
c]a ci gK_l \\g \^ R^fb Kea (KkK _eY,
212 cjc^ cj\

2:15) G iKe g C_d fLQ ~, Gj HZjiK

e_ _cYZ jAieQ ~, cj\ c]a ci gK_l \\g
\^ R^fb KeQ
iMc _eYe c cjc^ cj\u iKe _ee
bahaY ejQ WKe Gc.G. gaa(8), _Z ]cae
@P~u _i _K "@c Bge\Z'(9)e Zki \iue ^c
bahaY Ce KeQ
eneb ve He#eHeele keg jeKengb ~
Jeso, HegjeCe, meble cele YeeKengb ~e
mebJele efJeke^ce oesT Devee ~
cenekeeske veme elegHe&lee ~e
jepeveerelf e YeJe He^eer lf e efoKeeJew ~
DeeHeve cele meyekee mecePeeJew ~~
megjve elegmegojb meleeejer ~
eflevekees JebMe Yeees Deefle Yeejer ~~
leye leke megvoj ceefkeesee ~
efyevee ceneceo Heej ve nesee ~~
leyemes ceeveng pevleg efYeKeejer ~
mecejLe veece Sefn Je^leOeejer ~~

WKe Gc.G. gaa, jReZ cj\ @Ce beZd ]cM^
(j), fl, _. 17
_Z ]cae C_d, @c Bge\Z, ^i^f _< _i,
\edM, ^@\f, _[c ieY, 1927
cjc^ cj\ 213

nj megvoj efvecee&Ce ve nesF& ~

leguemeer Jeeve mele mee nesF& ~~
(iMc _eY, \\g , h K
_\^a\Mc Zki \i)
_Z ]cae C_d Gje ~C ba^a\ KeQ,
Ze IW@ e_e ^c _Kee
""(Zki \i Kj) : c GVe KYi _l_Z
^ Ke i^c^ue Ga a\ I _eYe cZ _Kg
KeQ ic aKc gZe PeMU i~ e _Kg
ij i R^fb Kea gi^e ~bk _eiZ
[C, _c @[a gq \e i ^R cZ icu
aSA _ea, Zu ij PeRY \aZ (_cL
ij~M) ej[a ~Cc^u ijdZe Zu
@^Mcc^u iL ajZ aX~a ~_~ ie
aY (Ke@^) ]e_e ej[a, (Z' aZZ)
Ga cj\u aZZ cq (cl) _ ja ^j
cY h , b K e , KU_Zw Ga RaR Gj
aZ]eue ^c ieY KeacZ Bgeue bq
_fU~a Zu _e _Y @C Kj R^MjY
Kea ^j (@[Z, KYi Bge\Z @ia ^j)
Zki \i Gc Kj ~ Zu aP^ @ag
iZi ja ''
Zki \i ba cjc^ cj\u @Mc^ ahde
bahZaY KeQ
Gbk bahZaY cjc^ cj\u KkK @aZe
Z[ @c Eh _cYZ KeQ
214 cjc^ cj\

a\ _e C_^h\e c jge @Z MeZ_ bcK
ejQ C_^h\MWKe ZfKe "@f_^h\' ^cK GK
C_^h\ ejQ, ~C[e cjc^ cj\u iKe _ee
bahZaY \LaK ck G.GP.a\[ Zu MahY M^ e
@f_^h\e ^c `UPZ \AQ (10)

Muhammad in World Scriptures, Vol.III, p.1110.
cjc^ cj\ 215

GjaZZ g M_kP _jeRu \e iukZ _P

IW@ bhKhe c @f_^h\ i^ _AQ Ga i GjK
@[a a\e GK iq af fLQ @ag G[e iqe
_[c aKU ^j
@if Af cZ aeY \a^ ]
Aff aeY eR _^\\
jd cZ Af Aff Af
aeY cZ Rc
jZec jaZec cjie
@f R g _ec _ ajY @fc
@feif cjc\eK aei @f @f
@\faKcKK, @faK ^LZK 1
@f ~m^ jZjZ @f i~ P ia^lZ
@f EhY iaa\ Ad _a cd _ec@el
216 cjc^ cj\

@f _[a
@el age _
AfKae AfKae Af Af AffZ Aff
I @f Aff @^\e_d
@[aY Adcj j
R^^ _g^ i^ RkPe^ @\Ke`U
@ie ijeY j j @f
eif cj\eK aei
@f @fc AffZ Aff 10
(_P IW@ bhKh, 1c L, _.605)
ba[ :
""ij C_iue ^c @fj i GK cZ, aeY
AZ\ Zue MY _Kg Ke[a ^c Ga @fj _KZ e
aeY, ~G iKk RMZe @]_Z j cZ ! ij
@fju ^Re C_i bae MjY Ke ij aeY
Ga cZ bk ibue K~i Ke i A, (RMZe)
_KgK A @fj icuVe aW Ga iac,
iai Ga icuVe _aZZc cj\ @fjue
eif (\a aajK) Ga @fjue iag ]c\Z
@fj @^\ Ga @fj @^ Ga @fj j aae
iKk RMZe _k^K @fju _A j ic _aZ
Kc, @fj j i~, P Ga Ze i Kf
@fj j ic Ehu _eY Kf Ga i~, P
I Ze eP^ Kf @fj ia Ehc^u _eY
Kf Ga @Kg eP^ Kf @fj ]eZ @Kge
_KgK @fj cj^ Ga Zu aZZ Kj C_i
^j (Zc) Kj j C_iK (@[a Eh) ! "f
cjc^ cj\ 217

Afj Affj' @fj _ee a\c^ i iKk

_g_l I _Yc^ue _k^K, ~G ic\e
ai Ke Ga ic^ue c _k^K ~Cc^
@LK \L~@ ^j i iKk \L Ga a_\e
jeYKe cj\ ij aj e _b @fjue _eZ
eif (aaj) @ZGa Zc NhY Ke "@fj
GK Ga Zu aZZ @^ Kj C_i ^j' ''(11)

The name of the Deity is Allah. He is one, Mitra, Varuna
etc are His attributes; and Allah indeed is Varuna who is the king
of the world. Ye friends, look upon and regard such Allah as your
Deity. He is Varuna and like friends, sets right the works of all
people. He is Indra, the magnificent Indra. Allah is the greatest of
all, the best, the most perfect, and the holiest of all. Muhamad,
the Apostle of Allah is the greates Messenger of Allah. Allah is
alpha and Allah is Omega and Allah indeed is the Nourisher of
the whole world. For Allah are the noble deeds. Allah, infact,
has created the sun, the moon and the stars.
Allah sent all the Rishis and created the sun, the moon and
the stars. Allah sent all the Rishis and created the heavens. Allah
is the Manifester of the earth and the space. Allah is Great and
there is no God but He. Say, thou worshipper (Atharva Rishi) "La-
i-laha-illa-Allah". Allah is from the beginning. He is the Nourisher
of all the birds and beasts and animals that live in the sea and
those that are not visible to the eye. He is the Remover of all evils
and calamities.
Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah, the Lord of this cre-
ation. Hence, declare : Allah is One and there is no other god
besides Him." (Ibid. p.1115)
218 cjc^ cj\

aAafe _ePd \A IW@ aAafe _KgK fLQ
""aAaf 66U _Ke ic Gje \AU cL bM
ejQ (1) _eZ^ ^dc, ~jK dj\c^ue ]cg I
(2) ^Z^ ^dc, ~C[e ~gL I @\ Ld^c^ue
aaeY ejQ 1500ah ]e ab^ icde, ab^ i^e
aiai Ke[a ab^ fLKc^u \e aAaf ePZ
fLKc^ cLZ Z^U bhe Gj fL[f (1)
aAafe _eZ^ ^dce cU 39U _K ejQ, ~je
_[c _*U _K jCQ(1) @\ _K, (2) ~Z _K,
(3) fad _K, (4) MY^ _K Ga (5) \Zd aaeY
Gj _*U _ K cjc^ a aj c i u (cii ,
L._.1400-1300) cce _KUZ jA[f af Kj~G
Ke@^e c @c RY ~, cjc^ ciu GK \aM^
_\^ Ke~A[f @ag Ke@^ Gj M^e ^c "ZeZ'
af KjQ
_ e Z^ ^ d ce cjc^ Bg e \ Z \C\ u e
(L._.1000-962) GK MZijZ ejQ Ke@^ Kj ~,
cjc^ \C\u cce @a jA[a M^e ^c "Rae'
[f ij_e, aAafe ^Z^ ^dce 27U _K ejQ
Gje _[c PeMU _K jCQ(1) c[u iicPe,
"_aZ aAaf', aAaf iiAU @` A@, 206,
cjZM eW, awfe-1
cjc^ cj\ 219

(2) cK u e i i cPe, (3) f K u e i i cPe Ga

(4) ~j^ue iicPe GMWK e Bge\Z cjc^ ~gue
(L._.4-30L.@.) gl I aaeYc^ ejQ Ke@^ cjc^
~g (Ai)u cce GK \aM^ @i[a K[ KjQ, K
Gje ^c "ARf' af KjQ ^Z^ ^dce @ag _KMWK
ab^ fLKu \e ePZ
Bge\Z cjc^ cj\ue @iae _K iP^ cjc^
ci I ~gu _Z @a jA[a \aM^e \@~A[f
af _aZ Ke@^ KjQ
""~Cc^ (@e) Gj ^ele Bge\Zue
@^MZ @af^ Ke, ~jue iKe CfL
ic^u (ic^ue M^) ZeZ I ARf(2)
(aAaf)e ck, i ic^u Cc K~ Keae
@\g \@ I cKce ^a Ke I ic^u
_A g aMWK a] Z[ @gMWK @a]
Ke, ic^u C_e f\ ~A[a aSK IjA
\@ Ga ic^u ij a^MWKe cq Ke
iZe, ~Cc^ Zu agi Kea, Zu ij~
I ic[^ Kea Ga Zu _Z @a jA[a
RZe @^ieY Kea, ijc^ j i`k
ja ''
(Ke@^, 7 : 157)
~\I aAafe @^K ig]^ Ke~AQ, Z[_ cjc^
cj\u iKe KZK bahZaY G[e \LaK ck

ZeZ I ARf ~[Kc cjc^ ci I ~gu cce
_KU jA[a \aM^, ~jK ac^ aAafe _eZ^ I
^Z^ ^dc af Kj~G
220 cjc^ cj\

