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INCOMPATIBILITIES
IN

PRESCRIPTIONS
FOR

Sl^UDENTS IN PHARMACY AND MEDICINE
AND PRACTICING PHARMACISTS
AND PHYSICIAN'S

BY
EDSEL A. RUDDIMAN, Pn.M., M.D.,
Professor of Pharmacy and Materia Medico, Department of Pharmacy,
"
Vanderbilt University; Author of Whys in Pharmacy,"
"Manual of Materia Medica."

FOURTH EDITION, THOROUGHLY REVISED
TOTAL ISSUE, SEVEN THOUSAND

NEW YORK
JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.

LONDON: CHAPMAN & HALL, LIMITED

1917

COPYRIGHT, 1897, 1900, 1908, 1917,
BY
E. A. RUDDIMAN

Stanbopc ipress
F. H.GILSON COMPANY
BOSTON, U.S.A.

In this fourth edition the Author has added some remedies which have recently come into use. some of which cause trouble for the compounder. In order to avoid repetition all the incompati- bilities of each substance are not always given under that heading. except in case of some of the newer remedies. because first. In Part II the number of prescriptions has been increased by fifty. they are not generally given in combination and not likely to give rise to incompatibilities. Physicians prescribe quite a number of proprietary remedies and so-called patent medicines. the number of such preparations is so large and the variation of those used in different localities is so great. While there are many others which might be included. in many the ingredients are wholly unknown and in others only partially known. and the best means of avoiding or overcoming it. It is suggested that he study the prescription thoroughly before referring to the notes. Third. the formulas are liable to be changed at any time. Second. the object of the first part of this book is to present to the busy prescriptionist in a convenient and condensed form the more common incom- patibilities. so that the ingredients now present may not be the same as those present six months from now. The second object of the writer is to furnish the student ofpharmacy with a list of incompatible prescriptions hi such form that he may find out for himself what the trouble is. nt r - PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION As was stated in the preface to the first edition. For instance. Not many of these remedies are mentioned in this book. The substances treated of are arranged in alpha- betical order of their Latin names. As in previous editions there are fifty prescriptions which Hi . the reaction between two substances may be found under the heading of one of the substances and not under the other. it would be difficult to draw the line as to which should be admitted.

of the N. . D. charged through the courtesy of the Editor for prescriptions has. On account of so many incompatibilities being due to the formation of insoluble compounds.IV PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION have no comments. At the end of the monographs in Part I are given numbers of some prescriptions illustrating the incompatibilitiesmentioned in the monograph. been replaced by the Schedule adopted by the National Association of Retail Druggists. a table of solubilities was introduced in the second edition. being left for the student to study out for himself. prescriptions are now arranged in order corre- The sponding to that of the drugs in Part I. Other prescriptions illustrating these incompatibilities can be found by reference to the Index of Prescriptions. A. The table giving the average price in previous editions. 1917. R. VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY. This table has been enlarged and revised. Journal.

Caspar! : Caspari's Treatise on Pharmacy.: United States Dispensatory. & J.: Merck's Report. D. D. S. 3d ed. P. 3d ed. R. Potter: Potter's Materia Medica. P. Sohn: Sohn's Dictionary of Active Principles of Plants.: National Standard Dispensatory. : N. J. N. E. A.: British Pharmacopeia. J. D. U. : Druggist's Circular.: National Druggist. & N. M. Nat. Rem. N. A. New England Druggist. E. Am. Phar. : Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association. Prescott: Prescott's Organic Analysis. R. Ph. Ph. : Ph. Watts: Watts' Dictionary of Chemistry. . C. A. D. D. P. 4th ed. Blyth: Blyth's Poisons.: Bulletin of Pharmacy. ed. S.: Pharmaceutical Review. W. ABBREVIATIONS OF REFERENCES Allen: Allen's Commercial Organic Analysis. Bui. New and Non-official Remedies. Drug. D. P. P. loth ed. A. 5th ed. U.: Pharmaceutical Era. Richter: Richter's Organic Chemistry. & S. D. : Roscoe and Schorlemmer's Organic Chemistry. 3d Amer.: American Dispensatory. Storer: Storer's Dictionary of Solubilities. 6th ed. M. R. : Pharmaceutical Journal. S.: Western Druggist. Br. Scoville: Scoville's Art of Compounding.: United States Pharmacopeia. & M. : American Journal of Pharmacy.: American Druggist. : Prescott and Johnson's Qualitative Chemical Analysis. gth revision. : Muir and Morley's edition of Watts' Dictionary.

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acid to litmus. One volume of tincture of iron with an equal volume of water will give a solution with one volume of mucilage diluted with an equal volume of water. By reference to the Index of Incompat- ibilities other prescriptions may be found arranged under other headings. acid. or dilution necessary to prevent gelatinization. 2. or dilution with water. Glycerin or syrup seems to have but little more effect in preventing coagulation than so much water. The color of the mixture of the iron salt and the mucilage is deeper red than that of the tincture alone. Toron INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS PART I INCOMPA TIBILITIES Acacia. Gum i. solution of ferric sulphate. The official mucilage of acacia is gelatinized by a solution of ferric chloride. 3. will tend to prevent coagulation. alkali acetates in larger proportions. An aqueous solution of acacia is Arabic. S. Gelatinized acacia will afterwards slowly dissolve if an ex- cess of water is added. but not sufficiently acid to cause trouble unless is decomposition has commenced. tincture of ferric chloride. having the color NOTE. P. excess of hydrochloric or other acids. acetate. Solution of dialyzed iron when mixed with mucilage of acacia forms gelatinous masses. Different samples of tincture chloride of iron vary in the amount of free acid and this causes a variation in the amount of citrate. vin. These numbers refer to prescriptions in Part II illus- trating that particular drug or chemical. numbers in parentheses will be found. In the formula of U. the mucilage was nearly neutral on account of the lime water in it. Alkali citrates in small proportions. At the end of the articles on many drugs and chemicals. or solution of ferric subsulphate. .

oxalic. 8. Either glycerin or honey decomposes borax to some extent. dilute solution of salts of mercury. copper.). Dilute sulphuric acid converts it into a sugar on prolonged boiling (M. gelatinous masses when highly diluted. but not enough need be added to make the solution acid. dilution with water or the addition of a citrate has but little effect in preventing coagulation. lead. or arsenic do not give precipitates with hydrogen sulphide or alkaline sulphides. In the presence of acacia. iron. S. The official syrup or a solution of glucose tends to prevent the coagulation. iron citrate. By diluting the borax solution with an equal volume of water. saccharic. 4.). Dilute nitric acid converts acacia into mucic. Diluting the mucilage with several volumes of water does not prevent coagulation although glycerin and syrup do to some extent. silver.2 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS of ferric hydroxide. or by acidifying the borax solution. D. mixed with mucilage of acacia. although a colora- .i. liberating boric acid. even if quite opaque. A saturated solution of borax forms a more or less translucent mass with mucilage of acacia. Acacia consists chiefly of calcium arabate and a solution may have some of the incom- patibilities of calcium salts. 9. & M. Sul- phuric acid converts acacia into arabic and then metarabic acid and precipitates calcium sulphate (U. S. 6. D. F. A solution of lead subacetate (not the neutral lead acetate). 5. and the mucilage with an equal volume of water. antimony. The solution of ferrous chloride (N. A strong solution of a sulphate gives a precipitate of calcium sulphate. and tartaric acids (U. but is not as effective as glycerin. no coagu- lation takes place. 10. Acacia nearly insoluble in is alcohol. will give white.). but does not give a translucent mass as does the tincture of iron. or a saturated solution of ferrous sulphate does not gelatinize mucilage of acacia. The mucilage can be mixed with a little over one half its volume of alcohol without permanent precipitation. n. iron and am- monium citrate.. The pre- cipitate redissolves on subsequent dilution with water. 7. If the mucilage is first diluted with water a stronger alcoholic mixture can be obtained before precipitation is permanent. The coagulation may be prevented by also adding three or four drops of glycerin or honey to one dram of the borax solution. 296).

cresol. by a tincture of guaiac if the guaiac is fresh.. if heated. thymol. 13. antimony. A mucilage made from acacia tears may give the blue when one made from powdered acacia will not. (IV 1-9. Dilute solutions of alka- loidal salts in the presence of acacia are not precipitated by potassium mercuric iodide. & M. Acacia prevents the precipitation of dilute solutions of salts of mercury. bar- baloin. or tannic acid (Allen. Mucilage of acacia is colored blue. A cold solution of ferric chloride with acetanilid gives no in- crease of color. The solution of the alkaloid must be very dilute or some precipitation will occur. i.. 10. The presence of an alkali or a little sodium bicarbonate will prevent the appearance of more than a pale yellow within a month. either at once or after standing a short time. calcium. 620).) Acetanilidum. i. vanillin. but not with a guaiac that has been exposed to air and light for some tune. 1905. 426). acetanilid being soluble . Heating a mucilage of acacia to 100 C. 14. 1905. acetanilid gives a yellow solution.. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 3 tion may be produced. adrenalin. physostigmine. apomorphine. 2. Bourquelot (Pharm. With spirit of nitrous ether. aluminum. This is probably due to a ferment in the tears which destroyed by the heat necessary is before powdering.. it assumes a deep red color which fades as the solution cools. Aug. pyrogallol. without impairing the emulsifying powers (Ph. amyl nitrite. Am. and other compounds. J. XLVII. D. morphine. Probably diazo-compounds are formed. pyram- idon. 239) states that acacia contains an oxydase which gives colors when a ten per cent solution of acacia is mixed with a one per cent solution of carbolic acid. becoming red on standing for some time. iron. Zeitralh. and some other metals by alkali hydroxides or borax and in some cases by carbonates. 12. sodium phosphomolybdate. 15. guaiacol. preparations of tar. for one hour destroys the ferment. or a solution containing nitrous acid. Antifebrin. With a fresh or nearly neutral spirit of nitrous ether the yellow coloration may not be noticed for several days and the red for two weeks or more. 296). These properties are common to many gums (M. naphthol. but. i. tannin. With the tincture of iron acetanilid gives a color more red than the tincture.

i . 10. do not precipitate aqueous solutions of acetanilid unless or iodides they are added in very large excess. Phenacetin. A mixture of acetanilid and calomel. 3. shows no perceptible change within a month and gives no test for a mercuric salt. forming aniline. Acetanilid is 4. Acetphenetidinum. 9. Phenacetin in strong aqueous solution gives with chromic acid. colorations iodine. Bromine gives a white precipitate. grinding. However. Heavy trituration of acetanilid with antipyrine or chloral hydrate gives a damp powder. Iodine. pyro- catechin. When sodium salicylate is mixed with acet- anilid a pink powder said to be produced. and some other oxidizing agents. i. 3. compressing. n. 2. It is decomposed in contact with solutions of alkalies or heated with water. slowly decomposed by a strong solution of potassium or sodium hydroxide. piperazine. Salicylic acid . resorcin. Heating phenacetin with hydrochloric acid and then adding a solution of ferric chloride gives a red color. IV. Heating. or thymol produces a soft mass or liquid which is soluble in alcohol and insoluble or only partly soluble in water.4 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS in alcohol. Excess of acid lessens the color. but the writer did is not get much increase of color. 2. a mixture of ten grams of chloral hydrate with one grain of acetanilid will dissolve in about five minims of water and further addition of water does not cause precipitation. 7. Acetozone is hydro- lyzed by water. Rubbing acetanilid with chloral alcoholate. 6.. 3. 5. Acetanilid is said to be readily soluble in a hot solution of tartaric acid from which it does not crystallize. although the paper containing the mixture became colored after a time.) Acetozone. R. 359). phenol. These colorations are due to the presence of paraphenetidin in the phenacetin. Acids generally hydrolyze it. bromides. either dry or with water. Benzoyl-acetyl Peroxide. oxygen liberating slowly in the nascent condition. chlorinated lime. chlorine. Chloral hydrate increases the solubility of acetanilid in water. It is gradually decom- posed by all solvents except neutral petroleum oils. the writer did not find this to be the case. or upon its for- mation by decomposition of the phenacetin (M. (FV 10-12. or pounding will often bring about a decomposition. varying from pink to red. 8.

or benzoic acid. 4.) Acida. 4. becoming more of a red brown. Acids combine with metallic oxides and hy- i. chloride. 2. decompose carbonates. as sulphuric or hydrochloric. 8. droxides. normal potassium tartrate. 5. Mineral acids give a precipitate of thephosphate or the pyrophosphate of iron when added to a solution of the soluble phosphate or pyrophosphate of iron. 8. Many organic acids in the presence of mineral acids. 10. precipi- tate bismuth citrate from solutions of bismuth and ammonium citrate by combining with the ammonium. salicylic. Phenace- tin triturated with carbolic acid. The presence of tartaric acid prevents precipitation. Basic metallic salts are generally insoluble or sparingly soluble while most acid metallic salts are soluble. Many acids precipitate albuminous substances from aqueous solution. combined with an alkali. liberating carbon dioxide. Phenacetin combines with iodine to form a compound known as iodophenin. such as tartaric or acetic. or sulphate of antimony. 5. except acetic. 6. Acids diminish or prevent the. generally form compounds with the heavy metals. or pyro- catechin gives a liquid. action of pancreatin. form esters with alcohol. 6. or benzoates. The writer failed to get anything but a dry powder. from concentrated solutions of borates. the amount of acid necessary seeming to depend upon the amount of mineral acid used. with some metals. the boric. Nearly all except hydrocyanic and hydrosulphuric. Spirit of nitrous ether slowly gives a yellow color. acids. Organic acids. salicylates. (fy 13-15. hydro- chloric. 9. 7. Strong mineral acids form esters and ethers with alcohol. n. Mineral acids and some organic acids. and with some alkaloids to form salts. Mineral and common organic acids precipitate potassium bitartrate from con- centrated solutions of Rochelle salt. or sulphuric acid with an aqueous solution of tartar emetic gives a precipitate consisting of a basic nitrate. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 5 when triturated with phenacetin is said to give a pasty mass. Phenacetin conceals the fluorescence of quinine sulphate. It is decomposed by strong acids or alkalies. 3. 7. that are insoluble in . Nitric. Strong mineral acids precipitate. or double tartrates containing potassium. especially in dilute solutions. chloral hydrate.

quinine and urea hydrochloride. magnesium citrate. 18. more quickly in sunlight. calcium lactophosphate. 24. 19. ammonium acetate. lobelia. and zinc chloride. 4. There are quite a number of salts that are acid in reaction and sufficiently so to give an effervescence with a carbonate. 2. Some of the more common are: alum. glycerites of tannic acid and boro- glycerin. orange. 12. tannic acid. spirit of nitrous ether. quinine dihydrochloride. ferrous iodide. Acidum Aceticum. tersulphate of iron. ferric phosphate. and squills. liberating carbon dioxide and forming acetates. potassium citrate. ipecac. The strong mineral acids in excess prevent the formation of the color. 16. oleate of mercury. quinine bisulphate. zinc sulphate. Soluble neutral acetates. hydriodic acid. amyl nitrite. or the free acid if it is concentrated and the solution of iron salt is weak. potassium bitartrate. 14. carbonates. syrups of citric acid. usually. hypophosphites. i Acetic acid decomposes nearly all . according to the dilution. 22. ferric chloride. zinc chloride. due to the formation of ferric acetate which on heating precipitates as the basic ferric acetate. give color varies from a yellow red to a dark red. citrated caffeine. fluidextracts of ergot. and mercuric nitrate. ferrous sulphate. It forms chloracetic acid with chlorine. spirit of nitrous ether. some sufficiently acid to liberate carbon dioxide from carbonates. 26. solutions of arsenous acid. bismuth subnitrate. The ferric salts. 15. hydrogen dioxide. 20. and saccharin. and oil of bitter almonds. slowly in diffused light. Acetic . 17. chlorinated lime. zinc acetate. 3. with solutions of a deep red coloration. 21. Frequently mineral acids displace organic acids and the stronger mineral acids the weaker ones. subsulphate of iron. lactucarium. 25. 23. Besides these there are some substances which become acid on exposure. tinctures of chloride of iron. copper sulphate. and sanguinaria. zinc valerate. the vinegar of squills. iron and ammonium acetate.camphorated opium. ipecac. fluidextracts in general are acid to litmus. ointments of boric acid.6 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS water. as acetic ether. The following official preparations contain a free acid: 13. chloride of iron.

Experiments made indicate that double decomposition takes place. 497). if it is a fairly strong solution of quinine. Some on being exposed to acetates. and mercurous. sulphuric acid. part i. 5. & S. A mixture of alcohol.. thus taking up the free acid. 158). It may be that the potassium acetate combines with the acetic acid (as explained in R. but on adding potassium acetate the fluorescence is destroyed and.) . This solution does not precipitate on standing. 7. The acetates. Potassium acetate in sufficient amount will destroy the fluorescence and give a precipitate with a solution of quinine bisulphate or quinine sulphate dissolved in water by the aid of sulphuric acid. and acetic acid or an acetate gives ethyl acetate. silver. and volatile oils. in. liber- ating acetic acid. The precipitate formed may be dissolved by the further addition of acetic acid and again thrown down by adding potassium acetate. as lead. R. gum-resins. the acetic acid being too weak to hold the hydrate in solution (M. n. needle-shaped crystals will be formed in a few minutes.. An aqueous solution of potassium acetate with spirit of nitrous ether produces an effervescence. except quinine. 9. camphor. [See ACIDA. becoming partly insoluble. increasing the fluorescence. forming quinine acetate and potassium sulphate. the amount of potassium acetate necessary seeming to depend on the excess of acetic acid used. 6. The stronger mineral acids transpose acetates. The precipitation may be due partly to the quinine acetate being only sparingly soluble and partly to the quinine salt being less soluble in a solution of potas- sium acetate. the air lose acetic acid and absorb carbon dioxide. Acetic acid is not sensibly affected by nitric acid or readily changed by oxidizing agents. forming potassium diace- tate. salts upon which ethyl nitrite has no action cause a similar efferves- cence. except silver and mercurous. are generally soluble in alcohol. ix. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 7 acid aids the solution of quinine sulphate in water. The effervescence may be due to the potassium acetate throwing the volatile ethyl nitrite out of solution. which has a fruity odor. 10. Nearly all normal acetates are readily soluble in water.] (fy 16-18. Strong acetic acid is a good solvent for resins. It has been suggested that quinine hydrate is formed. 8.

Hydrogen dioxide with a little sulphuric acid converts benzoic acid into salicylic acid (M. 10. & M. Its solubility is greatly increased by the presence of alkali citrates and acetates. sodium phosphate..) . 470). Aspirin in solution decomposes slowly into acetic and salicylic acids. 2. and then has the incompatibilities of these acids.] (fy 22-24. which is oxidized by the air. with carbonates. 7. It gives no reaction with silver nitrate. Sodium benzoate gives precipi- tates with solutions of salts of silver. alkali citrates. 4. 61). The more sparingly soluble benzoates dissolve readily in aqueous solutions of sodium acetate.liberating iodine. Soluble ben- zoates precipitate nearly neutral solutions of ferric salts as ferric benzoate. Some acids in fruit syrups precipitate benzoic acid when sodium benzoate is used as a preservative. i. 5. lead acetate. and lead. 6. 3. or sodium nitrate (Storer. In solution with potassium iodide it slowly liberates hydriodic acid. 4. sticky precipitate when it is added to a solution of quinine bisulphate or to a slightly acid- ulated solution of quinine sulphate if the quinine solution is not too dilute. 9. which is flesh colored. mercury. It does not give a violet color with a solution of ferric chloride unless it is decomposed. alkalies. 8. hydroxides of the alkalies and calcium to form benzoates. 5. Quinine benzoate soluble in about 350 parts is of water and more soluble in alcohol. Aspirin. It liberates carbon dioxide from carbonates. Concentrated aqueous solutions of benzoates give a crystalline precipitate of benzoic acid when dilute solutions of strong acids are added.) Acidum Benzoicum. 6.8 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS Acidum Acetylsalicylicum. (IV 19-21. the latter being somewhat soluble in excess of lead acetate. 3. i. Benzoic acid combines with the i. 2. Most benzoates are soluble in water and many are soluble in alcohol. [See ACIDA. or sodium sulphite. It is decomposed by forming acetates and salicylates. Sodium benzoate gives a white. carbon dioxide is liberated. The solubility of the free acid in water is increased by the presence of borax. Benzoic acid is not readily attacked by nitric or chromic acid. The presence of an excess of free acid or of alkali tartrates or citrates interferes with or prevents the precipitation.

barium chloride. i. ii. The alkali borates.. 641). It decomposes carbonates of the alkalies and of the alka- line earths. 2. Borax coagulates mucilage of acacia. droxides of the alkalies and the alkaline earths to form borates. with alum the precipitate is alumi- num hydroxide. 4. liberating carbon dioxide. or calcium chloride the precipitate is a borate of the metal (P. i. give precipitates with nearly neutral solutions of salts of several metals. but under certain con- ditions carbon dioxide may decompose borates. 641). & J. Borax is alkaline in reaction and precipitates the free alkaloids from aqueous solutions of their salts. 15. 10. 14. gallic. 648). with silver nitrate the precipitate is silver borate (some- times mixed with a little oxide). there being more of the borate if the solutions to be mixed are concentrated. Glycerin and borax react in the presence of water. Boric acid combines with the hy- i. 530). beyond which it decreases. 13. i. [See GLYCERIN. acting the part of a base (Watts. as borax. some other forms of sugar. borax gives a damp powder or sticky mass. salicylic. 3. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 9 Acidum Boricum. When triturated with alum. Chemical reaction takes place and water of crystalliza- tion is liberated. is 5. mannite. 12. In solution borax slowly decomposes chloral hydrate. i.] Glucose. i. if the quantity of tartaric acid is gradually increased. 6. 246). benzoic. with ferric salts a basic borate is formed (Watts. with lead acetate. [See . and honey cause a similar reaction. This can be prevented by first mixing a little glycerin with the borax. No. Borax with many of the weaker acids forms double salts inwhich boric acid seems to act the part of a base. the precipitate being more or less soluble in excess of the metallic salt or in the presence of ammo- nium chloride (Watts. or tartaric acid. with mercuric chloride the precipitate red brown basic mercuric chloride (Watts. 7. the quantity of boric acid also increases up to a certain point. 8. liberating chloroform. 9. liberating boric acid. 16. When borax and tartaric acid are mixed in solution in proper proportions boric acid separates. with zinc sulphate the precipitate may be chiefly a borate or a mixture of the borate with a basic com- pound. Very concentrated solutions of borates give a precipitate of boric acid with nearly all mineral acids.

or mineral acid. Camphoric acid combines with i. 21. tartaric potassium citrate. of 17. and tartaric. Citric acid forms citrates with most metallic hydroxides or carbonates. boric. 2. 648). potassium bitartrate. borogallic.]Borax increases the solubility in water. 20. codeine sulphate. Rochelle salt. i. forming a liquid which is pink when dilute and dark purplish red when concentrated. If the ounce of water contains one half the amount of acids given above no precipitate is formed by cocaine hydro- chloride. gallic. the salts being partially decom- posed (Watts. part I.) Acidum Camphoricum. in. (fy 25-33. Quinine bisulphate and strychnine give precipitates when one ounce of water contains one fourth of a grain of salicylic and two and one half grains of boric acid. Boric acid may be made to combine with several acids as benzoic. No. The solu- bility of borax in water is increased by sugar. precipitates the yellow chrysophanic acid (Allen. Chrysophanic acid is dis- solved by aqueous solutions of alkalies. 22. borotannic. in. and borotartaric acids. The borates. Acidum Chrysophanicum. 262). i. barium. They are insoluble in alcohol. potassium tartrate. 19. One grain of an alkaloidal salt added to an ounce of water containing one grain of salicylic acid and ten grains of boric acid generally gives a precipitate. with most acetates. alkalies. and stearic acids. citric. calcium. but are generally soluble in the presence of free boric. oils. The solubility of the free acid in water is increased by the presence of acid. or atropine sul- phate. to form soluble salts. morphine sulphate. part Acidum Citricum. when neutralized with acids. An ammoniacal solution of chrysophanic acid gives a lilac-colored precipitate with acetate of lead and rose-colored with alum (Allen. are nearly insoluble in water. with . 1 8. excepting those of the alkalies.10 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS ACACIA. benzoic. 5. tartaric. but not when one half this proportion of acids is used. It aids the suspension in water of oils and resins. This solution. salicylic. An aqueous solution of a mixture of boric and salicylic acids gives a precipitate with solutions of alkaloidal salts under certain conditions. borocitric. borosalicylic. tannic. making borobenzoic. salicylic. i. 262). and magnesium. and borax. and resins. i.

and is slowly decomposed. The presence of an alkali citrate increases the solu- bility in water of some acids as gallic. 6. or by borax. & M. salicylic. 4. phosphates. antimony. 9. chromium. An acidulated solution of potassium per- manganate oxidizes it to carbon dioxide and acetone (Allen. calcium. copper. An alkaline solution of a citrate with chlorine gives some chloroform (M.. zinc. With a strong solution of and with soap. & J. mercuric mer- cury. 5. but it may take several hours.. n. nickel. or Rochelle salt citric acid forms sodium potassium tartrate citrate and potassium bitartrate which is precipitated. 15. 13. 194). 3. and . i. I. The insoluble citrates are transposed by the dilute mineral acids. Soluble citrates and citric acid when heated with lime water give a precipitate of calcium citrate. A solution of citric acid gives a precipitate with a solution strong of bismuth and ammonium citrate. If an alkali citrate is now added to this the fluorescence is destroyed and in a few minutes a crystalline precipitate forms. 8. 12. 10. The normal magnesium citrate is sometimes precipitated in the official solu- tion of magnesium citrate when the citric acid is not present in considerable excess. and benzoic. Neutral soluble citrates precipitate solutions of lead acetate and silver nitrate as citrates. Citric acid is oxidized to acetic and oxalic acids by concentrated nitric acid (P. 996). Heating citric acid forms aconitic acid. 531). In many instances there are double compounds formed. Neutral or nearly neutral solutions of salts of 11 . carbonates. Citric acid aids the solution of quinine sulphate in water and the solution is fluorescent. or magnesium. arenot generally precipitated by the alkali hydroxides. This may be dissolved by the further addition of citric acid or a mineral acid. in the presence of the alkali citrates. The citrates also sometimes prevent precipitation of the metals by oxalates and sulphates. it is scarcely attacked by dilute nitric acid (Watts. both being soluble in excess of the precipitant. When a drug containing tannin is added to a mixture of a ferric salt and an alkali citrate there is a darkening. If heat be applied precipitation may take place. 2. aluminum. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS II alkaline sulphides. 252). manganese. 14. 7. but the citrate to a slight extent prevents the formation of the black tannate of iron. iron.

turning yellow. With an excess of the iron the color is green blue to a green brown. If the acid is in excess the color is brown. the other single citrates are nearly insoluble. An aqueous solution of gallic acid soon decomposes when exposed to air. Gallic acid in excess with ammonia water gives a yellow color. It decomposes alkali carbonates liberating carbon dioxide and producing colorations similar to those given when added to fixed alkali hydrates. and the liquid acquires a tint which is blue by reflected and green by transmitted light. 230) . With an excess of sodium bicarbonate a solution of gallic acid turns brown. zinc. this coloration is hastened by alkali hydroxides and in alkaline solution the gallic acid converted into galloflavin is (Richter. 11. The citrates of the alkalies are soluble in water. but when the ammonia is in excess the color is red brown. the color becomes green. 3. Gallic acid with lime water in excess gives a blue white precipi- tate. In such a case it is often admissible to use simple syrup flavored with oil of lemon. when the acid is in excess. giving off carbon dioxide. and becomes pink with a large excess of lime water.) Acidum Gallicum. Potassium citrate is insoluble in al- cohol and in separating takes some water with it. then green and ultimately blue. and copper are moderately soluble. Potassium citrate dissolved in dilute alcohol (one part of the salt to six of the solvent) causes the liquid to separate into two layers. changing to red and brown. 17. and black. i. 4. the color is yellow.12 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS of some metallic salts. Gallic acid combines with alkali hydroxides. 1 8. and gives a precipitate of a deep blue green solid.] (fy 34-35. and the alkali citrates convert them into the more soluble double citrates. Gallic acid gives a blue black solution or precipitate with a : solution of ferric chloride. [See ACIDA. the upper being nearly twice the volume of the lower. Citric acid in excess converts the insoluble citrates into the more soluble acid citrates. 5. sometimes causes precipitation or reaction on account of citric acid. brown. In mixtures of the acid and a solution of potassium or sodium hydroxide. Heat changes the blue black . those of iron. 6. when the alkali is in excess.Syrup of lemon or of citric acid. and depositing a black sub- stance. when used as a vehicle. 16. 2. 7. calcium.

Gallic acid with a strong solu- tion of a pure ferrous salt gives a white precipitate. or starch. Exposed to sunlight for a month eighty per cent of the hydriodic acid is decomposed (M. and to the conversion of gallic acid into pyrogallic or metagallic acid. 18. With a solution of potassium cyanide gallic acid gives a transient red color. Ammonium iodide is soon decomposed by air andlight. Solutions of iodides with dilute mineral acids or some organic acids liberate hydriodic acid. gelatin. These syrups sometimes become colored brown on account of caramelization of sugar. On exposure to air the mixture soon becomes colored. 9. in dilute solution the precipitation is prevented by ammonium chloride. 2. The gallates of the alkalies are soluble. Some neutral salts. the hypophosphorous acid in them prevents the change for a time. but a mixture of gum acacia and gelatin is 17. S. 8. . News. 14.). Gallic acid produces a precipitate when added to a solution of lead acetate. It 13. xxix. Triturating gallic acid with potassium permanganate may cause the acid to take fire. the free acid is borax increased by or alkali citrates. (IV 36. 16. reduces salts of silver and gold to the metals. R. D. Hydriodic acid. xn. particularly if it contains a little potassium carbonate. Iodine with gallic acid gives hydriodic acid and oxidation products of gallic acid (N. as ammonium nitrate. With spirit of nitrous ether gallic acid or a solution of gallic acid produces an effervescence and gives a red color. The solubility in water of said to be precipitated. probably due to the reduction of the ferric iron to the ferrous condition. such as arsenic acid and iodine. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 15 color to brown. albumin. potassium iodide much less quickly. 228). With a solution of tartar emetic it gives a precipitate of gallate of antimony. n. due to the oxidation of the iron. Gallic acid does not precipitate solutions of alka- loids. with water convert gallic acid into elagic acid (Richter. Arsenic converts it into tannic acid without the production of arsenous acid (Chem. syrup of hydri- odic acid. 15. 10. i.. 12. which is more or less quickly oxidized to iodine by the oxygen of the air. n. or syrup of ferrous iodide on being exposed to air and light liberates iodine. Oxidizing agents.) Acidum Hydriodicum. 73). but the others are nearly insoluble in water and generally insoluble in alcohol. 230).

14 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS tend to decompose iodides. When bismuth subnitrate is added to syrup of hydriodic acid it is changed to a yellow substance at once which further changes to orange red and then to dark gray. The color varies with the iodide formed. The alkali iodides in excess form double compounds with lead. silver. 3. The iodides of lead and silver are soluble only in concentrated solutions of the alkali iodides while mercuric iodide is readily soluble in dilute solutions. 8. as the bright yellow lead iodide. 6. 3BiOI.. 4. as the red mercuric iodide. Soluble iodides with ferric salts in acid solutions reduce the ferric to ferrous iron. Mercurous iodide with an excess of potassium iodide in the presence of water is decomposed. but give no precipitate of iron. 7. iodine is liberated and. one yellow and the other gray. 9." and precipitates nearly all alkaloids from their aqueous solutions. P. at the same time the solution turns red. the latter combining with potassium iodide to form the potassium mercuric iodide. 6. as the yellow mercurous iodide . but if a little iron. BiOI is red. the mercurous iodide is decomposed as given under No. 5.4Bi2 3 is . The solution of the double salt of mercuric and potassium iodide (KI^HgJs is known as "Mayer's reagent. as the yellow white silver iodide . may be pre- cipitated. if all of the iodide is decomposed. When bismuth subnitrate is added to a solution of potassium iodide it assumes a yellow color in a few hours and within a day it has changed to a deep red. 222). little or dilute mineral acid is added iodine is liberated at once. J. (A. of mercuric mercury. forming metallic mercury and mercuric iodide. Sometimes the ultimate precipitate seems to consist of two different substances. and mercuric iodides. 10. Hydriodic acid and soluble iodides precipitate solutions of salts of lead. This is prevented to some extent by alkali acetates. Soluble iodides reduce cupric salts in solution and give a white precipitate of cuprous iodide. Potassium iodide given with insoluble mercury preparations makes them more soluble and active. Calomel with water and an excess of potassium iodide forms mercurous iodide and potassium chloride. Adding potassium iodide to tincture citrochloride of no iodine is liberated for several days. They precipitate salts of silver. xxvi. due to the liberation of iodine. of mercurous mercury.

Syrupof ferrous iodide gives a yellow color at once. P. Chromates in acid solution liberate iodine and form chromic salts. i. A solution of potas- sium iodide with arsenous acid or potassium arsenite yields a precipitate of 2KI. S. 20. slowly in neutral mixtures. lodates in acid solution with iodides liberate iodine from both. In some cases this is due to the forma- tion of compounds that are less soluble in water than the original salt. Whena large excess of the alkali iodide is used it may render the alkaloidal salt less soluble in the solution than it is in . Chlo- rine oxidizes iodides. 16. 18. i. When one dram of potassium iodide is added to one fluid dram of the U. hence the liberation on adding an acid. if half that amount of iodideis added the precipitation may not take place for several days. if sufficiently concentrated. liberate iodine from iodides and give off oxides of nitrogen. 12. if in great excess. forming iodine then iodic acid and in an alkaline mixture a periodate. is Probably a similar reaction takes place in the stomach when a chlorate and an iodide are taken together. 377)..3As2Os which is sparingly soluble in cold water (Watts. 19. To prevent these reactions the spirit should first be neutralized by a little sodium bicarbonate. Hydro- gen dioxide in acid solution liberates iodine from iodides. 22. solution of potassium arsenite. Iodides some- times contain iodates as impurities. 21. 14. a white precipitate forms in a few hours. Sodium bicarbon- ate in an amount equal to that of bismuth prevents the change. Department of INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 15 University yellow. Diluted hydrochloric acid causes the coloration to take place at once. and nitrites in acid solution. Nitric or nitrohydrochloric acid liberates iodine from iodides and. oxidize it to iodic acid. turning red brown in a short time. Bils is dark gray (M. The alkali iodides precipitate aqueous solutions of many alkaloidal salts. Spirit of nitrous ether. Arsenic compounds in acid solution with iodides liberate iodine and become arsenous. 13. The chlorine is changed to a chloride. 513). 15. 17. Permanganates in acid solutions liberate iodine and. oxidizes it to iodic acid. n. & M. The iodides sometimes contain car- bonates and would then have the incompatibilities of the car- bonates. Chlorates in an acid solution of an iodide liberate iodine and then change it to iodic acid which more toxic.

Dilute hydrobromic acid with bismuth subnitrate gives a mixture in which the liquid has a pale yellow color. A solution of one twelfth of a grain of strychnine sulphate with five grains of potassium iodide and two drams of water does not usually precipitate at once. Bromides in acid solutions reduce permanganates to manganous salts and liberate bromine. 6 and 7. Chromates in acid solution with bromides form chromic salts and bromine. are soluble in alcohol. The pre- scribing of strychnine sulphate with potassium iodide is par- ticularly dangerous because the precipitation may not take place for some time. silver. i. 12. 3.16 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS water. In alkaline mixtures a bromate is formed. The alkali bromides precipitate some of the alkaloids from the solutions of their salts similar to the alkali iodides [see ACIDUM HYDRIODICUM No. but may do so within a few hours. The presence of alcohol generally prevents this pre- cipitation. ii. In concentrated aque- ous mixtures alkali bromides form double soluble compounds with lead or silver bromide. mercurous. The lead. all others are soluble. 8. bismuth. 9. 10. cuprous. Nearly all iodides. 5. mercuric. and mercurous. [See ACIDA. Chlorine forms bromine and hydrochloric acid. silver. and stannous iodides are nearly insoluble in water. The presence of alcohol prevents the precipitation to a considerable extent.] (IV 37-50. Chlorates in acid solution give bromine and hydrochloric acid. With potassium bromide there is no apparent change. silver. except lead. The metallic . which double compounds are broken up by a large amount of water. 7.) Acidum Hydrobromicum. 22] but are not apt to do so. The precipitation in other cases is due to the carbonate occurring as an impurity in the iodide. Probably a reaction takes place similar to the one explained under ACIDUM HYDRIODICUM. The alkali bromides sometimes contain carbon- ates as impurities and would then have the incompatibilities of carbonates and the solution would be alkaline. Nos. An aqueous solution of an alkali bromide or of hydrobromic acid causes calomel to turn black and the nitrate gives a test for a mercuric salt. The soluble bromides and hydrobromic acid precipitate solutions of salts of lead. 2. Bromides with nitric acid give bromine. 4. 23. and mercurous mercury as bromides. 6.

5. cyanic acid. 3. They are generally somewhat soluble in alcohol. and silver.] (IV 54-55-) Acidum Hydrocyanicum Dilutum. i. 10. and mercurous. 12. being stronger than most other acids. Hydrochloric acid with chlorates gives chlorine and various chlorides of oxygen. ammonium. Hydrochloric acid and the soluble chlorides precipitate as chlorides solutions of salts of lead. Chromates form chromic chloride and free chlorine. added to an alcoholic solution of balsam of Tolu it gives a yellow color.] (fy 51-53. 7. i. [See ACIDA. they are generally soluble in alcohol. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 17 bromides are soluble in water. giving potassium formate and ammonia (Watts n. rides give hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid.) Acidum Hydrochloricum. 8. Bismuth citrate is precipitated from a solution of bismuth and ammonium citrate when hydrochloric acid is added to it. with many resins a brown color is produced. 3. silver. Some writers say that chlorides aid the conversion of calomel to mercuric chloride. changing through brown to cherry red. The normal chlorides. silver. 4. n. Potassium cyanide in cyanogen. Permanganates liberate chlorine from hydrochloric acid and are reduced to manganous chloride. 7. With a solution of tartar emetic hydrochloric acid gives a precipitate of basic chloride of antimony. potassium. The aqueous solution of hydrocyanic acid decomposes into ammonium formate. depositing reddish brown para- 2. very frequently displaces other acids when they are combined with bases. antimony. mercurous. Hydrochloric acid added to an alcoholic solution of myrrh slowly gives a red to a violet color. No. mercurous. except lead. 2. 218). Concentrated hydro- chloric acid with concentrated nitric acid gives chlorine and oxy- chlorides of nitrogen. With the exception of chlorides of sodium. and other compounds.] 9. [See HYDRARGYRI CHLORIDUM MITE. are soluble in water. An aqueous solution of potassium cyanide is . and bismuth. The soluble chlo- when treated with sulphuric acid. and mercurous mercury. The soluble chlorides when added so as to make a concentrated solution with a solution of an alkaloidal salt may precipitate the alkaloid. aqueous solution is decom- posed on standing. silver. 6. except lead. except sulphuric and nitric. [See ACIDA. 13. lead.

Aqueous solutions of the alkali cyanides being al- kaline may precipitate alkaloids from solutions of their salts as the free alkaloids. 1 6. 14. & M. 199). 12. Nitric acid decomposes cyanides with the evolution of nitrogen and other gases (N. Concentrated mineral acids produce formic acid and a salt of ammonium (Watts. They decompose mercurous compounds. even carbonic. n. n. In case of calomel the powder is turned dark at once on account of the metallic mercury. n.. 346). The commercial salt generally contains some potassium cyanate (KCNO) having taken the oxygen from air.D. 11/302). 7. The cyanides of the alkalies and the alkaline earths and mercuric cyanide are soluble in water. 13. Cyanides reduce potassium permanganate and are changed to carbon dioxide. The alkali cyanides precipitate solutions of copper salts as the yellow green copper cyanide. 6. . due to the absorption of carbon dioxide and the volatiliza- tion of the hydrocyanic acid. The alkali cyanides precipitate solutions of lead salts as white lead cyanide. 18. oxalic. 9. With a concentrated solu- tion of iodine potassium cyanide forms potassium iodide and iodide of cyanogen (M.18 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS quite strongly alkaline. 5. 8. 4. forming metallic mercury and mercuric salts. S. 15.. which is soluble in excess of the alkali cyanide. Rubbed with potassium nitrate or chlorate. pre- cipitate the white silver cyanide from solutions of silver salts .. Potassium cyanide with a solution of ferrous sulphate gives a brown precipitate of ferrous cyanide which dissolves in excess of the alkali cyanide forming potassium ferrocyanide. nitrous. earths are decomposed by all acids. Chlorine or chlorinated lime with a solution of potassium cyanide forms chloride of cyanogen and hydro- chloric acid (M. except mercuric cyanide. & M. Cyanides of the alkalies and alkaline 17. and this alkalinity increases with ex- posure. the precipitate forms soluble double compounds with the alkali cyanides. with the liberation of hydrocyanic acid. Hydrocyanic acid and the soluble cyanides. potassium cyanide detonates violently. 10. n. If potassium cyanide and chloral hydrate are rubbed together reaction takes place with the evolution of a large volume of white fumes. 342). Even in dilute solutions the color of iodine is destroyed.). & M. and formic acids (M. nitric.

. (fy 56-60. 3. & J. 7. Calomel is turned dark at once when mixed with potassium hypophosphite. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 19 many of the others are made soluble in the presence of the alkali cyanides by forming double compounds. 19. Dilute hypophos- phorous acid is oxidized to phosphorous and phosphoric acids on exposure to air. 10. Hypophosphorous acid and hypophosphites in acid solution are oxidized to phosphoric acid by nearly all oxidizing agents. and cause a reduction of these agents. Nitrous or nitric acid forms nitric oxide. Iodine is reduced to hydriodic acid. 6. & J. Hypophosphorous acid dissolves quinine sulphate with a blue fluorescence. Bismuth is reduced to metallic bismuth (P. n. 15. Per- manganates are changed to manganous compounds (to man- ganese dioxide in alkaline mixtures). In the presence of hydrochloric acid arsenic acid is reduced to arsenous acid and then to metallic arsenic (P. Ferric salts are reduced to ferrous in acid mixture (P. 9. chloric acid or chlorides. Hypophosphites are decomposed by nearly all . 296).Mercurous and mercuric compounds are reduced to the metal. i. Copper sulphate with potassium hypophos-- phite gives a white precipitate. 2. even in neutral and alkaline mixtures.) Acidum Hypophosphorosum Dilutum. 14. Atropine and ammonia are physiologically antagonistic to cyanides in that they quicken the heart beat. 8. 296). much more quickly in the presence of an acid. 4. 12. Chromates form chromic salts. & J. 13.. Adding potassium hypophosphite to the solution destroys the fluorescence and in sufficient amount precipitates the quinine. Cupric sulphate with hypophosphorous acid gives a precipitate of cuprous hydride which begins to form after an hour or more. 296). Excepting mercuric cyanide they are generally insoluble in alcohol. Bismuth subnitrate with potassium hypophosphite in the presence of moisture becomes brown or black after some time. 16.. Sulphurous acid forms sulphur. Chlorine and chlorates are changed to hydro- 5. When an alkali hypophosphite is added to a solution of ferric chloride a white precipitate of ferric hypo- phosphite is formed which is dissolved by adding a large excess of hydrochloric acid or an alkali citrate in considerable amount. Compounds of silver and gold are reduced to the metals.

P. Nitric acid is a strong oxidizing agent. Hypophosphites are soluble in. flammable hydrogen phosphide gas. 4. i. and then sulphates. the color being destroyed by large excess of hydrochloric acid. iodides to free iodine.). . Acidum Nitricum. oxalates to carbon dioxide. i. Lactates are generally insoluble in water and alcohol but some are soluble in solutions of alkali citrates.. and calcium chloride. no). 7. It gives a white precipitate with solutions of lead acetate. with a nearly neutral solution of a ferric salt. 4. 5. Meconic acid. except ferric hypophosphite which is only sparingly soluble. 8. 19. n. 336). ferrous compounds to ferric. 17). 6.] Acidum Meconicum. i. and in oxidizing substances it is reduced to dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4). nitrous oxide (N20). while partly de- it itself is With concentrated hydrochloric acid it forms composed. 2. Heat decomposes hypophosphites. With nitric acid it forms oxalic acid (N. and then to iodic acid. nitrogen. sulphides to sulphur. 18.. giving off in- 17. [See ACIDA. i . 3. 336). are apt to cause an explosion. 5. gives a red-colored solution. 9. The mass remaining is often colored with a little phosphorus and the phosphite is changed to phosphate and pyrophosphate. water. 13. mercurous compounds to mercuric.] (IV 61-66. arsenous compounds to arsenic. Many are soluble in alcohol. [See ACIDA. With potassium permanganate and sulphuric acid it gives the odor of aldehyde (U. sulphites to sulphates. or ammonia. bromides to free bromine. 2. & M. 10. 2. nitric oxide (NO). D. silver nitrate. Oxidized with potas- sium permanganate it yields pyroracemic acid (Richter. Lactic acid displaces acetic and carbonic acids from their compounds. citrates to acetic and oxalic acids and carbon dioxide. Hypophosphites when triturated with some oxidizing agents. A temperature of the water-bath may cause explosion. 6. i. 12. 3. S. as potassium chlorate. barium chloride.20 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS acids. It coagulates a solution of albumin. Nitric acid dissolves many metals. S. With potassium permanganate it gives pyruvic acid (M. Hydriodic acid at once reduces lactic acid to propionic acid (Richter.) Acidum Lacticum. nitrous anhydride (NjOs). in. Nitric acid oxidizes hypophosphites to phosphates.

Nitrates. phosphorus. sulphur. 33. glycerin. Nitric acid gives color reactions with many of the alkaloids. morphine. With alcohol it acts violently. sulphides. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 21 chlorine and oxychlorides of nitrogen. 16. giving off oxides of nitrogen. 25. Fuming nitric acid is a more active oxidizing agent than the concentrated acid. a dark brown red. 19. It may not give color reactions with some of the alkaloids. Nitric acid gives a red color with barbaloin and nataloin. particularly those of the fixed alkalies. 27. when triturated with substances capable of being readily oxidized. With sulphuric acid and cotton or other cellulose it forms gun-cotton. 21. Nitric acid reacts with tannic acid. 18. physostigmine. and boric acids. while an oxidizing agent. while very dilute acid changes it to glucose. Nitric acid with sugar and heat forms oxalic acid. 26. when they are combined with bases. acetic. Dilute nitric acid oxidizes sugar to saccharic acid. berberine. 28. 20. 37. alcohol. With creosote. and strong alcohol forms the explosive fulmi- nate of silver or mercury. When it is mixed with organic matter. acetic. an orange. volatile oils. With carbolic acid it forms picric acid. 23. chang- ing to yellow. 31. 36. an orange red. and other organic substances the reaction with nitric acid may be so violent as to cause explosion or ignition. and forming aldehyde. 22. Nitric acid when dropped on the skin gives the yellow xanthoproteic acid and a similar reaction takes place with some other organic substances. The nitrates . a yellow or red. codeine. some of the compounds being explosive. 35. some of these substances are charcoal. Nitrates with sulphuric acid give nitric acid. Nitric acid with concentrated sulphuric acid and glycerin forms the explosive nitroglycerin. formic. hydrastine. 30. Apomorphine with nitric acid gives a violet red. giving off red fumes. 34. and oils. Dilute nitric acid. Very concentrated nitric acid in the cold with sugar forms an explosive compound. sugar. such as carbonic. Nitric acid with silver or mercuric nitrates. brucine a scarlet to blood red. potassium cyan- ide. 29. and carbonic acids. 17. Nitric acid replaces many weak acids. but not with socaloin. is not as active as the concentrated. are liable to explode. With salicylic acid itforms nitro- salicylic acid. 32. a yellow. 24. violent explosion or ignition is liable to take place. 14. 15.

By neutralizing any free acid with sodium bicarbonate many incompatibilities can be avoided for a time. nitrohydrochloric acid gives a yellow coloration with strychnine sulphate. 2. such as potassium or sodium nitrite. Ammonium bromide is decomposed by spirit of nitrous ether. i.] (fy 68-70. Sodium bicarbonate is not soluble in alcohol. Ethyl nitrite in the spirit of nitrous ether is decomposed by alkali hydroxides. [See CHLORUM and ACIDUM HYDROCHLORICUM. amyl nitrite or ethyl nitrite (in spirit of nitrous ether). 2. 8. Hypophosphites form phosphoric acid and 4. aldehyde. Sulphides form sulphates and nitric oxide. Sometimes they act as oxidizing and sometimes as reducing agents. i . Nitrohydrochloric acid is a very strong oxidizing agent. xxi. consequently the spirit will not be made alkaline and any excess can be filtered out. the basic nitrates of bismuth and of mercury are insoluble. It has the oxidizing properties of chlorine and the precipitat- ing properties of hydrochloric acid. 3.22 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS are all soluble in water. the nitrous and nitric acids seem spirit for to combine with the sodium and are not then as active oxidizing agents. This is true for a time. Chlorates form peroxide of chlorine. nitrous and other products. The products formed have not been determined. Iodides form iodine and nitric oxide. 7. all act in a similar manner. Acetates prevent the liberation of iodine (M.) Acidum Nitrosum. nitric acid. 3. absolute alcohol to prevent decomposition. Nitrous acid and acid solutions of nitrites. Most of the nitrates are rather sparingly soluble in alcohol. acetic acid. [See ACIDA. but later iodine is liberated. In neutral or alkaline mixtures nitrites do not generally oxidize or reduce. 127). 6. 5. Unless very highly diluted. Water tends to hasten and acid. Aldehyde is often present and the alkali gives a yellow to a brown color with this. then hydrochloric and nitric acids. The spirit of nitrous ether readily under- goes decomposition. The other bro- . liberating bromine. If sodium citrate is allowed to stand in the some time. nitric oxide when mixed with acid solutions of nitrites. forming alcohol and a nitrite of the alkali. forming alcohol. and is liable to cause violent reaction when mixed with organic matter.) Acidum Nitrohydrochloricum.] (fy 71-74. R.

& M. . Chromates are reduced to chromic salts. With thymol spirit of nitrous ether gives a green and then a brown color. Spirit of nitrous ether with a tincture of guaiac gives a blue color which changes to deep red in a few minutes. With tannic or gallic acid or preparations containing them in large amounts.. .] 29. Hydrogen dioxide oxidizes nitrous acid to nitric. 24. Spirit of nitrous ether produces a yellow color with Morphine is converted into nitroso- morphine. and reaction bottles containing the mixture should not be stoppered until reaction has ceased."] 19. Spirit of nitrous ether after standing with a solution of mercuric chloride causes the formation of a white precipitate which responds to the tests of calomel. [See ACIDUM ACETICUM. Piperazine gives a yellow to a red solution. 27. n. 10. 21. 23. Nitrous acid changes oleic acid to the isomeric form elaidin. i. 17. 13. 28. 436).] 18. Spirit of nitrous ether with sodium salicylate gives a brown red color if allowed to stand for a day or two. 6. Per- manganates are reduced to manganous salts and nitric acid is formed. It gives a red color with aloin. 25. Gold chloride is reduced to metallic gold. consisting chiefly of oxides of nitrogen. No. 16. 14. Phenacetin slowly gives a yellow color which deepens. Mercurous salts are reduced to metallic mercury. Nitrites with sulphuric acid and alcohol form ethyl nitrite. The may continue for some time. pseudomorphine.INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 23 mides are not readily affected. changing the thymol to nitroso. Acetanilid gives a yellow color with acidulated solutions of nitrites. 17.. morphine. 12. In a few hours it becomes turbid and deposits a solid.thymol. Antipyrine with acid solutions of nitrites gives the green isonitroso-antipyrine. If the guaiac has been exposed to the light and air for some time the blue color is not produced. 15. nitrites in acid solution (as an old spirit of nitrous ether) give off gaseous compounds. No. [See ACETANILEDUM No. [See ANTIPYRINA. Carbolic acid with spirit of nitrous ether and water gives a yellow solution at once which begins to assume a red brown color in five minutes and in one half hour is a deep red brown. in. 20. and another base (M. 22. with spirit of nitrous ether. With spirit of nitrous ether strong solutions of many salts give an effervescence. 26. 9.

. 3: Orthophosphoric acid does not coagulate egg albumin or gelatin (difference from metaphosphoric acid). which is solid. i. Nitric acid containing nitrous acid fumes or nitrous acid converts oleic acid into the isomeric elaidic acid. 2. 2. copper. The alkali phosphates pre- cipitate neutral solutions of nearly all other common metals. 637). With a solution of ferric chloride it forms the colorless ferric phosphate. Acidum Phosphoricum.) Acidum Oxalicum. [See ACIDA. [See ACIDA. 3. acid. Tannic acid or preparations containing it do not give the black color when added to this solution of ferric phos- phate. Phosphoric acid when added to a solution of soluble phosphate or soluble pyrophosphate of iron produces a white precipitate of ferric phosphate or of pyrophosphate of iron.mercury. propionic. large excess of the free A acid redissolves the precipitate.. i Free orthophbsphoric acid par- . Bromine and iodine combine with oleic acid to form addition products.) Acidum Oleicum. barium. Potassium permanganate in alkaline mixtures gives azelaic acid and dioxystearic acids (M. and other acids (M. and strontium. ill.or tri-metallic lead. mercurous. 3. 5. Concentrated sulphuric acid yields oxystearic 5. 6. butyric. . and excepting di. and bismuth phosphates. which is only sparingly soluble. The metallic oxalates except those of magnesium and the alkalies are generally insoluble in water. m. A permanganate is reduced to a manganous salt. antimony. is generally dissolved by phosphoric acid forming mono-metallic salts. 6. 637). Oleic acid combines slowly with alkalies to form soaps. except silver. azelaic. Oxalic acid is quite a strong reducing agent and is oxidized to carbon dioxide by most oxidizing agents.24 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS Nitrites are quite soluble in water. & M. 4. With an excess of alkali oxalate double oxalates are sometimes formed.] (fy 67. 4. 2. which kept in solution by the liberated hydro- is chloric acid.] (IV 75-83. Oxalic acid and soluble oxalates pre- cipitate as oxalates solutions of many metallic salts. such as lead. The precipitate is a phosphate. Potassium chlorate is reduced to potassium chloride. & M. adipic. tially precipitates solutions of silver nitrate and lead acetate. 5. i. Nitric acid oxidizes oleic acid to acetic. 4. calcium. silver. valeric.

ferric chloride. i. Pyrophosphoric acid precipitates solutions of lead acetate. and gelatin. Solutions of the salicylates in water. except those of the alkalies. particularly if alkaline.] Acidum Salicylicum. 15. Phosphates are insoluble in alcohol. 2. Dilute nitric. A soft mass is produced when the official sodium phosphate is triturated with quite a number of solids. and salts of barium and calcium (difference from orthophosphoric acid). but many are soluble in a solution of an alkali citrate or an acid. It is explosive when rubbed or heated with readily oxidizable substances such as sulphur.] 9. Salicylic acid unites with alkali hydroxides and with many metallic oxides to form salts. [See ACEDA.] (IV 84-89. [See page 270. i Picric acid and picrates precipitate . lead acetate. Alkali citrates also have a solvent effect. Acetic acid transposes most of the of their salts. 12. Salicylic acid liberates carbon dioxide from carbonates. and lead. 2 Salts of picric acid explode when struck or strongly . ferric chloride. become colored red brown on exposure to the air.) Acidum Picricum. 10. and tri-metallic phosphates. 3. This can be . except those of iron. 13. n. are insoluble in water. heated (Richter. and sulphuric acids transpose all phosphates. and most alkaloids from aqueous solutions of their salts. It coagulates solutions of egg albumin or gelatin. n. Metaphosphoric acid precipitates solutions of silver nitrate. 8. and precipitate solutions of salts of nearly all other metals. albumin. The pyrophosphates of the alkalies are soluble in water. hydrochloric. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 25 The official sodium phosphate is frequently slightly alkaline and in that condition apt to precipitate alkaloids from solutions is 7. The mono-metallic phosphates are soluble in water to some extent. gelatin. It does not cause a precipitation when it is added to a solution of the soluble phosphate or pyrophosphate of iron. In aqueous solutions metaphosphoric acid slowly changes to orthophosphoric acid. 16. 14. The di. insoluble phosphates. Most of the pyrophos- phates are soluble in solutions of alkali pyrophosphates as double salts. 3. 151). [See ACIDA. aluminum.

680). In case of lead acetate there is a strong odor of acetic acid. Chlorine forms mono. 8.26 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS prevented by the addition of a small proportion of sodium thio- sulphate. In rather acid solutions the color varies from that of the iron to brown or red. in. & M. depending upon the concentration. 14. 10. Potassium permanganate oxidizes salicylic acid to formic acid and carbon dioxide. 13. D. indicating that acetic acid is liberated. Sodium salicylate with spirit of nitrous ether gives a yellow solution which changes to red brown in a few hours. 16. Bromine water gives a precipitate with dilute solutions of salicylates. and may then be due to oxidation products of salicylic acid. lead acetate. Salicylic acid and soluble salicylates with dilute solutions of ferric salts give a blue violet to a violet red color.. in. Sodium salicylate with copper sulphate gives a green solution from which the copper is not precipitated in dilute solutions by alkali hydroxides. 12. Salicylic acid is said to give a soft mass when it is rubbed with antipyrine. Iodine gives mono-. & M.and di-chloro- salicylic acid (M. according to the author's experience..). or urethane. 5. Potassium chlorate with hydrochloric acid converts salicylic acid into tetrachloro- quinone (N. 17. sodium phosphate. 6. A solution of potassium iodide with salicylic acid becomes yellow in one day. 9. Sodium salicylate precipitates solutions of lead acetate and silver nitrate as salicylates. n. A solution of iodine is slowly decolorized by sodium salicylate. and after a few days it is brown and gives a test for iodine. With bismuth subnitrate sodium salicylate in aqueous solution is said to give several compounds of bismuth and salicylic acid which have a color varying from white to red orange. 4. 7. 15. The coloration. The color is destroyed by a large excess of a mineral acid or acetic acid. Concentrated nitric acid with salicylic acid gives nitrosalicylic acid. is not noticeable except after the lapse of considerable time. and tri-iodo-salicylic acid and tri-iodo-phenol (M. In nearly neutral solutions a precipi- tate of basic ferric salicylate is formed. 680). A mixture varying from a damp powder to a liquid results when salicylic acid or sodium salicylate is rubbed with exalgin. di-. S. but . Lime water gives a precipitate when mixed with a concentrated solution of sodium salicylate.

thymol. Sodium salicylate with a dilute solution (i 1000) : of quinine sulphate gives a crystalline precipitate in a few days. guaiacol. A concentrated aqueous solution of sodium salicylate (i i) is a good solvent for volatile : oils. 22. such as the citrates. 2. Salicylic acid is rendered more soluble in water by the presence of borax. creosote. Mineral acids and some organic acids liberate salicylic acid from solutions of the salicylates.. 3. Nitric acid oxidizes it to succinic and other acids (M. by potassium nitrate. acquiring a bitter taste (N. & M. Salicylic acid. D. 21. acetates. 18. 19. calcium (in concentrated solution). being but slightly soluble. rv. and other bodies. 24. Bromine water forms mono. More or less water can be added to these solutions without precipitation. and phosphates of the alkalies. and also that the liquid soon undergoes decom- position. The addition of potassium tartrate dissolves some of the precipitates. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 27 according to the author's experiments this is not the case. carbolic acid. . they are generally soluble in alcohol. iv.. Salicylic acid is rendered more soluble in water by the presence of several neutral salts. Sulphuric acid transposes the salts of nearly all other acids. & M. menthol. Excepting mer- curic and bismuth salicylates. S. Some say that this is due to absorp- tion of moisture from the air.] (IV 90-99. Sulphuric acid and the soluble sulphates precipitate as sulphates solutions of salts of lead. barium.and di-bromostearic acid (M. 512). and by sodium sulphite. i. [See ACIDA. 2. Soluble salicylates with solutions of quinine sulphate give a white curdy precipitate of quinine salicyl- ate which is nearly insoluble in water. Sodium salicylate tends to prevent precipitation of some of the metallic oxides or hydroxides. 20. and strontium. Sodium salicylate rubbed with antipyrine gives a powder which becomes damp and sticky. while others say that chemical reaction takes place.) Acidum Stearicum. i. Acidum Sulphuricum. 23. resinous substances.). 513). The compound Ci 4 HioNaBO7 is said to be formedand deposited in the form of crystals from strong solutions. Stearic acid combines with the alkali hydroxides and carbonates to form stearates. is precipitated from a not too dilute aqueous solution.

Hypophosphites in acid solution with sulphites form phos- phoric acid and sulphur.) Acidum Sulphurosum. or chlorates in acid solution. antimony. Sulphurous acid on exposure to i. and mercurous sulphates are sparingly soluble. Sulphuric acid dissolves many metals with the evolution of hydrogen or sulphur dioxide. 10. Silver salts in solution are first precipitated by sulphites and then reduced to metallic silver when warmed. the others are soluble in water. Water precip- itates the aromatics from the aromatic sulphuric acid. sodium. Sulphates are generally in- soluble in alcohol. The concentrated acid with most organic matter forms a black mass. and calcium are nearly insoluble in water. 9. and bismuth are soluble in acidulated water. 9. 8. barium. Nitric 5. strontium. 7. 4.] (FV 100-104. With hypophosphorous acid it forms sulphurous acid and then sulphur. and some other compounds are not thus affected. produce sulphuric and hydrochloric acids. .28 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 3. Some organic acids. 8. 5. Hydriodic acid with concentrated sulphuric acid forms iodine and sulphurous acid. The soluble sulphites potassium. silver mercuric. with the evolution of the greenish yellow chlorine peroxide. many alkaloids. 7. air is slowly oxidized to sulphuric acid. Sulphurous acid does not usually precipitate solutions of metallic salts. due to the change of the ferric sulphite to ferrous sulphate. and ammonium precipitate neutral solutions of salts of nearly all other metals. of lead. 4. 2. Sulphites and sulphurous acid give a red color with a dilute solution of ferric chloride. 1 1 The sulphates . Arsenic compounds are reduced to arsenous. The color is soon destroyed. Dilute acid liberates hydriodic acid from iodides. With alcohol sulphuric acid forms ethylsulphuric acid and then ether. or nitrous acid oxidizes sulphites to sulphates. 6. 3. Sulphites with chlorine. depending on the concentration of the acid. due to the extraction of the elements of water. Concentrated sulphuric acid causes detonation with chlorates. Dilute sulphuric acid does not cause as manydecompositions as the concentrated. 6. leaving carbon. [See ACIDA. Permanganates in acid solution are reduced by sulphites to manganous compounds. Sometimes sulphurous acid contains sulphuric acid which may cause reaction in certain cases.

especially lead. silver. 6. The alkali tannates give . The solution gets darker on standing and this is hastened by alkalies. Mercuric chloride is slowly reduced to calomel and on heating to metallic mercury. A small amount of lime water added to a solution of tannic acid gives a precipitate which redissolves. 8. 12. varying Potassium hydroxide or carbonate with a concentrated solution of tannic acid gives a compound which is but slightly soluble in water. Tannic acid precipitates as tannates solutions of salts of many of the metals. 3. or black. When potassium hydroxide is added in excess to a solution of tannic acid. and in some instances hydrosulphuric. The sulphites are insoluble in alcohol. 2. bo ic. n. Sulphurous acid has a bleaching effect on organic coloring matters. 13. Tannic acid in dilute solutions combines with the alkali hydroxides and car- bonates to form soluble tannates and these solutions soon be- come from red to brown. copper. [See ACIDA. adding more lime water the precipitate is white and permanent. D. hydrocyanic.. except carbonic. bismuth. Chromates in acid solution are reduced to chromic salts. An aqueous solution of tannic acid changes. if the mixture is boiled tannomelanic acid is formed (A. . Sodium hydroxide gives little or no precipitate. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 29 10. mercury.the sulphites of the alkaline earths are soluble in sulphurous acid.) Acidum Tannicum. 4. a very large excess of lime water gives a precipitate which is pinkish. The change is retarded or prevented by the presence of glycerin or alcohol. the others are insoluble or sparingly so. changing to light blue and then dark blue as more lime water is added. forming gallic acid and probably some elagic and carbonic acids. 7. and antimony. i . 95). the sulphurous acid acts more quickly than the sulphites. 14. but dissolves in a certain excess of alkali. 5. tannoxylic acid or rubi tannic acid is formed. The sulphites of the alkali metals are soluble in water. green. Mercuric and mercurous nitrates are reduced to metallic mer- cury.] (FV 105-108. Ammonia potassium hydroxide but the precipitate in its reactions resembles is not nearly so great unless ammonium chloride has been pre- viously added to the ammonia. colored. Sulphites are decomposed by nearly all acids.

bromine oxidizes tannic acid to acid. chlorine. S. tannic acid loses its astringency (Br. 21).. iv. With tannic acid and water iodine forms hydriodic acid. 81). calcium 12.. 18. chloride. The addition of enough of phosphoric acid to convert the iron into ferric phosphate prevents or destroys the color. and are soluble in pure water but not in acidulated water (U. 634). 9. These precipitates are sup- posed to be compounds of tannic acid with the respective acids. 14. 10. D. & M. depending to some extent upon the amount of tannic acid. 634).30 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS precipitates with solutions of salts of nearly all other metals. P. With solutions of ferric salts tannic acid gives a solution or precipitate (depending on the concentration and acidity) of a dark blue black to green black color. 13. Potas- sium bichromate gives precipitates with most tannins (M. capable of dissolving iodine the solution is . Tannic acid reduces potassium permanganate. iv. Tannic acid with Fowler's solu- tion or a solution of sodium arsenate gives a nearly white pre- cipitate which with the liquid turns to a dark dirty green within .). n. With purely ferrous salts in concentrated solution (not in dilute which quickly solution) it gives a white gelatinous precipitate.. the iodine in a liquid containing an excess of tannic acid does not 16. D.D. igth ed. 15. hydrochloric. Theoretically forty-eight minims of ten per cent phosphoric acid is sufficient to convert one dram of the official tincture of ferric chloride into the phosphate. S. A strong solu- tion of tannic acid gives precipitates with concentrated sulphuric. Nitric give a blue color with starch (U.. Saturated solutions of sodium chloride. 17. & M.. potassium acetate. which combines with part of the tannic acid and remains in solution. to prevent the formation of the dark tannate of iron. and some other salts precipitate tannic acid from strong solutions. becomes blue on exposure to air. or formic and oxalic acids (A. Precipitated by mineral salts or acids. 95). Practically it requires from one and a half to two times as much dilute acid as tincture. the oxygen of the decomposed water combines with tannic acid and forms an insoluble compound . Nearly all commercial samples of ferrous sulphate contain some ferric salt. or phosphoric acids. Potassium cyanide gives a green coloration with a solution of tannic acid (M. chromic acid.

All drugs containing tannic acid in large proportions will have the incompatibilities given above. glutin. Some of the drugs which contain notable quantities of tannic acid are catechu. the pre- cipitate is generally soluble in mixtures containing over fifteen to forty per cent alcohol. Tannic acid gives precipitates with solutions of albumin. kino. 24.Tanno- form or tanninformaldehyde is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol and alkalies and has many of the incompatibili- . 26. silver. acids reprecipitate it. and lime dissolve it. Tannic acid reduces salts of gold. Triturated with potassium chlorate or other substances which yield their oxygen readily. from which solutions. It precipitates aqueous solutions of antipyrine. neutral and bitter principles. In the body it is probably broken up into its constituents. part i. Alkaline liquids dissolve it slowly. Tannigen or diacetyl tannin is practically insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 31 a day. krameria. 21. Tannic acid slowly decomposes iodoform (U. or starch. 30. With spirit of nitrous ether. acacia. 32.] (IV 109-117. S. Tannalbin or albumin tannatepractically insoluble in is water or alcohol. The presence of some organic acids. 25. first 20. m. Solutions of borax. gelatin. 27. and oak bark. blackberry-root bark. or nitrous acid tannic acid causes a decomposition and the formation of gaseous compounds some of which are oxides of nitrogen. 22. D. It precipitates as tannates nearly all alkaloids from aqueous or dilute alcoholic solutions of their salts. In aqueous solution it gives a green color with ferric chloride. Tannismuth or bismuth bi tannate is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in cold caustic alkalies. tannic acid is liable to cause an explosion. while ammonia water breaks it into acetic and tannic acids. Tannic acid precipitates some glucosides. Hydrogen dioxide water with tannic acid shows no 19. 28.) 29. or starch also tends to prevent the precipitation. geranium. mercury. breaking it up into its constituents. logwood. sodium phosphate. 23. amyl nitrite. sodium carbonate. and copper (Allen. [See ACIDA. 31. 35). The solution becomes deep red.). change at but after a few days a light brown precipitate falls. Solutions of sodium or potassium hydroxides slowly break it up into acetic and gallic acids.

Tartaric acid in excess with a strong solution of ammonia gives a precipitate of ammonium bitartrate. it gives off formaldehyde. free tartaric acid is acted upon but slowly. carbon dioxide. or heating with sodium hydroxide. 2. 8. the precipitate dissolving in a large excess of a mineral acid. iron. or ether. Chromates oxidize tartaric acid to formic acid. When tartaric acid is added in excess to a rather strong solution of potassium hydroxide or many of its salts. 642). The soluble tartrates precipitate as tar- trates neutral solutions of salts of most metals. iv. chloroform. Boric combines with tartaric acid to make borotartaric acid which is a stronger acid than boric. i. Tannopin or hexamethyleneamine tannin is insoluble in water. due to the formation of double tartrates. lead. . 4. D. 9. as calcium phosphate. The precipi- or mineral acids. cobalt. 1 tate is generally soluble in tartaric acid Man}? of the tartrates form soluble compounds with the alkali hydrox- ides. and platinum. and barium sulphate. and water (M. but is slowly soluble in weak alkalies. 33. liberating iodine. bismuth. 5. chro- mium. Under certain conditions tartrates reduce salts of gold. Tartaric acid and tartrates tend to prevent the precipitation by alkali hydroxides of the oxides and hydroxides of the metals aluminum. Tartaric acid decomposes potassium iodide. mercuric chloride becomes mercurous chloride. weak acids. n. lead sulphate. 12. and zinc. nickel. Tartrates are transposed by mineral acids. forming a tartrate and hydriodic acid which is slowly decomposed by the air. 7. calcium. S.32 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS ties of tannic acid. Potassium tartrate or Rochelle salt gives a precipitate of potassium bitartrate on adding many acids. Acidum Tartaricum. & M. while the tartaric acid is con- verted into formic acid. a crystalline precipitate of potassium bitartrate forms. even on adding acetic or hydrochloric acid (U. and water. antimony. silver. Heating with weak acids.). 10. When tartaric acid is associated with boric acid it is not precipitated by potassium hydroxide. Tartrates in aqueous solutions have more or less solvent effect on certain salts which ordinarily are insoluble. carbon dioxide. copper. ammonia is given off.. Potassium permanganate with an alkaline solution of a tartrate isreduced to manganese dioxide. 3. 6.

Department INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 33 University 13. Lard oxidizes on exposure to air and light. but not by ammonium carbonate or the bicarbonates. acetic and oxalic 4. Aconitina. or water. Tartrates are generally insoluble in alcohol. The bitar- trates of potassium and ammonium are sparingly soluble. Hot nitric acid forms carbon dioxide. ealcium tartrate. Ethyl acetate in the presence of moisture decomposes into alcohol and acetic acid. 3. and oleates. ether becomes acid. The other tartrates are nearly insoluble. Aqueou solutions of salts of aconitine are precipitated by alkali hydroxides. i. Ether in the light is said to tend to produce hydrogen dioxide (M. Aconitine is decomposed by long standing or by heating with acids. forming carbon dioxide and chloro- form. 3. xvm. and in this condition liberates iodine from potassium iodide. & M. Tartrates of the alkali bases are soluble in water. In partly filled bottles. 2. Trichloracetic acid precipi- tates solutions of albumin. 2. and palmitates of the alkalies. The manganous and ferric tartrates are soluble. becoming acid and rancid.] (IV 132. It forms chlorinated compounds with chlorine. ^Ether Aceticus. 2. It is decomposed when heated with alkalies and carbonates. and aconine.. Lard is decomposed by alkali hydrox- ides or carbonates. and other products after a few days. forming glycerin.) Adeps. [See under ALKALOIDS. and by the general alkaloidal reagents. [See ACIDA. i. due to the formation of acetic acid. n. forming benzoic acid. The colors produced by reagents are generally due to impurities rather than to aconitine.] Acidum Trichloraceticum. and conse- quently has the incompatibilities of these. 228). stearates. With lime water and chlorinated lime it yields chloroform. 2. alkalies. i. . 4. particularly in the presence of water. With alkaline hydroxides it yields alcohol and an acetate of the alkali. R. sparingly soluble.] (fy 118. [See Acidum Ole- icum and Acidum Stearicum.) iEther. acids. i. Commercial lard sometimes contains alkalies or alkaline carbonates in small amounts. . Ether with bromine forms ethyl bromide. i. 2. 5Chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid (M. acetic acid. 465) . bromal. 3. the carbonates of the fixed alkalies.

3. 3. i. as mercuric chloride (prevented to a considerable extent by the presence of ammonium or sodium chloride or hydrochloric acid). being exposed to air and light is decomposed with liberation of iodine. by hydrogen dioxide water. Ethyl bromide is quickly decom- posed by light and air. 480). S. by salts of many heavy metals. M. 2. by some neutral . P. i. Warming it with a solution of potassium hydroxide causes ammonia to be given off (U. carbolic acid. hydrobromic acid. copper sulphate. & M. salts. 33). &. by some organic acids. Silver nitrate gives a precipitate of silver iodide (M. and some free bromine.] ^Ethylis lodidum. creo- sote. 7. It is precipitated by most of the general alkaloidal reagents. i. & M..or pyro-phosphoric acid). n. Urethane. 499). 5. 3. 679). The coagulation of the different albumins varies. picric acid. Alkalies and their carbonates precipitate the free ethylmorphint. by some organic com- .. When rubbed with benzoic acid orsome other solids urethane gives a liquid or soft mass. Dionin. n. alkali 2. Aqueous solutions of egg albumin are coagulated by heat and by many mineral acids. [See page 270. Albumin. Ethyl bromide with ammonia gives hydrobromate of ethyl- amine (Watts. i. nitric. 2. Urethane in the presence of iodine and an hydroxide or carbonate produces iodoform. as tannic acid and substances containing it (not by gallic acid). as ammonium sulphate. silver nitrate. nitric acid. as hydrochloric. acetic and trichloracetic acids. /Ethylis Carbamas. and sulphuric acid. alum. 528). i . With an alcoholic solution of potassium hydroxide it gives large crystals of potas- sium cyanate (M. gold chloride. 3. It is not as strong a reducing agent as morphine and does not give as many color reactions. With alkali hydrates it gives ether and potassium bromide (M. 6. 2. The presence of one per cent of alcohol or three per cent of ether makes it more stable. forming alcohol.34 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS ^EthylisBromidum. 3. and ferric chloride 4. Iodine is liberated by chlorine. Ethyl iodide or hydriodic ether on i. lactic acid. yEthylmorphina? Hydrochloridum. 2... and meta-phosphoric (not by ortho.

6. when mixed with alcoholic .. volatile oils. water. give precipitates when mixed with water. acetic acid. & M. 10. i. i. acetic and formic acids (M. The official except those mentioned in the alcoholic preparations. & M. 13. Bromine forms hydrobromic acid. less so in 12. camphor. following classes. Mercuric chloride is slowly reduced to calomel by alcohol (M.. Chlorine is rapidly absorbed by alcohol and in sunlight may ignite the alcohol. ethyl bromide. collodion. acacia the resulting mixture must contain about thirty or forty per cent alcohol before a permanent precipitate results. resorcin. acacia.. Alcohol sometimes contains traces of aldehyde or other impurities which are darkened by alkali hydroxides. spirits. except chloride of iron. 3. Alcohol combines with many metallic salts. the precipitate sometimes being the active principle and sometimes inert matter: tinctures. i. I. and glycyrrhiza. there being a number of intermediate products. 7. (fy 120. 97). & M. n. With chloral hydrate alcohol forms chloral alcoholate which is not very soluble in elixir and the presence of potassium bromide. 97). as alcohol (the precipitate is redissolved by dilution with water if the albumin has not been in contact with the alcohol too long). Alcohol precipitates albumin.. and many inorganic salts from their aqueous to precipitate the solutions. 5. thymol. i. 97). INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 35 pounds. 9.) Alcohol. fluidextracts. 98). i. sozoidol. aldehyde. 4. forming nitric oxide.carbon dioxide. and coniine (not nicotine). aldehyde.. (M. & M. nitrous ether. 14. i. 98). Chromic acid or a chromate in an acid solution oxidizes alcohol to aldehyde and acetic acid. The ultimate product is chloral alcoholate. Strong nitric acid (not dilute) acts violently on alcohol. acting like water of crystallization (M. Potassium permanganate in acid (not in alkaline) solution oxidizesit to aldehyde and acetic acid. formaldehyde. bromal and bromal alcoholate (M. such as hydrochloric acid. ether. except cascara. 97). etc. iodine. chloral. aro- matic cascara. except nitrous ether. 8. & M. 2. Concentrated mineral acids convert alcohol into esters and ethers.. & M. Water generally causes a precipitation. and deo- dorized tincture of opium. Nitric acid with the nitrate of mercury or silver and strong alcohol forms the explosive fulminate of mercury or silver (M. ethyl chloride.

sulphur. Among the many substances which alcohol generally dissolves may be mentioned acetates (except mercurous and silver). oleoresins. nitrates (except potassium. camphors. and aromatic syrup of rhubarb. solution of sodium hydroxide. acids. In combination petroleum ether. syrup of rhubarb. glucosides. volatile oils. carbon bisulphide. and bismuth). Alkaloids combined with acids in water or very dilute alcohol are generally and dissolved of alkali hydroxides or precipitated as free alkaloids by solution carbonates and by borax. resins. aromatic spirit of ammonia. sodium phosphate. i. The following preparations contain an alkali hydroxide or carbonate: ammonia water. or balsams. silver. fluidextracts of glycyrrhiza and senega.) Alkalies. (IV 121. alkali hydroxides. am- moniated tincture of guaiac. or oils. potas- sium arsenite. lime water. and sodium arsenate are . alkaloids and their salts. volatile oils. chloroform. solution of potassium hydroxide. bromides. sodium. and mercurous). or benzoic acid. Solutions of lead subacetate. deliquescent salts (except potassium carbonate). ammoniated tincture of valerian. alkali hypophosphites. iodine.but insoluble in ether. solution of potassium arsenite. benzol. 16. oleoresins.phenols. stronger ammonia water. with most other organic acids the alkaloids form salts that are not generally soluble in water. and mercurous). magnesia magma. Inorganic substances that are insoluble in water are also generally insoluble in alcohol. compound cresol solution. ben- zoates. camphors. alkaloids combined with any of the general alkaloidal reagents. organic and in- organic acids. 15. ammonia lini- ment. and neutral prin- ciples. phosphorus. silver. ammo- nium. resins [see under RESINS]. chlorides (except potassium. lead. salicylic. 2. lead. neutral and bitter principles.36 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS solutions of the following substances: free alkaloids. glucosides. Alkaloids combine with mineral acids and acetic and citric acids to form salts which are generally soluble in water or alcohol. bismuth magma. solu- tion of lead subacetate. [See AQUA AMMONLE AND LIQUOR POTASSII HYDROXIDL] Alkaloids. lime liniment. salicylates (except mercury and bismuth). hydrocarbons and carbon derivatives. iodides (except lead. balsams. gallic.

more quickly if the mixture is heated. morphine. A few are soluble in excess of solutions of fixed alkali hydrates. No. but are generally soluble in alcohol. Some alkaloidal salts are thrown out of solution by the presence of considerable quantities of very soluble salts. 19. e.. i. caffeine. 426). 3. potassium mercuric iodide. 8. precipitate the alkaloids from their salts. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 37 slightly alkaline and may precipitate the free alkaloid. iodides. A strong solution of chloral hydrate dissolves morphine. quinine. 7. nicotine. Some alka- loids are strong reducing agents. The . and phos- phomolybdic acid. picric acid. e. Dilution with water may cause a precipitation of the alkaloid. combined with the precipitant. mercuric chloride. whatever be their chemical function. bromine in solution of potassium bromide.g.. codeine. and coniine. quinine. gold chloride. Aloinum. [See ACIDUM BORICUM. potassium mercuric iodide (Mayer's reagent). bromides.] 5. 4. and many other alkaloids. most alkaloids are decomposed by oxidizing agents. iodine in solution of potassium iodide. benzoates. Ammonium carbonate and the bicarbonates of potassium and sodium frequently do not cause precipitation.g. A solution of a mixture of boric and salicylic acids gives a pre- cipitate with solutions of many alkaloidal salts as boro-salicyl- ates. Starch dissolved by boiling in water has a similar effect with the potassium mer- curic iodide. ether. The free alkaloids are generally only sparingly soluble in water. e. strychnine hydriodide by potassium iodide. Practi- cally all agents whose reaction to litmus is alkaline. by soluble salicylates. In the presence of acacia some alkaloids are not precipitated from dilute aqueous solutions of their salts by tannic acid. The solubility of the salts of the alkaloids is also increased. 6. Concentrated solutions of aloin are slowly precipitated by a solution of lead subacetate (not the neutral lead acetate). or sodium phosphomolybdate (Allen. a few are soluble in excess of ammonia water. and by the following general alkaloidal reagents: tannic acid. The presence of from twenty to fifty per cent of alcohol will nearly always prevent the precipitation. except atropine. bichro- mates. 9. The alkaloidal salts are generally precipitated from aqueous solution. i ..g. or chloroform. potassium bismuthic iodide. platinic chloride.

Tannic acid or preparations its causes a slight precipitation. 2. even "in the presence of a large amount of water. picric. xix.] (FV 123. 3. and the dilute solution has a . 8. Aluminum hydroxide. aluminum hydroxide being precipitated. A red color is produced more or less quickly when one tenth of a grain of any of the following alkaloids in a dram of alcohol is added to a sixth of a grain of aloin in water. changing to violet. is 6. i. 7. and oxalic acids are formed. due to the liberation of carbon dioxide. Alum in solution is precipitated as aluminum hydroxide by the alkali hydroxides and their carbonates. soluble in excess of potassium or sodium hy- droxide. codeine. cocaine. tartrates. Alumnol. 3. Spirit of nitrous ether gives a red solution with aloin. borax. Con- centrated nitric acid gives a red color with barbaloin (not with nataloin or socaloin).38 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 2. except quinine. strychnine. morphine. Alumini Naphtholsulphonas. borate. 4. The coloration may be caused by the alkalinity of these alkaloids. Citrates. With tartaric acid it gives a precipitate of potassium bitartrate. An aqueous solution of aloin with liquid is turned brown. 5.) Alumini Hydroxidum. Alum slightly acid to litmus. ferric chloride gives a green black to a brown black color. 7. Citrates and tartrates tend to prevent precipitation. 5. (fy 122. or hydrastine. give little or no color (Bui. and by further action chrysammic. The salts of these alkaloids.. Gold chloride gives a carmine red. oxalate. The phosphates give the in- alkali soluble aluminum phosphate. 294). [See ACIDUM SULPHURICUM. and lime water. i . and rendered inert.) Alumen. is readily decomposed. arsenate. The hydroxide. 4. sugar. Adding a soluble carbonate to a solution of alum produces an effervescence. glycerin. precipitated. Alumnol gives an acid solution in alcohol or water. alkaloids and coloring matter in solution from liquids. and acacia tend to prevent precipitation. quinine. Sometimes a violet tinge is produced which is slowly dissipated. and phosphate are insoluble in water. Pharm. especially when freshly removes suspended solid matter. heroine. Alum has the incompatibilities of the soluble sulphates. With solutions of alkali hydroxides aloin gives an orange to a red color. 6.

3. 39). 2. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 39 blue fluorescence. 4. With a solution of mercuric chloride it gives a white precipi- tate of ammoniated mercury. Ammonium carbonate with resorcin in solution gives a red brown which changes to deep blue in a day or two. 2. Ammonium carbonate does not precipitate as many of the alkaloids from solutions of their salts as do the carbonates of potassium and sodium. i Ammonium carbonate with calomel . hyoscyamine (except in strong solution). 2. 7. It is precipitated by many alkaloidal reagents. gives a black mixture of mercuric ammonium chloride. and caffeine. The aqueous solution gives a precipitate of aluminum hydroxide when an alkali hydroxide is added. having the formula NH 2 HgCl. The alkali carbonates give a white precipitate. the precipitate being soluble in excess of these substances. forming hydrochloric acid and the explosive nitrogen chloride (M. i. With a solution of ferric chloride alumnol gives a deep blue color. Ammonium chloride aids the solution of several salts that are more or less insoluble ordi- . except in concentrated solutions. It gives no precipi- tate with magnesium salts. i . It should not be given with reducible substances. The precipitate with copper or silver salts is dissolved by an excess of the carbonate. Mixed with calomel and dampened with alcohol it gives a black color. with some metallic mercury (P. NH2 HgCl. Ammonii Carbonas. Silver nitrate is not precipitated at once but is slowly decomposed and precipitated as metallic silver. The precipitate redissolves in an excess of a fixed alkali. Some of the alkaloids not precipitated are atropine. & J. 8. 202). 7. An alkali hydroxide or carbonate gives a pre- cipitate with an aqueous solution of alypin.. 4. 6.Nitric acid gives a yellow to a red color. [See CARBONATES AND AMMONIUM. solution at first Excepting the reactions noted above. nicotine. Rubbed with carbolic acid it gives a mass.) Ammonii Chloridum. The fluorescence is destroyed by resorcin. It is precipitated by a solution of albumin or gelatin. i. 5. 5.) Alypin.. An aqueous solution is decom- posed by chlorine. 3. ammonium carbonate generally acts similarly to potassium or sodium carbonate. (IV 124. 9. coniine. 2. codeine. & M. 3. 6.] (IV 125-128.

3. Certain ammonium salts.] Amylis Nitris. becoming acid. [See ACIDUM HYDROCHLORICUM and AMMONIUM. 5. such as the acetate. Tartaric acid pre- vents this precipitation to some extent. i. i. or sulphate of antimony.) Antimonii et Potassii Tartras. 2. together with some potassium Htartrate. calcium. starch is changed to dextrin and then dextrose. and AMMONIUM. Iodine by strong alcohol. Amyl nitrite is decomposed slowly by light and air. 5. In solution starch to some extent prevents the precipitation of alkaloids by potassium mercuric iodide and tannic acid. i. With solutions containing over five per cent of an alkali hydroxide starch forms a soluble compound.] Ammonii Valeras. With potassium hydroxide it forms potassium nitrite and amyl alcohol (Allen. Heating with dilute acids. with solutions of the fixed alkali hydroxides or carbonates. 4. The alkali hydroxides . give free ammonia. Some ammonium salts with chlorine gas give explosive nitrogen chloride. with starch forms the blue black iodide of starch. 4. tannic acid. 2.] Ammonium. Ammonium valerate in concentrated aqueous solution with mineral acids gives an oily layer of valeric acid.] Ammonii lodidum.) Amylum. in aqueous solution may act as solvents for otherwise insoluble compounds. 212). or strontium. Diastase changes it chiefly to maltose. [See AQUA AMMONLE. Its incompatibilities are about the same as those of spirit of nitrous ether. Tartar emetic in aqueous solution precipitated by hydrochloric. citrate. (fy 130.] (fy 129. [See ACIDUM NITROSUM. nitric. 3. 3. The bitartrate is sparingly soluble but the other common salts are readily soluble. 2. or lead subacetate. Ammonium iodide very frequently contains free iodine.40 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS narily. ACIDUM HYDRIODICUM. is forming a basic chloride. 2. Some ammonium salts are easily decomposed in the air as the iodide and carbonate. and it would then have the incompatibilities of iodine. and sometimes renders other salts less soluble. or sulphuric acid. [See AMMONIUM. nitrate. [See IODUM. i. Ammonium compounds. and chloride. or with the hydroxides of barium. i . Starch in aqueous solution is precipitated i.

with solutions not too dilute. give a white precipitate of antimony oxide. are incompatible with tartar emetic. but forms salts with acids by direct addition. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 41 or their carbonates. albumin. 2. 8. as potassium chlorate. With tincture citro- chloride of iron the red color is not formed.) Antimonii Sulphidum. 6. 7. being precipitated by normal tartrates. 3. 5. agent. With a strong solution of antipyrine lead subacetate forms a precipitate. 6. sugar. Triturated with a strong oxidizing i. 5. i. Lime water throws down a precipitate consisting of the mixed tartrates of calcium and antimony. The salts of most metals. Experi- ments made in the laboratory of the American Medical Associa- . sulphide of antimony may cause an explosion. 8. Antipyrine gives a green color with a solution of copper sulphate. Antipyrine is neutral to litmus. 9. (fy 131. Antipyrina. glycerin. 2. 3. tartrates. Phenazone. Tannic acid gives a precipitate of tannate of antimony. This color is destroyed or prevented by an excess of mineral acids. Analgesin. but if sodium bi- carbonateis mixed with it the color is changed at once. 4. Gallic acid precipitates concentrated solutions of tartar emetic. and soap give precipitates with tartar emetic. due to the ferric salt which is present. 4. silver nitrate. Solutions of lead acetate. In aqueous solution mercuric chloride is reduced to calomel which is precipitated. With commer- cial ferrous sulphate it gives a red color. Citrates. In the presence of moisture calomel is slowly turned dark by antipyrine. but on adding a dilute mineral acid to this it is produced at once. and acacia prevent precipitation. By exposure to air it is partially converted into an oxide. 7. Strong alcohol throws tartar emetic out of aqueous solution. the salts of antimony are not soluble in water but are in strongly acid solutions. With a solution or tincture of ferric chloride antipyrine gives a red color. Excepting the acetate and tartrate. A mixture of two drams of antipyrine with one ounce of simple syrup and one ounce of syrup of ferrous iodide (free from iodine) soon gives a red liquid and after a time red crystalline precipitate. 10. With strictly ferrous salt the solution is color- less. An aqueous solution with a strong solution of sodium hydroxide gives a white precipitate.

Antipyrine in strong aqueous solution is pre- cipitated by a solution of a mixture of boric and salicylic acids.. the precipitate dissolving at first. pre- cipitating manganese Chromic acid gives an orange dioxide. Antipyrine slowly reduces potassium permanganate. 10. An aqueous solution of antipyrine is precipitated by a solution of mercuric chloride if acid or by Donovan's solution. xxxm.. passing into crimson on warming. as Drs. forming a colorless solution. Bromine water gives a precipitate which is soluble at first but remains permanent on adding more bromine. repeated several times at intervals of an hour (D. A solution of iodine gives with a solution of antipyrine a red brown pre- cipitate which dissolves in an excess of antipyrine. There is probably formed the colorless iodo- antipyrine (iodopyrine) or the di-iodoantipyrine. C. An aqueous solution of antipyrine gives a precipitate with tannic acid or preparations containing it in considerable proportions. 12. precipitate with a strong solution of antipyrine. [See under ALKALOIDS. and by having a little sodium bicarbonate present the reaction may be prevented for several days or weeks. H. A dilute solution of change. 15. The green compound is iso-nitroso-antipyrine. antipyrine with nitric acid gives a yellow color. 9. The experiments of Drs. Wood and John Marshall. by picric acid and by most of the general alkaloidal reagents. If more iodine is added a permanent precipitate is formed which is soluble in alcohol. 17. 14. The odor of chlorine water or a solution of chlorinated soda is destroyed by antipyrine to some extent and a precipitate may form (M. 16. 357). Spirit of nitrous ether with antipyrine gives a green solution. Wood and Marshall gave it in doses of fifteen grains. go to show that this compound is not a dangerous one.] 18. 13.42 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS tion show that about one fourth of the calomel is converted into a soluble mercuric salt. and on standing green crystals are formed if the solution is concentrated. as well as those made by other experimenters. but rubbing these with antipyrine or mixing aqueous solutions produces no apparent 1 1. Alum and both said tartar emetic are to be incompatible with antipyrine. 19. R. . xn. C. The reaction does not take place as quickly when the spirit is neutral as when it is acid. The liquid is colored yellow to red.

According to these investigators there is a small amount of cyanogen evolved. (FV 133-139. It is slowly decomposed in boiling water. Antipyrine gives a liquid or soft mass when triturated with piperazine and some other solids. 3. no matter whether white or amber. and an oily liquid settles to the bottom in a few hours. [See page 270. When antipyrine and sodium salicylate are rubbed together a mass or liquid is formed after a time. white at first. With a concentrated solution of ferric . This can be prevented by the addition of a few drops of hydro- chloric or acetic acid. XLV. 23. An aqueous solution is precipitated by the alkali hydroxides and carbonates and by lime water as the free alkaloid. Rubbing with salicylic acid does not give a mass or liquid. 25. Triturating chloral hydrate and antipyrine together in proper proportions forms the is made. from which hypnal Moderately dilute aqueous solutions of antipyrine and chloral hydrate can be mixed without separation. the length of time seeming to depend on the amount of moisture in the atmosphere. Antipyrine increases the solubility of quinine sulphate in water. that do not yield an alkali to water (Pharm.) Apomorphinse Hydrochloridum.] 5. It is precipitated by tannic acid. CentrabL. liquid monochloralantipyrine. It has been suggested that the simple mixture is hygroscopic. [See ALKALOIDS. the exact change which takes place has not been determined. and at the same time destroys the fluorescence and prevents the green coloration which quinine gives with bromine water followed by ammonia water. An aqueous solution of apomorphine hydrochloride rapidly becomes green in color. Other nitrites act similarly. 4. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 43 107). On mixing aqueous solutions of these two substances a turbidity results. The solubility of caffeine is said to be increased by antipyrine. 843).] 24. 22. picric acid. Apomorphine dissolved in ammonia water develops a purple color. 2. 20. but quickly turning green or black. 21. the quantity being so small that no danger need be apprehended. and nearly all the alkaloidal reagents. It is stated that the solution will not become green if prescribed in bottles. i. but more probably a chemical reaction takes place. Crystal- lized carbolic acid when triturated with antipyrine gives an odorless liquid called phenopyrin.