_eZ^ ^dc
aAafe fL@Q ~ Bge cjc^ ]c\Z ciu
""@ ic^u ^c ic^u bZMY ce Z
i\g RY bah\aq C_^ Kea I @ Zju
cLe @_Y aK \a I @ Zju ~ ~
@m \a, Zj i ic^u Kja ''
(\Zd aaeY, 18 : 18)
C_eq bahaYe RY_WQ ~ Gj ]c\Z
cj\u ahde j Ke~AQ Gje ^cfLZ KeY ejQ
Bge\Z cjc^ Aajcue \A _Z [fAicAf
Ga AijK cjc^ AicAfu ag "AicAf' e_ _i
AijKu _Zu C_] AiAf [a jZ Zu i^K "AiAf'
Kj~G G_e bae cjc^ Aajcu \A _ZuVe \AU
ag "AicAf' Ga "AiAf' Pff cjc^ ]c\Z Ai
a ~g AiAf age [f, K cjc^ cj\ AiAfu
bA @[Z AicAf age [f aAafe "bAe g Gj
\AU age _ee bA ja @[e KZK i^e aajZ
jAQ ZY cj\ AiAfu bAMYu ce j @iQ
C_eq bahaY Gj KjQ ~, @MK ]c_aK
cjc^ ciu i\g ja ]c\Z ciu ij cjc^
cj\ue @^K ici ejQ, ~[
(1) cjc^ ciu _e cjc^ cj\ c i]eY bae
R^fb Ke[ f \ju
e _ZcZ [f
(2) cjc^ ci Ga cj\, \j aaj Ke[f
(3) ]c\Z ciu _e cj\ c ]c~ Ke[f
cjc^ cj\ 221

(4) cjc^ ci K cj\u @^Mc Zu _ZeZ

(5) \ju Zu icR KQ Kk _e Ke Ke^A[f
(6) cjc^ ciu _e cj\ c \gZM Ke[f
(7) ~_e cjc^ ciu cce @aZeZ \aM^ Zu
Ra^Kk ce fL ^@~A[f, ij_e cjc^
cj\u cce @aZeZ Ke@^ c Zu Ra^Kk
ce j f_a jA ie[f
(8) cjc^ ciu bk cjc^ cj\ c i]eY bae
Mai KeQ
G[e _cYZ jCQ ~, cjc^ cj\ ]c\Z ciu
i\g [f
C_eq bahaY Gj c KjQ ~, Bge ij
]c_aKu cLe @_Y aK eLa, @[Z Zu_Z \aaY
ja i Ke@^ cjc^ cj\u cLe Kak ^iZ
""@ Zju ~ ~ @m \a, Zj i ic^u
Kja ''G ahde _aZ Ke@^ KjQ ~, cjc^ cj\
Aze KQ Kj ^[f, ae Zu _Z \aaY jC[f (Ke@ ^,
53 : 3)
^Z^ ^dc
aAafe ^Z^ ^dce ^c bahaYMWK ejQ
""@C, c _Zu @^e] Kea, _Y Zc^u iwe
PeKk eja ^c i Zc^u @C RY
ij~Keu @[Z ij iZcd @Zu \a ''
(~j^, 14 : 16)
222 cjc^ cj\

""K ij ij~Ke @[Z ~C _aZ @Zu

_Z c ^ce _eY Kea, i Zc^u ic
ahd gl \a, @C c Zc^u ~j ~j Kj@Q,
ij ia Zc^u ieY KeAa ''
(~j^, 14 : 26)
""c Zc^u ijZ @C @]K K[a Kea ^j,
KeY RMZe @]_Z @i@Q, @C c Ve Zje
KQ j ^j ''
(~j^, 14 : 30)
""_ Z u ^ K Ue c Z c^u ^ K UK ~C
ij~Keu _eY Kea, _ZuVe ajMZ ij
iZcd @Z @if c ahde il \a ''
(~j^, 15 : 26)
C_eq bahaYMWK cjc^ ~gu _e @C RY
cM\gKu @aba ahde ^c iP^ \CQ
(1) bahZe @i[a cM\gK PeKk eja, @[Z i
Bgeue @c ig ajK ja Ga Zu cce
_eZ a]^ _kd _~ akae eja _aZ Ke@^
c Gjj NhY KeQ ~ cjc^ cj\ j @c
cM\gK (Ke@ ^, 33:40)
(2) i KYi ^Z^ ]c @Ya ^j ae cjc^ ~gue
gle ic[^ Kea Ga GjK _w Kea iZe
Ke@^ @^K i^e cjc^ ~g \C[a glMWK
a^ KeQ Ga cjc^ cj\ ~gu gl ahde
fKc^u ieY KeAQ
(3) bahaYe cjc^ ~g KjQ ~, ~C RMZe
@]_Z @ia c'Ve Zue KQ j ^j @[Z
cjc^ cj\ 223

@i[a ]c_aKu fl a ci^ cjc^ ~guVe

aW ja Ga cjc^ cj\u _A Gj _~R
(4) i ~gu ahde il \a @[Z fKc^u Gj
iZZ ahde @aMZ KeAa ~, cjc^ ~g
Bge\Z [f Ga i Kce cZ cedcu Mbe
R^MjY Ke[f iZe cjc^ cj\ Ga Zue
ic @^Mc cjc^ ~gu Bge\Z af Ke
Ke Ga Zu _aZZe il _\^ Ke
224 cjc^ cj\

^ac @d

cjc^ cj\ue cjZaY

cjc^ cj\ue gl ahde ^ RYf Zue _ePd
@i ej~a ~_e KaZe RY Kae P]e iKe
RYjG a ijZe RY ijZKe _Zbe _ePd ck,
ij_e cj_ehc^u gle ic^u ^Z I @\ge _ePd
ck cjc^ Bge\Zc^ ]e_e Bgeue _Z^]Z
Ke ZY, ic^ iZ, ^d, \d, lc, _c I
_e_Kee gl \A[@ Bge\Z cjc^ cj\ c
Gje aZKc ^j i cYhe @ZK I ^ZK aKg _A
cM\g^ Kea iw iw Ze _ZK \dZ iKe iZK
KeQ Bgeu _Z, _ZcZu _Z, i^ _Z, @Zd
R^u _Z, _Wgu _Z, iaK _Z, @Z[ _Z Ga
\^\Lc^u _Z cYhe \dZ K'Y Zj i KeQ
RY bZe KaVe @e Ke RY ^d]g Ga giKe
Ka K'Y ja CPZ, Zj c i a^ KeQ Kh a
aYR jC, @[^Z a eR^Z jC, cYhe G_e KYi
KclZ ^j, ~j Zu gle _eiebq jA^j ~\ RY
aq Zue C_\gMWK VK bae _k^ Ke, Za i
RY _KZ cYh jA_ea Ga icRe @\e i^ _Aa
ijZ _efKe c C_~q c~\ _Aa
~\I @^K cjc^hue jZ_\g IW@ bhe
C_f; K Gj cj_eh ue jZ_\g G _~ IW@ bhe
C_f jA^j @i, Bge\Z cjc^ cj\ c^a icRK
\A[a gle KZU \ \La
cjc^ cj\ 225

1. c K[ _j*A \@
""MUG K[ jC _Q, c Ze`e _j*A \@ ''
(ij aLe, 4[ L, aY-667)
2. c ^e cQ Kj[a
aq ^K bM Kea
""c ^e cQ Kj ^j, KeY ~G c _Z c[e_
Kea, i ^Z e_ ^KMe _ag Kea ''
(ij aLe, 1c L, aY-106)
3. Kce `k cYhe Cg C_e ^be
""Kce _Z`k (cYhe @^jZ) Cg C_e ^be
Ke Ga _ZK cYh Z' Cg @^ie _Z`k
_Aa ''
(ij aLe, 1c L, aY-51)
4. iie lYid
""_efK Zk^e AjfK GcZ, ~cZ Zcc^u
ce Kj ic\ ce @wV aWA \L ~ @wVe
KZ _Y @if ''
(ZecR, aY-2323)
5. ^RK cZc^u iPe eL
""iiee RY _[K _e ej Ga ^RK cZc^u
ce MY^ Ke iKk CVief ie _Zl Ke^j
Ga i jAMf iKke @g Ke ^j a] @ia
_ae ie i\aaje Ke Ga cZ @ia _ae
Ra^e i\aaje Ke KeY j @fjue \iMY !
Zc RY^ ~ Kf Zce K'Y ja ?''
(ZecR, j\i- 2333)
226 cjc^ cj\

6. j\d @g jf gee @g jA~G

""cYh \je MUG ci_k ejQ ~\ Gj g
jA~G, Za i gee g jA~G, cZ ~\ Gj
^ jA~G, Za ic\d gee ^ jA~G, RYeL,
iAU jCQ j\d ''
(ij aLe, 1c L, aY-49)
7. iZ^Z \e M _ jG
""iZ^Z cYhK ]c_edY Ke Ga ]c_edYZ
\e M_ jG ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-116)
8. Kajf cQ Kj ^j
""_WM jC i aq ~G fKc^u K[ Kj jiG
Ga i[e i cQ Kj i _WM jC, _WM
jC ''
(ZecR, aY-2315)
9. Kc^ a jG^j
""aXfKe c^ \AU ahde ~aK [G, iie _Z
_c Ga Z'e @aeZ Kc^ ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-429)
10. c^h baZ fb
""c^a_ZK ~\ i^e MUG C_ZK ck~G, Z[_
i @C MUG _Aa _A Az Kea cU aZZ @^
KQ Z' _UK _ Ke_ea ^j ~G __ Ke,
@fj Zj MjY Ke ''
(ZecR, aY-2337)
cjc^ cj\ 227

11. cYhe ia^c

""iiee @\cu i^e Z^U (ia^c ) @]Ke @Q
eja _A NeUG, \j Xua _A K^UG Ga eU I
_Y ''
(ZecR, aY-2341)
12. KjeK jZ_Z cM^j
""(c^eL) ~G @^Ve cMae l eja, @fj ZK
_eZ Ke\a ''
(ZecR, aY-2024)
13. iie GK Zz a
""@fju ^KUe iiee cf ~\ MUG cg _e
Zf c jA[@, Za i @ag iKe (^K)c^u
i[e XK _Y c \A ^ [@ ''
(ZecR, aY-2320)
14. @e i ej
""Zcc^u ce ~ Kj iKk GcZ @aie CV ~
i Z' Ne ielZ @Q, Z' gee ii ejQ Ga i
\^K _A Ze L\ cjR\ @Q, Za Gj ij_e,
~_e ZK ie iie ck~AQ ''
(ZecR, aY-2346)
15. KC ]^ Zce
""bq Kj "c ]^', "c ]^'; K Z' ]^e Kak
Z^U @g Ze, ~j i LG, ~j i _ _eY
Ke\G (@[Z aaje Ke\G) Ga ~j i (@^ _A
\^ e_e) Ly Ke\G Ga GjK j i ^R _A
228 cjc^ cj\