. 4. Bromine acts somewhat like chlorine. Calomel is converted into a black mixture of metallic mercury and mercuric ammonium chloride (NH2 HgCl) (P. when it is an oxide. [See IODUM. (fy 140. iron. resinous or fatty matter. Aqua Ammonise. alu- minum.) Aqua. cadmium. With a concentrated . permanganates. forming hydrochloric acid and nitrogen. Apomorphine hydrochloride in aqueous solution reduces iodates. chromium. copper. bismuth. tin. nickel. 7. under different circumstances. 3. it is a basic salt. 6. 39). mercury. If a larger propor- tion of chlorine gas is used. 5. Per- manganates oxidize ammonium hydroxide to a nitrate. and other organic matter. many free alkaloids or alkaloids combined with general alkaloidal reagents. which slowly becomes green. the ammonium chloride may be decomposed into hydrochloric acid and explosive nitrogen chloride. It precipitates solutions of salts of lead. the ammonium chloride may be decomposed. manganese. in case of lead. then deep blue. i Ammonia combines with acids to .44 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS chloride it gives a red precipitate. 2. With carbolic acid ammonia gives at first a colorless solution. antimony. double compounds are formed in case of mercury. giving ammo- niated mercury (NH2 HgCl). some neutral and bitter principles.] 8. Concen- trated nitric acid added to the crystals gives a red solution. cobalt. 2. tartrates. is citrates. solution of A corrosive sublimateis precipitated by ammonia. form salts. With iodine ammonium hydroxide may under certain circumstances form ammonium iodide. acacia. n. The precipitate is a hydroxide. and water. and silver nitrate. 9. With chlorine ammonia forms ammonium chloride and nitrogen. ammonium iodate. 7. except in case of silver and anti- mony. & J. No. some glucosides. The precipitation many times prevented or hindered by sugar. ammonium iodide and the explosive iodide of nitrogen are formed. and zinc. 10. silver. 6. and nearly all compounds which are insoluble in water. With carbolic acid and sodium hypochlorite am- monia produces a deep blue color. Water precipitates from their alcoholic solutions oils. turning black. glycerin. and finally purplish blue. If a still larger proportion of chlorine gas is used. inert extractive matter.

but the alcohol has a tendency to keep them in solution.g. 9. the precipitate being soluble in ammonia water. 12.. cipitate the white silver chloride. camphor water gives a pre- cipitate of camphor when a large amount of potassium bromide is dissolved in it. Chloral hydrate is decomposed. Spirit of ammonia has the same incompatibilities as water of ammonia. 5. except as they are modi- fied by the alcohol. 14.) Argent! Nitras. 10. and cyanides precipitate the silver bromide. giving chloroform and a formate of ammonium or chloral-ammonia. Ammonia added to an alcoholic solution of thymol slowly gives a green color. To prevent this. It precipi- tates nearly all alkaloids from aqueous solutions of their salts. (IV 141-143-) Aquae. 7. The soluble bro- mides. Gallic acid gives a yellow to a red brown color with ammonia water. sometimes mixed with a little oxide. i. Sodium phosphate precipi- tates the yellow silver phosphate. Hydrochloric acid and the soluble chlorides pre- 4. Silver nitrate is easily changed to the oxide or metallic silver by light and organic matter. e. The alkali carbonates precipitate the yellow white silver car- bonate. (fy 144. 2. Chromates precipitate the red . Aromatic spirit of ammonia is similar to the spirit. 6. The medicating or flavoring principle in some waters is thrown out of solution by dissolving certain very soluble inorganic salts in the water. Soluble arsenates precipitate the red brown silver arsenate. The precipitate is the free alkaloid. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 45 solution of tartaric acid ammonia gives a precipitate of ammo- nium bitartrate. 13. 17. 16. Soluble arsenites precipi- tate the yellow silver arsenite. Borax precipitates silver borate. 3. In concentrated solutions of picric acid ammonia gives a precipitate. Silver nitrate in aqueous solution is precipitated as the gray brown silver oxide by the hydroxides of potassium. 15. sodium. iodides. iodide. With solutions of alkaloidal salts the ammonia liberates the alkaloids. and am- monium. 18. 8. part of the flavoring water may be replaced by distilled water. except water causes separation of the oils. the iodide and cyanide being soluble in excess of the precipitant. and is sometimes soluble in a large excess of ammonia.and cyanide.

20. 14. by hypophosphites and sulphites. and lead. tartrates. but not generally by alka- loids. vol- atile oils. & M. i. 12. e. formaldehyde. probably of silver oxide. Iodine in water forms silver iodide and iodic acid. 16..) Argentum Colloidale. Chlorine forms silver chloride and chlorate. Free cocaine gives a black precipitate. 5. (fy 149-155. It is incompatible with the usual silver reagents but the presence of albumin retards the precipitations. A solution or suspension of colloidal silver should not be exposed to light or air. 3. Tannic acid pre- sulphate. n. 2. aromatic waters.46 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS brown silver chromate. iv. 17. Silver oxide readily parts with its oxygen. 4. An alcoholic solution of silver nitrate gradually deposits metallic silver. Collargol. are insoluble or sparingly soluble in water. 470). Cargentos is said to be the colloidal silver .) Argent! Oxidum.. iron. Silver nitrate in solution is reduced to the metallic condition by glucose. by arsenites. sulphide of antimony. mercury. tannic acid. manganous salts. Triturated dry with sulphur. cipitates the silver tannate. creosote. creosote. 2. 19. it is liable to explode or cause ignition.. and some other organic substances. sulphide of arsenic. 4. Potassium permanganate with not too dilute solutions of silver nitrate gives a precipitate of silver permanganate. iv. Dilute solutions are precipitated by dilute acids. in alkaline mixtures. & M. 470). 3. It is reduced to metallic silver by metallic zinc. Moist silver oxide decomposes many metallic salts in solution. 15. Soluble citrates give precipi- tates of silver citrate. antimonous salts. precipitating the metallic hydroxides. and mercury (M. Soluble salicylates give precipitates of silver salicylate. A strong solution of silver oxide in concentrated ammonia forms the explosive silver nitride (Ag3 N) on standing or by adding alcohol (M. forming explosive mixtures with many substances. i.g. by ferrous 13. tin. Silver nitrate heated with nitric acid and alcohol produces the violently explosive fulminate of silver. copper. phosphorus. Morphine salts are precipitated by silver nitrate with a red coloration. copper. 21. Most salts of silver. 18. and many other organic substances. salts of bismuth. (IV 156. except the nitrate and chlorate.

If saturated solutions of the chlorides are added or of ammonium sulphate. It gives precipitates with solutions of lead acetate. liberating metallic silver as a brownish black powder. Silver Vitellin. Iodine is also liberated. Collargol is said to be colloidal silver with a small percentage of albumin and is not precipitated by boiling unless prolonged. A solution of mercuric chloride or a tincture of ferric chloride decolorizes a solution of argyrol at once and gives a white pre- cipitate. i Hydrochloric and trichloracetic . silver nitrate. Argonin. 6. litmus. A saturated solution of sodium chloride causes precipita- tion and the precipitate redissolves in water. the argyrol is precipitated without decomposition. The normal alkali arsenates. precipitate neutral solutions of salts of nearly all other common metals. and is not precipitated by sodium chloride. Iodide of arsenic in aqueous solution decomposes into arsenous and hydriodic acids. It is incompatible with the chlorides of some of the alkaloids. Silver Casein. 7. Argonin is slightly alkaline to i. 8. Sodium arsenate is . mercuric chloride. as arsenates. small amounts give a slight precipitate of silver chloride. in case of acetic acid the precipitate dissolves in excess of acid. 4. 4. A solution stains the skin. and tannic acid. as sodium arsenate. zinc sulphate.] Arseni Pentoxidum. 3. 3. The alkali chlorides in. copper sulphate. 5. 2. as colloidal silver is. those of the soluble iodides [See ACIDUM HYDRIODICUM and ARSENI TRIOXIDUM. and alcohol. It is not precipitated by alka- lies. lead acetate. Argyrol. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 47 oxide with some casein. acids decompose argyrol in aqueous solution. i. Arseni lodidum. A solution of it gives a precipitate with zinc sulphate. The aqueous solution gives a flocculent pre- cipitate with acids . 3. Iodide of arsenic precipitates many alkaloids from solutions of their salts. 2. The usual reagents for silver do not affect dilute solutions. It is not precipitated by a solution of albumin or of an alkali. ferric chlo- ride. 2. 5. alum. Its incompatibilities are similar to and of arsenous acid. Tannic acid precipitates it. The solution is opalescent but clears on addition of sodium chloride. i. Argonin is soluble in solutions of alkalies and of albumin. phenol.

except those of the alkalies. 4. With a solution of mercuric chloride Fowler's solution gives a white precipitate. and may cause precipitation on this account. With tannic acid. 5. Arsenous acid is said to combine with potas- sium acid form a double salt. 6. analogous to tartar tartrate to emetic (Watts. The precipitate is soluble in mineral acids and sometimes in the presence of ammonium salts. The arsenates of the alkali metals are soluble in water. but soluble in the presence of most mineral acids. 5.. i. it gives a nearly white precipitate which with the liquid turns to a dark. 2. Fowler's solution gives a brown white precipitate with lime water. and iodides. Tannic acid with a not too dilute solution ofsodium arsenate gives a yellow brown precipi- tate.48 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS generally alkaline. In acid solutions arsenates are reduced to arsenites by hypophosphites. Ferric hydroxide or a solution of dialyzed iron gives an in- soluble basic arsenite with a solution of an arsenite or arsenous acid. The soluble arsenites (generally not the free acid) precipitate neutral solu- tions of nearly all metallic salts. 3. due perhaps to the fact that the arsenate is alkaline and in some cases to the formation of an insoluble alkaloidal arsenate. i. dirty green in less than a day. If the Fowler's solution is in large excess there will be formed a white precipitate at first and in a few hours a dark gray precipitate of metallic mercury. A solution of potassium iodide with arsenous acid or potassium arsenite in strong solution yields a precipitate of (0)2^8203)3 which is sparingly soluble in water (Watts. One dram of potassium iodide dissolved in one dram of Fowler's solution gives only a slight precipitate. The arsenates are generally insoluble in alcohol. the precipitate and the liquid changing to a dark green within a day or two. sulphites. To some extent this changed to a basic ferrous arsenate is (P. Arseni Trioxidum. 4. . 686). 3. 7. 2. 62). 377). consisting of a mercurous salt. Arsenous acid combines with alkali hydroxides and carbonates to form arsenites. and iodine. but not if Fowler's solution is first acidified. Sodium arsenate precipitates solutions of many alkaloidal salts. 8. & J. v. sulphuric acid. and tri-metallic salts of the other metals are insoluble in water. forming respectively phosphoric acid. The di.

362).) Atropina. It is precipitated by the general alkaloidal reagents. (IV 167-169. Chromic acid converts it into benzoic acid (M. They are generally dissolved and de- composed by dilute mineral acids. mercuric or mercurous compounds in alkaline mixtures. chlorates in acid solution. or chromates. Arsenous compounds are reduced to metallic arsenic by hypophosphites in acid mixtures. (IV 157-166. If one fourth of a grain of sodium thio- sulphate be dissolved in one dram of water and added to one eighth of a grain of gold and sodium chloride dissolved in one dram and this added to one eighth of a grain of strych- of water. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 49 Fowler's solution is alkaline and may precipitate solutions of 9. iodine in alkaline solution. 13. or water. acids. 14.. The precipitation by gold chloride is prevented to some extent by the presence of a little sodium thiosulphate. 5. The solubility of arsenic trioxide is greatly increased by the presence of acids.] 3. 12. Using one half as much water as above stated. alkaloidal salts and other neutral salts. i.) Auri et Sodii Chloridum. nine sulphate in two drams of water. & M. atropine is decomposed forming tropine and tropic acid. except platinic [See chloride. If one . Arsenites of the alkalies are soluble in water. precipitated from concentrated Atropine is aqueous solutions of its salts as the free alkaloid by alkali hy- droxides and the carbonates of the fixed alkalies (not ammonium carbonate or the bicarbonates) . I. ALKALOIDS. Arsenous com- nitric acid. no precipitation will take place at once or for several days. The addition of sodium thiosulphate to the chloride before mixing with the alkaloidal solution tends to prevent precipitation. the other metallic arsenites are insoluble. barium and strontium are sparingly soluble. n. a precipitate may be slowly formed. 4. ferric compounds in alkaline mixtures. Fowler's solution on keeping is slowly oxidized to potassium arsenate which is said to be less active physiologically. 2. silver salts in alkaline mixtures. 10. Gold and sodium chloride i. precipitates many of the alkaloids from solutions of their salts as double compounds. permanganates. By continued heating with alkali hydroxides. chlo- pounds are oxidized to arsenic compounds by rine.

oxalate. It combines with some metallic oxides. pt. 4. But if the solution of gold chloride is added to the potassium iodide solution (the latter being in excess). copper. n. 203). and many organic substances 6. and tannic acids.. 2. or tannates. 202). decomposing in pure water forming aurous iodide (P. 460). 2.50 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS fourth the amount of water used precipitation will usually take is place within a day. (IV I73-) Betaeucainae Hydrochloridum. pt. Warming with sulphuric acid. chromate. then a precipitate of auric iodide which isunstable. the precipitate being barium sulphate. A solu- tion can be boiled without decomposition. 3. It combines with alkalies to make more soluble and sweeter compounds. Betaeucaine hydro- chloride acts much like an alkaloidal salt. by mer- curous salts. 4. mercury. in. naphthol forms a sulphonic acid (Allen. Chlorine or chlorinated lime colors a solution of naphthol a pale green or yellow (Allen. or tannate. . tartrate. n. Saccharin. phosphate. n.) Barium. and slowly deposits dinaphthol (M. Saccharin is only spar- ingly soluble in water but gives an acid reaction. by light and heat. sulphurous. 92). Betanaphthol in aqueous solution im- parts a pale green color when ferric chloride is added. ferrous sulphate. Mercuric chloride gives a precipitate with a strong solution of it but not with a weak one. (IV 170-172. by aqueous solutions of phosphates. 2. oxalic. 3. Gold chloride in solution is reduced to metallic gold by metallic silver. i. & M. 7. tartrates. chromates. arsenites. Betanaphthol. & J. i. 2. n.Gold chloride combines with and precipitates 3. oxalates. It is precipitated from solution by alkali hydroxides and carbonates. carbonate. Benzosulphinidum. by hypophosphorous. nitrous. there is first formed a dark green solution of potassium auric iodide. 5. as zinc and magnesium. i. Potassium iodide added to a solution of gold chloride (the latter being in excess) precipitates the yellow aurous iodide and liberates iodine. A cold saturated aqueous solution of naphthol gives a faint bluish . albumin. and iron. carbonates. Barium salts in aqueous solution are precipitated by sulphuric acid and soluble sulphates. and by many alkaloidal reagents. 3..

Bismuthi Betanaphtholas. Moist air causes the powder to become red. i. Triturated with chloral hydrate it slowly gives a mass. red. Dermatol. It is soluble in solutions of acids and alkalies with decomposition and change of color.. S. 78). Soluble iodides change bismuth subnitrate to an iodide. 296). It is not readily precipitated by the fixed alkali hydroxides. It is converted into the hydroxide by solutions of the alkali hydroxides.) i. P. 3. 78). Alkaline potas- sium permanganate oxidizes it to ortho-carboxy-cinnamic acid (M. Bismuthi Subnitras. No metallic instruments should come in contact with it as they may liberate iodine.. but these on heating liberate ammonia. 3.) Bismuthi Oxyiodogallas. under ACIDUM HYDRIODICUM. 460). Betol. Bismuth subnitrate is slowly de- composed by water. N. 2. Orphol. i. Alkali hydroxides dissolve it. liberating nitric acid and forming a more basic nitrate. 6. ip.). Airol. 2. 4. giving a yellow solution which becomes red. 5. [See No. Mixed with water airol partially de- composes and turns Glycerin tends to prevent this. Bismuth is subgallate decomposed by strong acids with liberation of gallic acid. 43). It is decomposed by alkalies into betanaphthol and a salicylate. In the presence of water the alkali carbonates and bicarbonates convert it into the subcarbonate. Citrate of bismuth and ammonium in aqueous solution is precipitated as the bismuth citrate by most mineral acids and the stronger organic acids. Betol in alcoholic solution Betanaphthol Salicylas. (fy 175. R. Mineral acids partly decompose forming betanaphthol and the corresponding it. with ferric chloride gives a red to red violet color. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 51 fluorescence with ammonia (U. 3. m. XLVII. bismuth salt (U. Bismuthi et Ammonii Citras. (FV 174. 2. 4. It is decomposed into its con- stituents by the alkaline fluids of the intestine (N. 2. 2. C.. Betanaphthol when triturated with some solids gives a liquid or a soft mass.. Bismuthi Subgallas. i. 2. & J. P. S.. Hypophosphites reduce bismuth subnitrate to metallic bismuth (P. . i. i.] 5. With calomel it tends to form mercuric iodide (D. and at the same time some carbon dioxide is liberated. & M.

Bromine bleaches vegetable colors. i. 2. carbon monoxide. producing potassium bromide. 3. 2. 2. 5. and in alkaline mixtures into ferrates. 8. Bismuth subnitrate is is soluble in glycerin. 9.) Bismuth! Subsalicylas. With hypophosphites it forms phosphates and bromides. & M. 536). 336). Bromoform turns yellow in the light. Bismuth subsalicylate with a solution of a ferric salt gives a violet color. Ferrous salts are converted into ferric salts. 12. Tragacanth with water and bismuth subnitrate gives curdy masses which stick to the sides of the bottle. Butyl Chloral Hydras. 8. forming addition products. Chlorine. Bromoformum. With alcoholic potash bromoform is decom- posed. but should not be triturated with it for fear of an explosion (Scoville.. varying in color from white to red orange. Tannic acid in the presence of water slowly forms the yellow tannate of bismuth. ethylene. 10. i. Mixtures of these in various proportions made in the author's laboratory showed no perceptible change even on standing. An alco- holic solution is gradually decolorized. These can be rubbed out in a mortar if too much water not present. Potassium hydroxide converts it into a bromideand a formate of potassium. 4. Bromine in water gradually forms hydrobromic acid and oxygen (M. It is decomposed by acidsand alkalies. forming hydrobromic acid. n. & J. 10.52 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 6.6. chlorinated lime. Metallic mercury and mercurous compounds are oxidized to mercuric compounds. Bromine with alkali hydroxides forms bro- i. 104). It combines with many fixed oils contain- ing olein. With sulphites it forms sulphates and bromides. Arsenites are converted into arsenates.. 9. and water (Allen. 7. With a solution of sodium sali- cylate bismuth subnitrate is said to form a series of nitro-sali- cylates. in alkaline mixtures convert the bismuth into the reddish peroxide (P. With hydrogen dioxide oxygen is evolved. (fy 176-179. 7. i. Butyl chloral hydrate (errone- ously called croton chloral hydrate) gradually undergoes de- . i. mides and bromates. Bromum. 241). i. With oil of turpentine and some other volatile oils it is liable to react violently and may cause ignition. 3. and hydrogen dioxide.

It liquefies or gives a soft mass when triturated dry with several solids. silver nitrate. S. as the white cadmium phosphate. producing a formate and propylic chloroform.phosphomolybdic acid. oxalate. Nitric acid gives a yellow to a red color and this with ammonia gives a yellow. 2. 3. 3. as the yellow cadmium chromate. 7. by alkali carbonates. Asaprol. sodium benzoate. Caffeina. D. or ether. 5. due to the formation of a picrate. CalciiBetanaphtholsulphonas. 6. D. forming the white cadmium carbonate. Asaprol gives a precipitate with a neutral solution of quinine sulphate. 3. With alkalies it is decom- posed. and a little ammonia (N.] Cadmium. 231). xxvin. carbon dioxide. by the soluble phosphates. antipy- rine. i. A solution of citrated caffeine contains free citric acid which may 1 give trouble sometimes. Warmedwith alcoholic potassium hydroxide it forms methyl- amine. 5. 9. A solution of ferric chloride gives a blue color. Caffeine in moderately dilute solutions is not precipitated by the alkali hydroxides or carbonates or the general alkaloidal reagents. Caffeine does not readily combine with dilute acids. Exposure to air and light causes asaprol to darken and become less soluble. It .i. xxv. i. [See page 270. alcohol. Formaldehyde with sul- phuric acid gives a green fluorescence. but from strong solutions it is precipitated by tannic acid. 2. The salts are easily decomposed by water. In solution it gives a precipitate with a soluble carbonate. 4. 295). The solubility of caffeine is increased by the presence of sodium salicylate. as the yellow cadmium sulphide. Mineral acids regenerate betanaphthol and precipitate it (Ana- lyst. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 53 composition in aqueous solution. 292). and potassium bromide (N. 8. With mercuric nitrate it gives a yellow color with a golden fluorescence (Analyst. although it unites with concentrated acids. by the alkali chromates. and mercuric chloride. by the soluble sulphides and hydrosulphuric acid. and other agents that precipitate calcium salts. forming white cadmium hydroxide.). 2. 4.). The soluble cadmium salts in aqueous solution are precipitated by the alkali hydroxides. S. which splits up with the formation of a chloride of the alkali and dichloride of allylene (Allen.

CALCIUM. liberating chlorine. or tartrates as calcium carbonate. Calx. i. it generates chloroform. Its solubility greatly increased by glycerin or is sugar. cellulose. 10. Soluble citrates on heating precipitate the calcium citrate. and carbon dioxide. [See CALCIUM and LIQUOR POTASSII HYDROXIDI. 3. Other hypochlbrites act similarly. It converts sugar. i.) . With organic substances in a dry state chlorinated lime causes gradual decom- position with the development of heat. Calcii Hypophosphis. It is decomposed by heat. Calcium phosphate forms soluble com- pounds with nearly all acids except those which precipitate calcium salts. 6. The ultimate products of the oxi- dation are oxalic acid and carbon dioxide. [See CHLORUM. which on account of the easily liberated chlorine makes it a strong oxidizing agent. Chlorinated lime contains calcium hypo- chlorite.] (IV 180. Calcium hypophosphite in aqueous solution gradually changes to calcium phosphate. With alcohol.] Calx Chlorata. giving off white fumes and it turning the mass brown. 3. phosphate. 4. Lime de- composes most combining with their acids. and ACIDUM HYDROCHLORICUM. 2. phosphates. light. 2.54 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS gives a precipitate with a solution of antipyrine. 3. 3. i. starch. by soluble carbonates. or wood alcohol. probably by forming loose combinations.] Calcii Phosphas. oxalates. i. [See CALCIUM and ACIDUM HYPOPHOSPHOROSUM. The soluble calcium salts in concentrated solutions are precipitated by the fixed alkali hydroxides as calcium hydroxide. Lime exposed to air absorbs carbon dioxide and water. 4. 4. some volatile oils. It combines salts. The presence of hypophosphorous acid increases its solubility in water. and similar substances into formic acid. Excess of sugar throws calcium hypophosphite out of solution. acids. by soluble sulphates in not too dilute solu- tions as sulphate. Rubbed with some solids it gives masses. and may cause explo- sion. with water to form calcium hydroxide which has many of the incompatibilities of the fixed alkalies. oxalate. Mixed with glycerin reacts violently. 2. 5. 2. or tartrate. Calcium.

Cambogia. 9. With olibanum. & With chromic M. i. in. Camphor absorbs the gases of hydrochloric acid. magnesia. With ammonia water it gives a yellow solution. Camphor when oxidized by nitric acid forms camphoric acid which is and camphor- insoluble in water... guaiacum. Solutions of camphor in alcohol and ether increase the solubility of corrosive sublimate and the presence of this salt increases the solubility of camphor in these liquids. which are decomposed on adding water (Allen. galbanum. Iodine acts on camphor. Iodine dissolved with a large excess of camphor in alcohol still gives the iodine reaction with starch after several days. the mixture remains pulverulent. Asafcetida. 446). laurine. i Gamboge gives an orange red solution with . milk or carbonic acid make it more soluble in water (A. Bromine unites with it to form the crystallizable unstable dibromide of camphor. 669). and ammoniac. Chlorine has no action on camphor but in the presence of alcohol it forms chlorinated compounds (M. & S. 6. 2. With benzoin. changing to red and finally brown. 669). 416). carvacrol. & M. 3. when heated. the mixture preserves its pilular consistency indefinitely. i. or asafcetida. gamboge. Sulphurated lime is decomposed by mineral acids and carbon dioxide. i. Potassium permanganate in alkaline solution converts camphor into cam- phoric acid (M. & M. part v. though grumous. 427). 4.. The resin forms salts with some heavy metals.. n. 8. 10. which on heating breaks up into hydrobromic acid and monobromated camphor (Allen. i . the mixture becomes soft on exposure to air. acid it forms camphoronic acid (M. When camphor is triturated with dragon's blood. a solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide and the color caused by the latter reagent changes to yellow brown. i. and nitric per- oxide. 4. 669). 447). 7. Camphora. 3. forming colorless liquids.. and formation of cy- mene. 5. and myrrh. liberating hydrogen sul- phide. n.. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 55 Calx Sulphurata. With a tincture of iron it gives a black brown solution. 2. Sugar. D. with evolution of hydriodic acid. tolu. onic acid which is soluble (M. mastic. 669). gal- . & M. and other bodies the nature of which has not been determined (R. sulphur dioxide.

. such as potassium chlorate or potassium permanganate. Camphor thrown out of its is aqueous solution by dissolving large amounts of metallic salts in the water. coloring matter.56. It is precipitated from solutions by neutral lead acetate. 3. such as ammonia. S. D. hydrogen sulphide. and by some metallic acid salts. D. 416). Honey helps to prevent the precipitated resin from forming masses and sticking to the container. With alcoholic potash it forms camphor (M. iodine. Camphor and phenol are said to unite in equal molecular proportions to make a compound having a solidifying point of 18. camphor unites in all proportions (A. Carbo.] (fy 181-183. 2. mercuric chloride. many glucosides. Heated with resins or fats.). chloral hydrate. euphorin. When mixed with solutions. Carbonates are decomposed by all common acids except hydrosulphuric and hydrocyanic acids. guaiac. i Charcoal absorbs . (fy 184.6 C. many alkaloids. benzoin. i. silver nitrate. i. with liberation of carbon dioxide. there is danger of an explosion. Water added to an alcoholic extract of cannabis indica causes the precipitation of a large amount of resinous matter. i. etc. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS banum. many gases. [See page 270. 2. and many metallic salts (N. form- ing soluble cantharidates. 2. i. or thymol it gives a liquid or soft mass. salol. and ammoniac destroy to a greater or less extent the odor of camphor. When triturated with carbolic acid. This resinous matter is soluble in a concen- trated aqueous solution of chloral hydrate. mastic. chloral alcoholate. 12. 670). it absorbs and removes from solution tannic acid. Cantharidin combines with alkalies. guaiacol carbon- ate. Monobromated camphor with nitric acid forms bromo-nitro-camphor and camphoric acid (N.) Camphora Monobromata. n. Carbonates. Camphor produces a liquid or soft mass when triturated with about an equal weight of betol. olibanum.). dragon's blood.) Cannabis Indica. . Cantharidin. fusel oil. and a number of bitter and odorous princi- ples. pyrocatechin. When triturated with oxidizing agents. and many other solids. and copper sulphate. &M. 2. tolu. D. i. S.. 3.

although they do not pre- cipitate as many of the alkaloidal or metallic salts. [See AMMONII CARBONAS. quinidine.] 6. aluminum. The pure bicarbonates do not precipitate solutions of salts of atro- pine. (FV 185-190. 8. 9. and alkaloids. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 57 Solutions of potassium and sodium carbonates precipitate solu- tions of salts of all other common metals. although many are soluble in excess of carbon dioxide. The carbonates of the alkalies are soluble in water. zinc. the precipitate is a normal carbonate in case of mercurous mercury. [See ACIDUM TANNICUM. strontium. quinine. 3. codeine. 5. hyoscyamine. The carbonates are insoluble in alcohol.) Catechu.. 7. cocaine. 217). acid. Various oxy chlorides of mercury are formed (M. hydroxide in case of tin. magnesium. & M. nicotine. silver. nickel. in. 4. Catechu contains a large percentage of tannic i. The other normal or basic carbonates are insoluble in water. coniine. In the presence of water bismuth subnitrate liberates carbon dioxide from the alkali carbonates. Heating the alkali bicar- bonates dry or in aqueous solution changes them to some extent to the normal carbonates. cobalt.tannic acid does not precipitate solutions of tartar emetic. of lead. 10. barium. The carbonates of the alkalies precipitate as free alkaloids the aqueous solutions of most alkaloidal salts and decompose a few of the alkaloids. and calcium it is a . and chromium . unless the solution be quite con- centrated or heat be applied (Sohn). Sodium bicarbonate with a solution of mercuric chloride produces an effervescence and gives a white precipitate at first which changes to a brown or purple on standing. bismuth. Mercuric chloride is precipitated as the basic chloride. 3. but an aqueous solu- tion of the acid is precipitated by gelatin and albumin. copper. Ammonium carbonate causes reactions similar to potassium carbonate. silver. The bicarbonates of the alkalies have about the same incompatibilities as the carbonates. the change taking place more quickly when the mercury is in excess. . cadmium. ferrous iron. brucine. or caffeine. it is an oxide in case of antimony it is a basic carbonate in case . manganese. and mercuric mercury. copper. except with resorcin and salts of mer- cury. ferric iron.] 2. forming bicarbon- ates. Catechu.

3.. n. 2. With potassium cyanide it forms dichloracetic acid (M. With alcohol in the presence of water and certain soluble salts as potassium or sodium bromide. which .). 2. In aqueous solution with potassium iodide chloral hydrate slowly gives chloroform and iodine (M.58 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS Catechu-tannic acid gives a greenish black solution or precipi- tate with a solution of ferric salts. Cerium oxalate with alkali hydroxides slowly forms the cerium hydroxide and the oxalate of the alkali. with alkaline hydroxides.). 3. 7. Rubbed with antipyrine or menthol it gives a mass. D.. In concen- trated solution potassium permanganate oxidizes it to trichlora- cetic acid (N. carbon dioxide. the reaction is slower. Cerii Oxalas. 4). potassium cyanide are rubbed together dry in a mortar. or borax. solution A of ferric chloride gives a green color. n. Oxyquinolin sulphate. Chinosol. & If chloral hydrate and M. chloral hydrate forms chloral alcoholate. 196).. An aqueous solution. If the two are powdered separately. leaving a brown mass. i. 3. n. Chloralformamidum. 6. chlorine. chemical reaction takes place with almost explosive violence. 2. & M. and this solution is precipitated by the alkali hydroxides or carbonates. alkaline carbonates. Chloral hydrate unites with hydrocyanic acid to form chloral-hydrocyanate (Richter. It reduces silver nitrate. & M. and mixed lightly. It dissolves in dilute hydrochloric acid or dilute sulphuric acid. and oxygen (M. D. Chloralamide is decomposed by warm water or by alkalies. giving chloral hydrate and form- amide. S. Mercuric chloride and other metallic salts give colors. 2). i. forming traces of hydrochloric acid.S. Potassium permanganate oxidizes it.forming chloroform. and a large amount of white fumes are given off. 4. A neutral alcoholic solution remains perma- nently neutral (N. but a brown mass finally results. 4). i. 5. Chloral hydrate in aqueous solution slowly undergoes decomposition. Soap and alkali hydrox- ides give a white precipitate with water solutions. Chloralum Hydratum. 2. i. produces chloroform and a formate of the base. The chloral is further decomposed by the alkali giving chloroform and a formate.

5. hedonal. 8. With hydrochloric acid chlorates give chlorine and oxides of chlorine. A concentrated aqueous solution of chloral hydrate is said to be a good solvent for starch. 9. 232). Chloretone gives a mass or liquid when triturated with an equal weight of antipyrine.) Chloretone. ii. sali- cylic acid. 12. Drug. (IV 196- 203. Experi- ments made by the writer always gave the blue color. Further addition of alcohol may cause the liquids to mix. Chlorates with sulphuric acid detonate or explode. honey. and color- ing principles. nitrites. salocoll. 10. thiosulphates. or phenol. lycopodium. Chloral hydrate gives a product vary- ing from a stiff mass to a liquid when triturated dry with about an equal weight of agurin. euphorin. sugar. glycerin. some glucosides. neutral principles. cyanides. It is decomposed by weak acids and alkalies. Camphor forms an unstable liquid compound when rubbed with chloral hydrate. menthol. trional. hypophosphites. It also dissolves morphine. sul- phites. guaiacol carbonate. The metallic chlorates are soluble in water and are generally soluble in alcohol. gallic acid. sulphides. (fy 191-195. and many other oxidizable substances. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 59 may separate as an oily liquid. . iodine. antisepsin. shellac. and many other solids.] 4. 3. starch. 6. fats. Chlorates are liable to cause an explosion when triturated dry or heated with sulphur. or substances containing it. i.] 13. forming chlorine peroxide and a perchlorate. carbolic acid. tannic acid. quinine. quinine sulphate. amorphous phosphorus. exalgin.) Chlorates. Potassium chlorate with potassium iodide is said to form potassium iodate and potassium chloride (Nat. ammonium picrate. Chloral hydrate increases the solubility of acetanilid in water. Acetone-Chloroform. reduced iron. and on adding iodine a cherry red color is produced instead of the blue. 2. 2. [See CHLORUM. and other alkaloids to some extent. [See page 270. oxalic acid. It softens oil of theobroma when rubbed with it. volatile oils. xxvii. Chloral hydrate in concentrated aqueous solution is a good solvent for resinous matter. except potassium. In neutral or alkaline solutions chlorates do not usually have an oxidizing effect. charcoal. i.

and other organic colors. 16. and silver as chlorides.. 6. & M. i. (fy 206-207. arsenic. [See ALCOHOL. D. oxa- producing formic acid. or ferrous compounds are changed to mercuric. It oxidizes nearly all organic matter. With bromides it forms bromine and in alkaline mixtures a bromate. carbon dioxide. 14. The solubility in water Is increased by citric acid (Bui.) Chromii Trioxidum. (fy 204-205. Sulphites or sulphides are changed to sulphates.With ammonia water chlorine gives am- monium chloride and a little nitrogen. this is prevented by having some oxidizable substance present. litmus. 2. by . Mercurous. xm. Salicylic acid is changed to mono. 2. and water.. 3. Pharm. The vapors coming in contact with gas light produce chlorine vapors (Merck's Index. and other products.). Chromic acid. Chlorine is a is strong oxidizing agent. i. S. 680). If chlorine is in excess explosive nitro- gen chloride may 3. Chlorine precipitates solutions of salts of lead. 5. p.60 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS Chloroformum. 165). With hypophosphites phosphates are formed. and in the presence of an alkali a periodate. and is itself reduced to a chloride by the agents which it oxidizes. or if the ammonia is in excess a little chlorate. 12. Chloroform when pure is decomposed by air and light into chlorine. mercurous mercury. arsenous. 1907. or chromates in solution with sulphuric acid.and di-chloro-salicylic acid (M. 5. 7. n. or ferric compounds in acid or alkaline mixtures. Chlorine is rapidly absorbed by alcohol. 9. Chlorine water after stand- ing a while changed to hydrochloric acid. Chromic Acid. Glycerin is converted into oxalic acid and carbon dioxide. 2. are reduced to chromic salts by tartrates. With some salts of ammo- be formed. m. carbonyl chloride (COCk). 13. 10. With iodides it forms iodine and then iodic acid. nium chlorine form the explosive nitrogen chloride. Chromic acid com- bines with the alkali hydroxides to form yellow normal chromates and red dichromates. 8.] 15. No. 137). With hydrogen dioxide oxygen is liberated. If the chlorine is added short of saturation a hypochlo- rite is formed. as sulphur or alcohol (N. is liable to 4. i. Chlorine with a solution of a hydroxide of a fixed alkali or an alkaline earth forms a chloride and a chlo- rate. Chlorine bleaches indigo.) Chlorum.

calcium.] [See 2. Bichromates are liable to cause an explosion when triturated with tannic acid. codeine. 3. Sulphuric acid gives a deep red solution. i : 100). ACIDUM TANNICUM. liberating sulphur. The normal potassium chromate does not precipitate as many of the alkaloids as the bichromate. 7. The chromates of the alkalies. liberating iodine. [See ALKALOIDS and QUININA. 4. bismuth. liberating chlorine. i. The soluble chromates and bichromates precipitate aqueous solutions of salts of lead. varying in color from yellow to red.. and zinc are soluble in water. hydrastine. manganese.g. with strong alcohol. . and strontium as chromates. e. quinine. mercury. by chlorides. barium. glycerin. 3. Chromic acid. morphine (only in concentrated solutions. by iodides. It gives a dark red color with a solution of ferric chloride. by bromides. The cinchona alkaloids in solution form compounds with the general alkaloidal reagents. magne- sium. or other readily ether. forming aldehyde. 11. atr opine. which compounds are nearly insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol. forming phosphoric acid. Cinchona contains a sufficient amount of tannic acid to make its preparations incompatible with many metallic salts and other compounds. volatile oxidizable matter. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 61 lates. 5. 4. 2. They are nearly insoluble in alcohol. silver. (fy 208- 209. 8. It dissolves in aqueous solutions of the alkalies giving a red liquid with a greenish fluorescence. or other substances that are easily oxidized. Paraphenetidin Citrate. oils. 12.] Citrophen. by hypophosphites (no action in alkaline mixtures). 9. the others are spar- ingly soluble. Potassium bichromate precipi- tates many alkaloids from aqueous solutions of their salts. 13. Chrysarobin yields chrysophanic acid on oxidation. 15. sugar.) Cinchona. is liable to cause an explosion or fire. Lime water gives a violet color. forming sulphuric acid. 14. The tannic acid gives a color from brown to blackish varying green with solutions of ferric salts. generally normal. i . (IV 210. and acetic acid. forming carbon dioxide. by dilute alcohol. liberating bromine. by sulphides. by sulphites.) Chrysarobinum. 10. i. strychnine. 6.

A concentrated solution of cocaine hydrochloride is precipitated by a solution of chromic acid or potassium permanganate. copper. Nitric acid gives a blue to a violet color turning brown and then yellow (Sohn. Mixed with calomel in the presence of moisture cocaine hydrochloride turns the mixture gray or even black. (FV 211-216. but may be made to do so by blowing the fumes of hydrochloric acid over it. due probably to the formation of mercuric chloride. Potassium hydrox- . 42).] 2. 4. 4. bicarbonates. unless the solution is quite weak.) Codeina. but is precipitated by most of the other alkaloidal reagents. 3. Cocaine is quite easily decomposed by strong acids. Codeine in aqueous solution gives a precipitate with solutions of salts of iron. forming methyl alcohol. while at the same time some mercuric chloride is formed. 2 and 3. forming colchiceine. Codeine in aqueous solution is not precipitated by alkaline carbonates. Nos. [See ALKALOIDS. Acids gener- ally give a yellow color. and some other metals. (IV 217-218. With some ammonium salts. 3.] 2. i . 3. i.) Colchicina.62 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS Cocaina. Colchicine is readily decomposed by strong acids or strong solutions of alkalies. is darkened by exposure Colchicine to light. or by hot water. It is precipitated from aqueous solution by most of the general alkaloidal reagents. and ecgonine. lead. codeine liberates ammonia. 5. i. The free alkaloid cocaine mixed with calomel does not readily darken. Cocaine is precipitated from aqueous solu- tions of its salts by the reagents that usually precipitate alka- loids. 2. Nos. due to the reduction ofsome of the calomel to metallic mercury. as ammonium chlo- ride. If codeine is added to a solu- tion of a morphine salt morphine is set free and usually precipi- tated. [See ALKALOIDS. 5. 2 and 3. benzoic acid. Cocaine hy- drochloride with yellow oxide of mercury gives a mixture that is irritating. strong solutions of alkali hydrox- ides. or ammonium carbonate. This is probably due to the fact that it is quite strongly alkaline and one of the most soluble of the alkaloids. At least a mercuric salt is formed. The mer- curic chloride then combines with the alkaloid to form a com- pound insoluble in water. Nitric acid gives a -yellow solution with codeine.

the resin of the copaiba combines slowly to form a solid mass. manganese. D. S. Creosote carbonate is decomposed by alkalies. and copper. 5.n. 2.) Coniina. An alcoholic solution of iodine with coniine gives a brown which afterwards disappears. [See ALKALOIDS. liberating creosote. It precipitates solutions of albumin and gum (not gelatin) (N. (fy 221^224. Vapors of coniine colorless (M. n. It forms butyric acid when treated with most oxidizing agents.. 2. 7.] (IV 219-220. It precipitates solutions of salts of aluminum. Water separates the gun-cotton. Creosote reduces some of the inorganic salts. 3. a brown precipitate is . iron. It is not precipitated by the alkali hydroxides or carbonates. Creosote with solu- tions of ferric salts gives a violet blue color. Alcohol renders the mass more fluid. D. i Coniine becomes yellow and resinoid on keeping . zinc.). D. Creosotum. copper. 3. 2.) Creosoti Carbonas.). 6. Tincture of iodine free from an iodide or hydriodic acid gives a gelatinous mass. liquid becomes & M. &. 246). and gives off ammonia (U. gold. mixed suddenly or triturated dry with strong oxidiz- If ing agents it is liable to cause an explosion. such as silver.] 3. which slowly redissolves. 4.M. With one sixteenth of its weight of magnesia which has been dampened with water. coming in contact with those of hydrochloric acid give white fumes. forms saponaceous compounds. changing to greenish brown. with the hydroxides of the alka- lies or alkaline earths. Most of its salts are decom- posed by water (M. [See PYROXYLINUM. S. and the precipitate. 4. D. Coniine coagulates albumin.. except platinic chloride. Department ^ Pharmac INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 6* University ide gives a red color (N. in which the resin acts the part of an acid. Collodium. Copaiba. i. but it is by the general alkaloidal reagents. and. S. S. Collodion is gelatinized by carbolic acid and by a large excess of creosote. and silver. A similar change is produced by calcium hydroxide.). The presence of an iodide pre- vents gelatinization. Copaiba. the precipitate with silver is soluble in excess of the alkaloid (U. Creo- sote in large excess gelatinizes collodion. 234). unless in very dilute solution. 2. to the metallic state. i. 4. CreosotaL i. i.).

7. sugar.64 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS formed. 3. forming an intense blue solution. 6. Cresol. This solution dissolves cotton. iodine being liberated. With concentrated sul- phuric acid it gives a red color.). . 6. and many organic substances. filter paper. 2. ides. S. An alcoholic solution of creosote with an alcoholic solution of ferric chloride gives a bluish green color (U. A dilute solution with a solution of ferric chloride gives a blue violet. D. S. milk sugar. and the copper is not precipitated from dilute solution by alkalies. This precipitation is more or less prevented by citrates. tartrates. Creosote dissolves a large number of metallic salts and reduces some of them to the metallic condition. and other forms of cellulose. Copper sulphate coagulates a solution of albu- min. 9. forming a blue solution. Sodium salicylate with copper sulphate in solution gives a green color. glucose. In neutral solutions the soluble phosphates give a blue white precipitate of copper phosphate. 2. 5. Cresol dissolves in solutions of alkali hydrox- i . Ammonium carbonate. Triturated with silver oxide. an explosion is liable to take place. A solution of copper sulphate and acacia is gelatinized by the alkali hydroxides. Creosote gives a white precipitate with solution of lead subacetate.) Cupri Sulphas. D. becoming black on adding more acid. With concentrated nitric acid reddish fumes of the oxides of nitrogen are given With dilute nitric acid a off. i. n. salicylates.) 5. 8. precipitates the copper and then redissolves it. Tannic acid precipitates a solution of copper sul- 10. (FV 225. Copper sulphate is precipitated by the fixed alkali hydrates as blue copper hydroxide. Arsenites in neutral solution give a green precip- itate of copper arsenite. 9. 7. Soluble iodides reduce and pre- cipitate copper sulphate as cuprous iodide (Ci^Ia). Ammonia water precipitates the cupric hydroxide and in excess dissolves it. brown resin is formed (U. which on standing becomes basic and black. like ammonia water. The carbonates of the fixed alkalies precipitate the copper as a basic carbonate of variable composition. 4. and with heat reduces the copper. phate. In alkaline mixtures cupric compounds are reduced to cuprous oxide by arsenous acid. 8. glycerin and other organic substances.

373)- Emulsa. 4. i . Adrenalin is renalin. The incompatibilities of decoctions are similar to those of infusions. Epicarin is quite strongly acid and combines with bases to which make salts are generally sparingly soluble in water. 3. [For emulsions made with acacia. 3. It lessens the fluorescence of quinine sulphate. Supracapsulin. droxides form compounds soluble in water. 2. All of the principles of digitalis are quite easily decomposed by strong acids or alkalies. i Elaterin combines with the alkali hy- . Emulsions are broken up by substances which precipitate the emulsifying agent. Antipyrine gives a green color to a solution of copper sul- phate. It is precipitated from alcoholic solution by lead acetate and silver nitrate (Watts. n. Heroine hydrochloride acts much morphine hydro. It is usually precipitated by the general alkaloidal reagents. Digitalin is precipitated from solutions by tannic acid and chloride of gold. or lead acetate (Sohn. i. Digitonin is precipitated from aqueous solution by ammonia. With nitric acid digitalin gives at first a colorless solution. tannic acid. An alcoholic solution of ferric chloride gives an intense violet blue color. due to oxidation products. 2. Apomorphine is said to be incompatible with it. from which to solution acids precipitate the elaterin. Epinephrine. Betanaphthol-hydroxy-toluic acid. Alkali hydroxides and carbonates pre- cipitate the base from aqueous solutions of the salt.] Epicarin. 50). 2.] - Diacetylmorphinse Hydrochloridum. 3. slightly soluble in water and the . like chloride andquite easily decomposed by is and alkalies acids forming morphine. i. Supra- i. though not always in dilute solutions. acquires a reddish color. 4. [See INFUSA. On exposure to air it salt. not by most of the other alka- loidal reagents (Sohn. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 65 12. changing to yellow or green (Sohn. (fy 227. 50). see ACACIA. Digitalis. It reduces potassium permanganate. 5.) Decocta. (IV 226. Adrenalin. Heroine hydrochloride.) Elaterinum. Adnephrin. 49). particularly the sodium 2. 6.

Even in acid solutions. Mercuric chloride is reduced to calomel. 2. has become so inert that it should be discarded. even in dilute solution. Eucalyplol. Iodine gives a vivid pink color. potassium mercuric iodide. and are decomposed by heat and age. forming and brown solutions and when it has become brown it pink. Air. alkalies and some of the general alkaloidal reagents. i. Heat and light tend to liberate iodine. Phenyl urethane. 3. salts of 10. Euphorin. particularly in solution. since the iodine slowly liberated combines with the oil. 5. D.) Erythrol Tetranitrate. which on addition of alkalies gives a purple and then a carmine red color. The active principles of ergot are. Formaldehyde. D. 526). 2. 8. Strong acid prevents reaction. and heat are injurious in vary- ing degrees but they are particularly harmful in neutral or alkaline mixtures.). bromine gives red crystals. 7. trional. 6. metallic salts. (ft 119. Alkali hydroxides and carbonates precipitate it from acid solutions. turning yellow and giving off nitrous fumes (U. red. It is not advisable to prescribe it . ii. naphthol gives addition products (N. the precipitatemaking water-soluble compounds with fixed alkali hydroxides. Phenols. the salts generally being soluble in water. generally pre- cipitated by tannic acid. camphors. 4. strong light. i. 2.] Europhen. 9. & M. Iodine in potassium iodide gives green crystals. It is weakly alkaline and forms salts with acids. giving a pink to red color. 3. air oxidizes it. 2. Silver and gold salts are quickly reduced.66 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS common solvents. Triturated with glucose it has caused explosion. S. Isobutyl-orthocresol Iodide. and many other solids. n. Eucalyptol is oxidized to cineolic acid by potassium permanganate (M.. The solution in oil is of doubtful efficiency. (IV 228-229. i. Erythrol tetranitrate is decom- posed by warmth and sunlight. [See page 270. Oxidizing agents in general render it inert.) Ergota. i. Euphorin gives a mass or liquid when triturated with hedonal. alkalies or of common alkaloids are not particularly harmful. S. will render it inert.). Ferric chloride gives an emerald green color.

) Ferri Pyrophosphas Solubilis. Ammonium hydroxide gives a reddish color. being made by mixing solutions of ferric citrate and sodium phosphate. The red brown ferric hydroxide is precipitated from aqueous solutions by potassium or sodium hydroxide. 4. is perhaps a mixture of ferric phosphate and sodium citrate. may Metaphosphoric (glacial phosphoric) acid free from orthophosphoric acid does not cause precipitation. 4. but does not cause precipitation. Methyl Acetanilid. 2. Light decomposes ferripyrine. [See page 270. Exalginum. 2. or it is more probably a sodio-ferric citro-phosphate. Strong solutions of mineral acids may redissolve the precipitate. i. and on adding a dilute mineral acid the ferric pyrophosphate is thrown out of solution. Exalgin liquefies or gives a mass when triturated with many solids. but no precipitate. starch. salts of mercury. An alcoholic solution gives a yellow.] (fy 232-233. Alkali hydroxides. Strong mineral acids redissolve the precipitate.] (fy 230. as oxides.] (1^ 231. The soluble pyrophosphate of iron acquires a blackish color on being exposed to light. its [See FERRICUM and ACIDUM PHOSPHORICUM.) Ferripyrine. Metaphosphoric acid free from orthophosphoric acid does not cause precipitation. i. and bicarbonates precipitate ferric hydroxide from aqueous solutions. i.) . Soluble phosphate of iron or solution acquires a blackish color when exposed to light. flocculent precipitate with mercuric chloride. The soluble pyrophos- phate of iron is a mixture or compound similar to the soluble phosphate of iron. 2. The soluble phosphate of iron. carbonates. i. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 67 with substances that have a strong affinity for iodine. 3. Ferri Phosphas Solubilis. When a dilute mineral acid other than metaphosphoric acid is added the sodium citrate or the sodio-ferric citro-phosphate is broken up and the ferric phosphate is precipitated. In aqueous solution the soluble phosphate of iron is precipitated by sodium or potassium hy- droxide as ferric hydroxide. 3. [See FERRICUM and pyrophosphoric acid under ACIDUM PHOSPHORICUM. hydroxides. Ammonium hydroxide turns the solution red.

which changes on heating or standing to ferrous sulphate and the solution becomes nearly colorless. 12. Ferricyanides give a brown solution with ferric salts. of ferric chloride In neutral solutions the alkali hypophosphites precipitate ferric hypophosphite. and tartrates prevent or retard precipitation. and copper are added to solution of ferric salts the precipitate is chiefly ferric hydroxide. Borax with solutions of ferric salts gives an insoluble basic borate (Watts. Hydriodic acid and soluble iodides with a mineral acid reduce ferric compounds to ferrous. 10. 13. citrates. This precipitation is more or less prevented by the presence of sugar. The sulphides precipitate the black ferrous alkali sulphide after reducing the ferric compounds to ferrous and liber- ating sulphur. glycerin. n. calcium. and considerable excess of free acids. Ferrocyanides with ferric salts give the blue precipitate of ferric ferrocyanide (Prussian blue). 7. Sugar. Arsenites give precipitates of basic ferric arsenite with solutions of ferric salts if they are not too strongly acid. tartrates. glycerin. The basic ferric arsenite is changed to some extent to a ferrous . Soluble cyanides precipitate nearly neutral solutions of ferric salts as ferric hydroxide with evolution of hydrocyanic acid. iodine being liberated and precipitated if the iodide is entirely decom- posed. Solutions of the alkali phosphates precipitate from neutral solutions of ferric salts the white ferric phosphate. and other organic compounds. Phosphoric acid in excess decolorizes a solution by forming the colorless ferric phosphate. this is prevented to some extent by citrates in neutral solutions. 530). With solutions of ferric salts sulphites give a red solution of ferric sulphite. Hydrogen sulphide reduces ferric to ferrous and liberates sulphur. but causes no precipitation of iron. 8. tar- trates. citrates. 3.68 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS Ferricum. 2. Ferric salts are precipitated from their aqueous solutions by the hydroxides and carbonates as alkali the red brown ferric hydroxide. 6. magnesium. 9. i. the precipitation being pre- vented by citrates. i. the base added combining with the acid of the ferric salt. but in acid solutions the iron salts as ferric is reduced to the ferrous condition and the hypophosphite is oxidized to a phosphate. 4. When the insoluble carbonates of barium. 5.

INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 69

arsenate (P. & J., 62). Arsenates give the insoluble ferric
arsenate. 14. The official tannic acid gives a blue black solution
or precipitate of ferric tannate. Phosphoric acid in excess

destroys the color by breaking up the compound and forming
the colorless ferric phosphate. Some tannic acids give a green
black color. With the exception of gentian, quassia, columbo,
American columbo, chiretta, and canella nearly all drugs contain
tannin. 15. Gallic acid gives a blue black color with a solution
of ferric chloride. [See ACIDUM GALLICUM, No. 7.] 16. Ace-
tates give a deep dull red liquid with nearly neutral solutions of
ferric salts, due to the formation of ferric acetate. This solution
on heating throws down a precipitate of basic ferric acetate.

Acetic acid does not increase the color of a solution offferric
chloride unless the iron solution is quite highly diluted. 17.
Soluble benzoates precipitate nearly neutral solutions of ferric
salts as ferric benzoate which is flesh-colored. The presence of
an excess of free acid or of alkali tartrate interferes with or pre-
vents the precipitation. 18. With solutions of the salicylates
ferric salts give a blue violet tfc violet red solution; the color is

destroyed by a large excess of a mineral acid. In concentrated
or neutral solutions ferric salicylate may be precipitated. 19.
Ferric salts with organic acids, as citric, tartaric, and lactic, are

slowly reduced to the ferrous condition in diffused light, more
quickly in sunlight, and the organic acid is oxidized to carbon
dioxide (Scoville, 337). 20. Carbolic acid with concentrated
solutions of ferric chloride gives but little increase in color. On
diluting with water the solution becomes green and more water
changes it to violet blue. 2 1 In dilute aqueous solutions creosote
.

or guaiacol gives with ferric chloride a violet blue color which
soon changes to green brown. An alcoholic solution of ferric
chloride with creosote gives blue green. 22. Acetanilid with an
alcoholic solution of ferric chloride gives a red color. With an
aqueous solution it gives no color unless heated, and then the
color fades on cooling. 23. Antipyrine gives a red color with a
solution of a ferric salt. [See ANTIPYRINA, No. 3.] 24. Phenace-
tin with a tincture of ferric chloride gives a deep red solution.
25. With pyrocatechin a solution of ferric chloride gives a green

70 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS

color; 26. with pyrogallol it gives a red; 27. and with resorcin,

a violet. 28. An alcoholic solution of salol gives a violet to red
color with a tincture of iron, but when sufficient water is added
the color is destroyed and the salol precipitated. 29. Piperazine

gives a red brown precipitate. 30. Oil of wintergreen gives a
violet color with an alcoholic solution of ferric chloride: 31. oils
of cloves, bay, and pimenta give a blue to a green; 32. oil of
cinnamon gives a brown; 33. oil of thyme gives a green brown,
changing to red. 34. An alcoholic solution of ferric chloride gives
a dark brown green color with podophyllin 535. with aloin it gives
a green black to a brown black; 36. with benzoin, a brown to
green; 37. with gamboge, a black brown; 38. with asafoetida or
storax, a green brown; 39. with myrrh, a red brown; 40. with
guaiac, a blue to brown; 41. withbalsam of Peru, a green black;
42. withbalsam of Tolu, a brown; 43. and with shellac, a black.
44. With a nearly neutral aqueous solution of ferric chloride
morphine gives a blue to green solution, and with apomorphine
it gives a red changing to a black. 45. Solutions of ferric salts
gelatinize mucilage of acacia. [See ACACIA, No. 2.] 46. They
coagulate solutions of albumin. 47. Glycerin and syrup give a
darker color due to hydrolysis into ferric hydroxide and hydro-
chloric acid (Bui. Pharm., xix, 389). (IV 234-251.)
48. The N. F. tincture citrochloride of iron is of the same
iron strength as the U. S. P. tincture, though weaker in alcohol,
and contains a citrate. This tincture can often be advanta-
geously used in place of the official tincture. With it alkali

hydroxides, phosphates, hypophosphites, benzoates, acacia, sali-
cylates, and many other agents do not cause precipitation;
iodides do not liberate iodine for several days unless a mineral
acid is added; antipyrine, salicylates, phenol, acetates, and some
other chemicals do not give the color they ordinarily do with the
U. S. P. tincture. It is deserving of more extended use, but
should not be used where much quinine sulphate is present or
when citrates cause trouble.
Ferrosum. Ferrous salts are quite quickly changed to
i.

basic ferric compounds on being exposed to the air. Sugar,
glycerin, and organic matter in general retard the oxidation. 2.

INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 71

Ferrous salts in aqueous solution are precipitated to some extent
by the alkali hydroxides as the white ferrous hydroxide, quickly
changing to the ferroso-ferric hydroxide, which is of a dirty green
to a black color. This precipitate ultimately oxidizes to a ferric
hydroxide or oxide. Ammonium chloride or sulphate, soluble
citrates or tartrates, sugar, glycerin and many organic com-
pounds, dissolve the ferrous hydroxide or prevent the precipita-
tion. 3 The soluble carbonates precipitate the ferrous carbonate,
.

white purely ferrous, but quickly becoming green and ulti-
if

mately brown, due to the formation of a ferric compound. 4.
The soluble phosphates precipitate the white or bluish white
ferrous phosphate. 5. With nearly neutral solutions borax gives
a white precipitate. 6. The soluble sulphides (not hydrogen sul-
phide) precipitate the black ferrous sulphide. 7. Ferrocyanides

precipitate the light blue ferrous ferrocyanide. 8. Fenicyanides
precipitate the dark blue ferrous ferricyanide. 9. Arsenites and
arsenates give precipitates with solutions of ferrous salts (P. & J.,
158). 10. Tannic acid with strong solutions of ferrous salts

precipitates the white gelatinous ferrous tannate. This quickly
oxidizes,forming the nearly black ferric tannate. Ferrous salts
usually contain enough of a ferric salt to give the dark color at
once. ii. Gallic acid with a concentrated solution of a ferrous

salt givesa white precipitate which soon turns dark, due to the
oxidation of the iron and formation of the ferric gallate. 12.
Ferrous salts in solution are oxidized to ferric compounds by salts
of gold or silver,
by hydrogen dioxide, chromates, permanganates,
nitrous or nitric acid, chlorine or chlorates in acid solution,
bromine or bromates in acid solution, iodates in acid mixture,
mercuric compounds in alkaline mixture, arsenates in alkaline
mixtures, and by oxygen of the air. 13. The alkaline citrates in
solution modify the astringent effects of ferrous salts, and dissolve

many of the salts not soluble in water.
Ferrum Reductum. i. Reduced iron combines with acids
to form salts. 2. It is oxidized by moist air. 3. In the presence
of water it reduces to the metallic condition salts of copper,

bismuth, lead, silver, mercury, and antimony. 4. Triturated dry
with strong oxidizing agents, such as potassium permanganate

72 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS

or potassium chlorate, it is liable to cause an explosion. 5. In the

presence of water iron forms ferrous iodide with iodine, and
ferrous bromide with bromine. 6. Iron is slowly oxidized to a

hydroxide by hydrogen dioxide water.
Fluidextracti. i. Fluidextracts are generally more or less

acid and liberate carbon dioxide from carbonates. 2. Water

causes precipitation of inert matter and sometimes active prin-
ciples.
Gelatinum. i. Solutions of gelatin are coagulated by
tannic acid, picric acid, metaphosphoric acid, chlorine water,
mercuric chloride, platinum chloride, alumnol, alcohol, or
formaldehyde. Aqueous solutions are not precipitated by alum,
lead acetate, ferric chloride, dilute acids, or dilute alkalies
(N. S. D.). 2. Healing an aqueous solution of gelatin for some
time renders it incapable of gelatinizing.
Glucosides. i. Glucosides are decomposed by prolonged

contact with mineral acids, alkalies, hot water, or ferments.
Some glucosides may be decomposed by one of these agents,
others by two or more of them. One of the products formed is
2. Tannic acid or lead subacetate
glucose or some form of sugar.
generally precipitates the glucosides from their aqueous solutions.
3. The
glucosides are not usually precipitated by 'the alkali
hydroxides or carbonates or general alkaloidal reagents. 4.
Many of them give color reactions resembling those produced by
the alkaloids.
Glycerinum. i. It has been generally stated that glycerin

with borax forms glycerol borate and sodium metaborate. The
glycerol borate is decomposed by water, forming boric acid and
glycerin. But according to Duncan (Pharm. Jour., LXXXVI,
104) the following reactions take place:

Na2 B 4 O .ioH
7 2 + 2 C H (OH) = 2 NaC H OHBO
3 5 3 3 5 3

Na2 B 4 O 7 .io H 2 + 4 C H (OH) = 2 NaC H OHBO
3 5 3 3 5 3

+ 2 HC H OHB0 + 13 H O.
3 5 3 2

Sodium glyceryl borate is formed in either case but when two
molecules of glycerin are used for one of borax, boric acid is

INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 73

formed while four molecules of glycerin are used for one of
if

borax, glyceroboric acid is formed. Glyceroboric acid is a much
stronger acid than boric. In the first reaction about two grams
of borax are used for one of glycerin. In consequence of the
formation of free acid, this mixture is incompatible with carbon-
ates, but generally compatible with solutions of alkaloidal salts
where borax alone would cause a precipitation. Glucose, honey,
and some other organic compounds act like glycerin. 2. Strong
nitric acid mixed with concentrated sulphuric acid converts

glycerin intothe explosive nitroglycerin. When glycerin is

carefully treated with nitric acid, it is converted into a mixture
of oxalic acid, glyceric acid, and other organic acids (Allen, n.

304). Warming glycerin with dilute nitric acid may cause a
violent reaction. 3. Gently heated with solid potassium hy-
droxide glycerin is converted into potassium acetate and formate
(Allen, n. 304). 4. In dilute solutions potassium permanganate

changes glycerin to formic, propionic, and tartronic acids (M. &
M., n. 618). In a strongly alkaline solution oxalic acid and
carbon dioxide are formed (Allen, n. 304). Manganese dioxide
is precipitated. 5. Oxidizing agents, as chromates, chlorinated
lime, nitrohydrochloric acid, hydrogen dioxide, or manganese
dioxide with hydrochloric acid, convert glycerin into oxalic acid
and carbon dioxide. When glycerin is rubbed with the dry
oxidizing agents explosion is liable to take place. 6. Concen-

trated sulphuric acid with glycerin forms acrolein. 7. Glycerin

may be made to combine with several organic and inorganic
acids (U. S. D.). Glycerin unites with alkalies and alkaline
8.

earths to form compounds soluble in water, the former also
soluble in alcohol, the latter not precipitated by carbon dioxide
(N. S. D.). 9. Glycerin prevents to some extent the precipi-
tation, by alkali hydroxides and carbonates, of solutions of salts
of lead, copper, antimony, aluminum, chromium, iron, zinc, and
magnesium. 10. most deliquescent salts and in-
It dissolves

many inorganic and organic salts, n.
creases the solubility of

Glycerin sometimes precipitates alkaloidal salts from their
aqueous or acidulated solutions (U. S. D.). 12. It does not mix
with most fixed oils to form clear solutions. 13. Glycerin is

74 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS

sometimes contaminated with iron from the container, and this
may give a color with carbolic acid, tannic acid, and other
substances. (IV 252-254.)
Glyceritum Boroglycerini. Glycerite of boroglycerin is

decomposed by water and the boric acid liberated may be
precipitated. (fy 255-256.)
Glycerophosphates. i. The glycerophosphates are easily
decomposed and are preferably given alone. Those of the
alkalies may give no precipitate when decomposed, but those of
the other metals will have the incompatibilities of the bases. 2.

Citric acid increases
the solubilities. 3. Alkalies decompose
them, making phosphates and liberating glycerin. 4. The
glycerophosphates of the heavy metals are not very soluble in
water or alcohol.
Glycerylis Nitras. i. Nitroglycerin explodes violently on
percussion. 2. When impure it gradually decomposes, forming
glyceric, oxalic, and nitrous acids, and the gases formed may
burst the container (M. & M., n. 619). 3. Alkalies or their
carbonates decompose it when
dissolved in alcohol, forming a
nitrite, nitrate, acetate, oxalate, and formate (Allen, n. part i.

333). Alkalies convert it into glycerin and a nitrate of the base

(Richter, I. 474). If some spirit of nitroglycerin is spilled, a

solution of potassium or sodium hydroxide should be poured on
it at once.

Glycyrrhizinum Ammoniatum. i. Ammoniated glycyrrhi-
zin in aqueous solution is decomposed and the glycyrrhizic acid
precipitated by mineral acids; the taste is changed from sweet
to somewhat bitter. 2. With solutions of salts of many of the

heavy metals it gives voluminous precipitates. 3. Fixed alkalies
liberate ammonia from it. 4. Soluble lime salts as calcium

hydroxide, hypophosphite, or lactate, give precipitates of cal-
cium glycyrrhizate.
Guaiacolis Benzoas, Benzosol. i. Alkalies split it up into
guaiacol and a benzoate.
Guaiacolis Carbonas, Duotal. i. Guaiacol carbonate is

decomposed by hydroxides, forming a carbonate and
alkali

guaiacol. 2. With tincture ferric chloride it does not give the

potassium ferricyanide. i. It is somewhat alkaline and combines with make salts which are generally soluble. 6. 2. Guaiacolis Salicylas. S.] Hexamethylenamina. It liberates acids to ammonia from ammonium chloride. The alcoholic solution is colored red by ferric chloride. 4. or tannic acid. P. and causes the resin to turn green. tincture does. Sulphuric acid dissolves it. 3. Either in substance or in tincture. [See ACACIA. i. 3. 4. 5. 14. An alcoholic solution of the fresh resin of guaiac is colored blue by nitric acid. chlorine. as gold chloride and silver nitrate. No. guaiac sometimes gives a blue color with mucilage of acacia. 3. spirit of nitrous ether. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 75 guaiacol color. With an excess of the oxidizing agent the color is changed to green and then red. It combines with some acids to form crystalline compounds. Rubbed with chloral hydrate it slowly gives a mass.). With hydrogen dioxide it is said to form a compound in which the dioxide is added on. forming unstable compounds which are decomposed by diluting with water (N. Alkali hydroxides and carbonates break it up into guaiacol and a salicylate. Guaiacolum. but if a small amount of hydrochloric acid is added. ferric chloride. to the metallic condition. gold chloride. Guaiacum. 2. S. i . Saturated solu- tions of urotropine and antipyrine may be mixed without pre- cipitation. forming a red solution with a tinge of blue. changing to green on adding more ferric chloride. 3. 7. Formin. if the solution is not too dilute. Tincture citrochloride of iron does not give the blue or green color that the U. and many other oxidizing agents. chromic acid. Continued exposure to light or heat deprives the guaiac of the property of being colored blue by oxidizing agents. An aqueous solution is precipitated by mercuric chloride. . [See CREOSOTUM. potassium permanganate. ozone. This is due to the action on the guaia- conic acid.] 2. 2. Hot water decomposes it. It dissolves in a solution of potassium or sodium hydroxide. The incompatibilities of guaiacol are similar to creosote. With ferric chloride it gives at first a blue color. i. Urotropine. It reduces a few salts. D. Warming with dilute sulphuric acid it liberates formaldehyde. enzymes. 4.

With sodium carbonate or bicarbonate. with the separation of a violet precipitate. It is precipitated from a water solution by many of the alkaloidal reagents. 13. 14. 3. With aspirin. i . 8. S. Other acids act similarly but more slowly. A powder of urotropine and lithium benzoate will get sticky or liquid in a few days. The precipitate is the orange yellow mercuric oxide if the hydroxide is in excess. ammonia is liberated urotropine has been previously treated with a mineral if acid. Abs. 2. A similar result occurs when mixed with lithium car- bonate. Holocainse Hydrochloridum. Mercuric chloride in aqueous solution slowly and partly changed to hydrochloric is acid and calomel. It is precipitated by solutions of fixed alkali hydroxides or lime water. and formaldehyde are mixed with water. 9. apparently without decom- position. acetic acid is set free and is soon fol- lowed by formaldehyde. or salol. although there may form a steel gray precipitate in a few . A strong solution gives no precipitate with sodium phosphate. or ben- zoate. The incompatibilities are similar to those of atropine.] Hydrargyri Chloridum Corrosivum. salicylate. ammonium chloride. Era. Rubbed with antipyrine the odor of phenol appears and the mixture liquefies (Chem. sodium salicylate. 12. sodium benzoate. XLV. Added to an excess of silver nitrate in solution. glycerin. which change is prevented by ammonium chloride or hydrochloric acid. [See ATROPINA. D. 561).. and acacia. 2. 2690). sugar. The crystallization is retarded or prevented by dilution with water. tartrates. The addition of sodium hypochlorite to a solution gives a flesh color. benzoic acid. ix. or if the mercuric salt is in excess it will be the red brown basic chloride of mercury.). An aqueous solution is precipitated by hydroxides and carbonates and by chromic alkali acid (N. a precipitate is produced. The compound is said to have the formula CsoHagOsNyHCl (Ph. Homatropina. i.76 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS crystallization takes place in a few minutes. The precipitation is prevented to some extent by the presence of citrates. n. The same product is formed when antipyrine. 10. It forms a crystalline compound with resorcin.

salt is known as "Mayer's reagent" and precipitates nearly all alkaloids from solutions of their salts. which by excess of the carbonate with heat is converted into the yellow mercuric oxide. The precipitate first formed is white and consists of the union of mercuric chloride and mercuric sulphide. i. & J. glycerin. first reddish yellow. forming double compounds. The soluble bromides precipitate from concentrated solutions of mercuric salts the white mercuric bromide." mercurammonium chloride. by further addition of the precipitating agent the black mercuric sulphide is formed. 6. the precipitate turns to a purplish red in a few hours. 42). Potas- sium carbonate or sodium carbonate precipitates solutions of mercuric chloride as the red -brown oxy chloride. 3. Various oxychlorides are formed (M. 641).. 9. 12. in. This precipitate dissolves in excess of the soluble iodide or excess of mercuric chloride. which is soluble in excess of the soluble bromide or in excess of the mercuric salt (P. If the bicarbonate is in excess the precipitate remains white for some time but may ultimately change to the purplish red. Mercuric chloride combines with the chlorides of the alkalies to form double compounds. Ammonium carbonate acts like ammonium hydroxide. tartrates. and sugar prevent the precipitation to some extent. The soluble iodides precipitate solutions of mercuric chloride as mercuric iodide. A solution of mercuric chloride with sodium or potassium bicarbonate gives an effer- vescence and a white precipitate. n. Borax precipi- tates the red brown basic mercuric chloride (Watts. 8. Ammonium hydroxide gives the white precipitate. & M. becoming red. the presence of alcohol prevents this precipitation to some extent. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS TJJ " days. Soluble phosphates precipitate from neutral solutions of mercuric chloride the white mercuric phosphate. the double compound is approximately represented by the formula (KI) 2 HgI2 A solution of this double . If potassium iodide has been used in excess. 7. Citrates. 5."" or "ammonia ted mercury. which are more soluble in water than mercuric . Hydrogen sulphide and the alkali sulphides with solutions of mercuric chloride give mercuric sulphide. If the mercuric salt is in excess. 10. Ordinarily no trouble is experienced in combining these. acacia. 217). 4..

to calomel. Mercuric chloride precipitates from concentrated aqueous solutions nearly all alkaloidal salts. 3. Hypophosphorous acid and hypophosphites reduce 13. The black precipitate is sulphide of mercury. zinc. 20. in alkaline mixtures metallic mercury is formed. . the precipitation is retarded by sodium chloride (U. and then metallic mercury. calcium. & J. Tartar emetic reduces corrosive subli- mate and precipitates it as calomel . sodium. 21. Sulphurous acid and soluble sulphites reduce mercuric chloride to mercurous chloride. Mercuric chloride is reduced by metallic copper. some glucosides. gum. 23. heat and light hasten the reaction. 24. 39). S. 98). 22. (FV 257-265. 25. Camphor increases the solubility of mercuric chloride in alcohol or ether. vegetable extractive matter. and resins slowly decompose it. 18. Ferrous compounds in alkaline mixtures with mercuric compounds are oxidized to ferric compounds. some neutral and bitter principles.fats. Sugar. mercuric chloride to mercurous chloride and finally to metallic mercury. NH2 HgCl (P. & M. 5. antipyrine. The soluble iodides in the presence of water convert calomel . i. 14. piperazine. Solutions of the car- bonates of the fixed alkalies convert calomel into a black mass. precipitating calomel. 16. which is probably a mixture of the basic carbonate and oxide. 4. Calomel is changed to the black mercurous oxide by a solution of the hydroxides of potassium. i. 2. tannic acid. A solution of albumin is coagulated by mercuric chloride. and gelatin. D. then yellow. then black.78 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS chloride. 19.) Hydrargyri Chloridum Mite. or iron.. Ammonium carbonate acts like ammonia water. Calomel with ammonia water forms a black mixture of me- tallic mercury and mercuric ammonium chloride. 17. Thiosulphates added to a solution of mercuric chloride give a white precipitate. in the presence of water. 15. According to some writers corrosive sublimate is slowly reduced to calomel by compound syrup of sarsaparilla or by honey but not by pure syrup. and reduce mercuric to mercurous. Arsenites in alkaline mixtures reduce mercuric chloride to calomel and then metallic mercury and are > changed to arsenates. this is prevented by the presence of sodium or ammonium chloride.. Alcohol slowly reduces mercuric chloride to calomel (M.). or barium.

Hydrocyanic acid and soluble cyanides in aqueous solution convert calomel into metallic mercury and mercuric cyanide and . Pouchet claims that if sodium chloride is capable of converting calomel then it will be necessary to eliminate all of the sodium chloride in the system before giving a dose of calomel. Numerous other experimenters lend their support to the belief that no change. Assoc. making various experiments on calomel with alkali chlorides. and some bring forward clinical results to prove their point. Schaefer. According to M. takes place. Mialhe. or sodium chloride at the temperature of the body. Pro- ceedings Kansas Pharm. Tansy (in Pharm. which is further decomposed by an excess of the soluble iodide. Diekman (in Ph. C. potassium. XLIII. m. and consequently not enough to explain the increased action which the mixture sometimes seems to have. 8. calomel is in part con- 7. Dr. concludes that no mercuric chloride is formed (M. Rundschau) has made experiments to prove the fallacy of the belief that sodium chloride and calomel are incompatible. H. Era. One writer says that the exaggera- tion of the toxic effect of calomel. so that calomel will be absorbed in larger amounts. xxn. D. The presence of a little metallic mercury gives a green color with mercurous iodide. 896. Soluble bromides act similarly to soluble iodides. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 79 into yellow mercurous iodide. and gastric juice. Prof. organic acids. verted into corrosive sublimate and metallic mercury by am- monium. 176. for 1897. The becomes more gray or black as the color proportion of metallic mercury increases and the mercurous. iodide decreases. after ingestion of salt or organic acids. arises from the fact that its combination with albu- minoid substances in the stomach is facilitated and will yield products much more soluble.. A number of other experimenters call attention to the decomposition. forming metallic mercury and mercuric iodide. 7) made experi- ments showing that the amount of mercuric chloride formed in the test tube is not over six tenths per cent of the calomel taken. This mercuric iodide combines with the soluble iodide to form a double compound which is soluble in water.) The change seems to be more marked in the presence of gastric juice or pancreatin. xix. 0. or but very little. 6. (See Watts. R. 153).

. in. Calomel reacts with the iodine in iodine compounds like airol. 14. Whether any change takes place or not. 22. 20. and a double sulphite of the alkali and mercury goes into solution (M. bromine. Soap generally alkaline and darkens calomel. no metallic cury. 216). spirit of nitrous ether. & M. Calomel is said to be changed to metallic mercury and mercuric chloride by cane sugar even in the absence of moisture. produce corrosive sublimate very slowly. due to the separation of metallic mercury. Boiling hydrochloric acid converts calomel into mercuric chloride and metallic mer- if dilute hydrochloric acid is used. Calomel in the presence of moisture is darkened by certain alkaloids. probably is forming an oxide. 12. 16. Bicarbonate of sodium with calomel is said to 9. 19. europhen. Milk sugar gives the reaction more . hydrogen dioxide (slowly). mercury will be separated (M. calomel is more frequently given with sodium bicarbonate than without it. Calomel with alkali sulphites in solution separates metallic mercury. chlorine. n. but at once when sodium bicarbonate is mixed with it. A mixture of iodoform and calomel exposed to light gives red mercuric iodide and the odor of iodo- form is lost. and in alkaline mixtures by silver salts. 216). 10. 23. while at the same time some mercuric chloride is formed. Calomel is reduced to metallic mercury by nitrous acid. Metallic mercury and a mercuric compound are formed. iodine. in. which combines with the alkaloid. hypo- phosphorous acid. aristol. Calomel is slowly turned dark in the presence of moisture by antipyrine. and in alkaline mixtures by arsenites and tartar emetic.. such as cocaine or pilocarpine. and iodoform. Calomel is said to be changed to metallic mercury and mer- curic chloride by heavy trituration. The darkening is due to the formation of metallic mercury. 13. 15. 21. Considerable time is required for the change. Mercurous chloride is oxidized to mercuric compounds by nitric and nitrohydrochloric acids. 18. 17. mercuric chloride is also formed. Exposed to sunlight calomel darkens. & M. Solutions of hydrogen sulphide or alkali sulphides convert calomel into the black mercurous sulphide. Iodine changes calomel into mercuric chloride and mercuric iodide in the pres- ence of water or alcohol.So INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS chloride.

5. in. 3. giving a soluble . in.) Hydrargyri Cyanidum. decomposed by a solution of sodium hydroxide or carbonate. Mercuric oxide precipi- tates bases from solutions of their chlorides but not from oxysalts (M. S. Mercuric oxide darkens in the forming mercury and oxygen (M.) Hydrargyri lodidum Rubrum. No. With solutions of iodides mercurous iodide is decomposed. 222) or mercurous oxide (N. 2. 5. D. and lard (N.) Hydrargyri Salicylas. & M..] Hydrargyri lodidum Flavum. light. potassium chloride. & J.). sugar. Mercurous iodide is rapidly darkened by the light. Acacia and tragacanth have similar properties but in a less degree. [See HYDRARGYRI CHLORIDUM MITE. Mercuric cyanide. i. but do in the presence of alcohol (M. forming mercuric iodide and mercury.. 2. 4. [See HYDRARGYRI CHLORIDUM CORROSWUM and ACIDUM HYDROCYANICUM. Hydrargyri Oxidum Flavum. (IV 276. With mercuric chloride in solution it forms the red brown oxychloride. sodium carbonate. 4. S. and many ammonium salts. 3. m. (IV 275. has incompatibilities similar to mercuric chloride. Mercuric oxide combines with most acids to form salts. It is reduced by many substances as gums... 2. i Mercuric salicylate is . & M. i.] 3. Lime. 42). D. particularly in the presence of moisture. Mercurous iodide is reduced and oxidized by thesame reagents that reduce and oxidize calomel. & M. and potassium car- bonate do not decompose mercuric iodide in the presence of water. The incompatibilities are quite similar to those of mercuric chloride. Mercuric iodide is soluble in a solution of sodium thiosulphate. 909). (IV 266-274. 5. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 81 quickly. except that aqueous solutions are not precipitated by alkali hydroxides or iodides on account of the formation of soluble double compounds. so far as the base is concerned. 4. With soluble iodides it forms soluble double compounds. The darkening is in proportion to the decomposition into mercuric iodide and mercury.). Am- monia water converts it into mercuric iodide and metallic mer- cury (P. Mercuric iodide is de- composed by solutions of fixed alkali hydroxides forming the yellow mercuric oxide and a soluble double iodide of the alkali and mercury. 220). i.

but in the presence of alcohol the decomposition takes place suddenly and with violent explosion (N. 5. 208). in. evolving ammonia. air. M. in. n. 5. Hydrargyri Subsulphas Flavus. Hydrargyrum Colloidale.). n. Turpeth mineral dis- solves readily in sulphuric. & M. 2. in. Hydrogen sulphide or ammonium sulphide gives no color or precipitate. i. and chromic acid (M.. chlorine.). When ammoniated mercury is triturated with iodine. Water decomposes it slowly. Hydroquinone. D. & M.or hydrochloric acid. 730). 730). Albumin not precipitated and tends to prevent the precipita- is tions noted above. S. A solution of ferric chloride gives a violet color. Reducible metallic chlorides. or iodides dissolve it (N. A strong . Colloidal mercury in aqueous solution turns silver gray on heating (N. Hydroquinone is oxidized to quinone by ferric chloride. 4.. 2. D. Ammoniated mercury is dissolved by a solution of sodium thio- sulphate in the cold. Hydrargyrum Ammoniatum. are reduced. 4. dilute nitric acid. Trituration tends to transform it into the insoluble form. bromides. Solutions of chlorides. forming mercuroxy-ammonium chloride and ammonium chloride (M. 4.. 4.. nitric.. if heat is applied mer- curic sulphide is formed. i. & M. Rem. Calomel thus formed remains in solution if the solutions are dilute. the mixture will puff up after a time from the spontaneous decomposition of nitrogen iodide formed in it. & M. 2. 3. 3. as mercuric chloride. 208). White precipitate is de- composed by solutions of the fixed alkali hydroxides or lime water. 2. The metal is precipitated by acids. forming mercuric oxide and the sulphate of the alkali. salts of many metals. Bromine or chlorine causes the evolution of hydrogen and the formation of mercuric bromide or mercuric chloride (M. Hyrgol. An aqueous solution turns brown in the 3. &. S. Solutions of fixed alkali hydroxides decompose turpeth mineral. 208).. i. 3. bases. 2 . more quickly in the presence of an alkali. Strong nitric acid oxidizes it to oxalic acid (M.82 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS double compound. & N. i. Strong mineral acids de- compose it. liberating ammonia and forming the yellow mercuroxy- ammonium chloride (M. 1916).

9. combine with the ammonia and i. 13. 14. camphor. sodium chloride. n. Trituratingwith crystallized phenol. It pre- some cipitates alkaloidal salts only in concentrated solution and some only (M. 364).. It has about the same incompatibilities as atropine. Acids precipitate the ichthyolsulphonic acid as a dark resinous mass which adheres to the sides of the vessel. It is easily decomposed by warming with alkalies or water. ammonium bromide. potassium iodide. 3. except from concentrated solutions. It combines with formaldehyde to give ichthoform. Hyoscyamine is converted into atropine by heating to 248 F. 8. xxvn. 5. Alcohol gives a precipitate but ichthyol is said to be soluble in a mixture of alcohol and ether. . and zinc sulphate. guaiacol. 6.. & M. sulphate. Rubbed with ammonium chloride it gives a stiff mass and some effervescence can be seen. 730).] Ichthyolum. ammonium chloride.g. Hydrogen dioxide destroys the odor. 7. 10. Solid iodine gives a black mixture. Mercuric chloride does not give a precipitate at once but does on standing and is re- duced to calomel (M. 2. 4. 3. [See ATROPINA. magnesium potassium bromide. 284). ichthyol is made thinner. but makes Iodine with ichthyol and petrolatum gives a blue and then a green black color. while at the same time a partial oxidation of ichthyol is brought about by the ferric salt. creosote. for five or six hours. not precipitated by bicarbonates or ammonium It is carbonate. eucalyptol. soluble in excess of the latter (M. Ferrous salts pre- cipitate the sulpho-ichthyo ate of iron (Am. x. It has the property of making some insoluble substances soluble in water. R. Alkaline hydroxides or carbonates liberate am- monia. Tincture of iodine gives no precipitate with a dilute solution it much darker.. x. 284). 2. The precipi- in dilute solution tateis sticky.. D. i. e. 4. Ferric salts in solution with ichthyol form compounds of iron and ichthyol.. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 83 aqueous solution isprecipitated by ferric chloride. R. n.. or above its melting point. some of the salts that give pre- cipitates are alum. Hyoscyamina. With albumin it gives ichthyol albuminate (ichthalbin). Ichthyol gives precipitates with solutions of many metallic salts as ichthyolsulphonates. unless the acid be quite dilute. 12.

3. such as mercuric chloride. in. because of the formation of the insoluble alkaloidal tannate. Perhaps some due to the formation of the red iodide of mercury. in. mercuric iodide. silver nitrate. lodates. in. R. ferrous compounds.. arsenous acid. alkali hydroxide gives an iodide and a formate. producing silver iodide. in. & M. and water (M. lodoformum. & M. 114).84 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS oils of peppermint. is yellow. When gently heated with yellow mercuric oxide iodoform is decomposed. lodoform heated with a solution of an i. 7. nitric acid. (ty 277-281. 302). and water (M. Triturated dry with silver nitrate. tartar emetic. nitrites. lodoform in solution or mixed with a fatty substance decomposes in the light. formic acid. iodine.. and in such cases they liberate iodine when brought in contact with acids. 4. and carbon monoxide (M. Many of the infusions and decoctions are decolorized by a solution of lead subacetate or by aluminum hydroxide. lodoform with hydrogen dioxide . & M. or ferric chloride. 4. E. viii..) Infusa. For a time the iodine will be taken up by the fatty matter (unless it is petrolatum). 33). and nitrogen tetroxide (Ph. and turpentine (D... giving carbon monox- ide. violent reaction takes place with the forma- tion of silver iodide. Silver nitrate in solution decomposes iodoform. which are precipitated by many of the metallic salts. Exposed to direct sunlight. lodates in solution with a dilute mineral acid are reduced to iodine by hypophosphites. When the tannic acid is present in considerable amount they are incompatible with alkaloidal salts. lead acetate. 33). 2. bromides. & M. forming colorless addition products (M. 2. iodides. forming iodine and methyl iodide (M. carbon dioxide. but when it is exposed to light the color changes to red. lodates sometimes occur as impurities in iodides. XLVIII.. ix. chloroform is also produced. and morphine. 33). The color of a mixture of calomel and iodoform 3. 33).. They should not be mixed with alcoholic solutions of substances insoluble in water. 6. C. wintergreen. albuminous and extractive matters. iodoform completely oxidized is by the air. i . forming carbon dioxide. 5. 2. and decoctions generally contain some tannic acid. 65). i Infusions .

Chlorine forms iodic and hydro- chloric acids.. S. 6. i. with some ammonium iodate. or by adding an alcoholic solution of iodine to ammoniated mercury. lodum. 4.. i In aqueous solution fixed alkali hydroxides or . Chlorates in the presence of an acid form chlorides . 2. carbonates decolorize iodine. & M. by adding ammonia to a mixture of hydrochloric acid and iodic acid. S. 359). by the action of nitrogen chloride on an aqueous solution of potassium iodide. Oxidizing agents liberate iodine.) lodolum. 3. R. and the iodine is reduced to an iodide. (IV 282-285. Iodine with ammonia water slow y becomes colorless. Analyses of the products of these re- actions seem to show that at least three different explosive compounds are formed. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 85 water seems not to be readily affected. (N. iv. forming chiefly ammonium iodide. Balsam of Peru deodor- izes it and forms a compound with it (U. D. Hydrogen sulphide forms hydriodic acid and sulphur. 2. but when in solution with ether hydrogen dioxide liberates iodine. differing in the number of hydrogen atoms replaced by the iodine (M. forming soluble iodides and iodates.) lodophenacetin. 5." which when dry is easily and violently explosive. the "iodide of nitrogen. 9. 8. Alkalies ab- (M. Nitric acid slowly oxidizes iodine to iodic acid. R. 3. It should not be given with agents having a strong affinity for iodine.). Explosive compounds of nitrogen and iodine may also be formed by mixing alcoholic solutions of ammonia and iodine. There isa liability of there being precipitated a dark brown powder. liberating iodine (M. 3. m. Thiosulphates form sulphates and an iodide. 9. 560). 8. by adding a solution of chlorinated lime (neutralized by acetic acid) to an aqueous solution of ammonium iodide. and in the presence of potassium hydroxide a periodate. 100 C. Sulphites form sulphates and an iodide. Water decomposes iodo- phenacetin. (IV 286-287.). 2.. D. It stract iodine. lodophinin. regenerating phenacetin should not be mixed with substances having a strong affinity for iodine. i lodol remains unchanged when heated below . Hypophosphites are changed to phosphates. iv. Tannin slowly de- odorizes and decomposes iodoform. 7. 359).

20. & M. 342). which slowly redissolves after some hours or days. Starch and preparations containing it are turned blue by iodine. It com- bines with many of the fixed oils to form additive compounds. Bromine in the presence of an alkali hydrox- ide forms a bromide and an iodate. 12. forming mercurous iodideand then mercuric iodide. Iodine bleaches litmus and other vegetable colors. 14. the iodized starch. as with turpentine. 15. & S. but on cooling it again assumes its blue color. Iodine with ammoniated mercury sometimes forms the explosive iodide of nitrogen. part v. Equal proportions of re- sorcin and iodine make a preparation soluble in water and devoid of caustic effect. n. The presence of potassium iodide prevents the gelatinization. 25. Iodine changes mercur- ous compounds either in acid or alkaline mixtures to mercuric compounds. Methyl alcohol is slowly oxidized by iodine to formaldehyde and formic acid. In the presence of water iodine combines with metallic iron to form ferrous iodide. 18.. such as chlorine. Iodine combines with most metals and with many non-metals. 28. or arsenic. 17. and in some cases. 10. [See ACIDUM TANNICUM. 24. No. 16. laurine. 13. 31. 29. Iodine combines directly with metallic mercury. 15. and the iodine is reduced to an iodide. 27. 427). 30. With iodine in a con- centrated solution potassium cyanide forms potassium iodide and iodide of cyanogen (M. Iodine.86 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS and iodic acid. and other bodies (R. precipitates nearly . in. the color By warming is destroyed.] 21. 22. it acts with almost explosive violence. 19. Iodine with alcohol heated with a fixed alkali yields iodoform. It combines with many volatile oils. Iodine when heated with camphor gives hydriodic acid. bromine. n. Arsenous compounds are changed to arsenic by iodine in the presence of an alkali. Iodine with lime and water forms a bleaching mixture.. cymene. either in alcoholic solution or dissolved in an all aqueous solution of potassium iodide. In solution iodine slowly forms hydriodic acid.. In the presence of an alkali iodine changes ferrous compound to ferric and antimonious to anti- monic. phosphorus. Tincture of iodine free from an iodide or hydriodic acid gives a gelatinous mass with collodion. carvacrol. 26. 23. Iodine reacts with tannic acid and water.

Lime water forms insoluble compounds with tannic. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 87 alkaloids from aqueous solutions of their salts.] Liquor Ammonii Acetatis. and oxalic acids. some salts. i. An alcoholic solution gives a brown red color with ferric chloride. Donovan's solution liberates iodine on exposure to air.Lime water has all of the incompatibilities of the fixed alkali hydroxides and of the calcium salts. tartaric. Silver nitrate is precipitated as silver iodide. 3.] Liquor Ferri Dialysati.) Lactophenin. Many organic acids. i. i. i. [See ACEDUM ARSENOSUM and ACEDUM HYDROCHLORICUM. Solution of saccharin contains some sodium bicarbonate which gives precipitates with many alkaloidal and metallic salts. The com- pounds are generally more soluble in cold water than in hot. citric. gallic. [See HYDRAR- GYRI CHLOREDUM CORROSIVUM. 2. and ACIDUM ACETICUM. 3. ARSENI TRIOXTDI. Heat tends to throw the calcium hydroxide out of solution. and acacia precipitate .) Liquor Chlori Compositi. i.] (r\ 302-305. Caffeine and theobromine in dilute solutions are not precipitated by iodine. [See LIQUOR POTASSH HYDROXEDI and CALCIUM. Liquor Calcis. 2.] Liquor Arseni et Hydrargyri lodidi. It precipitates nearly alkaloids from aqueous solutions of their all salts. the alkali hydroxides and carbonates. (IV 288-301. Alkali hydroxides precipitate the mercury as the oxide. A large amount of alcohol present may prevent the precipitation.] Liquor Benzosulphinidi. Liquor Acidi Arsenosi. Lactophenin is de- composed by acids and alkalies. i. The precipi- tates from water are generally red brown and amorphous. Solution of ammonium acetate sometimes contains ammonium carbonate or free acetic acid. This solution contains free arsenous and hydrochloric acids. and ACEDUM HYDRIODICUM. Compound chlorine solution contains a little potassium chloride in addition to the chlorine. 4. Phenetidin lactate. [See CHLORUM and ACEDUM HYDROCHLORICUM. It has been suggested to keep a globule of mercury in it to prevent this change. 2. AMMONIUM. [See CARBONATES.

It is slowly oxidized to formic acid (N. In such a case the solution would have the incompatibilities of the acid. When these two are used together in disinfecting a room it is at the expense of the formalde- hyde. solution slowly deposits the solid crystalline paraformaldehyde which isa condensation product. ferrous to ferric. Alkalies con- vert formaldehyde into methyl alcohol and a formate of the base. Hydrogen dioxide water or iodine oxidizes formic aldehyde to formic acid. Heat and sunlight increase the tendency to decompose. which has been added to aid preservation. liberating oxygen. Formic aldehyde in i. Ammonia unites to form hexamethylene- amine.. With reduced iron and water it gives a little effervescence.). 5. 3. D. 192). 4. acids. Formalin. 109). changing mercurous compounds to mercuric. 5. Liquor For maid ehydi. gelatin. 2. casein. agar-agar. consisting of three molecules of formaldehyde and which is decomposed by high heat changing back to formaldehyde. i. Chromic salts in alkaline mixtures are oxidized to a chroma te. Liquor Hydrogenii Dioxidi. .88 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS or gelatinize the solution of dialyzed iron. 2. D. Hydrogen dioxide is a strong oxidizing agent. Formic aldehyde with dilute solutions of the hydrates of the fixed alkalies and alkaline earths is converted into methylenenitan and formose (Richter. 7. Formaldehyde is a strong reducing agent. It liberates sulphur from sulphides.). S. starch. 6. 3. Hydrogen dioxide slowly undergoes decomposition. xxi. Formaldehyde neutralizes alkalies but does not form true salts (W. and sulphites to sulphates. S. It combines with Fowler's solution. It enters into direct combination with albumin. 2. Potassium permanganate probably oxidizes it to formic acid and formates and the heat generated volatilizes the gas more quickly. and alkali hydroxides (N. 6. 4. A solution of hydrogen peroxide generally contains a free mineral acid. hypophosphites to phosphates. reducing salts of gold and alkaline solutions of salts of silver and copper. arsenous to arsenic. and in a few hours a brown precipitate of ferric hydroxide or oxide. and if the bottleis tightly corked a sufficient pressure may be produced to burst the bottle. precipitating the arsenic combined with ferric hydroxide. D.

and hydrochloric. n. potassium bromide. n.. Some substances are not changed by it. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 89 A chromate in the presence of an acid is reduced to a chromic salt (M. If the mixture is made alkaline a brisk effervescence ensues. 148. 20.. & J. It bleaches litmus and most organic colors. and at the same time. Quite a number of substances decompose hydrogen dioxide into water and oxygen while they themselves are not affected. sulphuric. char- and some organic substances (M. Hydrogen dioxide reduces potassium permanganate and is itself reduced. 12. 286). Ammonia in solution forms ammonium nitrite (M. dioxide. sodium sulphate. & J. & M.. forming oxygen and water (M. 832). 22. and oxygen. 23. Bromine is liber- ated from hydrobromic acid. 723). & Caustic alkalies decompose hydrogen M. S. 14.. n. m. S. water.. 723). forming mixtures in which it is less easily decom- posed (Watts. D. liberating iodine.. It gives a blue color with a tincture of guaiac if the guaiac has not been exposed to air and light too long. D. have a restraining influence on its oxidizing other bodies (U. Reaction takes place when hydrogen dioxide water and formic aldehyde are mixed. 25. producing formic acid. 15. With tannic or gallic acid it slowly gives off some gas and colors the solution yellow brown. & M. & M. 24. With chlorine hydrogen dioxide forms hydrochloric acid and oxygen (P. Hydrogen dioxide slowly changes glycerin to oxalic acidand carbon dioxide. 9. 19. n. 197). (IV 145- coal. Some examples of these are manganese dioxide.) . 10. 21. It reduces gold. S. It coagulates a solution of albumin (U. Hydrogen dioxide slowly reacts with alcohol. and platinum from their oxides (P. hydro- quinone and quinone (M. nitric. 13. potassium chloride. the products in a solution acidulated with sulphuric acid are manganous sulphate. in. Hydrogen dioxide unites with some acids as phosphoric. 16. Phosphorus and some substances having a strong affinity for oxygen ordinarily are unaffected by it (U.). 8. A mixture of hydrogen dioxide water and carbolic acid becomes yellow to red brown in a few hours. Hydrogen dioxide oxidizes carbolic acid to pyrocatechin. n.). 18. & M. Iodides are oxidized. 7. 17. 724).). silver. 287). mercuric mercury. 724). potassium sulphate.. D.