MzZ eL Gj aZZ aK ]^ Zc Kce ^j,

KeY Zc @^c^u _A ZK QW\A ~a ''
(ij cifc, 4[ L, aY-2959)
16. iie ^Kc^ue M
""Gj iie agiKec^u _A GK agk Ga
^Kc^ue Gj M ''
(ZecR, aY-2324)
17. ]^i Vk Ke ^j
""i Vk Ke ^j Gj ZcK iie_c Ke\a ''
(ZecR, aY-2328)
18. ^R Zk fKu \L
""^RVe ^cee [a fKc^u \L; K ^RVe
C_e ee [a fKu \L ^j, KeY Gj Kf,
Zc _Z @fj Ke[a @^MjMWK Zc jd c^
Kea ''
(ij cifc, 4[ L, aY-2963)
19. ]^i\e _P~ cYhK ^ Ke\G

""@fju eY, Zcc^ Mea jA~ae cZ bd
^j, K c @gu KeQ ~ iieK i\ Zcc^u
_Pe _ecYe \@~a, ~cZK Zc _a fKc^u
\@~A[f Ga Zcc^ G[_A _ee ce icZ
_Z\Z Kea, ~cZ Zc _aRc^ Ke[f Ga Gj
Zcc^u iZcMe icZ aPZ Ke\a, ~cZ Gj
ic^u aPZ Ke[f ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-433)
cjc^ cj\ 229

20. Bgeu _Z bei eL

""~\ Zc @fju C_e CPZ bei eL, Za i
ZcK ijbk @je ~MA \@ ~_e PXAK
\@~G i iKk Lf_Ue aje ~G; K _U
b Ke `e ''
(ZecR, aY-2344)
21. _KZ
i @Z_eZ

""i @[ ]^e _P~ ^j, ae (_KZ) i jCQ
@Zih ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-453)
22. i\_\ge cj
""\ARYu _e jae Kc^ Ke (1) RY jCQ
ij aq ~jK @fj ]^i\ \AQ Ga i ZK
CPZ cMe Ly Ke, (2) @^ RY aq ~jK
@fj iZm^ \AQ, i Z\^~d Kc Ke Ga
@^c^u Ze gl \G ''
(ij aLe, 9c L, aY-255)
23. Bge @e \L
""@fj Zce cj a Zc ]^i \L ^j i
Zce @eK \L Ga Zce KcMW K \L ''
(ij cifc, 4[ L, aY-2564)
24. ^RK Bgeu ^KUe ic_Z
""i ic_Z @Z aZZ Me Kj _ag Kea
^j ''
(ZecR, aY-2547)
230 cjc^ cj\

25. caiu _Z \d Ke
""\dcd \dk c ^u _ Z \d Ke Z c
caic^u _Z \d Ke i Zc _Z \d Kea,
~G M C_e @ai^ Ke ''
(ZecR, aY-1924)
26. ^d
_Z \d Ke~a ^j
""~G @^ _Z \d Ke ^j, Z' _Z c \d
Ke~a ^j ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-42)
27. ^R _A ~j _i Ke, @^_A c Zjj Ke
""Zcc^u ce RY cifc^ jA_ea ^j ~\ i
@^ _A VK Zjj _i ^ Ke, ~j i ^R _A
_i Ke ''
(ij aLe, 1c L, aY-12)
28. GKgea\ Mfb Kea
""M\Z RaAf c ^KUK @i ii\ \f ~
~C aq @fju aZZ @^ Kje C_i^ ^ Ke
cZ aeY Ke, i Me _ag Kea ''
(ij aLe, 9c L, aY-579)
29. Z^U cj__
""_g KeMfj Bge\Z ! iaVe aW __ K'Y ?
i Ce \f@^c^ue C_i^ Ke ic^u
@fjue _Z\ Kea, ~\I i GK j Zcc^u i
KeQ _g KeMfZ'_e ? i Kjf, L\e
bM jA~a @gue ^Re i^K jZ (bY jZ)
cjc^ cj\ 231

Kea _g KeMfZ'_e ? i Kjf_Wge

_Z ij @a] iK eLa ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-802)
30. GKgea\c^ ^Ke ajea
""~G Kj ~ @fju aZZ @^ Kje ia-C_i^
_Aae @]Ke ^j Ga Z' j\de MUG af \^
_e Gj agi [G, ZK ^Ke aje Ke ^@~a ''
(ij aLe, 1c L, aY-42)
31. C_i^ Kak Bgeu @]Ke
""Gj ^R bqc^u C_e @fjue @]Ke ~, ic^
Zue ia-C_i^ Ke Ga Zu aZZ @^ Kje
C_i^ ^ Ke ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-507)
32. _ZcZue iae ]c~
e _Y
""RY aq ]c~e @gMjY Kea _A Bge\Zue
@^cZ cMf ZY Bge\Z Zu _g KfK'Y Zc
a_ c@ RaZ @Q ? i Ce \f"j' ZY
Bge\Z Kjf~@, ic^ue La ia Ke ''
(ij cifc, 4[ L, aY-2549)
33. jZbM _Z
""i fK a^ jC, a^ jC '' _g KeMf
""j Bge\Z ! i KG ?'' i Kjf""~G ^R a_
c@u ce RYK a Cbdu aaie \L, Z[_
(ic^u iaKe) Me _ag Ke_e ^j ''
(ij cifc, 4[ L, aY-2551)
232 cjc^ cj\

34. _ZcZ _i^ jf Bge _i^ j@

""_bue _i^Z _ZcZu _i^Z ce ^jZ Ga
_bue K] _ZcZue K] ce ^jZ ''
(ZecR, aY-1899)
35. cYh C_e iaVe ag @]Ke c'e
RY aq Bge\Zu _g Kf""j @fjue ]c\Z !
ia fKc^u ce c ia~Z (Cc aaje)e
KG ag @]Ke ?'' i Ce \f""Zc c', Zc
c' _Y Zc c', Z'_e Zc a_ (Ga) Z'_e
^KUZ @^~d Zce id ''
(ij cifc, 4[ L, aY-2548)
36. _ZcZue @am cj__
""cj__MWK ce iaVe aW __ jCQ @fju
ijZ KjeK bM\e Kea, ^ejZ Kea, _ZcZu
@am Kea Ga c[ il _\^ Kea ''
(ij aLe, 9c L, aY-10)
37. _ZcZue @]Ke
RY aq @b~M Kf""j @fjue aaj, ce
KQ i @Q @C _@UG c @Q, K c a_ c
iZK (LA) aea\ Ke\aK PjQ '' Gj gY
cjc^ Bge\Z Kjf""Zc @C Zce ]^i,
Cbd Zc a_ue ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-2291)
38. eqe iK KUf ^Kai jG
""~C aq eq iKe a^ KU \G, i aKYe
_ag Kea ^j ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-13)
cjc^ cj\ 233

39. @Zdc^u ij iiK @d a Ke

""~G Pj ~ Z' ]^ I @d aX, i ^R ^KU
iKdc^u ij Cc iK eLa CPZ ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-15)
40. iK KUMf, ~W\
""eq iK el Kea ~[ ^j, ae ~\ Gj iK
KU~G, ZK _^ae ~W\a CPZ ''
(ZecR, aY-1908)
41. KYi iZKcK QU c^ Ke^j
""KYi iZKcK QU c^ Ke^j, Zj ^R bA
ij ji _\K[ Kja jC _Q ''
(ij cifc, 4[ L, aY-2626)
42. cZ _ZcZu _A i^e Kc
RY aq Bge\Zu _g Kf""j Bge\Z ! K'Y
GcZ KQ Kc @Q, ~jK c _ZcZue cZ _e
c ic^u _A Ke_ea ?'' i Ce \f""j,
Zc ic^u _A _[^ Ke_e, ic^ue cl
_A _[^ Ke, ic^ue @c @\g _k^ Ke,
ic^u _Z ^be Ke[a iKdc^u ij Cc iK
eL Ga ic^u ac^u _Z i^ _\g^ Ke ''
(@a \C\, aY-5123)
43. K^i^e ~Z ^f M _ jG
""~\ Kj Z^U S@ue fk^ _k^ Ke, ic^u
kZ Ke, aaj \G Ga ic^u ijZ bf aaje
Ke, i M fb Kea ''
(@a \C\, aY-5128)
234 cjc^ cj\

44. i^c^u ij ic^ aaje Ke

""@fju _Z bd eL Ga ^Re i^c^u _Z ic^
bae aaje Ke ''
(ij cifc, 3d L, aY-1623)
45. i\PeYe gl _Ze g C_je
""i\PeYe gl \a aZZ RY _Z _le i^
_A @C @]K bf KQ C_je ^j ''
(ZecR, aY-1952)
46. _Zc^u ij bf aaje Ke
""c Zcc^u _Zc^u ijZ Cc aaje Keae @m
\CQ, KeY ic^ Zce @gZ Ga Zc @]^e ej ''
(ZecR, aY-1163)
47. _Z _Z _Ze Ka
Bge\Zu _g KeMf""@c _Zc^u iKe @_Y
K'Y @\g \CQ ?'' i Ce \f""^R ~j
L@, ic^u ij_e L@@ ^R ~cZ _, ic^u
ij_e _@, ic^u ce ^j a Mk\@ ^j ''
(@a \C\, aY-2139)
48. aaj az\ Bge _i Ke ^j
""ic a] KcMW K ce aaj-az\ (ZfK) @fju
iaVe @_d
(@a \C\, aY-2173, 2172)
49. cK i eL[a
^e M bM Kea
""~C ^e cZaeY Kea icde Z'e c Z'
C_e i [G, i ^e @ag Me _ag Kea ''
(ZecR, aY-1161)
cjc^ cj\ 235

50. ce @^cZ ^@
""_Ze @^cZ a^ _Z Z' Ne KjeK KQ \a
CPZ ^j ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-2295)
51. cK ZM Ke^j
""KYi \X KeY ^ [A ~\ KYi _Z Z' cVe
az\ Pj, Z' _A Me iM ^h jA~a ''
(@a \C\, aY-2218)
52. K^e @^cZ a^ Z'e aaj \@^j
""KYi (c _eZq a a]a) cjk ij aPe ^
Ke Z'K aaj \a CPZ ^j Ga RY Kce
K^e @^cZ ^ ^A ZK aaj \a CPZ ^j ''
(ij cifc, 2d L, aY-1419)
53. ]c_edY K^ j Cc _Z jG
""PeU Cge RY ^eK aaj Ke~G, ~[
Z' ]^i ~M, _eaeK _Z ~M, Z' i~
~M Ga Z' ]c_edYZ ~M iZe Zc ia\
]c_edY cjk ij aaj Ke ''
(ij aLe, 7c L, aY-27)
54. ]c_edY _Z g i\
""iie MUG i\ Ga iie ce RY ]c_edY
Ve @]K bf KYi i\ ^j ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-1855)
55. ce @]Ke
""~\ c KjK @fju aZZ @^ KjeK _Yc
Keae @\g \A[@, Za _ZK _Yc Kea_A
236 cjc^ cj\

_ZK @\g \A[@ ~ju jZe c Ra^

ejQ Zue g_[ ^A KjQ, RY Z' _b (Bge)u
Zu @]Ke \A_ea ^j, ~_~ i ^R cK
Z' @]Ke ^ \AQ ~\ c ZK ic_Y KeaK
Kj, Za i IU C_e ai[f c c^ Kea
CPZ ^j ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-1853)
56. _ZK _haK ilc [f, aaj Ke^@
""j ~aKc^ ! ~G e _Z_hY KeaK ic[, i
aaj Kea CPZ, KeY Gj @^ZKZe el Ke
~je ic[ ^j, i C_ai _k^ Ke, KeY Gj
KcAzK ^dY Ke[G ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-1845)
57. _eae _Z _hY c GK cjZ Kc
""^R _eae _Qe Ly Kea c MUG (_Kee)
\^ ''
(ZecR, aY-1965)
58. _Wge cj
""M\Z RaAf _Zagc^u ij a^c I \d_
aaje Kea iKg cZ GZ cZe KjaK fMf
~, c baf a]jG i _Wgu ce Ce]Ke
Ke\a _A @\g \A\a ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-44)
59. _WgK K \@^j
@fjue eY, ij aq cZ agi Ke^j, @fju
eY, ij aq cZ agi Ke ^j, @fju eY,
cjc^ cj\ 237

ij aq cZ agi Ke ^j _PeMf""j
Bge\Z ! i KG ?'' i Ce \f""ij aq
~je ZW^e Z' _Wg ^RK ^e_\ c^ Ke^j ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-45)
60. _WgK K \f ^Kai jG
""ij aq aKY e _ag Ke_ea ^j, ~je \ce
Z' _Wg ielZ ^j ''
(ij cifc, 1c L, aY-4)
61. _WgK KQ C_je \@
""~Zak ZeKe e, UKG Sk @]K Ke\@
Ga i[e KQ ^R _WgK \@ ''
(ij cifc, 4[ L, aY-2625)
62. ^~ ZZe Mje Bge @ag gY
""Z^U _[^ (Bgeu \e) MjZ jG, G ahde
KYi ij ^j^~ ZZ fKUe _[^, RY _[Ke
_[^ Ga _Z aee _Ze _[^ ''
(ZecR, aY-1905)
63. l][K bR^ \@
""l][K bR^ \@, eM ij ilZ Ke Ga
KZ\ic^u cq Ke ''
(ij aLe, 7c L, aY-552)
64. bZc^u bA _e \L
""Zc \ic^ Zce bA Ga @fj ic^u Zc
@]^i Ke\AQ ZY ~j @]^e Gbk bAUG
@Q, i ZK iAd L@C ~j i ^R LG Ga
ZK iAd _C ~j i ^R _ ic^u
238 cjc^ cj\

ic^ue ic[ aje [a KYi K~ Keae @\g

\@^j Ga ~\ \@, Za i[e ic^u ij~
Ke ''
(ij aLe, 1c L, aY-29)
65. a\^Z ij @Z[ i}e Ke
""~G @fj Ga @c aPe \^ _Z agi Ke, i
^R _ZagK K \a CPZ ^j, ~G @fj Ga
@c aPe \^ _Z agi Ke, i a\^Ze ij ^R
@Z[e i}e Kea CPZ Ga ~G @fj Ga @c
aPe\^ _Z agi Ke, i Kak Cc K[ Kj
K ^ea ej ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-158)
66. @^[e _Z _hY Kf M ck
""c Ga (KYi) @^[e __hKZ Ke[a aq
GAbk cg Me eja '' cjc^ Bge\Z ^Re
\A @wV \LA iuZ \f
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-34)
67. a]ae ijdZ c Rj\
""RY Mea a a]a cjke ~Z ^C[a K ic^u
ijdZ _A C\c Ke[a aq @fju cMe iMc
(Rj\) Ke[a aq ij ic^ K ij aq i\g, ~G
\^ ie C_ai _k^ Ke Ga eZie ^cR _X ''
(ij aLe, 7c L, aY-265)
68. ia} \^
RY aq Bge\Zu _g Kf""j @fju aaj !
KC \^e _Z\ ^ ia} ?'' i Ce \f
cjc^ cj\ 239

""~C \^ Zc ii [a @aie \@ Ga ~Zak

\e\ jA~ae ZcK @gu [G, @C (~Zak)
Zc (@]K) ]^a^ jaK Pj ''
(ij aLe, 2d L, aY-500)
69. Bge\Zc^ue Ce]Ke ^ ['
""@c (Bge\Z)c^ue Ce]Ke ^ [@ @c
~j QW~C Zj \^ Ke \@~G ''
(ij cifc, 3d L, aY-1751)
70. ]^ Rc Ke eL^j
""~\ c _Le Cj\ _jW @Kee i^ [@,
Za c Kak EY _eg] Kea Cg aZZ c
Z^ eZe @]K i[e KQ ^R _Le eLa _i
Ke ^j ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-452)
71. @Le abPe
""@Le abPe jCQ ai^_ \ Ga Rj e abPe
jCQ @gk K[ ''
(ij cifc, 4[ L, aY-2657)
72. eM ij ilZ Ke
""RY _WZe ilZ _A ~A[a aq (NeK) `ea
_~ Me `k\^e aPeY Ke[G ''
(ij cifc, 4[ L, aY-2568)
73. \^\Lu _L _L Bge [@
~C\^ ic _^RaZ ja, i\^ cjcjc @fj
cYhK _Pea""j @\cu i^ ! c @ii [f;
240 cjc^ cj\

K Z c ijZ ilZ Kf ^j ?'' i Kja""j

_b ! c @_Yu ij K_e ilZ Ke_ea ? @_Y Z
ieRMZe _k^K '' Z'_e @fj ZK _Pea
""K'Y Z Gj RY^[f ~ ce @cK bq @ii
[f ? K Z Z' ij ilZ Kf ^j ~\ Z Z' ij
\L Ke[@, Za cZ Z' ^KUe _A[@ ''
""j @\c_Z ! c ZZ LAaK cM[f; K Z cZ
LAaK \f^j '' i aq Kja""j _b ! c bf
@_Yu K_e LAaK \A_ea ? @_Y ~ ie RMZe
_k^K ?'' i Kja""Z K'Y Gj RY^[f ~
ce @cK bq ZZ LAaK cM[f ? K Z ZK
L@Af ^j K'Y Z Gj RY ^[f ~, ~\ Z ZK
LAaK \A[@, Za cZ Z' _Le _A[@ ?''
""j @\c_Z ! c ZZ _Y cM[f, K Z cZ
\f ^j '' i Kja""j _b, c @_Yu K_e _Y
\A[@ ? @_Y ~ ieRMZe _k^K ?'' Z'_e
_b Kja""ce @cK bq ZZ _Y cM[f, K
Z ZK \f ^j ~\ Z ZK _Y \A[@, Za
cZ Z' ^KUe _A[@ ''
(ij cifc, 4[ L, aY-2569)
74. @fj \dcd Ga \d _i Ke
""@fj \dcd Ga i \d _i Ke ''
(ij cifc, 4[ L, aY-2593)
75. iac aq
""Zcc^u ce ijc^ iaVe bf, ~Cc^ue
aaje I PeZ iaVe bf
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-56)
cjc^ cj\ 241

76. _ePZ
I @_ePZ
K gbz RY@
""Meac^u bR^ \@ Ga _ePZ I @_ePZ Cbdu
gbz RY@ (Aifce gbz jCQ "@i-ifc @fKc '
@[Z, @_Yue cwk jC) ''
(ij aLe, 1c L, aY-11)
77. _[c Zc gbz RY@
""~Cc^ (@^K) _[c gbz RY, ic^
@fjue i^ fb Ke ''
(@a \C\, aY-5178)
78. MeR
^c^u i^ Ke
""~G @c i^c^u _Z \d ^ Ke Ga @c
MeR^c^u i^ ^ Ke, i @c ce ^j ''
(ZecR, aY-1919)
79. ^cY Ke Ke
""KZ\ic^u cq Ke Ga (@^e) ^cY Ke
Ke ''
(ij aLe, 9c L, aY-285)
80. PeZa
^ aqe c~\
""RY ag iKe Cc PeZ ake eZe _[^ Ke[a
Ga \^e C_ai Ke[a aqe c~\ jif Kea ''
(@a \C\, aY-4780)
81. _\c~\ @^~d aaje Ke
""fKc^u ijZ ic^u _\c~\ @^~d aaje
Ke ''
(@a \C\, aY-4824)
242 cjc^ cj\

82. EY _Z C\e j@
RY aq fKu Uu KeR \G Ga i ^R KcPeu
Kj""~\ EY Mea [G, Z' EY lc Ke\@,
~j`ke jGZ @fj @cK lc Ke\a '' iZe
Z' cZ _e ~Zak i @fju ij ilZ Kf,
@fj ZK lc Ke\f
(ij aLe, 4[ L, aY-687)
83. C_jee _Z\
^ \@
""~\ KjeK C_je e_ KQ \@~G, Za ic[
[f i Ze _Za\k \a CPZ ~\ i @ic[,
Za i G[_A \Ze _gi Kea CPZ ~G C_je-
\Ze _gi Ke, i ZK ]^a\ \G Ga ~G
C_jeK M eL, i Z' _Z @KZmZ _Kg Ke ''
(@a \C\, aY-4795)
84. ^~ZZc^ue ijdZ Ke
""^~ZZc^ue ijdZ Ke Ga _[jec^u aU
\L@ ''
(@a \C\, aY-4799)
85. ^de [f i Kkj GWA\@
""c Me _eie ce ij aqK NeUG \ae
\dZ ^CQ ~G ^de [A i Kkj GWA \G
ij aqK Me cbMe NeUG \ae \dZ ^CQ
~G _ejie c cQ Kj^j Ga ij aqK Me
C_ebMe NeUG \ae \dZ ^CQ ~G bfe_
^R PeZe ^cY Ke ''
(@a \C\, aY-4782)
cjc^ cj\ 243