] (1^306-312. 2. It precipitated by nearly is all organic acids. forming compounds that vary in color from a green to a yellow or brown. giving various colors on standing. [See PLUMBI ACETAS. [See ACIDUM TANNICUM. A solution of phenol gives a precipitate with it. It precipitates from aqueous solutions many alkaloids. [See CARBONATES and ARSENI TRIOXIDUM. 3. 5.) Liquor Potassii Arsenitis.] 8. 4. 8. Gallic acid combines with the hydroxides. Tannic acid combines with the hydroxides. antimony. 2. butyric. Solutions of potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide have practically the same incompatibilities. in which cases it is an oxide. [See ACIDUM GALLICUM. It unites readily with liquid or solid fats. but when is both are diluted with water stringy masses are formed. The precipitation is pre- vented or hindered with salts of mercury. They precipitate solutions of salts of nearly all other common metals except arsenic. 5. copper. citrates. Fowler's solution is alkaline. aluminum.QO INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS Liquor Plumbi Subacetatis. and calcium. chromium. Mucilage of acacia gelatinized by a solution of lead subacetate. and the precipi- tate is a hydroxide. making emulsions. except in case of silver. except formic. glycerin. 4. 6. i. This can be prevented by glycerin or considerable dilution with water. Exposed to the air they absorb carbon dioxide. 9. lead.] 7. and other organic substances. and lactic acids. due to the formation of mercurous oxide. Potassium hydroxide with a concentrated solution of tartaric acid gives a . i. and contains some potassium bicarbonate which has been more or less changed to potassium carbonate. Lead subacetate precipitates concentrated solutions of antipyrine.] Liquor Potassii Hydroxidi. zinc. acetic. glucosides. sugar. Goulard's extract is alkaline to litmus. It consequently has the incompatibilities of a carbonate as well as those of a soluble arsenite. It precipitates albumin and soap. i and 2. Lead subacetate has all of the incompatibilities of lead acetate. In the presence of water and heat they liberate ammonium from its compounds. and neutral prin- ciples. 3. and anti- mony. In aqueous solution they combine with acids to form salts. 6. 7. tartrates. acacia. 2. Nos. Calomel is turned black. No. mercury. by the presence of iron. i.

due to the formation of magnesium hydroxide. The precipitation is sometimes pre- vented by alcohol which is a solvent for the alkaloids. the common lithium salts are generally soluble in water and in alcohol. cocaine. With resins they form resin soaps. With fifteen times its weight of water it soon forms a gelatinous mass. Chloral hydrate is decomposed by the alkali hydroxides. [See POTASSIUM. 3. 15. such as atropine.by the fixed alkali hydrox- . INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 91 precipitate of cream of tartar. 2. 9. 2. Magnesium hydroxide is slightly soluble in water. or more quickly when heated. giving chloroform and a formate of the base. 16. With makes a sixteen times its weight of copaiba magnesia mass on standing. Magnesia absorbs water and carbon dioxide from the air. (IV 313-) Magnesii Oxidum. This solution is precipitated by alcohol. 3. 3. or dilute acids with heat. Soluble salts of magnesium in concentrated aqueous solution are precipitated: i. and aconitine.) Magnesium. They decompose some substances like salol and oil of wintergreen. Magnesia combines with acids to form salts. The alkali hydroxides precipitate nearly all of the alkaloids from aqueous solution of their salts.] (r> 314. concentrated mineral acids. Soluble phosphates precipitate lithium phosphate. the precipitate being the free alkaloid. 14. They decompose some of the alkaloids. and its action is similar to that of the fixed alkalies but weaker. i. They dissolve some and cantharidin. [See MAGNESIUM and LIQUOR POTASSII HYDROXIDI. It is strongly alkaline. i . hyoscyamine. With principles. With the exception of the carbonate and phos- phate. 10. It gelatinizes mucilage of acacia. the copaiba combining to form thick or solid magnesium copaivate. Lithium. n. as santonin fats and fixed oils they form glycerin and a salt (soap) of the fat acid. 2. the precipitate being lithium carbonate. Alkali hydroxides decompose many of the glucosides when warmed with them. 12. In some cases the precipitate is soluble in excess of the hydroxide. i. 4. The soluble lithium salts are precipitated from their solutions by soluble carbonates.] Liquor Sodii Silicatis. 13. when left in contact for some time.

3. as magnesium arsenate.honey prevents to a considerable extent the formation oi sticky masses and helps to keep the resin suspended. bromine. precipitates the resin which ad- heres to the bottle. i. formic. or tartrates. Salts of manganese in aqueous solution are precipitated by the fixed alkali hydroxides as manganous hydroxide. or tartrate respectively. Potas- sium permanganate in solution decomposes menthol. by the normal carbonates of the fixed alkali metals. & M. as basic carbonate of magnesium. and hydrogen dioxide. 6. Man- ganous salts in alkaline mixture are oxidized to manganese di- oxide by chlorine. & M. 203). by the alkaline phosphates. oxalates. Honey when triturated with strong oxidizing agents. or cyanides precipitate the manga- nous carbonate. 2. as magnesium hydroxide. (fy 315- Manganum. all of which are white when first precipitated. butyric. as magnesium sulphite. 2. Honey decomposes borax. 4. in. phosphates. oxalate. phosphate. Mel. iodine. added to resinous tinctures.. as magnesium phosphate. is liable to form an explosive mixture. Ammonium hydroxide or carbonate scarcely precipitates magnesium salts. Ammonium hydroxide in the presence of ammonium salts scarcely precipitates manganous salts. by alkaline arsenates. [See page 270.and oxymenthylic acids (M. 4. such as potassium chlorate or potassium permanganate. or cyanide. the reaction being somewhat similar to that between glycerin and borax. Adding water to an alcoholic solution . by soluble sulphites. propionic. but darken on exposure to air. in. No. with liberation of boric acid. calcium.] 3. 203). 3.] 2. The presence of honey prevents the precipitation of some of the metallic salts by the alkali hydroxides. 4. Fuming nitric acid forms an explosive oil (M. i.. white but soon turning brown in the air from oxi- dation. strontium. i. and may prevent some extent the precipi- to tation by the fixed alkali hydroxides and carbonates. Water. i. 2. 3. The alkali carbonates. Menthol when triturated dry gives a liquid or soft mass with many solids. Menthol.92 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS ides and the hydroxides of barium. [See GLYCERINUM. 5. forming pimelic.

Methyl salicylate has incompatibilities quite similar to those of the soluble salicylates. 359. Meth- Methylthioninse Hydrochloridum. sodium. 6. and barium hydroxides by carbonates of the alkalies. 2. 359). forming methyl alcohol and a salicylate. Many concentrated acids or concentrated solutions of sodium salicylate dissolve menthol. D. and by the general alkaloidal reagents. although some say that morphine cyanide is precipitated. 4. i . Morphine tartrate is not precipitated by fixed or volatile hydroxides (Blyth.. 3. or artificial oil of wintergreen. In aqueous solutions potassium iodide and potassium bichromate precipitate the base as an iodide and a chromate (Allen. potassium.) 2. Morphine precipitated from solutions (not too dilute) of its. calcium. R. but not so readily in the carbonates. iv. Alkali hydroxides decompose it. Methyl salicylate. in.) Methylis Salicylas. Reducing agents cause the formation of a colorless substance. [See ACIDUM SALICYLICUM. and by borax. by potassium chromate. 359) . INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 93 of menthol causes separation of the menthol as an oily liquid. 3. is salts by ammonium. (M. ylene blue is decomposed by a strong solution of potassium or sodium hydroxide liberating the base as a violet precipitate. 4- Morphine is precipitated from solutions of its salts by lead subacetate (not neutral lead acetate). due to the formation of ferric salicylate... The bicarbonates of the alkalies precipitate only a portion of the morphine from neutral solutions of its salts. Part I. R. Silver nitrate is reduced by morphine . Morphina. the addition of water precipitating it again. iv. forming methylene blue (M. 5.) Sodium hydroxide gives a purplish color and in excess a violet color (N. Sulphuric acid changes the blue aqueous solution to a bright green color (M. Methylene Blue. 2. (IV 317-319. 292). S. gives with a dilute solution of a ferric salt a deep violet color. m. The precipitate is soluble in a large excess of the above-mentioned fixed hydroxides. 3. iv. 5. 353). which again takes up oxygen. R.] i. Morphine combines with acids to form salts. tartaric acid prevents the precipitation (Watts. Potassium cyanide precipitates morphine usually as the free alkaloid. i. 1053). due to the alkalinity of the potassium salt.

i. Nitric acid gives a red color. in. Morphine is oxidized by an alkaline solution of potassium per- manganate. The olein of some fixed oils with nitric acid or nitrous acid gas forms the isomeric elaidin. 3. Morphine is converted into nitroso-morphine. 436). The free base is precip- itated by an alkali hydroxide or carbonate. 9. Naphthalene is converted into nitro- or dinitro-naphthalene by nitric acid. With chlorine a solution of morphine gives a yellow to an orange color. pseudomorphine. 15. and a base Ci7H2 iN05 (M. & M. Ferric chloride in nearly neutral solution gives a blue coloration. liberating iodine. This coloration is prevented or destroyed by excess of acid or alcohol. and finally purple. Fixed oils absorb and combine with bromine and iodine. 4. in. forming addition products. i Novocaine in aqueous solution is precipi- . 8. & M. n. Nitrous acid or spirit of nitrous ether produces a yellow color with morphine. Concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulphuric acid give various color reactions with . which is solid. Gold chloride precipitates morphine. With an acid solution of potassium permanganate a green coloration is pro- duced. Chlorates oxidize morphine. 199). changing to an orange and then a light yellow. 12. Chlorine and bromine form chloro. i . An aqueous solution can be boiled without decomposition. Novocaine. according to the strength of the acid used (Allen. then blue. and bromo-derivatives. and if ammonia is added it is changed to red brown. lime water. changing to a dirty green. Triturated dry with phenol 3. 2. the precipitate is first yellow. 436).) Naphthalenum. 2. lodates are reduced. or salol naphthalene produces a liquid.. It gives a damp powder with pyrocatechin. n.. [See ALKALOIDS. 13. The gold is reduced. 10. In a moderately strong aqueous solution morphine is precipitated as the free alkaloid by codeine.] (fy 320-322. 2. forming an acid (M. 16. and oxides of many metals. form oleates (soaps) of the base and glycerin. tated by many alkaloidal reagents. 14.94 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS and gives a red coloration (Sohn. Fixed oils with solutions of alkali hydrox- ides. 7. 3. Iodine unites with morphine to form iodomorphine (Watts. 1052). 67). Olea Fixa. in.

Oleum Caryophylli. & M. A mixture of ammonia and the oil turns yellow on standing..) Olea Volatilia. P. except castor and croton. I. which soon changes to yellow (U. 2. 3. Oil of cloves dissolved in a little alcohol gives a bright green color when a solution of ferric chloride is added. crystalline compound is produced. With an aqueous or alcoholic solution of potas- sium hydroxide it gives benzyl alcohol and potassium benzoate. a blue color produced. is 310). 472). If the solution of ferric chloride is quite dilute. 5. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 9$ different oils. 4. which is again resolved by acids into ammonia and benzoic aldehyde. Ammonia water converts it into crystalline hydrobenzamid. Chlorine converts it into benzoyl chloride. 30. sulphuric acid2. and 33. and if . phenol and pyrocatechin act similarly (M. Clove water gives a yellow or brown solution or precipi- tate with a solution of ferric chloride. which may crystallize so as to form a mass. S. i. Benzaldehyde is readily oxidized by the air and by oxidizing agents. which are soluble. Concentrated nitric acid gives color reactions with many oils. 2. i. forming benzoic acid. Oil of bitter almonds contains chiefly benzaldehyde with a little hydrocyanic acid. Oleum ^Ethereum. Ethereal slowly oil with water is decomposed. or in glycerin. the artificial oil consists of benzaldehyde.. 3. Nos. Benzaldehyde with resorcin in the presence of hydrochloric acid forms a resin. Nitric acid changes its color to a deep red. 2. i. Volatile oils with concentrated sul- phuric acid generally give a yellow color. 6. 31. turning brown and sometimes red. Iodine dissolves quietly in the oil. i . Fixed oils do not dissolve readily in alcohol. Ferric chloride gives colors with some of the oils. (IV 325-326. Iodine [See reacts violently with some oils. 32. Oleum Amygdalae Amarse. FERRICUM. 5. becoming acid. The not pre. Alcohol prevents this to some extent. With an aqueous solution of sodium bisulphite a 7. particularly the hydrocarbon oils. In aqueous solution the addition of very soluble salts some- times throws the oil out of solution. 3. 6. 4. is cipitated by the general precipitants of this acid because it exists in the form of sulphovinates. Potassium hydroxide saponifies the resinified portions of the oils.] 5.

and terebic acids. Iodine and bromine form additive compounds. paratoluic. Chlorine and bromine react so violently that the oil is frequently ignited. it gradually changes into terpin hydrate. which afterwards becomes form a green hot and gives off vapors of iodine and hydriodic acid. Nitric acid of sp. 4. 147). Oleum Terebinthinse. butyric. 6. Oil of turpen- . Linseed oil is ignited by fuming nitric acid. i. With a saturated solution of sodium bisulphate the oil solidifies to a crystalline mass. Cinnamon water gives a turbidity with a solution of lead acetate. D. Iodine is dissolved by oil of turpentine to solution. The oil when exposed to air slowly absorbs oxygen and forms a resinous substance. Oleum Lini. oil into resinous matter." 3. S. the violence of the reaction and the products formed depending on the strength of the acid. gr. the heat generated by the oxidation may be sufficient to cause ignition. Exposed to air the oil oxidizes and ultimately becomes solid. & M. An alkaline solution of potassium permanganate converts it into sativic acid (M. 5. i. Oil of turpentine with a small proportion of sulphuric acid is partially converted into terebene. i. S. Dry hydrochloric acid gas with oil of turpentine forms a crystalline monohydrochloride of terpene. Cinna- mon water with solution of ferric chloride gives a brown color and a slight precipitate.).. 4.). and when considerable quantities of iodine and turpentine oil are brought suddenly together. 2. 5. Some of the products formed are acetic. which is broken up into hydrogen dioxide and camphoric acid (U.33 turns it green and afterwards brown. If oil oil of of turpentine is left in contact with water. 2. Oil of cinnamon dissolved in alcohol gives a brown color with a solution of ferric chloride. propionic. 2. Alkali hydroxides convert it into a soft soap. Nitric acid slowly oxidizes it to a crystalline mass of cinnamic acid. This has been called " artificial camphor. Heated with chlorinated lime. 4. explosion frequently ensues. 3. 1. turpentine yields chloroform. in. 8. or by alcohol. If the oil be distributed through cotton. 3.96 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS heat be used the oil is converted into oxalic acid (U. This reaction is hastened by the presence 7. Strong solutions of alkalies dissolve it. Nitric acid converts the of nitric acid. Oleum Cinnamomi. D. 4.

107). An cipitated by heat. chromates. The mixture can be hardened by allowing it to stand or by adding some melted spermaceti.) Opium. . i. sugar. camphor. and other substances that are generally incompatible with the inorganic salts. permanganates. Paraldehyde with fixed alkali hy- droxides forms aldehyde resin which resembles colophony. mineral acids. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 97 tine absorbs oxygen and gives formic and acetic acids. 2. sulphur. or salol. 4. sul- phides. nitric. starch. strong alcohol. sulphites. 2. for instance. glycerin. & M.It dissolves in solutions of alkalies and alkali carbonates and is decomposed by them. 2. charcoal.. Cacao butter is softened by rubbing with one half its weight of chloral hydrate. v. i . thymol. Paraldehydum. Hydrocyanic acid combines with aldehydes to form nitrites (M. should not be triturated with or mixed with sub- stances that are easily oxidized. such as chromic. i. ozone. nitrates. absolute glycerin. and ACIDUM MECONICUM. general alkaloidal reagents. euphorin. ALKALOIDS. hypophosphites. 2. i. 4. 3. Pancreatinum. and resinous bodies (Watts. and nitrohydrochloric acids. honey. iodine. With a strong solution of mercuric chloride it gives a yellow flocculent precipitate. [See MORPHINA. Strong oxidizing agents. naphthalene. menthol. The activity is lessened by exposure to acids or air.] Orthoform. New. Chlorine forms substitution products. 3. and vegetable matter. It reduces solutions of silver nitrate and potassium permanganate. 3. and many other compounds. as. chlorates. carbolic acid. i. tannic acid. It is a strong reducing agent and is oxidized to an acid. 921). metallic salts. (IV 330. Tincture of opium gives a violet red color with tincture of iron. An aqueous solution of orthoform gives a violet to brown black color with tincture of ferric chlo- ride. carbon dioxide. Oxidizing Agents. An aqueous solution of pancreatin is precipitated by aqueous solution is pre- strong alcohol. i A solution of opium contains many alkaloids . (fy 327- 3 2 9-) Oleum Theobromatis. and tannic acid.

mercury. They dissolve small amounts of free alkaloids but not alkaloidal salts. calcium. 4. [See LIQUOR HYDROGENII DIOXIDI. and zinc. In case of sodium peroxide the solution is strongly alkaline on account of the sodium hydroxide formed. Metallic peroxides are decomposed by water. (IV 331-) Peroxides. They are not affected by alkalies. (IV 332-336-) Phenocoll Hydrochloridum. It reduces salts of gold and silver. Ferric chloride gives a blue black color. 2. Paraldehyde liberates iodine from iodides (Ph. and magnesium. mercuric chloride. Phenocoll hydrochloride in aqueous solution is precipitated by the alkaline hydroxides and carbonates as the free base. Pepsinum. Hydrochloric acid stronger than 0. Piperazine is alkaline and precipitates the phenocoll. tannate in aqueous Pelletierine solution is precipitated by the alkali hydroxides. stances or by prolonged contact with alcohol. 2. i.5 per cent inhibits and destroys its activity.] Petrolatum. 3. Peroxides are strong oxidizing agents and should not be mixed with organic or easily reducible substances. the precipitate being soluble in an excess of the fixed alkalies. 2. 3. Tincture of iodine gives a brown precipitate which redissolves in . or glycerin. 3. It is precipi- tated by solutions of the soluble salts of lead. Pelletierinse Tannas. reducing or oxidizing agents. In case of the peroxides of such metals as zinc. 3. Pepsin is rendered inert by alkaline sub- i. liberating oxygen. 3. 2. It destroys the fluores- cence of quinine sulphate. i . It isprecipitated by tannic acid. 5. xvii. 2. the decomposition is slow and the hydroxide of the metal does not go into solution to any extent. i.98 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 4. Gold and silver salts and potassium permanganate are reduced. and many other metallic salts. Era. 6. Acids liberate hydrogen dioxide. Tincture of ferric chloride gives a deep red or violet solution which turns brown green. Petrolatums both solid and liquid take up only a small amount of water. 298). Phenocoll acts like an alkaloid and is precipitated from aqueous solution of its salts by many of the agents that precipitate alkaloids. 7. alcohol. 4. i.

Salocoll gives a violet color with tincture of ferric chloride. 3. then deep blue. 832). Salocoll. 9. Alkaline solutions of carbolic acid absorb atmospheric oxygen. but on adding water a green is produced and on further dilution gives a violet blue color. The addition of 5 cc.. m. Carbolic acid with the U. quinone. 7. 5. It has many of the incompatibilities of the alkaloids. It does not combine with alkali carbonates. 2.) Phenocoll Salicylas. to impurities in the phenol. which is soluble in alcohol. and by many organic substances such as alcohol. solution of ferric chloride gives no change in color. but a twenty per cent solution does. to the iron in the tin-can container. Carbolic acid exposed to the air absorbs enough moisture to liquefy it. or brown. 4. forming dark-colored products. It destroys the fluorescence of quinine sulphate. by some salts. 10. S. Glycerin tends to prevent it. Hydrogen dioxide oxidizes it to pyrocatechin. Carbolic acid with ammonia water gives a color- less solution which slowly becomes green. D. and finally purplish blue. Phenol. 4. to the alkali in the glass bottle. a ten per cent solution of phenol in glycerin gives no precipitate at once with solution of lead subacetate. Adding phenol to a solution of lead subacetate (not lead acetate) or to the dilute solution of lead subacetate gives a sticky precipitate.). Carbolic acid com- bines with concentrated solutions of fixed alkali hydrates to form carbolates. & M. ether. It becomes pink. P. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 99 excess of phenocoll. With ammonia water and a solution of chlorinated soda it gives a deep blue. of carbolic acid is said to prevent coloration. This violet blue color is prevented or destroyed by most mineral and organic acids. except perhaps on boiling. Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to oxalic acid and carbon dioxide (N. The coloration is said to be due to ammonia and ammonium nitrite in the air. 6. With spirit of nitrous ether it gives a yellow color. 2. 8. red. and the iodine is decolorized. 3. to hydrogen dioxide acting on a metal in the presence of ammonia or to oxidation of phenol itself. and hydroquinone (M. (IV 337. The solution slowly becomes yellow to red brown on standing. and glycerin. i. i. S. 8. It liquefies when triturated with chloral hydrate. of a 10 per cent solution of sulphurous acid to 20 K. .

17. after some hours a precipitate forms. alumnol. On mixing aqueous solu- tions of carbolic acid and antipyrine an oily liquid settles to the bottom. Phenylis Salicylas. In solution it is colored red Phenolphthalein. It coagulates collodion. and also that it liquefies when warmed by trituration. quinine sulphate. Nitrous acid forms nitroso-phenol. and in some cases prob- ably to the fact that carbolic acid is hygroscopic. if at all. 15. and to a less extent pure glycerin. neutralizes the caustic and poisonous effects of phenol. Carbolic acid coagulates aqueous solutions of albumin. In aqueous solution no increase of color results. 2 Bromine water added to an alcoholic solution of salol will cause the formation of long needle-shaped crystals. and a large number of other chemicals. In alkaline solution. (FV 338-341. Carbolic acid softens oil of theobroma when rubbed with it. 14. i. n. copper. Carbolic acid reduces salts of several of the metals. as silver. then to a deep brown red. 18. 390). Phenol is scarcely. 16.) i. attacked by iodine (Watts. 20. Spirit of nitrous etherwith carbolic acid gives a yellow color. Crystalline carbolic acid gives a soft mass or a liquid when triturated with agurin.] These reactions are due in some cases to the formation of new chemical compounds. Pouring a mixture of equal parts of tincture of iodine and phenol into boiling water gives a colorless solution. Gelatin is completely dissolved by strong carbolic acid but is coagulated when the acid is added in excess to its aqueous solution (Allen. 539). iv. n. Salol in alcoholic solution gives a violet color when a dilute solution of ferric chloride is added to it. chloralamid. the latter being picric acid. 12. Carbolic acid with strong sulphuric acid forms phenolsulphonic acid. and mercury. terpin hydrate. 21. and tri-nitrophenol. 19. Pure alcohol. 22. by nearly everything that is alkaline. separating the nitro-cellulose as a gelatinous mass. the red color being destroyed by acids. An aqueous solution of phenol with bromine water gives a crystalline precipitate of tribromo-phenol which is not so very soluble in dilute alcohol. changing to a red brown in a few minutes. di-. iodophenols are formed. consisting of a . [See page 270.100 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS Nitric acid oxidizes it to mono-. 13.

Strong solutions of alkalies heated with 3. chromic acid. with 14 per cent of urethane. with 44 per cent camphor.. 2.) Physostigmina. lead dioxide. dilute acids it is decomposed forming sugar and other com- pounds. The red color is due to the formation of rubreserine.. is precipitated i. Phosphorus is oxidized by nitric acid. old turpentine. and other substances oil of rich in oxygen. 5. at 28 C. oxides of phosphorus. with 34 per cent thymol. (M. with 55 per cent menthol.. Phosphorus is oxidized in the air forming i. 4. forming a pink or red solution which fades to a yellow green. Phosphorus. Physostigmine from aqueous solutions of by the itsgeneral alkaloidal salts reagents. 3. A warm solution of potassium orsodium hydroxide or lime water with phosphorus gives a hypophosphite and phosphorus hydride gas. and may cause fire.. chromic oxide.. i. or iodine oxidizes phos- phorus and forms phosphoric acid. 98). xxn. A mixture [See page 270. at 6 C. bromine.] with 10 per cent of beta- of salol naphthol melts at 34 C. or sulphides. Phloridzin exposed to the air in the presence of ammonia 2. at 17 C. Heating a solution of a salt decomposes the physostigmine so that heat cannot be used . chlorine. except picric acid and platinum chloride.5 per cent sulphonal.. silver oxide. at 29 C. sulphur. In the presence of water. with 17 per cent antipyrine it melts at 30 C. 2. hydro- bromic.. Eserine. or hydriodic acid. forming a salicylate and carbolic acid. potassium nitrate. 4. mercuric oxide. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS IOI bromo-derivative. at 37. with 4 per cent phenacetin. 5. at 13 C. and hydrochloric. salol saponify it. Heating with acquires a purple color. When phosphorus is triturated with potassium chlorate.. (fy 346. Aqueous solutions of its salts soon turn red. potassium bichromate. When salol is triturated dry with many solids a mass or liquid results. with 39 per cent chloral hydrate.. 3. R. at 34 C. (IV 342- 345-) Phloridzinum.5 C. 4. A drop of a ten per cent solution of hypo- phosphorous acid is said to prevent the change. with 7. explosion is liable to take place. Alkalies give a white precipitate which immediately turns pink and dis- solves in excess of the alkali.

14. iv. Gold chloride gives a blue to a violet colora- tion. Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to pyridin (M. S. It decolorizes bromine water without giving a precipitate. This is probably due to the separation of metallic mercury while at the same time some mercuric chloride is formed which combines with the alkaloid. D. 8.. A solution with tannic acid gives a green color.102 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS for sterilization.. Picro toxin is soluble in solutions of acids and alkalies without combining with them (N. Quinine is said to give an amorphous violet brown body with piperazine (M. P.) Piperazina. i . Ferric chloride gives a red brown precipitate. & M. When piperazine is triturated dry . 6. A solution of chlorine or bromine gives a red coloration. Donovan's solution. 6.. 10. & M. 7. & M. iv. Piperazine gives a white precipitate with a solu- rv. Potassium permanganate and silver nitrate are reduced by piperazine. S. 2.). With an aqueous solution of pipera- zine alum gives a white precipitate.). 5. 3. 3. Pilocarpinae Hydrochloridum. 275). Nitric acid gives a yellowish red color. (M. Piperazine strongly alkaline and combines is with acids to form salts. An aqueous solution of piperazine precipitates solutions of mercuric chloride. except that it is not readily precipitated by alkali hydroxides and carbonates. 2. 5. copper sulphate. 349). With spirit of nitrous ether piperazine gives a yellow to a red solution. Pilocarpine nitrate gives no black color (U. 4. tincture of iodine. 7. zinc sulphate. i . iv. M. Sodium hypochlorite solution forms a body with piperazine that explodes when heated to a temperature of 8o- 85 C. n. Ferrous sulphate gives a dark green precipitate which turns brown on standing. 9. potassium mercuric iodide. When this alkaloidal salt ismixed with calomel in the presence of moisture a dark- ening occurs. 13. &.. lead acetate. Picrotoxinum. and picric acid. (IV 347-348. tion of quinine sulphate and destroys the fluorescence. i. Bromine water forms dibromo- piperazine (M. Pilocarpine hydrochloride in aqueous solution precipitated by the reagents that generally is precipitate alkaloids. On account of its strong alkalinity piperazine gives precipitates with solutions of alkaloidal salts and with some inorganic salts. 12 Phenol combines with piperazine. 349). 349).

except from a concentrated solution. and alkaloids. 6. The sol- uble carbonates precipitate the white basic carbonate of lead. i. 2. or phenacetin. i. Precipitation is prevented to some extent by glycerin and sugar. carbolic acid. Cream of tartar combines with the hydroxides and carbonates of the alkalies to form neutral soluble salts. 18. 10. antipyrine. Sulphuric acid and the soluble sulphates precipitate the white lead sul- phate. gums. Borax precipitates the white lead borate. 16. tartrates. 2. Hydrochloric acid and the soluble chlorides precipi- tate from not too dilute solutions of lead acetate the white lead chloride.) Potassii Bitartras. Alkali sulphites precipitate the white lead sulphite. Lead acetate gives a precipitate with some coloring matters.] (fy 351-354. 13. acetanilid. Sodium phosphate precipitates the white lead phos- phate. and other solids. glucosides. zinc sulphate. The precip- itation is prevented by the presence of glycerin and sugar to some extent. chloral hydrate. 14. The soluble bromides precipitate the white lead bromide. Ammonium hydroxide does not precipitate lead acetate. citrates. 17. Pyrogallol gives a white precipitate which be- comes brown and black on exposure to air and light. a liquid or soft mass is formed. Tannic acid and solutions containing precipitate the yellow- it gray lead tannate. This is due in some instances to chemical combination and some- times to the fact that piperazine is very hygroscopic. (IV 349~ 350-) Plum hi Acetas. With a solution of opium lead acetate forms the acetates of the alkaloids and the insoluble lead meconate and sulphate. The soluble iodides precipitate the yellow lead iodide. The soluble cyanides precipitate white lead cyanide. and sali- cylates. 8. Lead acetate in aqueous solution is precipitated 'by the fixed alkali hydroxides as lead hydroxide which is soluble in excess of the alkali hydroxide. Lead acetate gives a liquid or soft mass when rubbed with alum. ii. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 103 with butyl chloral hydrate. 15. neutral principles. Solutions of lead acetate are precipitated by neutral soluble benzoates. 12. Cream of tartar becomes more soluble in solutions of . 3. 5. resins. [See page 270. 4. Soluble chromates precipitate the yellow lead chro- mate. 9. 7.

hypophosphites. liberating bromine. Potassium permanganate in acid solution is reduced to the manganous condition by nitrous acid and nitrites. 3. forming nitrates. sulphides. n. the oxygen coming from both the permanganate and hydrogen dioxide. sugar. 15. 2. acid and iodides. In dilute aqueous solution potassium permanganate is reduced by nearly all organic matter . Glycerin gives a precipitate similar to that produced by alcohol. They are insoluble in alcohol. It is acid in reaction. water. Alcohol is oxidized to aldehyde and acetic acid. forming nitric acid. n. i. oils. & M. and tartronic acids and carbon dioxide (M. 14. 3. propionic. by mercurous compounds. 7. and other readily oxidizablematter. & M. by arsenites. 642). potassium sul- phate. potas- sium permanganate forms manganous sulphate. 618). 4. Potassium presence of a solution salts in the of platinic chloride and hydrochloric acid give a yellow precipitate of a double compound of platinum and potassium chloride. The permanganates are all soluble in water. 9. With hydrogen dioxide water mixed with sulphuric acid. liberating chlorine.) Potassium. i . Tartaric acid is con- verted into formic acid and carbon dioxide. Most neutral potassium salts in not too dilute aqueous solution . 16. by ferrous com- pounds. in concentrated solution the reaction may be so great as to cause explosion. forming ferric compounds. forming sulphates. and has the in- compatibilities of tartaric acid. [See ACIDUM TARTARICUM. tannic acid.104 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS borax or boric acid. 18. by hydriodic liberating iodine. gums.. reduced iron. 8. the manganese dioxide and monoxide being pre- cipitated. by sulphites and hyposulphites. iv. charcoal. by hydrochloric acid and chlorides. fats. more readily in a neutral or alkaline mixture (M. by hypophosphites. and is oxidized to formic.. alcohol. forming arsenates. forming oxalic acid and carbon dioxide. by ammonia. forming phosphates. When potassium per- manganate is triturated dry with sulphur. (FV 355-361.] Potassii Permanganas. and oxygen. 2. 17. 10. 6. oxalic acid. glycerin. 12. which is sparingly soluble. 13. by hydrobromic acid and bromides. an explosion is liable to ensue. picric acid. except silver. 5. Carbolic acid is oxidized by potassium permanganate. forming mercuric com- pounds.

7. Ferric chloride. Protein. i.) Pyoktannin. hypochlorites. slowly in the light. It has been suggested to use a one and a half per cent of boric acid solution as a solvent. but repre- cipitation may follow. i Pyok tannin in solution is decomposed . INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 105 with sodium bitartrate give a precipitate of potassium bitartrate. Pyramidon. Pyoktannin is said to be incompatible with mercuric chloride. This is not always sufficient and a saturated solution of boric acid works better. Silver nitrate gives a blue color. quickly giving a black precipitate of metallic silver. An aqueous solution gives no precipitate with ammonia. 3. 4. 3. 2. alum. Fixed alkali hydroxides added to a solution of pyoktannin decolorize the solution and cause a deposit of a red precipitate. Ammonia decolorizes a solution of pyoktannin and gives a purplish precipitate. 4. alkaline. 4. but with considerable potassium or sodium hydroxide itgives a little precipitate. 5. and mercuric chloride. Tincture of iodine gives a violet liquid with pyramidon and an excess of iodine gives a brown precipitate. 6. 2. A solution of the hydrate or carbonate of potassium with an excess of tartaric acid gives a precipitate of potassium bitartrate. 2. Stable iodides give no reaction at once. Iodine is said to be added on. A solution of pyramidon is colored a deep blue to a violet by nitric acid. 3. It gives precipitates with solutions of many alkaloidal salts. It turns darker on exposure and should be protected from light. Protargol reduces potassium per- manganate.] Protargol. Dimethylamido Antipyrine. A solution of mercuric . 3. [See LIQUOR POTASSII HYDROXIDI. lead acetate. ferric chloride. 5. and the solution becomes darker. as silver nitrate. Silver i Protargol is very slightly . It gives precipitates with many of the astringent metallic salts. (IV 362-363. particularly with cocaine hydrochloride. Nitrous acid or spirit of nitrous ether gives a similar reaction. zinc sulphate. The cautious addition of dilute ammonia water sometimes partially dissolves the precipitates. and many oxidizing agents give a blue to violet color. Dilute acids give precipitates (said to be unchanged protargol) which dissolve on diluting with water or adding strong acids. 6. the color being discharged by excess of acid.

Oxydase gives a blue color. & M. With ammonia pyrogallein lies. With lead acetate pyrogallol gives a white precipitate which turns dark on exposure. Nitric acid acts violently. With a solution of ferric chloride itgives a green color. rapidly 7. With a solution of ferric acetate a purple black coloration is formed. i. and tannic acid give white precipitates. & M. [See page 270. The coloration takes place more rapidly in the presence of alka- changing to nearly black. con- verting it into oxalic acid (M. Pyrogallic acid is changed to purpurogallin by an alcoholic solution of silver nitrate. w. It gives a mass when rubbed with chloral hydrate or phenol. 358). 6. It jias many of the incompatibili- ties of antipyrine.] (flr 364. changing to brown. 14. 8. With a solution of ferric chloride a red color is formed at once. It ganate. 358). An alkaline solution of pyrocatechin assumes a green color. With a solution of lead acetate it gives a white precipitate. iv..) Pyrogallol. It gives a white crystalline precipitate with quinine bisulphate.io6 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS chloride gives a white precipitate. changed to a violet red by ammonia. 13. & M.. 4. changing to brown and black. A solution of acacia. 3. Pyrogallic acid in aqueous solution gradually absorbs oxygen from the airland becomes brown red and acid. or by an aqueous . reduces potassium perman- 10. if the enzyme has not been destroyed. 5. 359) and the solution becomes red. 2. With lime water a purple color is produced. 3. Pyrocatechin gives a mass or liquid when triturated with many solids. 6. Mayer's reagent. is formed (M. changing to green and ultimately red. alum. 5. ii. by an aqueous solution of potassium permanganate. 12. Ammonium carbonate with water converts the pyrocatechin into pyro- catechuic acid (M. It reduces silver nitrate to metallic silver. i. 8. 8. and it is turned to violet by adding ammonia. 4. Calomel turned isdark by pyramidon and the liquid slowly becomes purplish. 9. and on standing the liquid becomes purplish. With a concentrated solution of pyrocatechin lime water gives a greenish color.. rv. With a solution of a ferrous sulphate pyrogallol gives a deep blue solution. and finally black. 2. gives a blue to violet color. 7. Pyrocatechin.

Pyrogallol in aqueous solutions reduces salts of silver. i. more quickly in light and rapidly when heated. Adding an alkali citrate destroys the fluorescence and precipitates the quinine. A. A. 10. 8. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 107 solution of ferric chloride in excess (M. and may ignite or cause an explosion.] . The fluorescence is destroyed by the halogen acids. 9. resorcin. 590). Hypophosphorous acid aids the solution of quinine sulphate. giving up its nitric acid. & M.(IV 365-366. or . iv. the precipitate generally being bulky. 4. The nitro-cellulose is converted back to cellulose by reducing agents. 2. [See comment on pre- scription No. salicylates. Pyrogallol gives a liquid or soft mass when rubbed with many solids. 164).] Quinina. acetanilid. 3. Quinine gives a blue fluorescence with nearly acids that contain oxygen. Treated with alkalies in concentrated solution it is decomposed. citric.) [See Pyroxylinum. or salicylic acids. bromides and iodides. Citric acid aids the solution of quinine sulphate in water. quinine in water solution with organic acids. It is preferable to leave out the acid and use quinine bisulphate. [See ACIDUM ACETICUM. Quinine precipitated from its concentrated aqueous solutions is by benzoates. [See COLLODIUM. as acetic.. is slowly decomposed. 5.] 6. such as ferrous salts or alkali sul- phides. and it is oxidized to acetic and oxalic acids (Richter. phenacetin. into the poisonous quiiiotoxin. n.. Ph. page 270. No. and tartrates. In acid solu- tions it is slowly precipitated by the iodine liberated from the iodide by the action of the acid and air. iv. According to Scoville. except. 19. Concentrated solutions of quinine sulphate are precipitated by potassium iodide.] 9. antipyrine. all 10. Quinine unites with acids to form salts. Free mineral acids tend to prevent the change (Jour. 7. Soluble gun-cotton when damp undergoes i . decomposition. 4. 3. phenocoll hydrochloride. but if added in sufficient amount potassium hypophosphite destroys the fluorescence and causes precipitation. Quinine is precipitated from solu- tion of its salts by the alkali acetates as the voluminous quinine acetate. Nos. Quinine precipitated from aqueous solutions of its salts by all is the reagents mentioned under ALKALOIDS. 359). mercury. 2 and 3. and gold. salts of the halogens. 2.

Pine resin when triturated with mentbol. Quinine Carbonic Ester 9 Aristochin. is ^Ethylcarbonas. and antipyrine. i. D. w. Resinse.. Concentrated sulphuric acid dissolves many of the resins with decomposition and gives color reactions with some. It forms crystallizable salts with acids and with sulphuric acid the solution is fluorescent. i.) Quininse -. i. i.). [See FERRICUM. i).. & M. Alcohol containing hydrochloric acid is colored red to violet by myrrh. The solubility of quinine sulphate in water is increased by the presence of certain compounds. 375). changing through . or urethane makes a liquid or sticky mass. & M. S. acetic. Nitric acid converts them into artificial tannin (U. 12. Quinine bisulphate in sunlight turns yellow and then brown red. as ammonium chloride. 2. Potassium permanganate oxidizes 3. carbolic acid. oxalic acid. Tincture of iodine added to an alcoholic solution gives a precipitate that dissolves in alcohol if too much iodine is not added. When the alkaloid quinine is heated with solu- tions of ammoniacal salts ammonia gas is liberated. 3. i). rubbed with phenol or thymol gives a soft mass. Quinine sulphate is oxidized by potassium permanganate to pyridin tricarboxylic acid. with chloral it hydrate it gives a damp powder or stiff mass. Euquinine. 26. & M. i. It gives a deep red color with tincture of ferric chloride. 13. Nitric acid oxidizes it to isophthalic and trimellitic acids (M. With aqueous solutions of alkali hydroxides or carbonates resins form resin soaps which are generally sol- uble in water. 5. yellow. No. 4. i. 16.108 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS piperazine. n. 4.] 5. and carbonic acids (M. With resorcin a solution of quinine sulphate or bisulphate gives a precipitate. Tincture of ferric chloride gives different colors with resinous substances. salol. [See ALKALOIDS. It gives a mass when triturated with menthol or thymol. yellowish brown to green by guaiac. and ammonia (M. 14. 2. 3. Resina. 2. Euquinine slightly alkaline. it to formic. When quinine sulphate is 15. 2. potassium nitrate.] (IV 367-375.. The acid solution gives precipitates with agents that precipitate quinine from its solutions. Aristochin dissolves in acids and gives a bluish green fluorescence with acids con- taining oxygen.

3. 2. With concentrated sulphuric acid sugar is decomposed. This is to be expected as resorcin is used in preparing artificial dyes. the air and light becomes red and brown. of many metallic hydroxides or oxides which are normally formed when alkali hydroxides are added to solutions of metallic salts. particularly if there is a metallic salt dissolved in the water. i.] (IV 377-378. or thymol.) Saccharum. phenol. With a dilute solution of ferric chloride resorcin gives a violet coloration. to cherry red. by asafcetida. and brown by some other resins. mer- is aluminum. antimony. Many resins are softened by rubbing with compounds like camphor. while formic acid. magnesia.) Resorcinol. This reaction is hastened by the presence of alkalies. forms explosive nitrosaccharose (Allen. litharge. Moderately concen- trated nitric acid converts sugar into saccharic and tartaric acids. and magnesium curic. forming carbon. With chlorinated lime or soda a solution of resorcin gives a violet coloration changing to yellow. 7. [See page 270. Nitrous acid or spirit of nitrous ether gives a dark red solution with resorcin. it 6. calcium. and other metallic oxides and hydroxides forms saccharates. A solution of quinine sulphate or bisulphate precipitated by is and the fluorescence is destroyed. i An aqueous solution exposed to . The presence of sugar hinders or prevents the precipitation. sulphur dioxide. copper. 4. 2. Lime water gives a greenish color. The inter- ference most marked. About one dram of honey to seven drams of the aqueous solution makes a presentable mixture. i 270). 270). as tincture of myrrh or benzoin when mixed with water give precipitates that generally adhere to the bottle or agglutinate. and other . or dissolves the precipitate. (IV 376. zinc. salts. 6. chemical compounds which are more or less soluble in water. Resorcin produces a liquid or soft mass when triturated with many solids. A solution of sugar heated with lime. in case of 'ead. 3. menthol. and with heat into oxalic acid and carbon dioxide (Allen. Very strong nitric acid with sugar. i. greenish. Alcoholic solutions of resins. Honey helps to suspend the resin and keep it from sticking. ferric. ferrous. changing to dingy violet. 5. 4. in the cold. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS log i brown by benzoin or balsam of Tolu.

or bichromate. i. S. D. glycollic. Sugar warmed with dilute solution of acids.. Exposed to the light slowly changes into glucose it (N. acetic. 14. 8. Alkali permanganates oxidize milk sugar. & M. glucose. iv. IV. Chlorine or bromine oxidizes sugar to gluconic acid. carbon dioxide. Mineral acids and some salts when heated with syrup cause a similar reaction. 553). S. 16. D. The same reaction takes place in the presence of lead or silver oxide (M. Potassium permanganate converts sugar into oxalic. 271). Saccharum Lactis. acetone. 7. oxalic acid.. S. Chromic acid with milk sugar yields aldehyde (M. and other products. & M. to cause an explosion. Sugar renders the fixed and volatile oils to a certain extent miscible with water and forms with them an imperfect combination (N. 15. iv. 553). forming dextrose and galactose. or heated for some time with water is changed to invert-sugar.HO INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS gases are given off (Allen. i. 2. 551). 551). iv. is propionic.). Milk sugar in alkaline solution reduces salts of copper.... Iodine with potassium carbonate and sugar yields a little iodo- form (M..). iv. iv. Sugar triturated with potassium chlorate. and car- bonic acids (M. 10. n. & M. 6. D. 12. formic. forming oxalic. 551). 5. A mixture of sulphuric and nitric acids with milk sugar gives lactose pentanitrate. and oxalic acids are formed (M. Sugar has some reducing effect and retards oxidation by the air of some metallic salts. Sugar combines with sodium chloride. When a concentrated solution of sugar and potassium hydroxide heated.which is explosive (M. 3. Nitric acid first inverts milk sugar and then forms mucic and saccharic acids. Dilute acids invert milk sugar. or with other strong oxidizing agents. 551). & M. particularly ferrous. is liable 13. Silver oxide oxidizes it. forming deliquescent crys- tals (N. 6. 4. per- manganate. iv.). and carbonic acids (M. S..). & M. and if heated forms tartaric and racemic acids and finally. & M. 551). Syrup of hydriodic acid or ferrous iodide sometimes slowly turns brown. formic. 9. 5. D. & M. 7. Iodine is converted into hydriodic acid by heating with a solution of sugar (N. due to the action of the acid or iodide on the sugar making caramel. Dilute chromic acid solution oxidizes sugar to oxalic. and lactonic acids .

1916). The water solution is acid and on adding an alkali hydroxide or carbonate. 3. 2. 10. iv. S. which quickly becomes black (N. 2. hydroxides and carbonates and the general alkali alkaloidal reagents precipitate it. Salacetol. Ferric chloride gives a brownish violet color gradually changing to a dark red. rv. Santonin on exposure to light turns yellow.). giving off ammonia (N. Salophen. Rem. 5. Saloquinine. 8. Neosalvarsan very unstable in the air. A dilute nitric acid solution of silver nitrate gives a dark yellow precipitate. Mineral acids give precipitates if the solu- tion is not too dilute. Milk sugar with a solution of iodine and sodium bicarbonate yields a little iodoform (M. forming photo-san tonic acid and a yellow resinous body (A. Salicin is not readily precipitated by any of the common precipitants. Rem. Salicinum. 606" i. a precipitate of the free base is formed. 3. D. 3. 2. 7. 2. it is liable to cause an explosion. An aqueous solution of . Dilute mineral acids do not change salvarsan. From the acid solutions. Neosalvarsan with ferric chloride or silver nitrate acts like salvarsan (N. 1916). INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS III (M. " Salvarsan. its alcoholic solution gives a reddish violet color. With alkali hydroxides in solution it forms santonin- ates. Boil- ing the sodium hydroxide solution a blue color is developed. 9. 6. i. An aqueous is solution is neutral and on standing gives a dark brown solution and precipitate. Santonin. Tincture of ferric chloride with an alcoholic solution gives a brown red to violet color. i. With a very dilute solution of ferric chloride. & N. & M. Salicyl-acetol is decomposed by alkali hy- droxides. i. beginning at the top (N. 8. Salophen dissolves in solutions of potas- sium or sodium hydroxide but is decomposed by them. & N. & M.. 1916). 1718).. forming a salicylate. Triturated with oxidizing agents. Salvarsan is decomposed easily in the air. & N. D. Rem. Dilute acids and water with heat change it to glucose and saligenin. 553). which are soluble in water. i.. It is de- composed by heating with potassium permanganate. Acids dissolve it. i. 553). 2. 4. 9.