86. @^ _Z \d Ke, Zc _Z \d Ke~a

""~G fKc^u _Z \d ^ Ke, @fj Z' _Z c
\d Kea ^j ''
(ZecR, aY-1922)
87. Kje i^ l Ke ^j
""~G ^R bAe i^ el Ke, @fj ZK _^eZ[^
\^ ^KMe iel _\^ Kea ''
(ZecR, aY-1931)
88. _e^ Ke^j
Bge\Zu _g KeMf""j Bge\Z ! _e^ K'Y ?''
i Kjf""^R bA ahde Gbk K[ Kja ~j
i _i Ke^j '' _g jf""c Z' ahde ~j
Kj ~\ Zj iZ jA[G ?'' Bge\Z Kjf""~\
Zj iZ, Za Zc Z'e ^ KeQ @C ~\ Gj
iZ ^j, Za Zc Z' _Z c[e_ Kf ''
(ZecR, aY-1934)
89. Bh _YK LA~G
""Bh Ke^j, KeY Bh _YK GcZ LA~G ~cZ
^@ RkY a NiK LA~G ''
(@a \C\, aY-4885)
90. cQ Kja GK ag iNZKZ
""Zc Zc bAK KQ Kj Ga i ZK agi Ke,
K Zc ZK ^eU cQK[ Kj[@ Gj (Z' _Z)
Ne agiNZKZ ''
(@a \C\, aY-4953)
244 cjc^ cj\

91. g i_^ _A Kj~A[a cQ, cQ ^j

""~G fKc^u ce (KQ cQ Kj) g i_^
Ke, i c[a\ ^j ''
(ZecR, aY-1938)
92. g i_^ GK cj_Y
""c Zcc^u C_ai, _[^ Ga \^ @_l @]K
g Kc ahde Kja K ?''
fKc^ Ce \f""Kj, j Bge\Z ''
i Kjf""fKc^u ce ckcg Ke\a ''
(@a \C\, aY-4901)
93. Z^U ~Me cQ Kja giZ
""Z^U i^ aZZ @^ i^e c[ Kja a] ^j
^R _ZK Li Kea _A KQU cQ Kja, ~ icde
c[ Kja Ga fKc^u ce (aa\e ccg
Ke) g i_^ Kea_A c[ Kja ''
(ZecR, aY-1939)
94. @^K lc Ke
RY aq Bge\Zu ^KUK @i _g Kf""j
Bge\Z ! RY bZK KZ[e lc Ke~a CPZ ?
Bge\Z ^ea ejf Z'_e i _Y _g Kf
""j Bge\Z ! RY bZK KZ [e lc Kea
CPZ '' Bge\Z Ce \f""_Z\ ^ iZe [e ''
(ZecR, aY-1949)
95. KZm j@
""~C aq cYhc^u _Z KZm ^j, i @fju _Z
c KZm ^j ''
(ZecR, aY-1954)
cjc^ cj\ 245

96. bfKc QU jf a cjZ_

""RY aq ~C[a icde aUe K< _W[a \L
ZK CVA\f, @fj Z' _Z _i^ jf Ga Z'
\h lc Ke\f ''
(ZecR, aY-1958)
97. ee @]Ke
""ia]^ j@ ! e C_e ai ^j '' fKc^
Kjf""j @fju ]c\Z ! @c ee ^ ai
ej_ea ^j iVe @c ai K[a Ke '' Bge\Z
Kjf""~\ Zc ee aiaK Pj, Za ZK Z'e
@]Ke \@ '' ic^ _g Kf""j Bge\Z ! ee
@]Ke K'Y ?'' Bge\Z Ce \f""\ ZkK eLa,
@^K K ^ \a, gbze _Zgbz RYAa, iZ
C_\g \a Ga KKce @^K ^a eLa ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-248)
98. a^c j@
""~C aq _Le a^cZ ^j, Z' _Le KYi
bfMY ^j ''
(ij cifc, 4[ L, aY-2592)
99. RaRu _Z \d Ke
""RY fKK G[_A \Z KeMf ~ i MUG
aeWK a eL[ae Z'e cZ jAMf i aeWUK
LAa _AaK \A ^[f K L\ @jeY _A ZK
ajeK c QW ^[f Gj KeY ~M ij fK
RYK ^KMc jf ''
(ij aLe, 4[ L, aY-689)
246 cjc^ cj\

100. _ZK _Ye iae _Y ck

""aUe ~C[a icde RY aqK _ak gh jf
Ga i MUG K@ bZe _g _Y _Af _Y _Aie
ajea _e i \Lf ~ MUG KKe _ak ghe
aKk jA cUK\@ LA~CQ fKU c^K c^ Kjf
"GA KKeU VK iAbk K bMQ, ~cZ KQ icd
_a c bM[f ' iZe i _Y K@ bZe _gf, ^R
RZe _Y b Ke ZK _Ue KcW ]e K@e aje
@if Z'_e i Zh KKeUK _Y _@Af @fj
ij aqUe Gj Kc ~M @Z _i^ jf Ga Z'e
ia __ lc Ke\f (Bge\ZuVe) Gj gY C_iZ
fKc^ _g Kf""j Bge\Z ! K'Y _gc^ue
ia Kf c @cK _Y cka ?'' cjc^ Bge\Z
Ce \f""j, _ZK _Ye iae _Y ck ''
(ij aLe, 3d L, aY-551)
101. KKe _Z \d c _YK~
""[e Zh KKeUG MUG K@ Pe_U af[f
Ga gh ~M _d ceaK ai[f RY AiAf
\jRa Gj \Lf Ga ^R RZ aje Ke i[e
ZK _Y @Y _@Af ZY @fj Z'e ij iZKc
_A ZK lc Ke\f ''
(ij aLe, 4[ L, aY-673)
102. ale_Y GK cjZ K~
""~\ RY cifc^ ale_Y Ke K gi aY Ga
Zje KYi _g_l a cYh L\ _@, Za Z'e Gj
Kc Bgeu ^KUe "\^' e_ aaPZ jG ''
(ij aLe, 3d L, aY-513)
cjc^ cj\ 247

103. \dgk j@
RY a\A^ aq ciR\ ce _ei Ke\f
fKc^ ZK cea _A C\Z jf ZY Bge\Z
Kjf""ZK _ei KeaK \@ '' Z'_e Bge\Z
afUG _Y cMA ij _ei i^K ]A\f
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-54)
104. \'cj aq @Z RNY
""_^eZ[^ \^ \'cj fKc^ @fju \e
iaVe RNY fK ja, ~Cc^ue KQ fKu
_Le MUG Pje Ga @C KQ fKu _Le
@C MUG Pje ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-84)
105. K_Ue flY
""RY K_Ue Z^U flY [GK[ Kjf i cQ
Kj, aP^ \f ZK bw\G Ga ~\ Zc Z' _Z
agi Ke, i agiNZKZ Ke ''
(ij aLe, 1c L, aY-32)
106. gqc^ ij ~G K] ^dY Ke_e
""bf K Ke[a fK gqc^ ^j; ae gqc^
jCQ ij, ~G K] icde ^RK ^dY Ke_e ''
(ij cifc, 4[ L, aY-2609)
107. Kj _Z @KeYe ij Ke^j
""gid _ Z ia]^ ! KeY (@~[) ij
cQKjYVe @je Le_ @^e \h @^hY Ke^j,
_eee MK[ RYae _di Ke^j, @gk Kc
Ke^j, _ee _Z Bh Ke^j a _eeK NY
248 cjc^ cj\

Ke^j Ga ^R ^R ce K[a a Ke^j j

@fjue bq, bA bA jA ej
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-92)
108. Kkj Ke ^j
""Kkj_d aq @fju \e @Z RNY ''
(ij aLe, 9c L, aY-298)
109. C_aie Cg Kak L\ZM ^j
""~G c[ aP^ Kja, KKc Kea Ga @^ _Z Le_
bh _dM Kea ^ QW, @fju Ze (C_aie)
L\, _^d QW\ae KYi @agKZ ^j ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-83)
110. @jKe aKY
~a ^j
""~j c^e MUG ieh IR^e @jKe [a, i
aKYe _ag Kea ^j Ga ~j c^e MUG
ieh IR^e agi [a, i (^K) @Me _ag Kea
^j ''
(ZecR, aY-1998)
111. PMf@ aKYK ~a^j
""PMf@ aq aKYe _ag Kea ^j ''
(ZecR, aY-2026)
112. iZKc @iZKce K_b
aK ^ Ke\G

""Zc ~CVe [@, @fju _Z bd eL Ga KYi
@iZKc Ke\a _e GjK \ebZ Kea _A KYi
bfKc Ke^@ Ga fKu ijZ bf aaje Ke ''
(ZecR, aY-1987)
cjc^ cj\ 249

113. MK \L K NeejQ
""MK (ab^ _Ke) \L K NeejQ Ga ^KK
Ne ejQ Kc^ '' (@[Z MK ~aK jf @^K
Azae I @_d Kc KeaK _Wa; K ^KK ~a_A
jf Kak AzMWK _ Ke\a j ~[ )
(ZecR, aY-2559)
114. lc Kf i^ aX, a^c jf c~\ aX
""\^ Kf ]^ Kc~G ^j @^K lc \f @fj
cYhe i^ a Ke Ga ~G @fju _A a^c
jG, @fj Ze c~\ a Ke ''
(ZecR, aY-2029)
115. iac aq
""Zcc^u ce iaVe bf cYh jCQ iA,
~jVe (ia\) bf @g Ke~G Ga fK Z'
\ce ^e_\e ej Ga iaVe caq jCQ
iA, ~jVe KYi bf K[ @g Ke~G ^j Ga
fK Z' \Ze ^RK ielZ c^ Ke ^j ''
(ZecR, aY-2263)
116. i I icde @_aaje Ke ^j
""@]Kg fK \AU @^Mje @_ad Keie I
icde ''
(ZecR, aY-2304)
117. cZc^ue ^ Ke^j
""cZc^ue ^ Ke ^j Gj\e RaZc^u K
jG ''
(ZecR, aY-1982)
250 cjc^ cj\

118. _c _Kg Ke
""~\ Zcc^u ce Kj Z' bAK _c Ke,
GK[ i ZK RYA \C ''
(ZecR, aY-2392)
119. ]~e _Z\^ M
cjcjc @fj KjQ""c ~je \gq Q^ Ke
Ga i ]~ ]e (c'Ve) _Z\^e @g eL,
Za ZK M aZZ @^ KYi _Z\^ \A c
i ja ^j ''
(ZecR, aY-2401)
120. @^ _Z Bh Ke^j
""^R bAe a_\e Li j@ ^j, KeY @fj Z'
_Z @^Mj Ke Ga ZcK _el Ke ''
(ZecR, aY-2506)
121. \^ KCVe @e Kea
""j @\cu i^ ! ~j Zc _Le akK ej~G, ZK
@^K (\^) Ke\a j Zc _le cwk Ga ZK _Le
eLa Zc _A bf ^j K ~ZK eLf ~[ ja,
iZK eLf lZ ^j Ga Zc C_e ^be Ke[a
fKuVe (\^ \a) @e Ke \C[a jZ MjY
Ke[a jZ @_l gde ''
(ZecR, aY-2343)
122. Kc^e @ ^j
""Bge\Z @c _Le bc C_e MUG PeKY@
Ne KUf Ga Gje cSe MUG iekeL UYf
~jK ij PeKY@ Nee ajeK aje [f cS
cjc^ cj\ 251

eLe Cbd _U i ab^ (@Kee) eLc^ UYf

(_d Gj_e)
Kc^ (N)

\L a_ (M)
_ecd (L)
cYh (K)

Z'_e i Kjf G jCQ @\cue i^ (K) Ga

Gj jCQ Ze _ecd (L) ~jK ZK Pe@W Ne
ejQ cSe [a eLU cYh Ga Z' Cbd _U
[a QU aW eLMWK Z' \L a_ (M), ~\ i
MUK _e Ke~G, Za @^U ZK cWai
(Nee) ajeK aje[a eLU jCQ cYhe Kc^
(N) (~jK Z'e _ecdVe @MK aX ejQ)
(ZecR, aY-2454)
123. ^~ZZc^u _[^ _Z ia]^
""^~ZZ cYhc^ue _[^ _Z ia]^, KeY
ic^ue _[^ I @fju ce KYi _ZaK ^
[G ''
(ZecR, aY-2014)
124. Kwk KG
Bge\Z \^ ^Re ghc^u _Pef""Kjf, Kwk
KG ?'' ghc^ Ce \f""~j _Le Uu
_Ai ^j, ij Kwk '' Bge\Z Kjf""@c^u
252 cjc^ cj\

ce Kwk ij, ~G @c aPe\^ ^cR, C_ai,

RKZ (\^)e be ^A @i[a ; K \^@ e KjeK
MkMfR Ke[a, Kj _Z c[e_ Ke[a, KjK
cW_U Ke[a K Kj ]^ @^de LA~A[a
~Zak i aPee iL^ ja, Z' \e
@ZPeZ jA[a fKc^ jRe ja Ga ~je
~j KQ @]Ke i ja Ze @RZ _Ye ic^u
(lZ _eY) \A \@~a, G_eK Ze ia _Y ie~a,
Z'_e \a\ec^u __ Z' C_e f\ \@~a
Ga ZK ^Ke `w \@~a ''
(ij cifc, 4[ L, aY-2581)
125. @^K KKce ^a
""Zcc^u ce Kj ~\ (KYi) KKc jC[ae
\L, Za i Zj ^R jZe a Ke ~\ jZ
\e a KeaK i ic[ ^j, Za K[ Kj a
Ke Ga ~\ Kj Gj c KeaK ic[ ^j, Za
@Z ^R c^e GjK Le_ ba Ga Gj jCQ
iaVe \akc (Bge) agi ''
(ZecR, aY-2172)
126. ^de K[UG Kja MUG aW Rj\
""@ZPe giK iLe ^de K[UG Kja MUG
aW Rj\ (Bgeu _A iNh) ''
(ZecR, aY-2174)
127. @ZPe I @ZPeZ, Cbdu eK
Zc bA @ZPe jC a @ZPeZ, ZK ij~
Ke RY aq _g Kf""j Bge\Z ! ~\ Z'
_Z @ZPe jAQ Za Z c ZK (^d) ij~
cjc^ cj\ 253

Kea, K ~\ i @ZPe jA[G, Za c ZK

K_e ij~ Kea ?'' Bge\Z Ce \f""ZK
@^ _Z @ZPe KeaK ^ \a Gjj ZK Zce
ij~ ''
(ij aLe, 9c L, aY-84)
128. @^e ]^-Ra^ I c^-i^ _Z i^ Ke
""Zcc^ _eee ]^-Ra^ I c^-i^e _aZZ
_Z i^ _\g^ Kea ~_e @Re Gj \^ Ga Gj
ije _Z i^ _\g^ Ke@Q ''
(ZecR, aY-2159)
129. cifc^ abPe Kea icde cifc^ ^[G
""RY abPe @a] ~^ iwc Ke[a icde
ag iKe (cifc^) ^[G Ga RY aq Pe Ke[a
icde cifc^ ^[G ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-883)
130. giKc^ lcZe \e_
~M Ke ^j
""~\ @fj KYi aqK KQ fKu gi^ Keae
lcZ _\^ Ke Ga i ic^ue CPZ \LgY
^ Ke (@[Z ^d_ ba gi^ ^ Ke) Za
i Me iM c _Aa ^j ''
(ij aLe, 9c L, aY-264)
131. Kj ^d ^ Ke, Zc ^d Ke
""_Z K[e j cea fKu _e j@^j, ~Cc^
Kj"~\ fK bf ja Za @c bf ja
Ga ~\ ic^ @ZPe Kea Za @c c
Kea ' ae ^R c^K ie Ke ~\ fK bf
254 cjc^ cj\

j@ Zc bf (aaje) Ke Ga ~\ ic^ Le_

j@, Za Zc @^d Ke^j ''
(ZecR, aY-2007)
132. cZ _ae
\h lc KeA^@
""@fj ij bq _Z \d Ke, ~G Z' bAe ]^
a i^ ^ Keae \h Ke, (K) Z'_e i
Z' ^KUK @i (^R \h _A) lcbl Ke^G (@c
aPe\^ Gj @]Ke) Q^ ja _ae, ~Zak Z'
_Le Uu [a ^ _Ai, iZak ~\ Z'e KQ
_Y [a, Zj KX ^@~a Ga ~\ Z'e _Y ^[a,
Za Z' bAe __ Z' C_e f\ \@~a ''
(ZecR, aY-2419)
133. cj_kde _abi
""cj_kde _abi ce Gj c ejQ ~,
(1) (gmc^u cZ `ke) ]cm^ f_ _A~a,
(2) @mZe eRZ ja, (3) c\_^ GK i]eY K[
ja Ga (4) _Kg bae @a] ~^ iwc ja ''
(ij aLe, 1c L, aY-80)
134. lcZ @~Mc^u jZK @ia
""~Zak lcZ @~M fKc^u jZK @i,
_kde _Zl Ke ''
(ij aLe, 1c L, aY-56)
135. @Z]K eq_Z ja
""cj_kd _ae GcZ icd @ia, ~Zak iZ-
m^ f_ _A~a Ga @mZ Ze i^ MjY Kea Ga
ajk bae eq_Z ja ''
(ij cifc, 4[ L, aY-2672)
cjc^ cj\ 255

136. jZKe jZe KeY RY ^[a

""Zu eY ~ju jZe c Ra^ ejQ, GcZ GK
icd ^d @ia ~Zak jZ Ke[a fK (^R)
RY^[a ~ i KjK jZ Kf Ga jZ Ke~A[a
fKU c RY^[a ~ ZK KjK jZ KeMf ''
(ij cifc, 4[ L, aY-2908)
137. ^ejZ cj__
""cj__MWK ce iaVe aW __ jCQ @fju
ijZ ijbMZ Kea, ^ejZ Kea, _ZcZu @am
Kea Ga c[ il _\^ Kea ''
(ij aLe, 9c L, aY-10)
138. ~e @Yi^Ku jZ Ke^j
~ icde RY cjk ^jZ jA~A[f Ga
fKc^ (Z' gaK) Ne ej[ f cjc^ Bge\Z
iVe C_iZ jacZ ic^ iVe jUMf
Bge\Z (cZ cjke ga \L) Kjf""~Cc^
@c ijZ ~ Kf, Gj cjkU ic^u ce ej
~ Ke ^[f '' Z'_e i RY fKK Kjf
""Lf\ a^ If\u _LK ~@ Ga Zu Kj ~
@fjue ]c\Z ZcK @\g \CQ ~ Zc gg,
cjk a _gRM@kc^u jZ Kea ^j ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-2842)
139. @KeYe _W
ce\a c \haj
[e KYi RY Bge\Z MUG MQck agc
^C[@ _ W U G Zu Kc W \f ZY i
(ghc^u) Zu R^h_Z iVe @^Z CVA ^a_A
Ga _W c ^u aie ^@ fMA \a_A @\g \f
256 cjc^ cj\

(ZY) @fj Zu _Z \aaY Kf""MUG _WK

(~G KcW [f) _W\a ~[ ^ [f K ?''
(ij aLe, 4[ L, aY-536)
140. C_R^e i] _^ @af^ Ke
""iie @R^ Keae i] _^ @af^ Ke, KeY
_ZK aqK Zj @ag _ ja, ~j _A ZK
i Ke~AQ ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-2142)
141. i] aaid i`k ja
""_^RaZ ja \^ Kak @fju _Z bd eL[a,
]c^ bae aaid Ke[a Ga iZ Kj[a
aaidc^u aZZ @^ (aaid)c^ bPe e_
CVa ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-2146)
142. iyU aaid gj\e _Y @R^ Kea
""RY i] I iyU cifc^ aaid _^eZ[^ \^
gj\c^u MjYe CVa ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-2139)
143. KkaRe _A \a MzZ eL ^j
""Kak RY __ j (@ZagKd \aMWK) fPA
MzZ eL ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-2154)
144. aK-KY ak C\e j@
""@fj ij \i _Z \d Ke, ~G aKa icde
C\e jG, KYa icde c C\e jG Ga ^Re
cjc^ cj\ 257

__ @\d Kea icde Kjk c^ba _\g^

Ke ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-2203)
145. IR^e UKG @]K \@
""~Zak Zc R^h IR^ Ke, (MjKK IR^e
KQ) @]K \@ ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-2222)
146. C}P \@ ^j a ^@ ^j
""ij aq @fju \e @bg jC ~G C}P \G
Ga ~G GjK MjY Ke ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-2313)
147. @^K VK ^j
""Keaee VK[a
fK @c ce ^j ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-2224)
148. lcZ cM ^j
""giK jae Az Ke^j ~\ (Zc G[_A @Mj
[@ Ga) ZcK gi^ lcZ ck, Za Zc G[_A
(i) \d eja K ~\ Zc lcZ ^aK Pj^j,
@[P ZcK lcZ \@~G, Za (Bgeu \e) Zce
ijdZ Ke~a ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-619)
149. ^da aPe_Zu _A \AU _Y
""~Zak RY aPe_Z KYi (ahde) ed \@
Ga i CPZ ^d \a_A ~[i P Ke Ga
Zue aPe VK jG, Za Zu _A \AMU _Y cka
258 cjc^ cj\