5. & M. 4. forming sulphur. and acetic acids (M. santonin forms carbon dioxide. A heat of 60 C. Sodium thiosulphate precipitates. and sulphurous acid. liberates oxygen. Santonin is turned pink or red by potassium hydroxide in the presence of alcohol. i. Sodium thiosulphate (hyposulphite) i. 705). in aqueous solution is decomposed by nearly all acids. iv. In acid solution sodium hyposulphite reduces iodine to hydriodic acid. and mercurous nitrate. The precipitates are white. and by acids if the solution of santoninate is not too dilute. succinic. Sodium thiosulphate with a solution of ferric chloride gives a dark violet color. & M. silver nitrate. Heated with nitric acid. 2. as thiosulphates. perman- ganates to manganic salts. chlorine water. rv. Soap is frequently alkaline. ferrous sulphate.. solutions of barium chloride. 7. 4. 2. arsenic compounds to arsenous. ferments. 3. and animal tissues. 6. 9. Sodii Thiosulphas. lead acetate. The solution soon loses its color because the salt formed changes to ferrous sulphate. 5. forming the sulphide of the metal and sul- phuric acid.. chlorates to chlorine and hydrochloric acid.112 INCOMPA TIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS santoninate precipitated by lead acetate or lead subacetate as is lead santoninate. It is also precipitated by tannic acid. due to ferric thiosulphate. Aqueous solutions of thiosulphates are decomposed into hydrogen sulphide and sulphuric acid when boiled (M. oxalic. which combine with the base. Sodium thiosulphate forms soluble double thiosulphates with . 3. copper sulphate. 8. An aqueous solution of the salt slowly forms sulphur and a sulphite. 2. chromates to chromic salts. 3. Aqueous solutions of metallic salts give precipitates of metallic oleates with soaps. 4.) Sapo. but those of the last three salts turn black on standing.) Sodii Perboras. Sodium perborate is decomposed by i . It is also decomposed by catalysers. liberating the free fat acid. and when so it makes a black mixture with calomel. It may precipitate hydroxides or oxides from solutions of metallic salts. (IV 381-382. 10. water. 429). Aqueous solutions of soap are decomposed by mineral acids. (IV 379- 380. due to the mercurous oxide formed. giving hydrogen dioxide and sodium metaborate.

i. and consequently have the reactions of alcohol. v. (IV 383-384. silver. Thiosulphates are generally soluble except lead. The soluble sulphates. nitrate. An acidulated solution bleaches vegetable colors on account of its reducing properties. 630). or hy- droxide. i . silver chloride. or oxalate. and barium. 2 and 3. lead iodide. 12. chromate. 2. 13. silver bromide.3. Alcohol precipitates sodium thiosulphate from an aqueous solution as an oily liquid (N. An aqueous solution of stovaine is slightly acid and is precipitated by alkaloidal reagents. Oxidizing agents liberate iodine. (IV 385. phosphates. Stovaine. Diiodoparaphenolsulphonic Acid. D. 2. In very dilute solutions it prevents the precipitation of some of the alkaloids by gold chloride. Strychnine combines with acids to form salts. by the reagents mentioned under ALKALOIDS. chromates. 2. Spiritus. i . Strychnine salts in aqueous solution are precipitated 2. or other strong oxidizing agents. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 113 many metallic salts. It is decom- posed by even dilute alkalies. A solution of it can be boiled without decomposition. 17. S. 16. An aque- ous solution of sozoiodol gives a precipitate with silver nitrate and lead It gives a violet color with a solution of acetate. Solutions of sodium thiosulphate dissolve silver iodide. 3. explosion is liable to take place. 14. It combines with the gold to form a double thiosulphate. It precipitates many of the alkaloidal salts from aqueous solution. spirit of ammonia. mercuric iodide. or alkali hydroxides precipitate from con- centrated solutions the strontium sulphate. . and other salts (Watts.) Sozoiodol. Nos. They all contain alcohol. n.) Strychnina. Water causes a separation of the volatile sub- stance from all of the official spirits except spirit of nitrous ether. lead sulphate. phosphate. and brandy. i. When sodium thiosulphate is triturated with potassium chlorate.. whiskey. With calomel in the presence of moisture it gives a black mixture. 4. Strontium. 1423). 15. ferric chloride. or permanganate. mercurous. or oxalates as strontium carbonate. Salts of strontium in aqueous solution are precipitated by the soluble carbonates.

9. (fy 391. if hot converts the alkaloid into the yellow explosive com- pound which is probably the nitrate of nitrostrychnine (Watts. salol. 517). sodium arsenate. No. and another crystalline acid. The compound which potassium iodide forms with strychnine is only sparingly soluble in water.. In explaining the cause of the trouble several factors must be taken into consideration. and this would liberate and precipitate the alkali strychnine. 8. euphorin. 4. Trional when tritu- rated with 'chloral hydrate. bromides.) . Alkaline substances like sodium phosphate. Fowler's solution. The chemical products have not been definitely determined. TV. Trional. Precipi- tation by gold chloride is prevented to some extent by adding to the gold chloride an equal weight of sodium thiosulphate. v. 5. & M.. but in acid solution potassium permanganate gives an amorphous acid with strych- nine (M. [See AURI ET SODII CHLORODI. Strong nitric acid i. or urethane gives a liquid or soft mass. Alcohol tends to prevent the precipitation. carbon dioxide. Fre- quently the commercial samples of the alkali iodides and bromides are alkaline from the carbonate which was left in to aid their keeping. 6.114 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 3. oxalic acid. 517). potassium cyanide. 440). thymol. i. Some writers partially explain the precipitation by saying that the compounds formed are less soluble in water containing the inorganic salts than they are in water alone. In rather strong solutions of strychnine sulphate the soluble chlorides. iv. and especially the iodides are liable to cause precipitation of the strychnine.] 7.) Sulphonethylmethanum. & M. One dram of dilute nitrohydrochloric acid with seven drams of water containing one fourth of a grain of strychnine sulphate gives a yellow coloration in a few days. but the correspond- ing compounds formed with potassium chloride and bromide are more soluble. (FV 386-390. Hydrochloric acid added to a solution of strychnine hydrochloride gives a crystalline precipitate (M. The precipitation may not take place for several days. Potassium permanganate in alkaline solution yields ammonia. In stronger solutions the change takes place more quickly. and piperazine will cause a precipitation when added to an aqueous solution of a strychnine salt.

explosion is liable to occur. 8. 2. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 115 Sulphonmethanum. acids. Adding dilute acids to not too dilute solutions of agurin gives a precipitate at once or on standing and the precipitate is probably theobromine. From an aqueous solution. 4. ide or iodide. Adilute aqueous solution gives a gelatinous precipitate with silver nitrate but the silver is not reduced on standing for several . Theobrominae Sodio-Acetas. 2. i. lead ace- tate. Sulphur. tartar emetic. It reduces potassium permanganate to some extent. In the presence of air and moisture it absorbs carbon dioxide and is decomposed and precipitated. mercuric chloride.) Sulphuris lodidum. bromine. It combines with many non-metallic elements. Sulphur readily dissolves in hot aqueous solu- tions of hydrates of potassium. and iodine to form additive products. 5. i. 2. i. it may give a precipitate magnesium sulphate at once or on standing. Agurin. It liquefies when triturated with chloral hydrate. Theobromina. volatile oils. i. With many of the general alkaloidal reagents it gives no precipitate. i. sodium. the iodide being dissolved Terebenum. and gold chloride. Triturated dry with strong oxidizing agents. Agurin is readily soluble in water but not in alcohol. 5. Iodide of sulphur is decomposed by alcohol. i. An aqueous solution darkens calomel at once. forming polysulphides and thiosulphates. The solution is strongly alkaline and the alkalinity causes many incompatibilities. 3. 7. 3. Terebene on exposure to air and light resinifies and becomes acid. With solutions of mercuric chloride. 3. barium. or calcium. It combines with strong acids to form salts that are quite readily decomposed by water. It dissolves in an excess of an alkali hydroxide solution. 2. 2. It combines with chlorine. and solutions of potassium hydrox- by these. Theobromine acts like a weak base. or oxidizing agents. 3. theobromine gives a crystalline precipitate with silver nitrate. 4. 6. ether. A solu- tion of ferric chloride with an excess of agurin gives a red brown precipitate. Sulphonal. Sulphonal is not acted upon by alkalies. and also like a weak acid. In many reactions it resembles oil of turpentine. as potassium chlorate or perman- ganate. (R 392.

n. Thymol. Rubbed with piperazine and some solids it gives a mass or liquid. i. Antipyrine aids its solution (Scoville. Calomeldarkened at once by diuretin. Rem. 4. 1916). 5. It is moderately soluble in water but is decomposed by water. Rubbed with chloral hydrate. Theobrominse Sodio-Salicylas. iv. Chromic acid oxidizes thymol to thymoquinone (M. 2.). and borax slowly give precipitates. i. D. carbolic acid. Thymol unites with alkalies to form soluble salts (U. & N. & M. but if the agurin is and a yellowish. 715). [See page 270. It precipitates many alkaloids from solutions of their salts. in excess the iodine is decolorized gelatinous mass or thick liquid results. 8. which slowly becomes thin again and deposits a white precipitate. Alkali carbonates (not hydroxides). A solution of thymol with iodine and potas- sium hydroxide gives a red amorphous precipitate of iodothymol (M. with precipitation of probably both theobromine and salicylic acid. theobromine. and aqueous solution is is decomposed by acids. 3. 3. It precipitates some alkaloids from solution of their salts. & M. iv. & M. 6. Thlosinamine. Glycerin prevents this decomposition to a limited extent (N. and metallic salts. 2. precipitated from its aqueous solutions by Thiol is alkali hydroxides. i. and an alkali.) Thiol.] 9. changing the thymol to nitroso-thymol. Sodio-theo- bromine salicylate in strongly alkaline..Il6 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS hours. With a solution of ferric chloride it gives no precipitate but a violet to red color on account of the salicylate. 6. 9. Excess of tincture of iodine causes or no precip- little itation at once when added to a solution of agurin. S. It has the incompatibilities of a salicylate. Thymol absorbs ammonia-gas and becomes liquid (M. Tincture is of iodine is decolor zed at first but added in excess it gives a pre- cipitate. 4. (ty 394.. iv. 7. Spirit of nitrous ether gives a green and then a brown color. 7. Thymol reduces gold and platinum from solutions of their salts. 5. 10. 715). mineral acids. 74). Thymol gives a liquid or soft mass when . 2. even the carbon dioxide in the air. It reduces salts of silver and mercury. or piperazine it gives a mass.. sodium phosphate. Diuretin. Diuretin in excess gives precip- itateswith solutions of many metallic salts. 715).

i. and quinine (U. [See ZINCUM as strychnine. i Zinc salts in aqueous solutions are precipitated . silicates.] (IV 398. i Commercial zinc iodide frequently does . S. Aristol. Zinci Chloridum. 428). Zinc chloride. or mercury salts. 3. D.] (fy 395~39 6 -) Thymolis lodidum. has a strong tendency to combine with organic bases. liberating ammonia. phosphates. Zinc salts coagulate albumin.) . It is quite distinctly alkaline to litmus and may give a further precipitate when mixed with a solution of zinc chloride. i. salts Rem. Urea becomes soft or liquid when triturated with some solids. 5. 2. Tannic acid gives a precipitate with concentrated solutions of zinc salts. trional. or cyanide. Urea. and ACIDUM HYDROCHLORICUM. by the fixed alkali hydroxides or lime water as zinc hydroxide which is soluble in excess of the alkali hydroxide. Zincum. as oxides. 3. arsenate. Aristol is decomposed by light and heat. Borax gives a precipitate of zinc borate or a mixture of the borate and hydroxide. not give a clear solution with water. Oxidizing agents liberate iodine.] Veronal. starch. i. 1916). and other solids. 2. quinine sulphate. Tragacantha. [See page 270. It should not be prescribed with bodies that have a strong affinity for iodine. morphine. as the basic carbonate. or ferric salts) (Allen. i. phosphate. arsenates. and by neutral and basic lead acetate (not coagulated by borax. or cyanides. hydroxides. Tragacanth is colored yellow by a solution of sodium hydroxide (Allen i. 4.) Zinci lodidum. [See page 270. 2. (r> 397-400. 3. more quickly if dissolved in ether.). 2. An aqueous mixture is thickened by alcohol. Heating with alkalies or sodium carbonate decomposes it. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 117 rubbed with aristochin. like gold and mercuric chlorides. It darkens calomel. 3. Veronal forms with alkalies (N. With water and bismuth subnitrate it forms masses. Zinc salts are precipitated by soluble carbonates. 428). carbonates. & N.

q. tr. f. ether. wherein the trouble lies. aa. 118 . he should determine the color that will be produced. acaciae. S. piper. R. f. In order not to overlook any of the incompatibilities it is suggested that he find out what effect. 3 vj Acaciae. 5 j M. 5 ss Sodii boratis. acaciae. acaciae. f. The majority of prescriptions which follow should be filled. 6' iv iv Olei morrhuae. 5 iv f. to make f. and what he would do to prevent or remedy it. Sig. 5 iv Aq. s. q. f. menth.. ad f. s. 5 ij Water. lotio. after meals. before referring to the notes. unless in the reaction there is some more active or dangerous compound formed. 5 j Liq. and so on. q. f. 3 j Sp. f. Muc. a. 3 ij Muc. Then. 3 iv Aquae. g iij Aq. R ty Acidi borici. then the second ingredient. 5 iv M. destil. how one incompatibility will be modified by another. i. ad f. etc. the first ingredient may have on each of the others. It must not be forgotten that a variation in the proportions of ingredients modifies the results of combination. 3 iv Co. s. nit. M. Teaspoonful three times a day. the nature and color of the precipitate. 5 iv M. taking the prescription as a whole. plumbi subacet. lavender. PART n PRESCRIPTIONS WITH CRITICISMS In studying the following prescriptions the student should try to make out for himself. f. The student should practice translating the Latin into English. 3 ij Sodii boratis.. 5 ij Syrupi tolutani. so far as possible. ifany. Teaspoonful every three hours. S. the third. xv gr. Tincturae guaiaci. f. Ft. Copaiba. Acacia. and the English into Latin. ad f. Tablespoonful three times daily. Misce.: Teaspoonful two hours . g j Mucil.

q. Teaspoonful three times3a . f. Mucilaginis acaciae. Department INCOMPATIBILITIES IN Tincturae ferri chloridi. a day. S. Syrupi. Spiritus aetheris nitrosi. f. f. i M.

S.. aa. . 3 ss two hours until relieved. B j Elixir. % vj Make a mixture. aa. q. gr. Sig. IV Aquae. Apply as directed. aa. Salicylic acid. 5 viij water-bath. v Sodii boratis. 3 iss Cocaine hydrochloride. cor. Distilled water.. xx Hydrargyri chlor. Acetylsalicylic acid. gr... Saepe utenda. V IV Quininae sulph. before breakfast. Label: Teaspoon- 19. Teaspoonful after meals. Ammonium benzoate. to make. iodide. 3 iss Potass. Aspirin. Plumbi acetatis. f. 3 ij 27. aa. g j Acidi citrici. xxx y Mix. Make caps. xx Sodium benzoate. 3 U Mix and make solution by aid of Aquae bullientis. enough to make f. gr. ii Magnesii carbon. xx gr. ful three times a day. sulphuric acid. gr. gr. Syrup. citrate. aa. s. n\. Ixxx Spirit of chloroform. S. Label: One half teaspoonful three times a day. 20 Cc. Make 12 cachets. Benzoic acid..I2O INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 17. Aquae. Sodii boratis. 18. IV 28. Sodii boratis. gr. 20. Mix. Quinine sulphate. f. ad f. Label: Dessertspoonful every Zinc sulphate. s. 5 j IV Peppermint water. Mix. q. acetatis. 21. x Quinine sulphate. Water.. i Gm. Potass.: One three IV times a day. S. q. 3 ij apart. Take in two doses one hour Iron and quinine cit. xv Potassii acetatis. f. IV Fiat lotio. to make f. Potass. g j M. ad f. xxiv 26. 3 ij f. Tablespoonful in the morning Label: Apply locally. iv Aromat. 3ss M. M. gr. s. f. 25. 5 viij Borax. grs. 24. 5 j Citrated caffeine. Aquae destil. 3 iij M. S. gtt. Aspirin. 3 ss IV Spiritus aetheris nit. No. 23. gr. x Aquae cinnamomi. 22. Mix. 80 Cc. x Acidi sulphurici dil. ad f. Dissolve one teaspoonful in cup of water. Glycerini..

x Water. 37. 5 vj decem divide. x Syrupi rhei aromatici. B iv Salicylic acid. Cochleare medium post cibum. IV Fl. ext. Drop one drop in right eye at Syrupi sarsaparillae co. 5 ij M. mit.. aa. S. v. S. s. Misce et fiat lotio. 5 iv Mix.. Mix. f. Teaspoonful in wineglass of S. 31. 38. 34. Borax. gr. J 36. Label: Eye water.5 j Spiritus aetheris nit. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 121 29. 5 ss Syrupi. Mark :Put 2 drops in each eye Vaseline. IV |r Hydrargyri chloridi cor. vij xx Cocaine hydrochloride. Capiat cochleare parvum post Honey. 5 vj IV M. gr. f. to make f 5 vj . Sodii boratis. 5 j Aquae dest. gr. IV Cocainae hydrochlor. q.. Potassii citratis. f. 5 j Aquae. f. Signa: One powder after each meal. xl Alcoholis. q. 5 ss Misce et fiat pulvis et in chartulas Aquae. Ammonii iodidi. 5 j M. 39. gr. ad f. gr. 35.. iv Potassii iodidi. hydrastis colorless. B9racic acid. Aquae. water after each meal. f. Teaspoon. Label: Shake well. S. 5J Oxide of zinc ointment. gr. aa. iv Water. j Elixiris cinchonae. Gallic acid. ij Potassii chloratis. 5 J Borax. 5 ij Acidi citrici.. 5 iv night. gr. 3 ij Hydrargyri chlor. gr. IV ful before meals. 9 ij Potassii citratis. ij Cocaine hydrochlor. Label: Apply locally. to make 5 j two or three times a day. s. vj Chlorali hydrati.. . gr. f. v Tinct. f. 5 ij Bismuth subnitrate. Peppermint water. IV Hydrargyri chloridi cor. | Sodii iodidi. gr. f. gr. 5 ss prandium. f. 5 ij Boric acid.. 33. times a day. 5 ij Sodii boratis. 5 j 30. Mix. 5 j Potassii iodidi. of opium. ad f. 5 J Misce et signa: Teaspoonful three Mix. gr. f. gr. Hydrastine sulphate.5i Sodium bicarbonate. Quininae sulph. M. f. gtt. aa.

aa. Teaspoonful three times a water three times a day. ad f.. ad f. sulphurici dil. xx Aquae. Rhei pulv. aa. S. 3J Aquae. chloratis. ammonii acet. Potassii iodidi.. 3 iv Label: Take ten drops three times a Quminse sulph. 3 iss f. Teaspoonful after meals. Tinct. 5 ij ft M. ad f. co. q. g j Liq. ij Misce. f. 9 j 48. f. Glycerini.. 5 Magendie's solution of j morphine. 5 j day. q.. 5 j bis vel ter in die sumatur. f. 5ss Quininae sulph. cardam. S. M.. 3 vj Ac. 5 S3 s. Teaspoonful three times a S. arsenit. ad 5 ft q. Acidi sulph. 5 iv 47. Potassii iodidi. vij Ac. Sig. 3 ij Liq. Misce. s. 5 ij Liq. ft ft Tinct. Take one tablespoonful night Quininae sulph. TT\. ferri chloridi. 3'ss M. ft Quininae sulphatis. v 43. ij Potassium iodide. day. ft Syr. f. q. Sodii citratis. solut. xij ft Potassii iodidi... 45.. .. Aquae. S. f. gr. gentianse co.. 5 iss f. f. ft Potassii iodidi. f. nitrohydrochlorici. iodide. 44. Sat. dil. sodii arsenatis. Tinct. Quininae sulphatis. ad f. ss Potassii iodidi. zingiber. S. ferri chlor. viij 46. Acidi tartarici. aa. aa. s. ferri iodidi. day ft before meals. ij Quininae sulphatis. ss Aquae.. Teaspoonful after each meal. s. s. Syr. f. Signa: Cochleare parvum Spiritus aetheris nit. 3J and morning. q. Teaspoonful twice a day. s. Aquae. aa. dil. Tinct. iij 49. 41. Ac. 5 VJ Mix. Potass.. iodi. fit xx 42. Teaspoonful after meals. q. Spiritus aetheris nit. Tinct. B ss Aquae. pot. gr. 3 ij Aquae fontanae. 3 j Strychninae sulph. M. xl M.. Aquae.. Potassii iodidi. phosphor. potass. ad f. gr. s. q. ad f. S.. q. ad O. gr. 3 j Fowler's solution. s.122 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 40. Take five drops in a little M.

. l xx Silver nitrate. s. after each meal. Hydrarg. q. 56. S. s. ad f. gr. 5ss ing. ad f. hydrocyanic acid. phosphoric acid. Teaspoonful in water after Syrupi tolutani. dil. ss Morphinae acet. xxiv Tragacanthae. iv M.6 Gm. ij Potassii bromidi. .. M. Syrupi. ad 5 ij Acidi sulphurici aromat. IV Codeine. Mix. 200 Cc. s. Tincture of iodine. q. S. 58. Morph. Potassii bromidi. gr.. Mix. 5 iij Acid' acetici. 5 iv Syrupi. 52. mitte tales No. M. q. If Potassii cyanidi. > Potassii cyanidi. S. 60. sulphatis. Calcii hypophosphitis. gr. gr. quantum requiritur ut gr. q. ad f. Water. q. manda.5 Gm. IV 55. nt x Sodium chloride. gr. s. Sodii bicarbonatis. 10 Cc. xv Aquae. IV IV Strychninae sulph. Make 12 capsules. gr. S. gr. ad 300 Cc.. times a day. Acidi hydrocyanic! dil. chlor. tit xxx Potassii iodidi. Sig. s. Teaspoonful three times a day. mitis. 59. Teaspoonful night and morn- Sodium bromide. 5iv Aquae. ij Aquae. Dil. Citrated caffeine. Teaspoonful three times a day. Tinct. 5 Gm. v fiatmassa in pilulas triginta for- Hydrargyri chlor. 5 iv Water. f. Mix. enough to make f. Syrupi. 57. 5 ij Acidi hyd. IV Dil. aa. Acetphenetidin. 4 Cc. aa. S. 0. gr. IV Liq. ferri chlor. 20 Cc. 2 Gm. gr. . arseni et hydrarg. 5 viij Misce et signa: Teaspoonful three M. 53. xij M. ss Tinct. mitis. M. iss 51. 3J IV Aquae. 9 iv Quininae sulphatis. Misce et fiat pulvis. XII. . INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS I2 3 50. Label: Tablespoonful at night.. 1. s. Cochleare parvum ter in die. Label: Use as an eyewash. s. 5 ij q.. 5ss Aquae. 61. q. iodidi. U 54. 5 j Strychninae sulph. 5 ij meals. Signa: Capiat pilulas duas omni nocte.. 100 Cc. . gtt. gelsemium. 5 ss Potassii cyanidi.

68. 5 j Potassii chloratis. fiat pulvis et divide in partes v M. IV IV Calcii hypophosphitis. f. 5 ss a day. 67. hydrochlor. strychninae. vj Menthol. ac. f. f. ac. 66. 5 ij M. xxx Phenolphthalein. Teaspoonful two or three 69. f. ti\. Strych. syr. 5 j Mix. 5 ij Calcii hypophosphitis. Caustic.3 Gm. Ft. Label: Teaspoonful three times aequales No. chlorat. 3 ij Alcoholis. 9 j 70..124 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 62. S.. hypophosphites. 3 j Dil. 3 ij Sodii hypophosphitis. 2. sarsaparil. nitrohydrochlor.0 Gm. f. pil. Make emulsion. Acidi nitrici. Dil. M. Syr. xv Acidi nitrici. Calc. Sodium oleate. Sig. acid. s. s. v Liq. tt\. Spiritus terebinthinae. 72. subnitrate. Magnesii sulphatis. 3 vij Ferri lactatis. f. f. followed Misce et signa: Teaspoonful three by a glass of hot water. gr. Aquae. Creosoti. times a day. hypophosphites. f. . gr. 65. S. hypophosphit. f. times a day. aa. xxx. For cauterizing. 3 ij M. 5 iij Misce. ss Mix. 3 j Ferri sulphatis. 71. cor. Extracti nucis vomicae. j Acidi sulphurici . 5 ij to make f. . 4. Hydrarg. V Chloroformi. Acidi nitrici... IV Bismuthi subnitratis. ferri chlor. aa. Label Teaspoonful three times : Olei terebinthinae. gr-i Bis. 9 j Pepsin. f. xx IV Syr. xx\ . gr.. v q. daily in a wineglass of water before meals. gr. Pot. 3v Comp. Teaspoonful three times a day. Make 30 capsules. 3j Water. chlor. xx Mix. 64. ad f. gr. co. 63. xv Salicylic acid.. Acidi nitrohydrochlorici. f. S. gr. aa. IV Acidi phosphorici. d. 5 iv M. No.5 Gm. 5v Tinct. sulph. gr. i. iij Label: One capsule t. q.

Mix. 3 ij f. enough to make f. 3 ij 83. of each f. tt\. gr. f. xl Sodium salicylate. 3 aa. Tincturae guaiaci. f. f. f. f. xx Spirit of nitrous ether. 3 I IV Sp. 79. nitrohydrochlor. Elixir. a day. 3 iv f. 3 viss Sp. Spirit of nitrous ether. aa. 3 Syrupi limonis. of mtrous ether. 5 iiiss Liquoris pot. f.. g ss Sp.. ss Fluidextracti buchu.. 74. Potassii iodidi. M. iij Tinct. gen. 77. nucis vom. x: El. 3 S.. 3 j Bichloride of mercury. 3 Elixiris cinchonae co. Label: Apply externally. of chloroform. Mix. 78. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 125 73. Teaspoonful in an ounce of water after meals. 5 iij Tincturae colchici. to make 5 j Potassii acetatis. 5 ij Mix. gr. f. . r Strychnine sulph. TT\. ad f. 35 Cc. iv meals. gr. 3 iv Misce. Water. f. Potassii bicarbonatis.. S. s. IV 76. enough to make g j. Fluidextract mix vomica. ss Dil. 75. aa. q. 3 ij Spiritus aetheris nitrosi. hydrox.. s. f. 5 J Syrupi acidi citrici. Potassii citratis. 5 j Mix. of nitrous ether.. IV Resorcin. Fluidextracti buchu. f. F. and iron. aa. ad f. f. IV Syrupi scillae. 10 Cc. Glycerin. Antipyrine. q. g iij coughing. 5 ij Dilute alcohol. IV IV Tinct. Mix. 10 Gm. Sp. to make 5 vj Mix. N. 81. x: Fluidextract digitalis. Signa: Teaspoonful when Syrupi. 9 j IV Spiritus aetheris nit.. 15 Gm. 82. Potassium nitrite. x Tincture of aconite. Spiritus aetheris nitrosi.. 5 j Water. gtt. 3 Acidi nitromur. strophanthus. acid. Syrupi ipecac. aetheris nitrosi. Misce et signa: Teaspoonful half hour after meals. Label: Teaspoonful three times Water. q. f. gr. 3 j Syrupi eriodictyi arom. M. Label: Thirty drops after Syrupi. 3 iss Ammonium carbonate. ad f. s. 5 M. Glycerini. 80. Tablespoonful three times day. 3 ij f.

ad Mix and Paint over the affected label: Aquae. iodi comp. 3 iv f. aurantii corticis.. j Ferri et ammon. IV IV Sodii phosphatis. 5 iv M. Label: Take a teaspoonful after meals. cardamomi co. phosphor. HI xxx Syr. 3 ij Ac. 88. f... phosphate. Sod. S. Teaspoonful in a little before meals. to make f. 87. to make. s. iv s. Teaspoonful in some water Mix. f. 5 ij IV Pot. f. 5 iv Glycerini. gr. IV Ferri et quin. Sod. 5 iv Aromatic elixir. aa. q.. 3 ij f. Mix and make 15 powders. 90. gr. ferri chloridi. 3 v Aquee. IV IV Tinct. 3 j Tinct. 5 ij Aquae. f. iron. . 3 j Lithii salicylatis. Phosphoric acid dil. M. IV Tinct. cit. Tinct. 89. 94. gr. gr. to make f % viij . g ij M. phos. 85. clx Acidi phosphorici diluti. cit. 5 iss Syrupi.. 3 j Syr. f. a day. ad f.. Teaspoonful three times a day. xxx Strychninae sulph. xxx Sodii salicylatis. q. limonis. 126 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 84. 5 ij Water. xxx night. Mix and label: Two teaspoonfuls at Sodium salicylate. Label: Teaspoonful every two M. chlor. 3 ij IV Acidi 3 j Sodii phosphatis. gr. 3 iij f. gr. ad f. Strychnine sulphate. ij M. f. enough to make f. Sodium salicylate. 5 j Salicylic acid. 5 ss Aquae.. 3 j Tinct. 91. f. sol. 92.. chloride of iron. Signa: Cochleare medium ter quotidie. S. 86. f. bicarb. clx Aquae. dil. 5 ij Mix. gr. hours. clx Tinct.. IV Quinine sulphate. Teaspoonful twice a day.. f. Syrupi rhei. 3 v salicylici. Mix. Syr. s. Potassium bicarb. IV 95. Misce. tt\. 3 iss f. vj Aquae. Water. 3 ij Antipyrine. ss Spiritus aetheris nitrosi.. 3 j Pyrophosphate of iron. Label Teaspoonful three times : twice a day. f. aa. S. water part several times a day. 3 ij f. q. 93. digitalis. S. limonis.

INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS

96. 102.
IV IV
Sodii salicylatis, gr. xx Raw linseed oil, f. 5 viij

Quininae sulphatis, gr. xx Potassium nitrate,
Syrupi zingiberis, f. 5 ij Lead acetate,
M. S. Teaspoonful doses. Sulphuric acid, aa. 5 ss
Carbolic acid, 3 ij

Mix and label: Caustic.
97.
V 103.
Sodii salicylatis, 3 ii ss
RAcidi
Syrupi limonis, f. 5 ij sulphurici cone.,
M. S. Teaspoonful three times a day. Picis liquidae, 5 iv
Potassii bichromatis, 5HJ
Misce caute.
98.
Signa: Caustic for horse.

Acidi salicylici, 104.
Sodii bicarbonatis, aa. 5 j IV
Aquae, q. s. ad f. 5 vj Quininae sulph., gr. xvj
M. Ft. sol. Aquae, f. 5 ij

Sig. 3 j t. i. d. Acidi sulphurici dil., q. s.
Fluidextracti glycyrrhizae,
q. s. ad f. 5 ij
99. M. et ft. mist.

IV
Acidi salicylici, 5J
Glycerini, 3 ij

Aquae dest,
Misce et fiat sol.

Signa: Teaspoonful every hour.

100.
R
Strychnine sulph., gr.
Arsenous acid, gr.f
Mass carb. of iron, gr.l
Sulphuric acid aromat., gtt. iij

Quinine sulphate, gr. xx
Mix and divide into 20 pills.

101.
IV
Rochelle salt, 3 iv
Elixir of vitriol, f. 3 ij
Camphor water, to make f. 5 iij
Mix and label: One ounce, to be re-
peated if necessary.

128 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS

108. 114.
IV IV
Sodii sulphitis, 5 U Sodium salicylate,
Sp. setheris nit. 5 ss f. Sodium benzoate, aa. 5J
Liq. ammon. acet., f. 5 ss Tannic acid, gr. x
Aquae dist., f. g
ij Carbolic acid, liq. gtt. xij
M. S. Tablespoonful every two or Lime water, f. 5 iv
three hours. Mix. Label: Teaspoonful half hour
109. after meals.

IV
Potassium chlorate, 115.
Boric acid, aa. 5 3 IV
Tannic acid, 3 ss Quinine bisulph., gr. xx
Water, to make f. 5 vj Tincture of gambir co., f. 5 "j
Mix. Label: Gargle. Water, enough to make f. 5 j
Mix. Mark: Teaspoonful every hour.
no.
Plumbi subacetatis, 5 ss

Zinci sulphatis, gr. xl 116.
Tinct. catechu co.,
IV
Tincturse opii, aa. f. 5 ss Menthol, gr. v
Aquae, q. s. ad f. 5 viij Cocaine, gr- "j
M. S. Injection. Shake well before Tannic acid, gr. x
using. Liquid petrolatum, -
5 J

111. Mix. Label: Spray for nose.

IV
Ferri sulphatis, gr. xxx
Acidi tannici, gr. x 117.
,
Syrupi, f. 5 j IV
Aquae, f. 5 ij Tinct. myrrhae, f. 5 ij
M. S. Teaspoonful every two hours. Morph. acetatis, gr. ij

112. Acidi tannici, 5 ss

Syr. zingiberis, f. iss

Tannic acid, gr. x Misce et fiat sol.

Zinc sulphate, gr. xxx Sig. Teaspoonful at 6, 8, and 10
Bismuth subnit., 5 j o'clock P.M.

Morphine muriate, gr. vj
Sol. lead subacet, f. 5 iv 118.
Water, to make f. 5 "j
IV
M. S. Use locally 4 or 5 times daily. Quininae sulph., 5 j

113. Morphinae sulph., gr. iij

IV Strychninae sulph., gr. f
Acidi tannici, gr. xv Acidi arsenosi, gr. i
Tincturae iodi, f. 3 j Ext. belladonnas, gr. v
Glycerini, f. 3 ij Aconitinae, gr. ij

Aquae, f. 3 v Ferri bromidi, 9 j

M. S. Apply twice a day. M. Ft. pil. No. xxiv.

INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 129

119. 125.

Plumbi acetatis,
Solution adrenalin chloride, f. 5 j
5 ss Ammonii carbonatis, aa. 3 j
Chloretone,
Milk of magnesia, make f.
to ij
Aquae rosae, f. 5 viij

Mix. Label: One dram every two Fiat lotio. Signa: Apply on lint to

hours until relieved. allay irritation.

120.
126.

Hydrargyri chloridi cor., gr. iij
'Heroine hydrochlor., gr. vj
Albuminis, 5 iss
Corrosive sublimate, gr. ij
Aquae, q. s. ad f. 5 x
Sol. potas. arsenite, f. 3 ij
Misce et cola.
Ammon. carb., 3 j
Signa :
Teaspoonful three times a day.
Muc. acacia, q. s. f. 5 iv
M. Teaspoonful in a little water
121.
.
every four hours.

Potassii nitratis,
Sodii chloridi,
127.
Camphorae, aa. 3 Gm.
Tincturae opii,
Ammonii carbonatis, 3 iiss
Aquae, aa. 15 Cc.
Syrupi tolutani,
Alcoholis, q. s. ad 1 20 Cc.
Syrupi scillae, aa. f. 5 ij
M. S. Apply with friction.
Misce et fiat solutio.

Sig. Teaspoonful when coughing.
122.
iv
Aloin, 5 iij
128.
Tr. nux vomica, f. 3j
Tr. ginger, f. 5 ij
Guaiacol, 3 ij
Sp. nitrous ether, f. 5 ij
' Acacia, 3 ij
Water, to make O. j
Ammon. carbonate, 3 iij
Mix. Label: Give at one drench.
Infusion digitalis, f. 5 iss
Water, to make f. 5 iij
123.
i
Mix. Label: Teaspoonful four times
fr
a day.
Sugar of lead, 5 ss

Alum, gr. xv
Rose water, f. iv 129.
Mix and label: Lotion. iv
Amylis nitritis, f. 5 j
124. Alcoholis, f. 5 j
Potassii iodidi, 5 J
Alumnol, Syrupi limonis, q. s. ad f. 5 ij
Resorcin, aa. 5 ij Misce. Cito dispensetur!
Water, to make f. g viij Signetur: A teaspoonful to be taken
Make solution. Apply locally. every hour.

130 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS

130.
IV
Ichthyol,

INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS

141. 147.

|r

Tinct. ferri chlor., f. 5 ss Bismuth subsalicylate, 5 U
Glycerini, f. 5 iss Tannic acid, 3 iij
Aquae ammoniae, f- 3 iij Sol. hydrogen peroxide, f. 3 vii
Aquae, q. s. ad f. 5 iv Mix. Label: Inject three times daily.
Mix and make a solution.

148.
142.
IV Liq. hydrogenii dioxidi, f. 5 J

Tincturae aconiti, f. 3J Zinci sulphatis, 3 vj
Tincturae iodi, f. 3 ij Acidi carbolici, 3 j

Linimenti saponis, Glycerini, f. 5 J

Aquae ammoniae, aa. f. 5 ij Aquae, q. s. ad f. viij

M. S. Embrocation. Misce et fiat lotio.

Signa: Apply locally.
143.
IV 149.
Tinct. digitalis, f. 3 ij

Sp. ammon. arom., f. 3 j Argenti nitratis, 3 j
Strychninae sulph., gr. ss Glycerini, f. 3 ij
Elix. calisayae, ad.f. 5 vj
Aquae dist., f. 3 j

Misce et signa: Cochleare parvum Mix and mark No. i.
ter in die. Label: Mix three drops with six drops
144. of No. 2 and put into eyes at bedtime.

iv
Potassii bromidi, 3 vj Potassii iodidi, 3 ij

Aquae camphorae, f. 5 vj Glycerini, f. 3 iv

M. S. Dessertspoonful before retir- Aquae dist., f. 3 ij

ing at night. Mix and mark No. 2.
Label: Mix six drops with three drops
145.
of No. i and put into eyes at bedtime.
IV
Potassii bichromatis, gr. x
Ferri sulphatis, 3 iss 150.
Liq. hydrogenii dioxidi, IV
Glycerini, aa. f. 5 J Argenti nitratis, gr. vj

Aquae dest., q. s. ad f. iv Liquor is Fowler i, f. 3 J

M. S. Lotion. Aquae, ad f. 5
q. s. iv
M. S. Teaspoonful twice a day.
146.
IV 151.
Liquoris hydrogenii diox., f. j IV
Potassii permangan., gr. xx Sodium phosphate, 3 ij

Aquae, f. 5 j Silver nitrate, gr. iv
Misceatur conquassando. Water, to make f. 5 ij

Signetur: Pars affecta fricetur nocte M. S. Teaspoonful every hour be-
maneque. tween meals.

132 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS

152. 159.
IV
Silver nitrate, gr. x Fowler's solution, f. 3 ij
Potassium permanganate, gr. xv Sol. of dialyzed iron, f. 5 iv
Distilled water, f. 5 ij Mix. Label Teaspoonful after meals.
:

Mix. Use as wash.

153. 160.
IV
Argentic nitrate, gr. x Strychninae hydrochlor., gr. j

Cocaine, gr. xij Tinct. cinchonae, f. j

Water, enough to make f. 5 j Liq. ferri dialysati, f. ss

Mix and label: Lotion. Liq. potassii arsenitis, f. 3 ij

Syrupi, f. iij
154.
Aquae, q. s. ad f. vj
IV M. Capiat cochleare parvum post
S.
Argenti nitratis, gr. v
prandium.
Ext. gentianae, q. s.

M. Ft. pil No. 24.

Sig. One pill every 4 hours.
161.

155. Hall's sol. of strych., 5 ij

IV Fowler's sol. of arsenic, 3 ij
Po. opium, gr. xxv iiss
Alcohol,
Silver nitrate, gr. xiiss Mix. Label: Teaspoonful half
Mix and make fifty capsules.
glass of water after meals.
Label: Take as before.

156.
162.
^
IV
Argenti oxidi,
Strychninae nitratis,
Creosoti, gtt. vj
Liq. potassii arsenitis, f. 3 ij
Glycyrrhizae, q. s.
Aquae, q. s. ad f. 5 iij
M. Make six pills.
Dram
M. S. doses.

157.
IV 163.
Liquoris potass, arsenitis, f. 3 j
IV
Hydrargyri chloridi cor., gr. j
Fowler's solution, f. 3 ij
Aquae, f. 5 iv
Infusion of cinchona, f. 5 vss
Misce et fiat sol. Sig. Dessert-
Tinct. of mix vomica, f. 3 ij
spoonful three times a day.
Mix.
158.
IV 164.
Sodii salicylatis, 3 ij IV
Quininae sulph., gr. xxiv Strych. sulph., gr. j

Hydrargyri chlor. cor., gr. f Arsenous acid, gr. j

Liq. potassii arsenitis, Tt xlviij Bichloride of mercury, gr. j
Elixiris aromatici, q. s. ad f. 5 Tinct. chlor. of iron, f. 5 j

M. Mix. Label: Ten drops after meals.

f. ij oil. 5 ij Morphinae sulph.. 3 "j Olive Sol. t M. j Acidi arsenosi. gr. to make f. 3 j Gold and sodium chloride. s.35 Gm.. s. q. f. f. xl ft Aquae. iij v Lard. 3 ij 170. 3 v Strychninae sulph.) tablets Sig. Gold chloride. Water. S. ft IV. Acidi hydrochloric! dil... x Acidi arsenosi. aa. Comp. gr. ad f. M. gr.00 Gm. 3 iij Tinct. xij Potassii carbonatis. Label: Twenty drops three Label: Apply with friction. XL. sol. pil. 167. Aquae... Ft. : until relieved. ad f. 0. Ft. v Water. quarters of an hour. cryst. gr. 3 j 169. gtt. 3. 3 ij Mix. 174. TT^ cxl ( Zinci acetatis. iss Betanaphthol. Aquae. Mix. 8. ft ft Atropine sulphate. ss Atropinae sulphatis. enough to make 5 j M. ft IV Ferri reducti.00 Gm. gr. gr..35 Gm. iv Misce et fiat solutio. gr. Menthol. of saccharin. gr. Exalgin. tinct. Teaspoonful every three hours Mix. ft IV Massae ferri carbon. 5 ij 175. 3 ss Strychninse sulph. ad f. 8. opii. f. No. times a day. Fluidextracti cinchonas. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 133 165. 5 vj Sig. Auri et sodii chloridi.00 Gm. P. Borax. 5 iij pil. One after each meal. iv Atropine sulphate. 0. Mix. 32 (1-500 gr. Label Teaspoonful after meals. xx Solution of arsenic. 5 iv Salicylic acid. Spiritus ammoniae arom. 168. Ft. gr. ft Bismuthi subnitratis. q. S. 5 ij M. 3 j Quininae sulph... strych. f. Mix and label: To be used with an atomizer. gr. 171. No. cit. 173. Dose. Br. Pepsini saccharati. 3 vj Extracti gentianae. of iodine. xij Strychnine sulphate. Teaspoonful every three 176.. 3 ij Bismuthi et ammon. gr. to make f. f. hydrochlor. . 166. ij Sol. q. Atropinae sulph. one teaspoonful. 5 iij Water. iss Syrupi. Label: Teaspoonful twice a ft day. Mix. 172. gr. Glycerin.. 5 v j M. xx. s. gr. gtt. f. gr.

IV Salicylic acid. bicarb. sulphur ici dil. gr. IV 180. Sodium bicarbonate.3 iss M. f. gr. Label: Gargle. 184. Cocainae hydrochloridi. gr. gr. iodide. 5 iij Glycerin. f< Tinct. Chloralis.. of iodine. gr. Label Teaspoonful after meals.134 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 177. 188. S. f. q. 3 j M. xxx Salol. gr. jr. Rhubarb.. Ixxx Camphor. s. 3 j 181. Mix and make 12 pills. viij Bismuth subnit.. f 5 ij 185.. gr. S. f. Fiant pil. No. Teaspoonful three times a day. Mix. xx Glycerini. Tinct. aa. Apply as directed. aa. Menthol. Eucalyptol. times a day. 3J Ac. Label: Dessertspoonful three 183. xl Iron and ammonium citrate. ss Water. gr. 3 iss Syrup of ginger.. 182. Ixx Oil of wintergreen. xv Potassii bicarb. 5 XV J Carbolic acid. 3 ss Mix and make 40 pills. xx M. 3 iss Tragacanth. xx.. mi Water. Water. xxx directed. Mucilaginis acaciae. 3 iss M. 3 iv Potass. IV IV Chloral hydrate. q. f. guaiaci ammon. 3 ij IV Quininae sulph. 5 Gm. f. ad f. gr-1 Glycerin. Mix and make 24 pills. to make f 5 iv . . x Pot. IV Camphorae. 10 Gm. gr. Mix. gr. Borax. To be applied externally as Sodium bicarbonate. Thymol. aa. xxx Calcis chloratae. 3 ij 179. to make f 5 viii . Monobromated camphor. Sodii bicarbonatis. grs. 5 ij Magnesium sulph.. S. times a day. 3ss Lead acetate. 5 v i Quinine sulph. aa. aa. 178.. Benzoic acid. gr. IV Bismuthi subnit. aa. s.. : 186. aa. M. ad f. Syrupi acidi hydriodici. f. Aquae. 187. 3 j Acetanilid. . 3 ij IV Powdered camphor. 5 Dg. 5 ss Mix and mark: Teaspoonful three Water. Bismuthi subnit. xx Mix. aa.

xxx Ext. to make f 5 xvi . Teaspoonful in milk every three hours. 5 j quired. S. f 3 j Vini pepsini. gr. 5 ivss Aquae. cannabis ind. Water. f. 195. Label: Teaspoonful at night. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 135 189. S. gr. 5 j Chloral hydrate. . 3J Syrupi ipecacuanhae. V Ammonii carbonatis. ad f. 5 ij Potassium bromide. s. One half teaspoonful as re. M. Misturae amygdalae. Alcohol. Mix. xvj Syrupi allii.. q. 190. f. xx Ext. henbane. xvj Ammonii chloridi. gr. gr. Ammonii carbonatis. ivss M.

3 ij Acidi carbolic! .136 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 201. 203. gr. chlorates. Fiant chartulae 2. 208. xxx Water. q. 3 iiss Aquae ammonias. s. Lotion. 202. vj Aquae. three hours. Sacchari. 207. f. xx Cocaine hydrochloride. Mix. ad f. ... vi. gr. j Liq. viij M. Dessertspoonful every two or M. No. Spiritus aetheris nitrosi. f. 3 "j Potassii chloratis. S. ft ft Potassii chloratis. gr. gr. ft Chromic acid. Antimonii sulphur. aa. S. iv Potassii citratis. sod. gr. Tere. 209.vj Catechu. iv Sulphur is prascip. 3 U Aquae camphorae. et riant pulv. M. Use as caustic. Signa: Insufflation. iv Potassii chloratis.

S. Label: Spray nose and needed. gr. 5 j Mix. xv Collodii.. aa. f. IV Morphine hydrochlor. Tinct. 217. iij Ammonium chloride. . Camphor. Camphorse. 5 ij water every two hours until relieved. Teaspoonful every four hours. 5 ij Sig. Apply with camel-hair brush. Mix and make solution. aa. Liquid petrolatum. 14 KI. gr. Collodion. 216. 5 ij Mix and label: Teaspoonful every two hours for cough. 218. aa. of iodine. cannabis ind. hydrochlor. Acidi carbolici. 3 vij Chlorali hydrati. sol. gr. gr. f. gr. 2 oz. 219. f. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 137 214. Ten drops in a teaspoonful of Tinct. iss Codeine. Chloroformi. 2 M.. 215. /Etheris.. IV Cocaine. gr. Label: directed. IV 221.. xx Water. iiss Menthol. 5 ij IV M. Toronto Cocain. 1 1 H O. Apply with camel-hair brush. sulphatis. Cocaine hydrochlor. 3 j Morph. 2| OZ. Liquid petrolatum. M. f. 3 iij Stronger ammonia water. Make solution. enough to make f. Ft. dr. C 18H 21 N0 3. 220. S.