Ga ~\ i CPZ ^d \a_A icZ P Ke,

K bf Ke\@ Za Zu MUG _Y cka ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-2314)
150. aPe_Z K] icde ed ^ \@
""KYi aPe_Z K] @aie [a icde ed
^\@ ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-2316)
151. @^de _l ic[^ Ke^j
""~G KYi aa\e @^de _l ic[^ Ke, Zj
_Zje ^ Kea _~ i @fjue K_\ ce
[G ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-2320)
152. c[ il ^K bM Kea
""cQ Kj[a ile _\ aPe\^ (^R i^e) i_~
N*a ^j, ~_~ @fj Z' _A ^K aZckK
af NhY ^ KeQ ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-2373)
153. Mea EYK cjfZ \@
""~\ Kj Pj[G ~, @fj ZK ^R K_e Qd
Zk i^ \@, Za i ^ aqK (EY gSa_A)
cjfZ \C K Z' EY lc Ke\C ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-2419)
154. EY _eg] Ke
""Rc^Z ^A[a Rc^ZKe EY _A \d eja
Ga EY @ag _eg] Ke~a ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-2405)
cjc^ cj\ 259

155. EY ^ gSa
e Cg eL[a
fK Pe
""~\ KYi aq EY ^aak ZK _eg] ^
Keae Cg eL[G, i (aPe \^) @fju ijZ
RY Pe e_ ilZ Kea ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-2410)
156. EY cYhK cQ@ Ke\G

""j @fj ! __ Ga EYe c @_Yue geY cMQ ''
Kj RY Zu _Pef""@_Y EYe @fjue geY
(KjK) cM ?'' i Ce \f""~\ RY aq
EY jA~G, i cQK[ Kj, eY ^dc Ke @C
iMWK bw\G ''
(@a \C\, aY-879)
157. c\_^ ia KKce ck
""c\_^ Ke^j Gj ia KKce ck ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-3371)
158. KYi ^g\a ia^ Ke^j
""ia _Ke ^g\a ^h ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-145)
159. c\_ Me _ag Kea ^j
""c\_ Me _ag Kea ^j ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-3376)
160. ^g\a @ jf a ^h
""~je @]K cZ ia^ Kf ^g ]e, Z'e Kc
_ecY c ^h ''
(@a \C\, aY-3679)
260 cjc^ cj\

161. i] ^a I \a Cbd @a]

""cjc^ Bge\Z i] ^C[a aq, \C[a aq,
Gje il Ga Gje Pq^c fL[a aqK @bg_
\AQ ''
(@a \C\, aY-3327)
162. K^ i^u jZ Ke^j
""cjcjc @fj cZue @am Kea, K^i^K
Ra _Z\a Ga ic[ [a i @^c^ue
(@]Ke [a), a ic^u `e ^ Kea Ga
(@^e @]KeK) ^Re af \a Kea ^h
i Z^U K[ ^_i KeQ@\eKe K[ Kja,
@Z]K _g _Pea Ga a\Ly Kea ''
(ij cifc, 3d L, aY-1715)
163. ia cYh ic^
""~\ RY bZ Zcc^ue giK e_ ^~q jG Ga
i @fju M^ @^~d Zcc^ue a_e _ePk^
Ke, Za Zcc^ Z' K[ gYa CPZ Ga Z'
@\g c^a CPZ ''
(ij cifc, 3d L, aY-1838)
164. eMe PK Ke
KZK a\A^ aq _Pef""j Bge\Z ! K'Y
@c (eMe) PK KeAa ? i Kjf""j, j
@fjue bqMY ! _ZKe Ke, KeY @fj G_e
KYi eM i Ke^j ~je _ZKe i Ke^j
(@ag) MUG eM aZZ ''
cjc^ cj\ 261

ic^ _Pef""j @fjue aaj ! iAU

K'Y ?'' i Ce \f""aai ''
(ZecR, aY-2038)
165. PKe @a] C_d @af^ Ke^j
""@fj eM Ga eMe _ZKe Cbd i KeQ
Ga _ZK eMe i _ZKe \AQ ZY PK
Ke; K G[_A @a] C_d @af^ Ke^j ''
(@a \C\, aY-3865)
166.]^-R^ \e cYhe _el jG
""_eae, ]^i, i^ Ga _Zag (@\) \e
cYhK _el Ke~G ''
(ZecR, aY-2258)
167. bM _a^eZ
""RY bq agiKe jG^j ~_~ i bM _Z
agi ^ Ke, bMe [a bf a c _Z ~cZK
i RY ~ ~j Z' _Z NUieQ, Zj @ag NUae
[f Ga ~j NU^j, Zj Ka c NUae ^[f ''
(ZecR, aY-2144)
168. gh ~Me @ _Ye ag cj
""Zcc^ Gbk GK icde @iQ ~Zak K
Zcc^u @m \@~C[a Kce \gcg ZM Ke\f
RY aq a^ jA~a K Gj_e GcZ icd @iQ
~Zak RY aq Gje (Kak) \gcg _k^
Ke\f c cq _A~a ''
(ZecR, aY-2267)
262 cjc^ cj\

169. i\_\g \C[@

""~ju jZe ce Ra^ @Q, Zue g_[ ^A
KjQ Zcc^ (fKc^u) iZKc KeaK Kj Ga
KKce ic^u ^a eL, ^jf Zcc^u C_e
@fju Ve a_ @ia Ga Z'_e Zcc^ Zu
_[^ Kea; K i Zc _[^ gYa ^j
(ZecR, aY-2169)
170. i\_\ge _Y
""@^K KYi iZKce cM\g^ Ke[a aq (ij)
iZKc Ke[a aq bk _Y @R^ Ke ''
(@a \C\, aY-5110)
171. iZm^e cj
""m^ I m^__i, Cbdue _Ye bM ejQ @ag
c^aRMZ ^KUe bf af KQ ^j ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-228)
172. @ZaWc _A m^ @R^ Ke^j
""~G cLc^u ijZ ~q Kea_A a a\^c^u
^KUe ^Re @ZaWc Kea_A K fKc^ue \
@KhY Kea_A m^ @R^ Ke, i ^Ke _ag
(Aa^ cR, aY-253)
173. Bge Zc ^KUe @Q
""@fju c^ eL, i ZcK el Kea, @fju
ieY Ke, Zc Zu ^R _Le _Aa ~Zak
KQ cM, @fju cM Ga ~Zak Zce KYi
cjc^ cj\ 263

ij~ \eKe, @fju ijdZ cM RYeL, ~\

ie ic (cg) Zce KQ fb Kea _A GKZZ
j@, Z[_ @fj ~j Zc bMe fL\AQ,
Z'Ve @]K fb Ke_ea ^j Ga ~\ ic^
Zce KYi lZ KeaK GKRU j@, Za @fj
~j bMe fL\AQ, Z'Ve @]K lZ Ke_ea
^j Kfc CVA ^@~AQ Ga _MWK gL~AQ ''
(ZecR, aY-2516)
174. Bgeu _Z ^a^ j@
""~G @fju iKg \G, @fju iKg ^a ej,
@fju iKg _cKe, @fju iKg NY Ke
Ga @fju iKg aaj Ke, i _KZe ^Re
agiK _w Kf ''
(ZecR, aY-2521)
175.fKu \LAa _A _Y Ke^j
""~G CgckK bae fKc^ue _gibR^ ja
_A iZKc Ke, @fj fKc^u iLe Z'e _KZ
Cg _Kg Ke\a ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-506)
176.\am^e \e_
~M Ke^j
""~\ KYi aq @fju _i^Z fb Kea_A @agK
jC[a m^ @R^ Ke; K Zj i iieK `A\
jif Kea _A Ke, Za i Me iM c
_Aa ^j ''
(@a \C\, aY-3656)
264 cjc^ cj\

177. bq @^Z_ Kf Bge _i^ j@

""Zc ^Re jR~A[a IUUK _AMf ~Z @^Z
j@, Z'Ve @]K @^Z @fj j@ ~Zak Zue
bq @^Z jA Zu @WK `e@i ''
(ij cifc, 4[ L, aY-2675)
178.Bge KeYcd
KZK ~au Bge\Zu iLe C_iZ KeMf
ic^u ce RY cjk ^Re (jR~A[a) _fK
(aKk jA) LR[f _fK _AacZ i ZK ^R
QZe @CRA ^A ^_^ KeAf Bge\Z Kjf
""K'Y Zcc^ baQ ~, Gj fKU Z' _@K ^@
cK `w \A_ea ? @c Ce \f""^, ~\I
Ze G_e Keae ic[ @Q '' Z'_e Bge\Z Kjf
""Gj fKUe ^R _@ _Z \d Zk^e @fjue Zu
\ic^u _A \d Xe ag ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-28)
179. __ \e Bge Kbk _i^ j@
bq @^Z jA @fju _Z _Za^ Kf @fj
Z' _Z_ \e Gbk aq @_l @]K @^Z
j@ ~je L\ _Y ^A~C[a IUU ^Rk cebc e
jR~A[G Ga ZK `e _Aae ia @g i QW
\A[G i ^eg jA MUG QAe cZ K @_l
Ke i gA_W @L Lfa _e i \L ~,
Z' IUU Z' _Le V@ jAQ @^e ajk
jA i Kj_KG""j _b ! Zc c bq Ga c
Zc _b '' @Zgd @^ ~M i Gj bf Ke_KG ''
(ij cifc, 4[ L, aY-2747)
cjc^ cj\ 265

180. ia Bge\Zc^ue ]c MUG

""aajc^ue cZ b^ b^, K ic^ue ]c
MUG ''
(ij aLe, 4[ L, aY-652)
181. ia Bge\Zu ic^ \ e \L
""Bge\Zc^u ce KZKu @^c^u @_l @]K
_i Ke ^j ''
(ij aLe, 9c L, aY-51)
182.Bge\Zc^u ce _b\ Ke^j
""Bge\Zc^u ce _b\ Ke^j ''
(@a \C\, aY-4651)
183.c Zce jZKl
ce Ga c @Y[a ae \ GcZ ~cZ RY
aq fKc^u ^KUK @i Kj""c ^R @Le
Z c c^ue gZ i^u \L@iQ Ga Zcc^u ia]^
KeQ ^RK el Ke, a*@ '' KQ fK Z' K[
c^f Ga fPQ_ eZeZ ajeMf Ga ic^
el _AMf K @C KQ fK ZK ag i Kf^j
iZe iKk gZ i^c^ ic^u ]i Ke\f ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, j\i-489)
Yu \M
^ cka