Quininae sulphatis. 3 ss times a day. 3 J Phenacetin. Water. Aquae ammoniae. gr. ad 5 j rosae. M. Morphinae sulphatis. S. IV Cocaine hydrochloride. q. 3 iv f. ferri chloridi. Tinct. f. 3 j 232. f. 5 ij Iron pyrophosphate. to make f. q. 5 xv Strychninae sulph. f. 5 ij 233. 5 iij Elixiris. j twice a day. 5 vj Mix and make 30 powders. gr. ad f. f. IV Mix. aa. ij Misce. f. 3 iv Quininae sulph. Mix and make 18 pills. ad f. s. Teaspoonful three times a day. 3 j 227. 235.. 5 iss Olei sabinae. 3 J Aquae dest. Potassii acetatis. Syrup ginger.. 3 ij 229. 3J Creolin.. to neutralize the acid k f. 3j M.. Signa: Dessertspoonful three Apioli. of cinnamon.. 5 f. Quinine sulphate. 5 iv 226. aa. q. 231. ferri chlor. . ad f. s. f. gr. f. gr.. iron pyrophos. S. Fluidextracti digitalis.138 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 225.. Aquae. to make f vj . 3 ss IV Aquae s. 234. Potassii acetatis. 5 vj !r Misce et signa: Teaspoonful every Fowler's sol. 3vj Elix. ss Syrupi zingiberis. IV Ergotin. gr. IV Zinci sulphatis. IV 230.j Mix and label: Lotion for the eye. Teaspoonful three times a day. q. Teaspoonful after meals. f. 3 viss Sodii bicarbonatis. acetate. V IV Boric acid. 5 viij Mix. S. Salicylic acid. 3 ij four hours. Pot. Ergotinae. IV Tinct.. Acidi phosphor ici dil. Sulphuric acid dil. sol. 228.. M. x Tinct. x Exalgin. xx Syrupi. s. s.. Teaspoonful three times a day. . Cupri sulphatis. 5 ij Aquae. 3 j Ferri phosphatis sol. gr. One or two drops in the eyes Strychnine sulphate. 5 j Mix and label: Take as directed. Morphinae sulph.

f. q. S. ferri chlor. Teaspoonful three times a day. f. ad f. Quininae sulphatis. Label Teaspoonful : after meals. Water. f. 5 ij 238. of iron. s. f. g iij day. f. Basham's mixture. One teaspoonful four times a Syrup. f.. Label Teaspoonful three times : IV a day.. gr. Aquae pimentae. ferri chloridi. salicylate. 5 ss Potassii iodidi. f. Aquae gaultheriae. Tr. f. 5 iv Tincture chlor. ad f. 239. n| xx f. ad f. tr IV Sod. ad f. IV Potassii iodidi. 242. Sol. of arsenous acid. . Cinnamon water. 3 ij Aquae. iron. g ss Quininae sulph. q. M.. gr. iv M. f. tartratis. g iv M. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 139 236. q. f. q. Teaspoonful three times a day. k 245. 5 iss IV Sol. Ac. Ferri et quinin. gr. chlor. j 241. Aquae. 20. 243. f. 5 iss Spirit nitrous ether. ammonium acetate. ferri chlor. ij Spiritus chloroformi. Glycerini. Tinct. f. Ferri et potass. 5 j IV Dilute phosphoric acid. ad f. Teaspoonful one half hour IV after meals. j Sod. 237. f. Teaspoonful twice a day. s. gr. x M. S. Label: Dessertspoonful three times a day. g j 246..5 j a day. aa. f. f. aa. 5 iij S.. Quinine sulphate. xviij Aquae. Syrupi tolutani. S. Mix. f. 5 j Salol. ferri chlor. j iv Fluidextracti glycyrrhizae.. 2.. f. xv Tinct. Label: Teaspoonful four times Liq. 5 ij M. 5 j 247.0 Cms. ij Syrupi. viij Glycerin. 5 ij Mix. 2 Gm. s. Tincture chloride of iron.0 Cc. f. Tinct. 5 ss 244. Tinct. s. xxx gr. Syrup. chlor. potassii arsenitis. j Tinct. 5 Acidi sulphurici dil. 5 iss 240. Tinct. 5 iv Potassii chloratis. enough to make f. 5 j IV Strychninae sulph. 30 Cc. g iv Sodii hypophosphitis. S. f. phosphate. Mix. phosphorici dil. Syrup of hypophosphites. 5 j M. of iron. 5 ss Aquae. cit. Teaspoonful three times a day. f.0 Cc. q. Mix. 5Gm. f. chloride of iron. 5 ss Citrated caffeine. 5 ss Mix. 5 j Syrupi. to make f iv . 100. s. M.. Calcii hypophosphitis. f.

Unguenti. M. Aquae. 257. cor. % iv Aquae. 15 Gm. q. Apply to ulcer. ad 120 Cc. ad f. 2. Mix. f.. 5 j Vaselin. calcis saccharati. Dilute with three times its volume of water and use as directed. S. iv Hydrargyri chlor. f. Sp. cor. S. ferri chloridi. IV IV chlor.. 5 iss M. 5 iij Ammonii carbonatis. f.. Balsam of Peru. f 5 iij .5 Glycerini. 259. Use as gargle. q. Sodii bicarb.5 Gm. Hydrargyri chlor. 254. Infusi cinchonae. Label: Apply freely.. S. 252. Apply at night. ij Tinct. 3 J Syrupi ferri iodidi. f. . q. 253. |r IV Quinine sulph. S. 5ss Potassii iodidi. 258. M S. 5 ij Tinct. ammoniae aromatici. 50%. Sodii boratis. M. 5 iij Aquae. Mix. 15 Gm. s. cor. 5 ij Aquae. ad O. s. Sig. q. 15 Cc. Sodii boratis. of iron. Teaspoonful three times a day. j Podophyllin. cor. ferri chloridi. 3 Gm. gr. 5 viij Misce et signa: Gargle. 5 iiss Aquae. Cochleare minimum bis in die. Hydrargyri 0. S. aloes.140 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 248. 5 ij Misce. 2. gr-1 Glyc. aa. 3 Cc. 249. f. Lotion. chlor. iss M. f. gr. guaiaci ammon. f. Liq. ij Glycerini. IV 251. s. IV Acidi carbolici. 5 xiv Syrupi. f. q. 30 Cc. j Syrupi tolutani. gr. boroglycerini. Mix and mark: Apply as directed. ad 150 Cc.. V IV Tinct. IV IV Tinct. Hydrargyri chlor.5 Gm. 5 iv f. lodoform. of rhubarb. M. 3 ss Liq. potassii arsenitis. 35 Cc. s. v IV Glycerini. gr. ad 1000 Cc. 256. s. 5 iij Tinct. Boroglycerin. Acidi sulphurosi.. ad 5 iv Tinct.. a s. Glycerin. 250. 255. Acidi carbolici. M. Gm. f.

f. g j Mix. gr. gr. f. x Creosoti. Sodium bromide. iv Liq. IV Liquoris acidi arsenosi.. ss xx Quininae sulph. Signa: Teaspoonful night viginti.j Hydrargyri chlor. a day. iiss Syrupi ferri iodidi. 3 j 268. gr. Half teaspoonful three times Misce et divide in partes aequales a day. 266.j IV Strychninae sulphatis. xl Quinine sulphate. and morning. g vj Mix. S. gr. f. f. Acidi hydrobromici. g j Take one every hour. Hydrarg. f. aa.. f Fowler's solution. arsenitis. ij M. gr. Essence of pepsin. to bed. Label Teaspoonful three times : 267. g ss Strychninae sulph. aa. ss Ferri sulph. . exsic. g j M. Horum capsularum una suma- IV Corrosive sublimate. hydrochlorici. gr. ij Pepsin. Label: Teaspoonful in a little Ac. Sig. gr.. gr. S. IV Calomel. mitis. gr. ad f g j Ext. Sig. 9j Spiritus vini rectificati. gr. piper. x.. ij Mercuric chloride. 3 j 269. f. gr.. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 260. 265. gr. decem ingerendas in capsulas gelati- 263. f. f. xx Tinct. potass. nucis vomicae. xx to make f. gr. M. f. Elixiris. x Codeinae sulph. Liq. 3 j water after meals. Dessertspoonful before going 264. xl Hydrargyri chlor. Sodii arsenatis. menth. zingiberis. Strychnine nitrate. f. 3 iss Hydrargyri chlor. q. g ij IV Comp. corrosivi. nosas. ammonii acet. gr. 261. Label: Dilute hydrobromic acid. gr. g j f. nx x IV Phenacetini.. 5 J Misce et divide in partes aequales Misce. mitis. IV \t Hydrargyri chlor. s. f. 3 ss Misce et fiant pilulae No. cor. 3 j Aquae. 3 j Mix and make four powders. gr. cor. 3 j Ammonii chlor idi. cor. gr. Water. gr. gi. cHtoride of iron.. gr. mit.. chlor. syrup hypophosphites. gr. Hydrargyri chlor. IV 262. g ij Potassii carbonatis. Sumat unam bis vel ter in die.. Hydrarg. | Syrupi tolutani. ij Aq. f. f. chlor. to make f. v Quininae sulphatis. j tur omni trihorio.. g iv Syr.

3 ij 279. xl Tr. Label: One half teaspoonful three IV times daily. gr. gr. Label: Teaspoonful four times Mix.. 3 j Mix and make 40 powders. aa. 3 iv Mix. Zinc sulphate. IV IV Mercury protiodide. ij lodoform. x Tinct. No. ij Mix. 282. Label: Apply as directed. Teaspoonful at Ichthyol. . Ichthyol. Water. Mix and apply as directed. Ichthyol. j Hydrarg. a day. gr. Hydrarg. caps. 12. x Sodium xx IV bicarb. Ft. Hydrargyri chlor.M. J 276. 281. Mix. iodine. Label: Teaspoonful as needed. capsulae No. gr. 275. gr. f. Water. 5 ij Cocainae hydrochlor. to make f. xij Antipyrine. to make f .. 3 ij Sig. Shake well. gr. Aquae lauro-cerasi. gr. gr. Apply night and morning. oxidi flavi. gr. iv Syrup of hypophosphites. xx IV Quinine sulph. Caffeine. 3 ij Sodium bicarb. viij f. 277. ij Mix and make 20 powders. xx Calomel. 3 ss M. Apply to the eyelid at night. . ij Syrup of hydriodic acid.. 3 j 272. chlor. gr. f. 271. 278. 5J Water. IV IV Ammonii carbonatis. 3 j Sugar. S. 5iv Mix and make ointment. xv Lime water. One every three hours. 5 iij Ft. gr.. gr.142 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 270. f. vm. Strychnine. powd. 5 U M. 274. mit. gr.. f. Phenol. Calomel. xl 273. gr. mix vomica. f. xvj Ichthyol. f. mitis.. viij Acaciae. gr. Petrolati.. gr. 3J 8 and 10 o'clock P. Ichthyol. xxiv Ammon. 5 "J Mix and make solution. Hydrous wool fat. xx Resorcin. chlor. Potassium iodide. gr. iv 280. f. 5 V J Acidi borici. ij M. gr. Calomel. iij R Arsenous acid. Resorcin. gr. Petrolatum. Glycerin. gr.

f. One half by hypodermic in. f. M. 5 ij Bismuth subnitrate. iv Mix and label: Apply as ointment 284.5 Gm. j M. Label: Dust on abraded sur. gr. f. Water. M. IV Hydrargyri. S. arsenitis. f. enough to make f 5 . gr. Liquoris potass. xl 294. Ammon. 3 ss lodoform. 286. gr. gr. 3 iij 287. f. Glycerin. Ether. 3 iij Liquid petrolatum. IV Ammoniated mercury. viii Iodine. gr. xxx Mix. gr. enough to make f. 0. gr. neck. s. Menthol. resublimed. mitis. IV Oleate of mercury. To be painted on swelling on face as directed. 5 ij lodoform. Iodine. f. 5 j lodol. Soap liniment. Mix and label: Apply as directed. 3 ss Tannic acid. 10. f. Make solution.. Mix. aa. gr. 3 ij IV 5 M. iodi. IV 290. carbon. 3 j Hydrargyri chlor. Mix and make an ointment. Soap liniment. xxx IV Boric acid. Alcohol. S. 5 "J Mix. q. 5 3 Mix and label: Dust over abraded Mix and make an ointment. 291. s. lodol.0 Gm. ij v after meals. 3 j Aquae. ad f.. to the neck. 5 iss IV Syrup tolu. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 283. 3 j Mercurial oint. IV Acidi tannici.f Iodine. xx Tinct. f. xxx Calomel. surface. aa. % ij Mix. lodoform. iv Iodine. Iodi. 292. 5 j Camphor. TT^ xv Spirit of camphor. gr. q. 3 ij Lard. 295. S. xxx Glycerini. IV Tincturae iodi.2 Gm. 293. 285. to make f iv . iij jection. 3 iij two hours. f. gr.. Label: Spray. Label: Tablespoonful every Compound camphor lin. Tincture of iodine. ad f. ij Yellow oxide of mercury. Take five minims in water Terpin hydrate. f. ij 288. 2%. Label: Apply as directed. 0. . Petrolatum. Label: Use locally.

144 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 296. 5 j k Iodi resublim. to make f 5 . f. Linimenti calcis. f. Tinct. 3 ij Cod liver oil. f. Hydrargyri chlor. 3 j Misce. 5 j Olei gaultheriae. f. aa. iodide. M. 3 ij Syrupi. f. 5J Syr. Ung. ad f. nitratis. S. IV 301. 3 j M. 3 iij Phenol. . 5 iiss Tr. IV IV Pot. M. 307. f. 300. f. f. Sol. 5J IV Glycerin. s. Fiat unguentum. S. Dessertspoonful as needed. gr. xx Mix. Apply locally. IV Liquoris zinci chloridi. S. Dessertspoonful twice a day. Label: Apply with friction. more dicto uten- gr. s. 3 xv Glycerini. iv V Liquoris calcis. ferri iodidi. Adipis. 5 j 297. f. f. arnica. cor. 5 ss Mix and make solution. f. 5 j Aquae. Lead water. gr. gr. 5 ij Infusi humuli. f. Rose water. 5 ss 303.. Glycerini. lead subacetate. vj Aquae. 3 ij Soap liniment. hydrarg. xl dum. q. 302. . IV 298.. f. 305. Rub over the affected part. Label: Apply locally. Label: Apply as directed. f. f. 5 y iij Mix and make solution. S. 5 ss Liquoris calcis. ss M. ij IV Cocaine hydrochloride.. 5 ij Olei terebinthinae. iodine. 3J Liquoris calcis. f. y IV Zinc phenolsulphonate. f. iodine. 304. Mix. f. n\ v Tincturae iodi. 5 ij Tr. ad f. aa. f. f. xxiv Tincturae iodi. IV Olei morrhuae. B iv Tincturae iodi. j Mix. 3 ij Sp. S. f. 5 iv Solution lead subacetate. 3 J 308. f. M. Shake and apply locally to spine night and morning. f. Chloroform. Signa: Apply as directed. Label: Liquid phenol. Use as directed. 306. ad 5 ij M. ammoniae arom. f. f. 3 j Spray for throat.

ft ft Tannin. f. j M. f. 5 iss Zinci oxidi. Syr. f. f. piper. f. dil. aa.. 3 iij Morph. For one capsule. 3 "i Sol. ij Liquoris calcis. v Sp. f. 5 j Glycerin. 5 iv M. Spiritus aether is nit. 5 ij Fluidextracti taraxaci. f. S. 317. S. S. ss Glycerini. ad f. f. gentianae co. f. iv Olive oil. aa. Aquae. s. f. Tinct. ammoniae arom. 3 j Magnesiae calc. ss M.. q. arnica. Label: Apply locally. 5 viij Thymol. | Sodii bicarb. q. S. 314. . IV Tincturae opii. f. q. aconiti. s. f. Sol... aa. ad iv Magnesii sulphatis. 3 iv Tr. four hours. plumbi subacet. sulph. ft. s. Boric acid. gr. 3 j s. ss Menthol. sol. 310.. Sodii chlor idi. menth. Liq. tolutani. Tablespoonful twice a day. Lotion. s. ad f. iij gr. a day. ij 318. ad O. 312. % ij Phenol. 3 ij Tinct. Apply as directed. 3 J j M. 3 ij Aquae. lead subacet. q. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 145 309. 5 J Tinct. Send 20 such. 3 Guaiacol carbonate.. 5 ss Aquae. 5 ix M. Mix. Lotion.. Mark: Use as spray. 316.. ii] Aquae. 313.. 315. M. 5 ss Mercuric chlor. zingiberis. q. 5 U Glycerin. Take dessertspoonful three times Eucalyptol. IV * Magnesii sulphatis. 5 Tinct. V If Fluidextracti valerianae. f. gr. f. gr. ij f. Tablespoonful every M. 311. 5 iv Liq. j Goulard's extract. Mix. ss Sig. 3 iv IV Lithii bromidi. enough to make f 5 iv . Ft. f. j Aq. iv Water. IV Sodii phosphatis. f. plumbi subacetatis. Sig. Dessertspoonful after meals. 5 ij Water. gr. f. of hydrastis. f. f. Menthol.

146 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 319. .

aa. f j . 3 j M. aa. gr. gr. 3J Syrup simple. q. M. Plumbi acetatis. Use with camel-hair brush. xxxij Elixir aromatic. 5 iss Zinci oxidi. Peppermint water. benzoin. 5 j Dried alum. lodoformi.. j Water. ad f. 3 j Liquid petrolatum. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 147 331. IV 338. Put into 12 capsules. Sol. Fiant sup- Liquoris calcis. x Oil of petrolatum. f. a sufficient amount Make suppositories No. Carbolic acid. Label: For toothache. Morphinae sulph. q. ad 5 j Balsami Peruvi. x IV Thymolis. M. enough to make f. Bay rum. Tinct. xx Solution cocaine hydroc. Apply as directed. xxx Acidi carbolici. Vaselin. M. gr. Signa: Apply with friction... Label: Take one three times a day. ij Zinci carbonatis. gr. gr. f. Bss Misce accuratissime. Mix. xv Zinci oxidi. 5 j Oil wintergreen. gr.. gr. M. k IV Sodii bicarbonatis. Petrolati mol.. s. chart. f. 5 iij Petrolati. 5 iv numero decem. 5 j Phenol. gr. xl Mix and use externally. Pepsini. aa. Aquas. f. cryst. IV IV Menthol. f. xxiv Phenocoll hydrochlor. Apply locally. aa. iv Oil cubebs. 339. positoria Misce. Mix and Label: Spray the throat 342. s. 5 iss Glycerin. 340.. IV Salol. Cacao butter. Piperazine. IV Euphorin. xx Acidi carbolici. IV 334. ij Misce et fiat sol. xn. Carbolic acid. Tannic acid. Rhei pulv. 341. S. 3 j Sodii bromidi. 4% Chloroform. . f. No. sodium hydroxide. XL. 3J Olei theobromatis. gr. aa. aa. x Oil sandalwood.. Acidi carbolici cryst. Ft. aa. gr. Aristol. S.. f. gr. S. 335. x 333. 337. 332. every four hours. SJ Mix.

gr. aa. gr. Mix and divide into 20 pills. v Salol. x Ext.148 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 343. . |r Exalgin. Thymol. gr. xv Mix and make 10 powders. xv Po. gr. of mix vomica.x Phenacetin. gr. gr. soap. 345. of glycyrrhiza. 344. IV Salol. 348. xv Camphor. 5 j Ext. a sufficient quantity.

gr. v IV Acidi carbolici. j ter in die. 3 j Misce. M. gr. xl Mix. xx. Mix and make pills No. x Ext. xx Quininae sulph. xx Pyrocatechin. S. ad f. Give one three times a day after meals. Phenacetin. Aquae. 364. xx Plumbi acetatis. f. xv Potassium permanganate. 363. IV 355. Aquae. j Ferri reducti. iij Potassii permangan. 3 iv s. gr. Pil. gr. 3 ij Ferri sulphatis. Apply externally. x IV Cocaine hydrochlor. gr.. S. Morphinae sulph. gr. M. k IV Zinc sulphate. Aquae. 5 iv Iron and quinine citrate. gr. Plumbi subacetatis. Quininae sulphatis. vj Potassii permanganatis. M. gr. glycyrrhizae. gr. . Lotion. gr.. xx Acidi pyrogallici. ad 50 Cc. q. Mix. Water. Lotion. Tablespoonful every three M. v Oxalic acid. s. ad f. q. 358. 4 Gm. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 149 354. to make f. Olei carophylli.. 356. IV Protargol. f. IV Acetanilid. gr. Label: One every four hours. gr. M. Fiant pil. 365. Sig. S. gr. aromat. x 3 J Potassii permanganatis. v Protargol. S.. 357. 359. gr. 362. xv Acidi sulphur. q. No. gr. gr. xx Morphine sulph. gtt. gr. Label: Injection. S. Fiant pilulae No. ij Acidi salicylici.. Label: For the eye. 2% solution. IV IV Potassii permanganatis. 5 ij Glycerini. 360.. s. q. IV Bismuthi subnit.. v Glyceriti amyli. viij Aquae. f. x Potassii permanganatis. xxx Potassii permangan. hours. Lotion for ulcer. x gr. xxv. 2 Gm. 361. Sodii bicarbon. gr. B Mucilag.. s. gr. gr. x. aa. Signa: One powder two hours after each meal. acaciae.5v Mix and put into 10 capsules.. Misce et divide in chartulas decem. gr. viij M.

10. 368. 5 iss Strychninae sulphatis. q. xvj Mercuric chloride. hydriodic acid. gr. 5 i v Mix. water three times a day..i Gm. xx Acidi sulphurici aromat. S. Quininae sulph. M. 5 ss Ammonii carbonatis. 80. 372. Quinine bisulphate. v Quininae sulph. o. ferri chloridi. to make 5 iij Mix. f. 5 j Syrupi aurantii. TI\ v Mix and make an ointment.. ad f. * Quininae sulphatis. y IV Pyrogallic acid. Syrupi limonis. Acidi phosphorici dil. 5 iss Syr. 367..0 Cc.. Aquae dest. Teaspoonful after meals. ss Acidi tannici. ferri chloridi. ss Tinct.0 Cc.. i. gr. s. q. IV Fowler's solution. "3 j Lard.0 Cc. IV Quinine bisulphate.. Syr. S.0 Gm. . Teaspoonful twice a day..0 Cc. S. 5 j Quininae sulph.. Cochleare parvum t. Half a teaspoorlf ul in a glass of S. 370. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 366. 5 iss M. gr. 5 iv M. IV Tinct. 371. gr. Stychninae sulph. Teaspoonful three times a day. 5 ss Basham's mixture. ad f. 10. Label Teaspoonful every other : hour. 373. 5 ij Water. eriodictyi arom. 5 ij M. f.. 369. d. IV Quininae sulphatis. 100. 5J Acidi sulphurici arom. s. 5. gr.

f. Br. f. 5 j f. Label: Use as spray. f. 5 ij M. Turpentine. and night. Label: Teaspoonful morning. f. 3 ij Water. 379. 3 iij Strychnine sulph. castile soap. iij S. 380. xl Resorcin. ij Water. 3 iv Santonini. j Quinine bisulphate. f. Label: Teaspoonful after meals. 1. 3 iss IV Potassium iodide. ad 100.. gr. Cotton-seed oil. chlor. 5 j Aquae. 5 J Sodii bicarbonatis. gr. Teaspoonful three times a day. et fiant capsulae No.. Aromatic elixir. mit. 3 iss Alcohol. 388. gr. f. iv Eucalyptol. 383. Mix. q. 'Liq. Make 8 capsules. 5 J Label: One every two hours. iv Mix. thiosulphate. xv Misce et signa: Teaspoonful three Fluidext. Pot. 5 J Potassii chloratis. gr. P. vj Calomel. strychninae. boric acid. enough to make f ij . ferri chloridi. 5 j Water. f. ss Tinct. of dandelion. Aquae. gr.Teaspoonful as directed . xv Water. gr-j Sodii thiosulphatis. 386. j Mix. gr. gr. 381. 5 VJ M. 3 iiss Po. 5 ij . Mix. Santonin. gr.0 Gm. IV Fluidextract of pinkroot. IV IV Hydrarg. 385. x Potassium citrate. Label: Apply with friction. 2. iodide.. Mix and make impalpable powder. xij Strontium bromide. Make solution. iv Solution of strychnine. IV Fluidextract of senna. Take one teaspoonful in water M. 3 vij times a day. Syrup. to make f 5 vj . xc Calomel. 387. P. gr. Label: As directed. 3 ij Fowler's solution. 3 ij Mix. ij Mix.0 Cc. aa. 3. to make f. If 382. Label :. noon. ^l vj Sod. f.5 Cc. f. . gr. Soap. after each meal. s. gr. To be taken three hours apart.. Teaspoonful four times a day. 3 iss Strychnine sulphate. 384. Liquid petrolatum. S. Quininae sulphatis. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 378. IV Gold and sodium chlor. 3 iij Syrup cinnamon. to make f. Shake well before using. 5 iv Po. B. IV Menthol.

. xlv Glycerini. ad f. Label: Teaspoonful three times a day. chlor. 3iv Strychnine sulph. gr. 3 iij Aquae. S. IV Thymol. gr. Inject ten minims. Label: Use as directed. Make capsules No. Make 15 konseals. j Salol. . q. 395. Teaspoonful every six hours. f. of iron. gr.152 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 390. ss Elixir. 3 iv Syrup. 5ij Make solution. IV Diuretin. Label: Mouth wash. gr. 392. of nitrous ether. gr. to make iij M. s. gr. Ixxv M. Terpin hydrate. S. IV IV Calomel. xxx Tinct.. gr - J Salol. Label: One every hour. iv Mix and boil for ten minutes and then filter. gr. \> IV Strychninae. Mix. Trional. 396. 397. enough to make f. IV Morphine sulphate. 5 ij Mix. xxx Water. 393. Calcis calcinatae. xxx Aquae. 394. 3 iij Bismuth subnit. 3 iiss Sodium bromide. gr. 6. n\ xxx Thymol. x Sp. xv Borax. 3 ij Sulphuris. 391. m.

IV Sodium citrate.. 404. i Water. xvj M. 403. gr. Teaspoonful three times a day. iss Acidi lactici. S. 3 iiss Spirit nitrous ether. gr. Glycerin.. 3 viij Sodii hypophosphitis. chlor. ad f. 5 33 f. 3 vj Elix. s. Label: Teaspoonful three times a day. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 402. IV Tr. solut. hypophosphitis. of iron. Dil. . Co. to make f. 5 viij Aquae. 5* Ferri lactatis. f. Ft. 3x Potass. sol. IV Calcii hypophosphitis. 5 ij Mix. f. sod. phos. ferri chloridi. gentianae et tinct. q. phosphoric ac. iij Strychninae lactatis.

o-3 three times a day. 3 v Hydrarg. 5 iij Mix. iv Olei gaultheriae. 3 vj Aromat. ^l xx Bismuthi subnit. gr. capsici. ammon. One teaspoonful every two Syr. Label: Use as directed. ether. gr. . f. spirit of ammon.. f. Fluidext. q.oi 420. f. Ammonium muriate. of each f. 418. gr. 3 v f.. 5 j Antipyrine. : Mix. s. 3 vj of lemon. 0. Citrated caffeine. xlviij Morph. gtt. 3 iiss Silver nitrate. to make f. to make f . gr.08 Mix. iv hours.. f.. f. f. j Atropine sulphate. Teaspoonful every hour till fever 421. f. aa. . f. Label: Teaspoonful when coughing. S. 419. 5 j 416. gr. ij Spir. One half teaspoonful in water Pyramidon. 5 iij IV Tr. Make 12 capsules. hydrogenii dioxidi. IV IV Antipyrine.I Codeine. 3 iss Water. gr. 3 j M. day. 417. 3 ij Zinci sulphocarbol. of coca. Liquoris sodii arsenatis. Label Teaspoonful after meals.. Mix and make solution. gr. f. 3 iv Liq. 422. gr. corros. L. j Tartar emetic. IV Mercuric chloride. j Mercuric chloride.. 5 J f.. tolu. 0-3 M. iss Listerine. Signa: Take one half tea- M. to make 5 VJ Syrup of liquorice. bromide.5 J Aquae. Label: Teaspoonful as needed. Mix.154 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 413. gr. 5 ij Aquae rosae. O. aconite. hydrochloride. Use as directed three times a spoonful as directed. 5 vj Misce. Acidi carbolici. ij Caffeine. 414. Elixir of cinchona. ad f. nit. of cinchona. Water. xij Label: One every hour. iij Alcoholis. 5 iv Mix. Salol. 3 j Morphinae sulph. j Fowler's solution.i 415. 3 vj Glycerin. 3 ij Glycerin.. IV Chlor. of gold and sod. f. Fluidext. gr. iij Syrup iodide of iron. Sod. 3 j If Syrupi ferri iodidi. f. chlor. S. iv Tr. to make f. cools. 3 vij Antipyrine. 5 J Syrup f. Spt. f. o. 5 iv Cinnamon water. vj Strychnine nitrate. gr. aromat.

f. ij Glycerin. xx Tinct. Camphor. f. 5j Oil sandalwood. Calamine. Label: Teaspqonful in water IV after meals. 3iv Cascara evacuant. 426. 3 iij Comp. 3 j Ext. Ext. gr. Label: Teaspoonful three times M. . f. f. 3 ij Copaiba. gr. 5j Zinc oxide. 5 ss Mix. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 155 423. 430. 431. 3 iv Peppermint water. L. Teaspoonful three times daily. to make f. 5 Tinct. Label: Lotion. 3J Sp. f. of each 5 j Starch. 424. 5J Tinct. 5iss Copaiba.. to make f. f. Caffeine citrate. f. tinct. a day. f. aa. henbane. Label: Rub on as directed. f. stramonium. to make f . 428. lavender. IV Cocaine mur. mur. ss Lime water. 429. aa. Label: Dessertspoonful every four hours. IV Salol. nitrous ether.. Peppermint water. \f IV Sodium salicylate. mix vomica. Syrup of orange. to make f. Asafcetida. gr. chloride iron. iv Mix. j Water. cubebs. vi Camphor. v Morph. v Mix and make 30 capsules. iv M. f. Ext. indica. iiss Glycerin. 427. aa. IV Chloral hydrate. Label: One three times a day.iv 425. gr. g j Mix. iss Syrup hypophosphites. gr. 3 iv Sweet almond oil. can. 5 iv Mix. Mix. Phenazone.

439. ss Carbonate of potass. gtt. IV Pot. Label : One after each meal.. j Sodium arsenite.. | Ol. gtt. gr. IV Bichloride of mercury. Teaspoonful in a little water every three hours. sarsaparilla. One teaspoonful in water three times daily. Syr. iodide. Ammon. gr. gr. gr. cor. 3 Muc. acaciae. Heroinae. 3 iij Mercuric chlor. gr. S. mercury. Dried sulphate of iron. to make f 5 iij .156 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 434. f. 5 ij M. 3 ij Mur. tinct. .. IV Cocaine. j Iodide of potass.. chlor. 437. orange. f 5ss Water. aconiti. f. 3J Salicylic acid. 435. 5 iv Mix. terebin.. gr.. B ss Syr. carb. aa. 5 i ss Ess. nit. xx Strych. 438. chlor. Corros. iron. 436. iv Hydrarg. gr. Mix. Ixxx Tinct. ix Mix and divide into nine pills. Label: Teaspoonful in one half glass of water after eating. f. to make f.. ss Strychnine sulphate. of pepsin. gr.

q. % ij Aquae. V Bis.. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 157 445. opium. 447. gr. 5 ss Syrup. f. No. 5 viij Mix. f. 30. xv Make caps. chloroformi. to make f.5i Potas.5 Gm. x. 5 j Vini antimonii. 5 xl ) Aquae. Strontium bromide. xv Codeine sulph. gr. ad f. I . Label: Use as directed. 3 ij Water. to make f. Tinct.. f. Tannic acid. lead subac. xv Tinct. gr.. 5 ij Ergotin. 15. gr. times a day. 5 iss Acidi hydrobromici dil. 5 ij Magnesium sulphate. iodine. f. gr. M. s. Quininae sulph. 5 ij M. Rose water. xxx Sodii salicylatis. to make f.. ad 250. iij Zinc sulph. 450. 446. Rose water. gambir co. x Lead acetate. Teaspoonful three times a day. Teaspoonful every four hours.3 Gm. f. 5 ij Spt. S.. dil. S.. Label: Dessertspoonful three M. 449. S3 i ss Potassii chloratis. IV Tinct. q. 5 viij Label: One three times a day.0 Cc. gr. f. f. Label: Apply locally. ferri iodidi. permangan. 5ij Sodium iodide. f. Sol. s.. subnit.0 Cc. 5 vj Mix. f. 448. g j Syr. arnica. 1.. Tinct.

and then adding the water. Sugar prevents the gelatinizing effect of borax on the acacia. 4. Boric acid has not the effect of gelatinizing acacia. making a stiff mass. Borax soluble in 15 parts of water.158 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS CRITICISMS i. Neutral lead acetate does not gelatinize mucilage of acacia. Boric acid requires 18 parts of water to dissolve it. however. but it is much more soluble in a solution of borax. the borax is dissolved in the syrup with a little water and then added to the emulsion no trouble is experienced. The principal difficulty with this prescription is that the mucilage of acacia is gelatinized by the borax. Glycerin also prevents this action by decomposing the borax. and borax is pre- vented from doing so by the presence of sugar. If. A fresh tincture of guaiac with mucilage of acacia may give a blue color but an old tincture gives a brown red color. and in this case there is is not enough to dissolve it. The alcohol of the tincture throws the acacia out of solu- tion and the water of the mucilage precipitates the resin from the tincture so that a white precipitate ultimately forms in the bottom of the bottle. 2. a good mixture can be made. When solution of lead subacetate is added to mucilage of acacia a solid gelatinous mass is formed. With the consent of the physician the . If the oil is emulsified and then tne borax dissolved in the water is added a tough solid mass is formed. 3. By putting the mucilage into a mortar and adding the solution in small portions with constant stirring. In this prescription if both are diluted with the water and mixed with constant stirring the acacia is precipitated in small masses.

INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS

prescription was filled by using glycerin and water instead of
mucilage. One dram of honey and seven drams of water in place
of the mucilage keeps the resinous matter suspended.

5.

Using the amount of acacia called for, it is almost impossible
to make a good emulsion on account of the alcohol precipitating
the acacia and cracking the emulsion. The best way is to make
a primary emulsion of the copaiba by using one and a half drams
of acacia and three drams of water. This leaves some water,
a part of which should be used in diluting the emulsion and a
part in diluting the mixture of tincture and spirit before adding
to the emulsion. A smooth emulsion can thus be made.

6.

The alcohol in the spirit and tincture precipitates and ferric

chloride gelatinizes the mucilage of acacia. The gelatinous
mass will slowly dissolve in the syrup on standing. The best
way to the prescription is to dilute the tincture with part
fill

of thesyrup and mix the rest of the syrup with the spirit and
then these with the mucilage. In this way the gelatinization
is avoided.
7.

Ferric salts gelatinize mucilage of acacia, and if the solu-
tion of dialyzed iron is added directly to the mucilage a solid
mass results, which dissolves slowly in the syrup. By diluting
the solution of iron with the syrup, and then adding this slowly
to the mucilage with constant stirring, a thick homogeneous

liquid may be obtained.
8.

Different results may be obtained by changing the order
of mixing these
ingredients. If the corrosive sublimate is
dissolved in the water and then added to the lime water the

yellow mercuric oxide is precipitated. This if mixed with the
mucilage and allowed to stand for some time changes to a dirty
brown color. If the lime water is added to the solution of

160 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS

mercury the red brown basic chloride of
mercury is precipitated.
If the solution of mercuric chloride
added to the mucilage of
is

acacia and then the lime water added to this no precipitation of

mercury takes place. On allowing this to stand for a few days
a flocculent precipitate formed, slowly increasing. Acacia
is

prevents the precipitation of a number of the heavy metals by
the alkaline hydroxides.

9.

This mixture is far from being a solution. The benzoin
and the tolu are only partially soluble in alcohol and the acacia
is insoluble. The insoluble matter quickly settles to the bottom
of the mixture, forming a layer nearly equal in depth to that of
the supernatant liquid. It, however, may be readily diffused

through the liquid by agitation. A
"Shake well" label is neces-
sary.

10.

Spirit of nitrous ether with acetanilid gives a yellow solu-
tion, becoming red on standing for some time. The color
occurs more quickly with an acid spirit than with a neutral
one, and the presence of a little sodium bicarbonate prevents
it for several weeks. Probably diazo-compounds are formed.

11.

When the acetanilid is added directly to the tincture of iron
it makes a deep red clear solution. On
adding the water the
acetanilid is
precipitated and the changed back to that of
color
diluted tincture of iron. A better mixture can be made by

powdering the acetanilid mixing with water and acacia or
first,

tragacanth, then adding the tincture of iron highly diluted with
water. The tincture of iron, unless diluted with water, has a

tendency to coagulate acacia.

12.

When rubbed with resorcin a pasty mass re-
antipyrine is

sults, and becomes
this gradually liquid. Acetanilid and resorcin
triturated together make a liquid. When an aqueous solution

INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 161

of antipyrine is mixed with a solution of resorcin a white pre-

cipitate is formed. Acetanilid requires 190 parts of water for

solution, so that in this prescription it will not be all dissolved.
No matter how this is filled a clear solution cannot be made.
Rub the acetanilid and antipyrine in the mortar with about 2
Gm. of acacia, and then add a part of the water. Dissolve the
resorcin in the balance of the water and add it.

13.

Phenacetin requires 1310 parts of water or 15 parts of alcohol
for solution. In filling this prescription the phenacetin can be
dissolved in the tincture and but on adding the syrup and
spirit,
water nearly all of it will be thrown out of solution. A better
mixture would be made by powdering the phenacetin with about
one dram of acacia, then adding the syrup and part of the water,
and lastly the tincture and spirit diluted with the balance of the
water.

14.

Phenacetin is only sparingly soluble in water, but more
soluble in alcohol, although there is npt enough present in this

prescription to dissolve it entirely, and what is dissolved is
again thrown out of solution on adding the water. Heating
the phenacetin with the tincture causes solution to take place,
giving a dark red color. On adding water the color is de-
stroyed and the phenacetin is precipitated. The best way to
fill this
prescription is to powder the phenacetin, mix with a
little acacia, and add the water and lastly the tincture of iron.
Filled in this the phenacetin is in a finer powder than
way when
it is first dissolved in the tincture.

15.

Sodium bromide precipitates the codeine salt, ammonium
chloride does not. The phenacetin is not dissolved. The
mucilage will keep the codeine and phenacetin suspended so
that the prescription can be dispensed as a shake mixture.

162 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS

16.

Ferric acetate is formed in this prescription and it gives
a very deep red color to the solution. If the ingredients answer
the pharmacopceial requirements there will be no incompatibility.
However, the solution of ammonium acetate is sometimes quite
strongly alkaline, due to excess of ammonium carbonate or
deficiency of acetic acid used; and if the tincture of iron is free
from an excess of acid the alkali causes the formation of ferric
hydroxide which will be kept in solution by the syrup.

17.

On dissolving the quinine sulphate in part of the cinnamon
water with the aid of the sulphuric acid, then adding the potas-
sium acetate previously dissolved in the remainder of the water,
a voluminous precipitate of quinine acetateis obtained. Quinine
acetate only sparingly soluble in water, and the amount here
is

formed is so large and bulky that it is difficult to pour out an
even dose. By using one half of a dram of dilute sulphuric acid
a thinner mixture is obtained. Or, the quinine sulphate can be
rubbed with about ten grains of acacia and a little water. Then
adding the acetate dissolved in the water containing the acid, a
good shake mixture can be obtained.

18.

The potassium acetate was dissolved in water and the spirit
added. Effervescence ensued and continued for a few minutes,
but ceased after several shakings. Alcohol effervesces a little
when mixed with water, but not nearly as much as the above
mixture did. One writer says that nitrous acid converts ace-
tates into carbon monoxide and other gases. This explanation
is not satisfactory since about as much effervescence results when

spirit of nitrous ether is added to a strong solution of Rochelle
salt, sodium chloride, or potassium nitrate. It has been sug-

gested that the potassium acetate or other salt throws the ethyl
nitrite out of solution in the mixture of alcohol and water and

that the volatilization of the ethyl nitrite is the cause of the

INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 163

effervescence. There is much less effervescence when the solu-
tions have been well chilled before mixing.

19.

Prof. Scoville (Bull. Pharm., v. 28, p. 527, also v. 29, p. 174),

commenting on on having kept this mixture for
this says that
about three years it had liquefied. That, "We have the following
series of reactions: First, the water of crystallization in the

quinine sulphate hydrolyzes the aspirin and changes it into
acetic and salicylic acids. Second, these organic acids act slowly
upon the quinine and change it into liquid quinotoxin. Third,
it is probable that this quinotoxin forms a eutetic mixture with
the salicylic acid which is liquid at ordinary temperatures.
Reactions of this sort take place more rapidly at elevated tem-
peratures. The liquid mixture should not be administered
. . .

because the quinotoxin is a very decided poison."
The formation of quinotoxin is undoubtedly slow as this
combination has been frequently dispensed without any apparent
ill effect.

20.

The cachets may become colored blue on account of the
iodine liberated acting on the starch. The aspirin liberates
hydriodic acid which is oxidized by the air, liberating iodine.
This change takes place more quickly in a moist atmosphere than
in a dry one.

21.

Aspirin is only sparingly soluble in water. It isquite soluble
in a solution of potassium citrate, and there is enough in this
prescription to make a clear solution.

22.

Eenzoic acid is soluble in 275 parts of water and salicylic
acid in 460 parts of water. If the directions to make a solu-
tion with the aid of heat are followed the acids on cooling will

separate out in much larger crystals than at first. A better
mixture will be obtained by rubbing the acids well in the mortar

1 64 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS

and then mixing with the water and cocaine salt in the cold.
The acids do not precipitate the alkaloid.

23.

Three chemical reactions may take place in mixing these ingre-
dients. One is between the sodium benzoate and the sulphuric
acid, forming sodium sulphate and benzoic acid. The benzoic
acid is only sparingly soluble in water, but there is enough of
alcohol in the elixir to keep it in solution. Another reaction is
between the sulphuric acid and the quinine sulphate, making the
soluble bisulphate. The third reaction is between the sodium
benzoate and the quinine salt, forming quinine benzoate, which
is not very soluble in water. The prescription was rilled by
dissolving the quinine sulphate in part of the elixir with the acid
and the benzoate in the remainder and then mixing the solutions.
Precipitation commenced almost at once and in a short time
there was a solid mass of needle-shaped crystals. This could be
shaken up so that it could be poured.

24.

Ammonium benzoate is the disturbing agent. Citric acid in
the citrated caffeine or in the iron salt liberates benzoic acid and
precipitates it. Ferric benzoate is only sparingly soluble in
water but the citrate prevents its precipitation. Ammonium
benzoate gives a sticky precipitate with the quinine in iron and
quinine citrate. Precipitation of benzoic acid can be prevented
by neutralizing the iron salt and using a proportional amount of
caffeine in place of the citrated caffeine and this should be done.
Some acacia is necessary to keep the quinine benzoate suspended.

25.

There is not enough of water to dissolve the borax, it being
soluble in 15 parts of water. Mercuric chloride requires about
13.5 parts of water, and the twenty grains would require about
one half of an ounce. If the mercuric chloride is dissolved in
part of the water, and the borax is mixed with the balance of
the water and then with the corrosive sublimate solution, or if

26. although the solution is alkaline. Or if the glycerin is added to the solution of lead acetate and then the borax solution added a precipitate is also formed. The citric acid should be dissolved in the boiling water and then the magnesium carbonate added to this. The mercury is ultimately entirely precipitated. The addition of borax does not cause any precipitation. If heat is used in dissolving the borax there are quite large clear crystals formed on standing. and liberating water of crys- tallization which causes the dampness. and also a white precipitate of borax. probably borax. the acid having been nearly neutralized by the borax. In either case there will be formed a dark reddish brown precipitate of an oxychloride of mercury. making an acid solution which does not cause as much precipita- tion. By powdering the in- gredients separately and then mixing no difficulty is experienced. Carbon dioxide is liberated and magnesium citrate goes into solution. The mixture does not make a clear solution in water. with the ultimate formation of sodium metaborate and boric acid. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 165 the borax mixed with the water and then the mercuric chloride is added to this. There is not enough of acid to completely dissolve all the carbonate. 27. 28. If a solution of borax is added to a solution of lead acetate a white precipitate of lead borate is farmed. . the result will be about the same. When these two substances are rubbed together in a mortar with considerable force a damp powder or a soft mass is formed which soon dries. a zinc salt being precipitated. A chemical reaction takes place forming some sodium sulphate and zinc borate. If the borax is added to the solution of citric acid and then the magnesium carbonate a large amount of the last ingredient is not dissolved. The directions are Make a lotion. : Use frequently. But if the glycerin is added to the borax solution first the borax is decomposed.

The physician's attention should be called to this. Carbon dioxide may also be liberated by the bismuth subnitrate. The boric acid liberates carbon dioxide from the sodium bicarbonate. the prescription can be filledby adding five to seven drops of glycerin directly to the borax. Or. glycerin. for making the colorless hydrastis. 644) gives a formula S. with the liberation of boric acid. 31. leave out the latter. which consists of twenty grains of hydrastine hydrochloride or sulphate dissolved in a pint of a mixture of glycerin and water. it should be filtered. The U. This is the borosalicylate of cocaine. what is better. The acids were dissolved in the water and then the cocaine hydrochloride was added. If either acid is left out or the amounts of both are reduced to one half the amounts. The boric acid is not sufficient to neutralize the alkalinity of the borax. 30. and water. but the alkaloid will not be precipitated in the presence of so much honey. In this prescription we have the borax decomposed by either the honey or the glycerin. bismuth subcarbonate being slowly formed. Dispensatory (igth ed.1 66 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 29. adding part of the water. . and in so doing nearly all of the hydrastine is removed.. and also precipitates the alkaloids from the tincture of opium. Boric acid does not give a precipitate with a solution of hydrastine sulphate. and he should be advised to in- crease the amount of acid or decrease the borax or. mixing well. Water precipitates a little resinous matter from the tincture. The bicarbonate of sodium may liberate the hydrastine from the acid with which it is combined. if there will be little or no precipitation. then the other ingredients. getting a white precipitate at once. Borax is alkaline in reaction and precipitates the hydras- tine as the free alkaloid. As the preparation is to be dropped into the eye.

If boric acid were used instead of borax no precipi- tation would occur and many pharmacists would use the acid in place of borax. The glycerin acts chemically on the borax. and on standing separated into two distinct layers. but not enough is formed to do any harm. forming a solution not miscible with alcohol. breaking it up and forming sodium metaborate and boric acid. Adding more citric acid will dissolve the precipitate . crystals begin to separate at once. Chloral hydrate is decomposed by alkalies. but the salt has such an affinity for water that it carries some water with it. It is said that quinine acid citrate is formed. Whatever the precipitate is. The directions are: Mix. forming chloro- form and a formate of the base. Potassium citrate is hygroscopic. Label: A dessertspoonful after meals. 35. 33. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 167 32. making a clear solution that does not precipitate on standing. but the difficulty can be prevented by the use of a little glycerin. although this does not entirely explain the result since acid clears up the mixture again. . 34. in alcohol. Borax is alkaline in reaction and precipitates nearly all alkaloids from solutions of their It precipitates the salts. and the addition of another portion of potassium citrate causes a precipitation again. producing a turbidity. The two liquids were mixed. cocaine in this prescription. but nearly insoluble. The alcohol of the spirit has a tendency to throw the citrate out of solution. it is probably thrown out of solution by making a concentrated solution "of potassium citrate. Borax is sufficiently alkaline so that chloroform will be slowly generated and can be recognized by the odor. The potassium was dissolved in the syrup and the citrate spirit was then added. The quinine sulphate dissolves in the water and citric acid. On adding the potassium citrate.