""Z^RY aq \MY _Z\^ _Aa, (1) M^]ec^u
ce KYi aq ~G ^R Bge\Zu _Z agi eL Ga
Z' ijZ Bge\Z cj\u _Z c agi eL, (2) RY
bZ ~G ^R cfK Ga @fj, Cbdu _Z ^Re Ka
266 cjc^ cj\

_k^ Ke, (3) KYi \ie cfK ~G ZK i\Pe

gLG, ZK Cc ]cgl \G Ga ZK aaj Ke^G ''
(ij aLe, 1c L, aY-97)
185.c @^Mc @]K ja
""_ZK Bge\Zu (KQ ^ KQ) Pc}eZ _\^
Ke~A[f ~j ~M fK ic^u agi Ke[f
cZ K (Pc}eZ e_e) \aaY (Ke@ ^) \@Mf,
~jK @fj c _Z _KU Kf ZY c @g Ke ~
_^RaZ ja \^ @^ Bge\Zc^ue @^Mcc^u
@_l c @^Mcc^ue iL @]K ja ''
(ij aLe, 6 L, aY-504)
186.iieK `A\ _A ]cK aK \@^j
""iZKc Keae gN Ke @e eZe @g bk _el
C_^Z ja RY fK iKk agiKe [a Ga
ie ^K jA~a Ga ie agiKe eja,
K iKk ^K jA~a _Y Kj iieK a _A
^R ]cK aK \a ''
(ZecR, aY-2195)
187. c ~j RY, Zc RY^j
""~j c RY, ~\ Zcc^ Zj RY_e, Za
jia @_l @]K K ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-493)
188._eYc @c icde Kc C_e ^be
""RY aq Gbk (iZ) Kc Ke ~, fKc^u Z'
KcMWK aKYaic^ue Kc _e RY_W; K _KZe
i aq ^Kai jA[G ij_e RY aq Gbk Kc
cjc^ cj\ 267

Ke ~, Z' KcMWK ^Kaic^ue Kc _e RY_W,

K _KZe ij aq aKYai jA[G _eYc
(cYhe) @c icde Kc C_e ^be Ke
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-500)
189.@Z ijR Kc
_^eZ[^ \^ RY @agiKeK _g Ke~a, ""~\
Zc _Le ]eZ _ecYe i^ [@, Zc ^Re
cq a\ke Zj \@ K ?'' i Kja""j ''
Z'_e ZK Kj~a""GjVe @Z ijR KcUG
KeaK ZcK Kj~A[f (@[Z Bgeu aZZ @^e
ia C_i^ ^ Kea_A); K Zc c^ Ke\f ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-546)
190.c^h _^RaZ ja
""_ZK bq ij @aie _^RaZ jACVa, ~C
@aie i ce[a
(ij cifc, 4[ L, aY-2878)
191.Kc _K
""@fj Kj~\ c bq KYi @_Kc Kea _A
c^e P Ke Za (j \a\Z !) i Zj ^
Kea _~ Kc_Ke fL^j ~\ i ij KKc
Ke, Za iAUK (MUG __) fL K ~\
i c _A ij @_Kc Keae l jG, Za Z'
LZe MUG _Y fL (@^ _le) ~\ i
KYi iZKc KeaK c^e P Ke; K Zj
Ke^j, Za Z' LZe MUG "bf Kc' fL
Ga ~\ i ij bfKcU Ke Za Z' LZe
\ge iZgj _~ _Y fL ''
(ij aLe, 9c L, aY-592)
268 cjc^ cj\

192. Zcc^ Bgeu \g^ _Aa

""_^RaZ ja \^ Zcc^ Zc _bue G_e
\g^ Kea ~_e P\g^ KeQ Ga Zu \g^
Keae KYi @ia] ja^j ''
(ij aLe, 9c L, aY-531)
193. Bgeu i\ak ieY Ke
cjcjc @fj Kj""bqe agi @^~d c Z'
ijZ aaje Ke Ga i cZ ieY Ke[a
icde c Z' ^KUe [G ~\ i cZ c^e
ieY Ke, Za c c ZK c c^e ieY Ke,
~\ i fKc^u MjYe ce Py Ke, Za
c ic^u @_l C} _Yc^ue MjYe Z'e
Py Ke Ga ~\ i c @WK PL Pf Za
c Z' @WK jZ Pf Ga ~\ i c @WK Pf
Pf @i, Za c Z' @WK \CW~G ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-3822)
194. Me cjf
""Me Gbk (aki_) cjfc^ @Q, ~j bZe
aje_U Ga aje bZe_U \L~G '' RY a\A^
V@ jA _g Kf""j Bge\Z ! iMWK Kj _A
(^cZ ) ? i Ce \f""~G Cc K[ Kj, l]K
bR^ \G, ^dcZ C_ai Ke Ga eZe fK
gA[aak (@fju _A) ^cR _X ''
(ZecR, aY-1984)
195.agie @[
""(agi Kea @[ Gj ~) Zc @fju _Z, Zue
M\Zc^u _Z, Zu ilZ _Z, Zu aajc^u
cjc^ cj\ 269

_Z Ga _efKe _^RaZ ja _Z \X Keq

\@ ''
(ij cifc, 1c L, aY-9)
196.Aifce ckK ag i
""PeMU K[e agi ^ Kea _~ RY bq
agiKe ^j@fju aZZ Kj C_i^ ~M
^j Ga c @fju aaj ~jK i iZe a
\A _eY KeQ, cZ Ga cZ _e _^Ra^ _A
CVae Ga bMe ''
(ZecR, aY-2145)
197.cjc^ cj\u _Z ag i
""Zcc^u ce Kj agiKe jA_ea ^j,
~_~ i ^R _Z, i^iZ Ga ic cYhu
@_l cZ @]K _c ^ Ke ''
(ij aLe, 1c L, aY-14)
198. Aifce
""Aifc _*U C_e \dc^(1) Gje il
_\^ Kea ~ @fju aZZ @^ Kj C_i ^j
Ga cj\ @fjue aaj, (2) bf e_ ^dcZ
^cR _Z Kea, (3) RKZ \a (aZckK \^),
(4) jR Kea (cK Z[~Z), Ga (5) ecR^ cie
C_ai _k^ Kea ''
(ij aLe, 1c L, aY-7)
199.Me _ag Keae aU
""(Me _ag KeaK jf) Zc @fjue C_i^
Ke Ga Zu ijZ @^ Kje C_i^ Ke^j, Cc
270 cjc^ cj\

e_ ^cR _X, \^ (RKZ) \@ Ga ^R ^KU

iKdc^u ij bf iK eL ''
(ij aLe, 8c L, aY-12)
200.c @^MZe g_[ ^@
""c _Z @^MZe g_[ ^@ ~, (1) @fju ijZ
@^ KjeK C_i^e @g\e Kea ^j, (2) Pe
Kea ^j, (3) @a] ~^iwc Kea ^j, (4) ^R
i^c^u jZ Kea ^j, (5) KYi ^h aq
_Z c[e_ Kea ^j, (6) bf Kce @\g \@Mf
@am Kea ^j ''
(ij aLe, 1c L, aY-17)
201.C_ai \e __ ld jG
""~G ecR^ cie ag ie ijZ ^_e ba C_ai
_k^ Ke Ga @fjuVe Gje _Z\^e @g eL,
Ze _a __MWK lc Ke \@~a ''
(ij aLe, 1c L, aY-37)
202. _[^e cj
""~\ KYi aqe Ne ic^e ^BUG [G Ga i
_Z\^ i[e _*[e i^ Ke, K'Y Z' \je KQ
cAk eja ? fKc^ Kjf""KQ cAk eja ^j ''
Bge\Z Kjf""Gjj jCQ _*[e _[^ (^cR)e
\ Gj\e @fj @iZKce _baK ^ Ke\@ ''
(ij aLe, 1c L, aY-506)
203.ic[ @^ie iZKc Ke
""^R ic[ @^~d Kc Ke, KeY @fj _Z\^
\ae [K~@ ^j; cZ Zc (@ag) [K~a
cjc^ cj\ 271

@fju ^KUe Zjj iac C_i^ ~j ^dcZ

e_ Ke~G ''
(ij aLe, 1c L, aY-41)
204.a_\b^ _A WKa GK C_i^
""(a_\ b^ _A) WKa @ag GK C_i^ '' Z'_e
cjc^ Bge\Z @a Kf""Ga Zc _b Kj cZ
WK, c Zce WK gYa '' (Ke@^ 40 : 60)
(Aa^ cR, aY-3828)
205. iZRY bMgk
~C\^ @fju Qd aZZ @^ Kje Qd ^[a,
i\^ iZRYu i ^Re Qd _\^ Kea ic^
(1) RY ^da giK
(2) ij ~aK ~G _f\^ Kak @fjue C_i^
(3) ij aq ~je c^ ia\ ciR\e ej[G
(4) iA \ARY aq ~Cc^ _eeK Kak @fju
_A _c Ke, @fju _A cg a @fM j@
(5) ij aq ~jK RY Cyagd ie ZeY @a]
~^ iM _A @cY Ke; K i ZK
_ZL^ Ke\G Ga Kj ~ c @fju bd
(6) ij aq ~G GcZ \^ \G ~ Z' acjZ
RY^ ~ Z'e WjY jZ K'Y \f
(7) ij aq ~G GK ^bZ i^e @fju ieY
Ke Ga Z' @L fje Qk Qk jA~G
(ij aLe, 2d L, aY-504)
272 cjc^ cj\

206. Ke@ ^ gL Ga gL@

""Zcc^u ce iac fK ij ~G Ke@^e
m^ fb Ke Ga @^K Gje gl \G ''
(Aa^ cR, aY-212)
207. Bge aY ia} aY
""@fju M^ ia} aY, cj\u cM ia}
cM Ga iaVe ^K K[ jCQ ]ce ^@ ^@
@Pe Ga _ZK ^@ K[ abKe ''
(ij cifc, 2d L, aY-867)
208.]ce ^@ K[ aje Ke^j
""~G ]ce ^@ ^@ K[ aje Ke, ~je KYi
_cY ^j, iMWK @ag e Ke\@~a ''
(ij cifc, 3d L, aY-1718)
209.c C_\g MjY Kf Me _ag Kea
""ce ic @^Mc MK ~a; cZ ic^ ~a^j
~Cc^ c^ Ke\@ '' _g KeMf""j Bge\Z !
(MK ~a_A) KG c^ Kea ?'' i Ce \f
""~G c K[ c^ i MK ~a Ga ~G cZ
@am Ke, i MK ~a_A c^ Ke\G ''
(ij aLe, 9c L, aY-384)
210.c K[ _j*A \@
""gY, ~G GVe C_iZ @Q, i GVe @^_iZ
[a aqK c K[ _j*A \C
(Aa^ cR, aY-234)
cjc^ cj\ 273

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