S.. This is more than enough to precipitate all of the mercury.3 grains of the alkaloidal sulphates. there are 7. which redissolves in excess of the alkali iodides. and it will also cause a precipitation of some of the matter from the elixir of cinchona. The cocaine hydrochloride is best dissolved in a little water before mixing with the base. The danger in such a prescription is that the patient may take most of the precipitate at one time and thereby get an overdose of the mercuric iodide. In 4 fluid ounces of the elixir of cin- chona alkaloids. N. The syrup of rhubarb isgenerally turbid.). and this is redissolved in excess of potassium iodide. forming a double compound that precipitates some of the constituents of the compound syrup of sarsaparilla. The mercuric chloride combines with the sodium and am- monium iodides. which is thrown out of solu- tion with the alkaloids. forming insoluble mercuric iodide. No difficulty is experienced in filling this prescription. 37. This compound precipitates the alkaloids of cinchona in the elixir. but the use of a metallic spatula should be avoided on account of danger of a coloration with gallic acid. . 38. The alcohol in the elixir is a solvent for this precipitate. forming potassium mercuric iodide. When solutions of the first two ingredients are mixed together the insoluble mercuric iodide is formed.i68 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 36. D. There is no danger of the potassium chlorate liberating iodine from the iodides so long as the mixture is neutral or alkaline. as it is commonly known. and the prescription should be dispensed with a "shake well" label. Ammonium iodide very frequently contains a little free iodine. which probably combines with some of the organic matter present in the syrup. Corrosive sublimate is slowly reduced to calomel by the compound syrup of sarsaparilla (U. but upon addition of the syrup the alcohol is too dilute to exercise much of a solvent effect. Mayer's reagent. or. F.

it is the metallic mercury that gives the mixture the gray color. 2. 6. The potassium iodide in the tincture of iodine when mixed with a solution of ferric chloride forms free iodine. the dose should be reduced to correspond with that of the mercuric salt. The possible reactions are as follows: i. and divide into 10 powders (papers). Ferric chloride with phosphoric acid forms the colorless ferric phosphate. potassium chloride. the free acid of the tincture combining with the quinine sulphate to form a more soluble compound. with the formation of potas- sium chloride and mercurous iodide. The directions are: Mix. but mixedin the above proportions in the presence of moisture a dark gray powder is produced. Mixed in more nearly equal proportions a yellowish green powder is formed. Several chemical reactions occur. free . Chemical reaction takes place. 3. which is yellow. because of the oxidation of the mercurous compound to the much more active mercuric compound. 4. Potassium iodide is hygroscopic in a moist atmosphere and powders containing it usually become damp. This prescription should not be dispensed. or if it is. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 169 39. which is but soluble in water containing free insoluble in water. and ferrous chloride. acid. 5. This carbonate neutralizes part of the free hydrochloric acid when mixed with the tincture of iron. The free iodine in the tincture of iodine combines with sulphate 7. depending on the order of mixing the ingredients. The mercurous iodide decomposed by is the excess of potassium iodide. The of quinine. 40. forming potassium chloride and carbon dioxide. make a powder. due to the use of potassium bicarbonate which is changed to the normal potassium carbonate. forming an insoluble compound. There is no reaction between calomel and potassium iodide if the mixture is dry.Tincture chloride of iron dissolves quinine sulphate. forming the black tannate of iron. The iron combines with tannic acid in the rhubarb. forming metallic mercury and mercuric iodide and then potassium mercuric iodide. Fowler's solution is alkaline.

but the other drugs with which it is combined in the compound tincture do. This prescription should not be dispensed on account of the free iodine formed. 42. forming free iodine. 10. forming free iodine and nitric oxide. tincture. By using tincture of citrochloride of iron in place of the U. 11 . adding the syrup. Gentian is said to contain no tannin. this reaction is prevented. and this oxidizes the ferrous iodide.P. liberat- ing iodine. which combines with quinine sulphate precipitating it. The solution was clear and nearly but in a few minutes a red brown colorless at first. In whatever way the ingredients are mixed the combination is an extremely inelegant one. A solution of quinine sulphate is precipitated by the tannic acid of the rhubarb. Potas- sium iodide and spirit of nitrous ether react. . and the quinine and rhubarb are not in solution. This was filled dissolving the quinine in a little water by with the aid of the acid. forming the insoluble tannate of quinine.170 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS iodine will also combine with the tannin in the rhubarb. The phosphoric acid is a solvent for quinine sulphate. ferrous chloride. it is black and inky in color and taste. The iodine is not precipitated because the iodide is not all decomposed. 41. liberating and precipitating the free alkaloid. 8. 9. Reaction takes place between the potassium iodide and the ferric chloride. and potassium chloride.S. The alkali in Fowler's solution when mixed with a solution combines of quinine sulphate with the sulphuric acid. Sulphuric acid liberates chloric acid from the potassium chlorate. The alkali in Fowler's solution will neutralize part of the phos- phoric acid when mixed with it. The tannin combines with the iron to form the black inky ferric tannate. and lastly the potas- sium chlorate dissolved in the water. precipitate began form to and increased until the mixture was quite thick. probably combining with it and under certain circum- stances again precipitating it.

the potassium iodide dissolved in the balance of the water was added and lastly the sodium arsenate solution. Adding two drams of water does not entirely prevent precipitation. The precipitate gives a test for both arsenic and iodine. and in less than fifteen minutes there was quite a heavy purple red precipitate. The quinine sulphate was dissolved in part of the water with the aid of the acid. 45. Using quinine bisulphate and leaving out the acid gives a solution that stands well. which . Within five minutes precipitation had commenced. Sodium arsenate in the presence of an inorganic acid oxidizes potassium iodide. 46. 44. There may be an oxy-iodide of arsenic formed. This granular precipitate. This gives a clear solution at first but after a day or two a precipitateis formed. The physician should increase the amount of water and then increase the dose accord- ingly. When the solution of potassium iodide in the balance of the water was added to the quinine solution a slight precipitation occurred. Potassium iodide combines with morphine sulphate. and this precipitates the quinine. The solution was clear and of a pale yellow color. adding water to make two fluid ounces and increase the dose correspondingly. Within a few hours a solid mass had formed which was of a purple choco- late color. This prescription was filled by dissolving the quinine sul- phate in a portion of the water with the aid of the acid. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 171 43. The physician should rewrite the prescription. liberating iodine. On mixing these a heavy crystalline precipitate soon forms and it is difficult if not impossible to get an even dose. If this mixture is dispensed at all it should be with a "Shake well" label. Four drams of potassium iodide when dissolved increase the volume of the liquid about three fluid drams.

) The usual maximum medicinal dose of strychnine sulphate is TV of a 5 grain. Label: Let a teasponful be taken two or three times a day. When this mixture is allowed to stand for two or three weeks without being disturbed two layers in the precipitate are noticed.of a grain and is dangerously large. as well as to the possibility of the strychnine being pre- cipitated by the potassium iodide. . The directions are: Mix. forming a dark brown precipitate. is easily decomposed by the air. In concentrated solutions potassium iodide precipitates quinine. Iodine is gradually formed by the acid acting on the iodide. and this combines with the quinine. The quinine sulphate was dissolved in a part of the water with the aid of the acid. as it requires 725 parts of water. is potassium bitartrate. The prescription should not be dispensed without first having called the prescribed attention to that fact. In this prescription the dose is T 6. liberating iodine which precipitates the quinine. That it is not the quinine thatis precipitated can be proved by substituting sodium iodide for potassium iodide. there is some danger of precipi- tation. formed by the action of tartaric acid on potassium iodide.172 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS fallsquickly. The potassium iodide was dissolved in the balance of the water and added to the quinine solution. while the upper one is red brown and is the iodine compound of quinine sulphate. (See the incompatibilities of strychnine. 47. formed by the reaction between the potassium iodide and the tartaric acid. 48. when no precipitation takes place. the bottom one is white and is the potassium bitartrate. The addition of a few minims of dilute hypophosphorous acid will retard the liberation of iodine. While potassium iodide does not always precipitate strychnine sul- phate when in solution with it. Hydriodic acid. There is not enough of water to dissolve all of the quinine sulphate. The water will precipitate inert extractive matter from the tincture.

It can be neutralized by shaking with sodium bicarbonate and the excess of bicarbonate removed by settling and decanting. If the acid spirit is allowed to stand with a solution of ammonium acetate and sodium citrate for an hour or more before the iodide is put in. Donovan's solution precipitates many alkaloids from aqueous solutions of their salts. 51. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 173. Quinine is no exception. powdered separately and are perfectly If the ingredients are dry when mixed no chemical reaction takes place. The powder will keep for months if protected from moisture. 49. the sulphuric acid displacing the hydriodic acid arid the air oxidizing the hydriodic acid. This is a dangerous prescription and should not be dispensed unless the . 50. The danger in such a prescription does not come from the quinine which is precipitated. On the addi- tion of water the powder at once becomes dark gray in color. This prescrip- tion was filled by dissolving the quinine sulphate in most of the syrup with the aid of the acid. The darkening due to the formation of metallic mercury. the solution remains colorless for a time but slowly liberates iodine. dissolving the potassium iodide in the remaining syrup and adding to the first solution. which with the excess of potassium bromide forms a compound soluble in water. Spirit of nitrous ether is generally more or less acid and in that condition will liberate iodine from potassium iodide. Any quinine not precipitated by the Donovan's solution was precipitated by the iodine. at is the same time some mercuric salt is formed. but the mercuric salt which is precipitated with the quinine. Dono- van's solution was then slowly added with constant stirring and the prescription sent out with a "Shake well" label. At the end of two days all of the mercury was precipitated and some iodine was liberated. The nitrous and nitric acids probably replace acetic and citric acids and so no iodine is liberated at once. In concentrated solutions of quinine potassium iodide gives a precipitate.

This can be prevented by using some absorbent powder. but insoluble in a solution of potassium bromide. "Hyd. The silver nitrate is entirely precipitated by the sodium chloride as silver chloride. In many instances the com- mercial potassium bromide is alkaline. 54. The writer failed repeatedly to get a precipitate even on making the solution twice as strong as that called for and also varying the proportions. or hydrocyanic. 53. due to the presence of a carbonate which has been left in to aid the preservation of the bromide.174 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS dose is reduced. It is customary to filter eye-washes. From the directions to the patient . If the reaction takes place according to the equation given below. 2 52. This prescription is frequently given as an example of the incompatibility of bromides with strychnine salts. If the alcohol is evaporated from the tincture and the residue mixed with the other ingredients and put into capsules. the capsules soften and are dissolved on account of the sodium bromide absorbing moisture. 55. hydrobromic. hydriodic. It is impossible for the dispenser to tell what the prescriber wanted. There is no admis- sible method by which the precipitation can be prevented without changing the prescription. Hg 2 Cl2 + 2 KBr = Hg + HgBr + 2KC1. It is said that crystals of strychnine bromide will form after the mixture has been standing for a half hour. The pre- cipitation is partially explained by some writers by saying that the strychnine bromide is soluble in water. each powder will contain about three and eight tenths grains of mercuric salt." may stand for hydrochloric. The carbonate precipitates the strychnine as the free alkaloid. and if this one is filtered there will be only a very weak solution of sodium chloride and sodium nitrate left.

the powder turns gray. but in an alkaline solution its decomposition is much quicker. The potassium cyanide frequently contains a carbonate as an impurity. . giving a formate and a dark colored precipitate containing paracyanogen. In lightly mixing the first two ingredients when powdered and perfectly dry no change in color is noticed. and in such case might neutralize the free acid and precipitate some of the free morphine. The prescription should not be filled without consulting the prescriber. 58. The dose of potassium cyanide is dangerously large. the usual maximum dose being about one fourth of a grain. 57. which has been added to preserve the hydrocyanic acid. The physician. has directed the use of acetic acid. A translation of the latter part of the prescription is: Tragacanth. but it would be necessary to consult the physician. Hydrocyanic acid itself does not decompose carbonates to any extent. 56. The excess of acid combines with the potassium. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 175 to take after meals probably hydrochloric was what was intended. Label: Take two pills every night. water. knowing that morphine acetate frequently is not entirely soluble. liberating hydrocyanic acid. In neutral solutions the potassium cyanide precipitates morphine cyanide from morphine salts. If one of these mineral acids is present an effervescence will take place. of each a quantity sufficient to make a mass which is to be formed into 30 pills. triturated together with considerable pressure. Hydro- cyanic acid easily decomposes in water. Morphine cyanide is soluble in acid solutions. As soon as moisture comes in contact with the mixed powders they become dark gray the coloration is due to the formation of metallic mercury while at the same time a part of the calomel is changed to mercuric chloride and mercuric cyanide. Commercial dilute hydrocyanic acid usually contains some free sulphuric or hydrochloric acid.

When the calcium hypophosphite. By adding the morphine dissolved in water to the mixture of other ingredients no colora- . The strychnine was liberated line precipitate from the sulphate by the cyanide solution. By dissolving the morphine in a littlewater and adding it to the tincture of iron a blue solution may be formed which quickly turns green. liberating hydrocyanic acid. The hydrocyanic acid was next added.176 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 59. consisting of codeine and iodine. If the tincture of iodine is added to the solution of codeine In water and phosphoric acid a reddish brown precipitate is formed. The codeine was triturated with a little water and a half dram of dilute phosphoric acid added to dissolve the alkaloid. After neutralizing the potassium cyanide with sulphuric acid no precipitation resulted. Potassium cyanide is generally more or less alkaline. This prescription was filled by dissolving the salts in separate portions of water and then mixing. The further addition of the water simply diluted the solution. as sodium thiosulphate. After a few hours a crystal- began to appear. This was filled in several ways. and then the tincture of iodine. which did not precipitate the alkaloid. but the twenty minims of dilute hydrocyanic acid dissolves the precipitate and makes a clear colorless solution. is added a white precipitate of ferric hypophosphite is thrown down. which was alkaline. depending upon its exposure to air. the result being the same. The carbon dioxide of the air decom- poses it. Other reducing agents. but was itself decolorized at once. The explanation that the hydrocyanic acid reduces the iodine is to an iodide and thus breaks up the compound of codeine and iodine. have a similar effect. dis- solved in the water and syrup. 61. This precipitate is not dissolved by adding an excess of phosphoric acid or sul- phuric acid. The color of the solution is nearly but not entirely destroyed. 60.

64. The calcium hypophosphite slowly reduces the mercuric chloride to mercurous chloride and finally to metallic mercury. the a black precipitate. This precipitation is not readily seen in the syrup of sarsaparilla. the two tinctures having the same iron strength. Part of the sulphuric acid of the Epsom salt will go to form calcium sulphate. in this prescription it probably has but little chemical action. Ferrous sulphate usually contains some ferric sulphate and this reacts with the calcium hypophosphite to form ferric hypo- phosphite and calcium sulphate. The syrup of sarsaparilla also has a tendency to reduce the corrosive sublimate. the former being only sparingly soluble. By using it no precipitation takes place for several days at least. The solution of strychnine is a British preparation containing about one per cent of strychnine hydrochloride. as the morphine is not decomposed by the iron hypophosphite. but only very slowly. The precipitate of ferric hypophosphite can be dissolved by adding some potassium citrate to the moist magma. as they form an explosive mixture. In an acid solution the potassium chlorate would have an oxidizing effect on the ferrous sulphate and also on the hypophosphite. 62. 63. darkening takes place sooner and leaving out the acid no darkening results for several days. The hydrochloric acid . and this is the method that should be followed. Filled as written the white bismuth subnitrate is soon changed to Using more hydrochloric acid. but if water is used instead of the syrup a turbidity is noticed as soon as solutions of the salts are brought together. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 177 tion is produced. and the latter requiring about 380 parts of water for solution. Potassium chlorate and a hypophosphite should not be triturated together dry. better A method of filling is to use the tincture citrochloride of iron of the National Formulary instead of the official tincture of iron.

liberating oleic acid. causing the mixture to become yellow and finally black. The hypophosphite in acid solution reduces the bismuth to the metallic condition. The pharmacist who received this prescription in attempt- ing to rubbed the three ingredients together dry and caused fill it an explosion. The dampening nux vomica of the extract of also tends to darken the mixture. which is liquid. then mixing lightly with powdered extract of liquorice and massing with water. a thick liquid was formed. If sodium salicylate is used. and divide it into 25 equal parts. On mixing the ingredients of the prescription.178 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS hypophosphorous acid from the hypophosphites and the liberates hypophosphorous acid reduces the bismuth to the metal. make a powder. The trouble is due to the salicylic acid acting on the oleate. The directions translated into English are: Mix. This is a solid. 65. Rubbing castile soap with an excess of salicylic acid makes a mass. 67. In a neutral or alkaline solution the reaction is slow. The pills can be made by powdering the ingredients separately. Chemical reaction may then take place slowly. and as sodium salicylate is formed in the mixture. while the hypophosphite is oxidized to a phosphate. The sodium hypophosphite is deliquescent in damp air and the powders become moist. The explosion was due to the reaction between the chlorate and hypophosphite. no trouble is experienced. Acid sodiurr oleate was made by heating oleic acid with one half theamount of sodium hydroxide to make the theoretical normal oleate. and making sodium salicylate. whereby he was quite severely injured. a little softer than castile soap. the hydroxide being first dissolved in a little water. 66. . there can be no objection to using it in the first place. By adding some althaea and using oiled or parchment paper the mixture can be dispensed without difficulty .

with the formation of red fumes. 69. No immediate change is noticed but after a few minutes agas begins to form and later there is considerable effervescence and red fumes are given off. Even though . It has been suggested that the iron may have some catalytic action. so as to avoid volatilization. The alcohol should be added last. The phosphoric acid liberates hydro- chloric acid which then reacts with nitric acid making nitro- hydrochloric acid and this reacts with alcohol. S. It is doubtful if this prescription has much caustic effect. so that it will not be volatilized. so that there is quite a violent reaction when the two are brought together. The oil of turpentine reacts with the acids. Spirit of turpentine is another name for oil of turpentine. after the mixture is cold. there is little or no effervescence. Strong nitric acid decomposes creosote. This is a dangerous prescription and should not be sent out until reaction has ceased. Dilute nitric acid converts it into a brown resin (U. and the mixture should be allowed to cool before adding the chloroform. If phosphoric acid is left out. D. and unless care be taken it will be ignited. Thenitrohydrochloric acid oxidizes the hypophosphites to phosphates. 71. cooling after each addition. but there is nothing in the appearance to indicate chemical reaction. 70. In filling this prescription the nitric acid should be slowly added to the creosote with constant stirring. A con- siderable heat is generated by the reaction. The acids should be mixed and cooled and then added in small portions to the oil. with the gen- eration of much heat. Oil of turpentine is easily oxidized and nitrohydrochloric acid is a strong oxidizing agent.). 72. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 179 68.

S. 74. and it does not change in color so readily. A slight precipitate forms on standing. On adding the acid or the elixir to the tincture a precipitate of inert matter is produced. the dose of the acid would be about thirteen minims. The products formed have not been determined. The dilution with the elixir does not prevent it. If now the mixture is allowed to stand a short time a further chemical reaction evidenced by the evolution of is bubbles of gas. This makes a clear colorless solution at first. first. Supposing that the prescriber wanted a four-ounce mixture.180 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS the oil is emulsified chemical change cannot be avoided. as given in the U. and is due to the acid acting on the organic matter other than the alkaloids. is six drops. 75. 73. Considerable effervescence ensues and continues for some time. . If the acid is added to the tincture a red coloration is formed at contact of the two liquids. The maximum dose. probably tannin. In a day or two itacquires a yellow color which deepens. The excessive dose would be sufficient to prohibit the filling of this prescription. The fluidextracts and elixir are sufficiently acid so that chemical reaction takes place between the potassium nitrite and the organic matter. This red color quickly changes to an orange and then to a yellow when the liquids are mixed. Dispensatory. In such a case where the prescriber could not be notified many pharmacists would use the dilute nitro- hydrochloric acid instead of the concentrated. Probably much of the physiological activity of the mixture is destroyed by the chemical reaction. A similar prescription containing glycerin is sometimes written. This reaction continues slowly for several hours. Oxides of nitrogen are given off. The changes in color are probably due to the action of the acid on the brucine.

A chemical. 77. and when an acid solution of nitrous ether is brought in contact with potassium iodide. 79. carbon dioxide will be liberated by the citric acid. depending upon the order of mixing the ingredi- ents. giving off a gas. and the writer is inclined to think that the nitrous ether or acid has some effect. Spirit of nitrous ether reacts with an aqueous solution of potassium acetate. The gas must be allowed to escape before corking the bottle. I. If the potassium bicarbonate is added to the syrup of lemon. There is less reaction if the spirit has first been neutralized. reaction takes place between the nitrous ether and the tannin in the buchu. and these will liberate the carbon dioxide if brought in contact with the bicarbonate. Several chemical reactions are possible in filling this pre- scription. the composition of which has not been definitely determined. & M. This mixture is quite frequently prescribed by physicians. The solution of potassium hydroxide is capable of neutralizing the acid in the spirit or part of that in the syrup. causing an evolution of oxides of nitrogen. even by those who know that it is incompatible. 78. iodine is liberated and the gas nitric oxide is formed. Mercuric chloride is slowly reduced to calomel by alcohol (M. The spirit of nitrous ether if added directly to . 98). The spirit of nitrous ether is generally acid in reaction. Spirit of nitrous ether is usually acid with nitrous and nitric acids. Some of the resinous matter in the fluidextract will be precipitated by the water. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 181 76. This does not explain the ready reduction that occurs. This prescription should not be filled on account of the free iodine formed.. This gave but a turbidity was noticed a clear solution at first within an hour and by the next morning the bottom of the bottle was covered with a white precipitate which responded to the tests for calomel.

The change does not take place quite as rapidly when the spirit is mixed with the carbonate previous to the dissolving of the sodium salt. Prof. and partly to the effect of action of the spirit of nitrous ether upon the salicylate. with the evolution of red fumes. and by the sixth day it had lost all green and was of a brownish red color. When these ingredients were mixed a clear solution resulted. and when ammonium carbonate is added to it carbon dioxide is given off. neutralizing the spirit. The gas which is formed should be allowed to escape before corking the bottle. colorless at first. the color changes are By prevented for a time. otherwise an "explosion" might result. when it acquired a greenish brown color. but within five minutes became green. Attfield suggests the formation of nitros-alicylic acid which is colored. Gener- ally the spirit of nitrous ether is acid. further standing changed it to a deep red.182 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS the fluidextract will cause a reaction. At one time it was thought that this green compound was poisonous. which slowly becomes dark red brown or almost black. . 81. It has been proved that ethyl nitrite or amyl nitrite or any substance containing nitrous acid forms with antipyrine the green isonitroso-antipyrine. which crystallizes out of concentrated solutions. This mixture makes a clear alkaline solution. When the spirit of nitrous ether is added to the resorcin dissolved in the water and glycerin a dark red solution is formed. but in a few minutes acquiring a light brown color. which was of a light yellow color at first. This colora- tion is due partly to the alkaline salicylate acquiring a red color in the air. This will not take place as readily if the solution of potash is added to the fluidextract first. 80. On allowing this to stand no change in color took place until the third or fourth day. but it is not now generally considered so. Some of the resinous matter in the fluidextract is precipitated by the syrup. QO O4.

When the tincture is added to this. little or no precipitation takes place. Acids usually give yellow solutions with colchicine. Using a spirit that has been neutralized with sodium bicarbonate seems to make no difference. The nitrous acid would probably affect the alkaloid colchicine. On adding the phosphoric acid to a solution of the iron and quinine citrate a white precipitate forms which gives tests for iron but not for quinine. but this change would not be noticed here. A little light colored precipitate is formed. The syrup precipi- tates resinous matter from the tinctures. Ammonia turns this solution a deep blue. 85. the inky color. or added after partially destroys. due to the precipitation of matter from the tincture and the formation of tannate of iron. the if final mixture being dark brown and turbid. since it is so easily de- composed. due to the formation of ferric phosphate. It is probably iron phosphate and is soluble in a considerable excess of the acid. The spirit of nitrous ether gives a blue color with a fresh tincture of guaiac but a brown one with a tincture that has been exposed to the light for a time. . 84. The phosphoric acid added two tinctures are mixed partially to the tincture of iron before the prevents. The tannin in the tincture of digitalis makes a black inky mixture with the tincture of iron. a turbidity results and the mixture acquires a dark green color. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 183 This is perhaps due to the formation of dinitroso-resorcin (or possibly mononitroso-resorcin) which crystallizes in yellowish . When the dilute phosphoric acid is further diluted with water and then added to the iron salt dissolved in the balance of the water with the syrup. plates. 83. If two drams of dilute phosphoric acid be added to the tincture chloride of iron the mixture becomes entirely colorless. and on the subsequent addition of a tannin solution the black color is not produced.

89. This alkalinity may cause pre- cipitation of the strychnine. probably a mixture of hydroxide and oxide of iron is formed. and it should be neutralized with a phosphoric acid before the solutions of sodium phosphate little and strychnine sulphate are mixed. The phosphate of iron is insoluble in water but soluble in acidulated water. Sodium phosphate requires 2. Adding the acid causes the formation of a nearly white precipitate which is phos- phate of iron. On adding the salicylate and stirring a brown red clear solution is . The strychnine sulphate was dissolved in the balance of the elixir and added to the iron solution and the phosphoric acid added last. P. The amount may vary with the amount of free acid in the tincture. would be natural to expect that these two solids would It make a permanent powder but the mixture becomes damp after a time and then dries out.7 parts of water to dissolve it. 87. It should be powdered before adding to the syrup and water and the prescription then dispensed with a "Shake well" abel. If the bicarbonate is dissolved in water and the tincture is added to this.184 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 86. and it is thrown out of solution by the alcohol in the elixir. 88. is the Na2 HP04 and is slightly alkaline to litmus. Sometimes a powdered crystalline salt with water makes a crystalline mass in the bottle. The quinine sulphate was dissolved in the tincture of iron and a portion of the elixir added. a precipitate having the color of iron rust. The sodium phosphate of the U. 90. In the presence of the syrup it does not all dissolve. S. If water is used in place of the elixir no precipita- tion results. There is some rearrangement of bases and acids by which the water of crystallization is liberated.

S. then dis- solving the salicylate in the balance of the water and mixing the solutions. tincture. due to ferric salicylate. giving mono-. 680). All of the iodine is not changed. On adding the bicarbonate to this the purplish color is If tincture of citro-chloride of iron is used instead of destroyed. and tri-iodobenzoic acids and tri-iodophenol (M. but within first a day or two becomes of a dark brownish red color. brought into Salicylic acid. On standing a few days there is a slight precipitation. & M. a clear deep red solution can be obtained. which is alkaline. The not readily soluble in the water and glyc- salicylic acid is erin . If concentrated solutions of the first two ingredients are mixed a reddish brown salicylate of iron is precipitated. 92. The solution is alkaline. being only sparingly soluble. P. di-. 93. in. The salicylate gives a deep red color with the iron. no precipitate is produced by the bicarbon- ate and the color of the finished solution is much lighter at first but gets darker. but on adding the water a bulky crystalline precipitate comes down. The citricacid in the syrup of lemon precipitates salicylic acid from a concentrated solution of lithium salicylate. is solution with the aid of sodium phosphate. This makes at a clear colorless solution. 94. the amount depending ..requires 460 parts of water for solution. A better method of filling is to rub the acid with the glycerin and water and then add the tincture. it If the acid is dissolved in the glycerin with the aid of heat and the tincture then added a clear solution results. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 185 formed. The deep red color is due to the ferric salicylate formed. Free iodine reacts with salicylic acid. If the salicylate is first dissolved in water and the iron added a dark red solution is formed having some purplish color in it. 91. the U. By dissolving the iron salt in a part of the water and adding the syrup.

This . There is not a sufficient amount of water to dissolve all of the quinine sulphate. liberating salicylic acid. but not before the prescription would ordinarily be used. Possibly there is some nitrosalicylic acid formed in this prescription.. When it a little sulphuric acid is used to aid the solution of the quinine sulphate. being only sparingly soluble in water. 227. 96. although care must be used not to make the solution alkaline. "The reaction between sodium salicylate and anti- pyrine. or when quinine bisulphate is used. By neutralizing the acid the precipi- tation is prevented and the coloration hindered. is simply due to deliquescence. By putting these ingredients into capsules separately without previous mixing they in time become soft and liquid. On.standing. The condition of the atmosphere seems to cause the variation. the citric acid in the syrup combines with the sodium." (Nat. 95. The resulting mix- ture is so thick that can be poured only with difficulty.) This ex- planation is hardly satisfactory. 97. the sodium salicylate is dissolved If in part of the syrup and the quinine is mixed with the balance of the syrup and these two brought together a bulky gelatinous precipitate of quinine salicylate is formed. The directions are: Mix. If the salt is neutral and the spirit strongly acid a small amount of salicylic acid will be thrown out of solution.1 86 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS on the condition of the salt and the spirit. which. Dispensatory. since either chemical alone is not hygroscopic. 5th ed. is precipitated in needle-shaped crystals. Label: Dessertspoonful three times a day. thought to be due to chemical change. as an alkaline solution of a salicylate quite quickly becomes colored. A mixture of these ingredients sometimes becomes soft and sticky in a short time and again it may remain in a powder for days. the precipitate of quinine salicylate subsequently formed is generally more bulky and tenacious. The capsules might be dispensed in a bottle.

S. But the addition of borax. The patient should be informed of the change of color that will take place. and it would be well to inform the patient of the change which will take place. The precipitation is rather tardy. This prescription with thirty grains of borax would make a clear solution. and saved the pharmacist considerable time and work. Salicylic acid is soluble in460 parts of water and 60 parts of glycerin. . Ifthe physician has prescribed sodium salicylate instead of the salicylic acid and sodium bicarbonate he would have gotten practically the same physiological effect (unless he wanted the effect of the alkali too). 98. In the absence of the physician this should be dispensed as a "Shake" mixture. D." (N. potassium nitrate. due to the liberation of carbon dioxide. 99. made a better preparation pharmaceutically. or sodium phosphate should not be made with- out the knowledge of the prescriber. am- monium citrate. and finally it will become dark brown throughout. The aromatic sulphuric acid was probably added to reduce the bulk of the quinine. consequently a solution cannot be made unless something else be added. probably on account of the formation of some oxidation products.). 100. On mixing the acid with the bicarbonate in the presence of water effervescence takes place. This change takes place much more quickly when the solution is alkaline. "With half its weight of borax and two and a half times its weight of glycerin a twenty-five per cent solution of salicylic acid may be obtained. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 187 can be dispensed as a shake mixture. a nearly colorless quite strongly alkaline solu- tion results. but an incompatibility is thereby intro- . An aqueous solution of a salicylate turns dark when exposed to the air. If this is allowed to stand undisturbed for two or three days the lower part of the liquid will be of a light brown color and the upper part of a dark brown.

The mixture thus produced was black and thick. 101. To was added with constant stirring. 4.l88 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS duced. Sulphuric acid with lead acetate gives lead sulphate and acetic acid. avoiding letting the mixture get hot. which after standing a day was scarcely acid to litmus paper. the sodium sulphate going into solution and potassium bitartrate being precipitated. 102. i. soft. 6. The nitric acid may act on the oil. The Rochelle salt throws some of the camphor out of solution. The potassium nitrate and the lead acetate were powdered separately and then mixed with the oil. To this the sulphuric acid was added slowly with constant stirring. 103. forming picric acid. The carbolic acid was added last. There is considerable danger in mixing these ingredients u 7 ' and the directions to mix cautiously should be followed. oxidizing it. Sulphuric acid with potassium nitrate forms potassium sulphate and nitric acid. The mixture was a black. causing the pills to swell and forming ferrous sulphate. Chemical reaction takes place between the Rochelle salt and the sulphuric acid. Then on the addition of the aromatic sulphuric acid the turbidity is increased on account of the separation of the oil of cinnamon and the resin of ginger. It probably had but little caustic effect. 2. 5. 104. 3. it precipitates the glycyrrhizin of the fluidextract. granular mass. this the sulphuric acid Heat and acrid fumes were generated. Sulphuric acid has a carbonizing effect upon the oil. The acid will liberate the carbon dioxide from the mass of carbonate of iron. The potassium bichromate was powdered and mixed with the tar. The . Although the sulphuric acid aids the solution of the quinine sulphate. depending to some extent upon the order of mixing. Several reactions ensue. The nitric acid may act upon the carbolic acid. The acid should be omitted. The sulphuric acid forms with carbolic acid sulpho-carbolic acid.

forming a ferric salt and a chloride. 107. 106. but the excess should not be filtered out. 105. forming chlorine. and after mixing with the other ingredients some of the salt is thrown out of solution by the alcohol of the tincture. 4. Between the ferric iron and the sulphurous acid. loses much of its sweet taste and no longer disguises the of the quinine. as it is to be mixed with more water before being used. Between the chlorine and the sulphurous acid. If the potassium chlorate and the glycerin are rubbed to- gether an explosion is liable to occur. The possible reactions are as follows: i. thus precipitated as glycyrrhizic acid. 3. The chlorate does not all dissolve in the water. Between the chlorine and the glycerin. forming potassium sul- phate and hydrochloric acid. The water causes the separation of a small amount of inert matter from the fluid- extract. depending on the order of mixing. There is barely a sufficient amount of water to dissolve the chlorate at the ordinary temperature. 2. i merit Pharma INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS Ulli 189 glycyrrhizin. forming sulphuric and hydrochloric acids. forming ferrous sulphate and hydrochloric acid. On adding the sulphurous acid to the tincture of iron the mixture becomes of a much darker red color at first and then nearly colorless. The chlorate and acid react to form a chloride and sulphate. Between the potas- sium chlorate and the sulphurous acid. Different chemical reactions take place. Between the potassium chlorate and the hydrochloric acid in the tincture. 6. 5. . Between the chlorine and the ferrous sulphate. tast^ It would have been better if the prescriber had omitted the sul- phuric acid and directed a shake mixture. When the sulphurous acid is added to the solution of the sodium hypophosphite in the cinnamon water a turbidity results. After a day or two no odor of sulphurous acid can be detected. The glycerin may now be added and then the potassium chlorate dissolved in the water.

In the presence of a very large excess of the hypophos- phite the sulphur is further reduced to hydrogen sulphide. The tannic acid in the compound tincture of catechu precipitates the opium alkaloids.I go INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS due to the separation of free sulphur. a precipitate of the opium alka- loids with the laudanum. 111. This mixture gives a precipitate on standing. This gives a clear solution at first. On mixing these ingredients a blue black solution is ob- tained. The alcohol in the spirit probably throws it out of solution and the ethyl nitrite may change it to the sul- phate which is a little less soluble. Sodium sul- phite dissolves in about 2 parts of water but is nearly insoluble in alcohol. 108. This prescription should be dispensed without filtering but with a "shake well" label. but often on standing a heavy mass of crystals will form in a few hours. or small and dense if the water is hot. Ferrous sulphate as found in drug-stores nearly always con- . In solution lead subacetate with zinc sulphate gives a pre- cipitate of lead sulphate. light and bulky if the water used is cold. The exact reactions will vary with the method of filling. 110. Water precipitates resinous matter from the tinctures. a precipitate of lead tannate with the compound tincture of catechu . Zinc sulphate is partly precipitated as the tannateby the compound tincture of catechu. Any two of the ingredients can be dissolved in water without getting an appreciable precipitate. 109. The hypophosphite is oxidized to a phosphate and the sulphurous acid is reduced to sulphur. This is due to the presence of some ferric sulphate. An excess of the salt is liable to be used as it is fre- quently effloresced. The precipitate seems to be tannic acid which is salted out of solution by the chlorate and acid.

S. This change. and this added to the iron solution. 113. the syrup added. making a nearly clear color- less solution.. adding four grains of sodium thio- sulphate and two drops of sulphuric acid. caused by the oxidation of the iron by the air. In three days the solution had assumed a green color and in ten days it was blue black. The iodine is reduced by the tannic acid. astringent but colorless liquid not inky in taste. while the oxygen of the decomposed water combines with another portion of the tannic acid to form an insoluble compound. Tannic acid precipitates the zincsalt only slightly but does give a precipitate of morphine tannate and of lead tannate. due to the reaction between the . A blue white precipitate was formed. it can be filled without danger. 114. D. This mixture is capable of dissolving iodine. If strictly ferrous sulphate is used tannic acid gives no coloration with it. and a turbid mixture is made. This prescription was filled by dissolving the clear crystals of ferrous sulphate in water. Some lead chloride is formed. and boiling until all of the ferric iron was reduced to the ferrous. According to the U. Lead subacetate with zinc sulphate gives a precipitate of lead sulphate and with morphine muriate a precipitate of morphine alkaloid. but not completely. The sodium salicylate and benzoate and the carbolic acid were dissolved in the lime water. as shown by adding a drop of this solution to a solution of potassium sulphocyanide and getting no red color. A was obtained. would have taken place sooner if the bottle had been opened frequently. The tannic acid was dissolved in another portion of water. 112. and then the tannic acid was added. hydriodic acid is formed and combines with a portion of the tannic acid and remains in solution. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS tains some ferric sulphate. As this prescription is to be used locally.

Adding one or two drams of honey directly to the tincture in place of that much syrup helps to keep the precipitated matter finely divided. In this prescription there are several physiological incompatibilities. rendering an even dosage difficult. The writer failed to get a good solution in this way and the best he could do was to dissolve the acid in about 20 minims add five grains of soap. 44. 116. On standing the precipitating matter forms into masses. Two and one half grains of a so-called aconitine have been taken without ill effects. The water precipitates the resinous matter from the tincture. The precipitate afterwards slowly turned to a dirty yellow color. Drug. then petrolatum and make a shake mixture. then add the of water. The tannic acid in the tincture combines with the quinine to make the insoluble nearly tasteless quinine tannate. The dose of aconitine is entirely too large unless the par- ticular sample to be used has been proved to be comparatively inert. In . 117. A "Shake well" label should be put on the bottle. 118. 118) used liquid petrox to dissolve the acid. 115. \ The resinous matter in the tincture of myrrh is precipi- tated by the syrup. Nat. adding the tincture to the syrup in By small portions and shaking well after each addition the resin comes down in a form in which it can be more readily suspended in the liquid. dissolving it.1 92 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS tannic acid and lime water. Menthol and cocaine alkaloid will dissolve in liquid petrola- tum but tannic acid will not. but this is not satisfactory. The commencing dose of abso- lute aconitine should not be much over g|^ of a grain. In filling this the compounder (Dimmitt. while ^ j^ of a grain has been reported to have caused death. Tannic acid combines with the morphine to form a compound insoluble in water.

The compounder of this prescription stated that the mixture turned pink almost at once. and on standing for some time crystals were formed. dissolving this in about one half the water and the albumin in the remainder of the water. turning pink. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 193 action aconitine is more or less opposed to morphine. 121." (U. This is due to the insolubility of the inorganic salts in the alcohol. A turbidity resulted at once. a nearly clear solution can be obtained.) If this prescription were filled as directed it would be practically By adding three or four grains of inert. Adrenalin should not be dis- pensed in an alkaline mixture without first informing the pre- scriber that it is quickly rendered inert by alkalies. The presence of an equal weight or more of sodium or ammonium chloride prevents to a con- siderable extent the formation of the precipitate. This prescription was filled by dissolving the inorganic salts in the water and the camphor in the alcohol. Milk of magnesia is quite strongly alkalineand set free the base adrenalin which is readily oxidized by the air in an alkaline mixture. Morphine is to some extent antagonistic to atropine and strychnine. ammonium chloride to the mercuric chloride. 120. strychnine. The immediate change in color would rather indicate that the solution used had already become partly oxidized. and mixing these solutions. . 119. "By dissolv- ing one part of corrosive sublimate and a hundred parts of common salt in distilled water and evaporating to dryness a soluble double preparation is obtained which does not coagulate albumen. The tincture was added to the alcoholic solution and then the two solutions mixed. which throws them out of their aqueous solution. Mercuric chloride combines with albumin to form a com- pound insoluble in water. and atropine to strychnine. S. D. and belladonna.

precipitating the insoluble lead sulphate according to the following equation: 2Pb(C2 H3 2)2 3 H O + KA1(S0 2 4)2 i2H2 O = 2PbS04 + KC H 2 3 2 + A1(C H 2 3 2)3 + i5H2 0. 124. the red color being due to the action of spirit of nitrous ether on aloin. 123. Heroine is precipitated by corrosive sublimate. solution of potassium arsenite. The precipitate should not be filtered out. 125. resulting in the formation of the soluble ammonium acetate and the precipitation of a white basic carbonate of lead. On inquiry it was found that this prescription was for a horse. it may be dispensed. Alum. Chemical reaction takes place between the ammonium car- bonate and the acetic acid of the syrup of squills. It makes aturbid. deep red mixture. Care must be taken not to cork the bottle until effervescence has entirely ceased. Resorcin dissolves in this solution but destroys the fluorescence. All the lead is precipitated. and ammonium carbonate. liberating carbon dioxide. Mucilage of acacia is necessary in this prescription. 127. which is really a^arbonate and hydroxide combined in various proportions. Reaction takes place between the two chemicals. being a soluble sulphate. will react with the lead acetate. Mercuric chloride is pre- cipitated as calomel by the arsenite and as ammoniated mercury by the ammonium carbonate. Alumnol with water gives a clear solution with a blue fluores- cence. . As it is for external use.194 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 122. 126.

iodine. a granu- lar ointment is obtained and when it is rubbed between the fingers. When this prescription is filled as written. and in all probability the effect of the amyl nitrite is what is wanted. At the very first opportunity the physician should be informed of the omission. and slowly liberates carbon dioxide gas from ammonium carbon- ate. The bottle containing this mixture should not be stoppered tightly or it Infusion of digitalis is acid in reaction may be burst. masses of resinous matter separate. By so doing a much smoother ointment is made and there is practically no separation of liquid. Filled as written this prescription makes a thick mixture that will run. and on standing a liquid separates. The two salts were dissolved in separate portions of the syrup and then mixed. Balsam Peru consists essentially of an oily and a resinous of portion. 131. The prescription should not be dispensed as written. A turbidity resulted. The tartar emetic reduces the mercuric chloride to mercurous chloride. Amyl nitriteand potassium iodide in the presence of an acid give free nitric oxide. The amount of starch should be cut down to one third or one fourth of the amount and then boiled with the lime water. 130. As from the " - directions "Let it be dispensed quickly it seems to be an urgent case. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 195 128. the resinous part separates in a nearly solid form. due to formation of calomel. and amyl alcohol. 129. The oily part mixes fairly well with olein but the resinous part does not. 132. When balsam of Peru is shaken with olive or cottonseed oil. The lard in the . the potassium iodide should be omitted.

136. Their composition was undetermined. no red color is produced but on adding a mineral acid it is. v. Using petrolatum in place of lard in sulphur ointment makes a mixture that does not cause the resin to roll out when the ointment is rubbed on the skin. Or. This makes a clear solution but a crystalline precipitate begins to form within an hour and increases for some time. According to experiments made (Fin- nemore & Colverd. 289) this precipitate is a double compound of magnesium antipyrine salicylate. The antipyrine was dissolved in the syrup and added to the syrup of iodide of iron without producing any apparent change at After a day or two. 134. the liquid became dark first. 135. 133. If the bromide is dissolved in water and then added to the tincture of iron previously diluted with water no bromine is liberated. It is soluble in about thirty parts of water. These crystals grew as the liquid was allowed to stand. the preparation is stiffer and the resin is not separated so much.ig6 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS sulphur ointment acts the part of cottonseed or olive oil. red and a crystalline precipitate of a deep red color began to form. when a half of the petrolatum is replaced by beeswax. then the sali- cylate and then the antipyrine. Antipyrine gives an intense red coloration with the tincture of iron. however. It can be made by adding antipyrine to a solution of magnesium salicylate. taking up the oily portion of the balsam. 22. With tincture citrochloride of iron. Merck's Report. Free bromine is formed if the potassium bromide is added to the tincture and the free bromine combines with antipyrine. Antipyrine destroys the fluorescence of quinine . A mixture of these ingredients makes a clear colorless solu- tion at first. Magnesium sulphate was dissolved in water. p.

and cinnamon water. A mixture of all the ingredients makes a damp powder at first. but in a few hours it becomes almost liquid. This prescription was filled by mixing the first four in- gredients and putting into capsules and then dropping in the tincture. Pos- sibly there may be some dichloral antipyrine formed in this prescription. 137. commonly known as hypnal. or phenol with chloral hydrate gives a liquid insoluble in water. In this case there is more than enough of chloral for the antipyrine. Sodium bromide attracts moisture from the atmosphere. the capsules had been dissolved. . The trouble seems to be due to antipyrine. Borax acting on chloral hydrate gives chloroform. Antipyrine with phenol. A white amorphous precipitate forms in a day or two and increases in amount for some time. A large amount of drying powder is necessary. the proper pro- portions being 47 Gm. The next day the box in which the capsules were dispensed was brought back. The resinous matter in the fluidextracts is precipitated by the water. of chloral to 53 Gm. If the prescription is using distilled water instead of cinnamon water. Anti- pyrine with caffeine citrate makes a mixture that forms a sticky mass on standing a few hours. since a mixture of any two or three ingredients of the prescription other than the combina- tion mentioned does not precipitate. precipitation results. At least there is a separation of an oily liquid that does not solidify. sulphuric acid. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 197 sulphate. 139. An oily liquid separates. no filled. When chloral hydrate and antipyrine are brought together in concentrated solutions in the right proportions an oily liquid separates and upon standing forms crystals of monochloral antipyrine. 138. antipy- rine with chloral hydrate. of antipyrine.

prevents or hinders the precipitation of many of the metals by alkali hydroxides. so that in this prescription. 141. more especially where the iodine is in excess. Iodine 'with ammonia in excess forms chiefly ammonium iodide with a little ammonium iodate. Many samples of the hydrochloride are more or less green. At the end of twenty-four hours the mixture was strongly alkaline and still slightly colored. so far as physiological effect is concerned. honey. 142. Glycerin. This iodide of nitrogen is insoluble and is slowly precipitated as a dark brown solid. The ammonia will not precipitate the alkaloids of the . These ingredients make a clear dark red solution. forming ammonium chloride and ferric hydroxide.198 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 140. which changes to a red-straw color within five minutes. In an acid solution this takes place less quickly. The spirit of nitrous ether is an oxidizing agent and the change takes place quickly if the spirit has free nitric or nitrous acid in it. giving a green com- is pound. The red color is due largely to the tincture of iodine. If the ammonia is added and then the glycerin the to the tincture precipitated ferrichydroxide dissolves but slowly in the glycerin. acacia. and some other organic substances. as well as sugar. 143. In a mixture of ammonia and iodine there is some danger of the violently explosive iodide of nitrogen being formed. it would be about as well to use some ammonium iodide instead of tincture of iodine. Apormorphine very easily oxidized. There is enough of water and alcohol in the elixir to prevent the aromatic spirit of ammonia from throwing it out of solu- tion. Strychnine (free alkaloid) is soluble in 6420 parts of water. The ammonia water combines with the acid in the tincture of iron. The precipitation of the ferric hydroxide may be prevented by mixing the glycerin with the tincture before adding the ammonia.

The above mixture will not be clear. The first two ingredients are both disinfectants and oxi- dizing agents. The hydrogen dioxide oxidizes the ferrous iron to a ferric salt and the glycerin to glyceric. oxalic. because the oils in the aromatic spirit will be separated by the elixir. Usually there will sufficient to reduce all of the . and tartaric acids. which will rise and float on top. This prescription gives a heavy brown precipitate.7 grains. yet they react on each other. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 199 elixir of cinchona. In this case there will be a separation of camphor. The acid necessary for the reaction is usually present in the hydrogen dioxide water. If the dioxide water is official i fluid ounce con- tains about 13.7 grains of hydrogen dioxide. with the reduction of both. which would be permanganate. and in an acid solution reduces the bichromate to a green chromic salt. as a small amount is allowed to remain for preservation of the dioxide. This substitution would not be allowable without the preserver's consent. The amount is so small that it may be dis- regarded or filtered out. probably of a basic ferric salt. In the presence of free acid the bichromate oxidizes the ferrous sulphate and the glycerin. The amount of hydrogen dioxide which 20 grains of potassium permanganate would act upon is 10. how- ever. 146. 144. Soluble metallic frequently throw the volatile in- salts gredient of medicated or aromatic waters out of solution. If the spirit of ammonia were used instead of the aromatic spirit a clear dark red solution would be obtained. which is left in to preserve it. The chemical reaction is represented by the following equation: 2 KMn0 + 5H4 2 2 + 3H S0 2 4 = 502 + 8H 2 + K S0 + 2MnS0 2 4 4 . 145. The hydrogen dioxide usually contains some mineral acid.

there not being enough of acid to convert all into a salt. The hydrogen dioxide. 147. and yellow brown in a few days. Just what part the zinc sulphate played in this prescription was not determined. probably due to the reaction between the hydrogen dioxide and tannic acid. This mixture gives a nearly black precipitate and a brown black liquid. hydrogen dioxide. forming the in- soluble silver iodide. but in this case the pre- scriber wanted the solid matter left in. glyc- erin. getting brown black by the next morning. The solution marked . By adding a grain or two of sodium bicarbonate to neutralize the acid some of the change can be prevented. Label: Let it be applied to the affected parts night and morning. and water showed no change on standing several days but when a mixture of these contained zinc sulphate it ac- quired a yellow to a yellow 'brown color and became turbid after some tune. Bismuth subsalicylate is white. water and zinc sulphate begins to color in a few minutes. It per- haps acted only as a carrier or perhaps as a decomposer of the hydrogen dioxide. continuing to get darker. 149. A precipitate forms and in- creases on standing. A mixture of carbolic acid. insoluble in the solution and remains suspended for a few minutes. Several experiments were made to determine what agents caused the change. The directions are: Let them be mixed by vigorous shaking. Hydrogen dioxide is said to oxidize carbolic acid to pyrocatechin and hydroquinone and to oxidize glycerin to glyceric. 148. Some gas is slowly evolved. customary to filter all preparations It is intended to be dropped into the eyes. Reaction takes place between silver nitrate and potassium iodide. oxalic. The insoluble matter turns yellow in a few hours. When the two prescriptions are mixed in the proportions as directed the resultis almost a mass.200 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS be a precipitate of manganese dioxide. and tartaric acids.

i. 151. which converts the alkaloid into a salt. The dispenser can acidify the sodium phosphate with a little dilute nitric or phosphoric acid or the physician should rewrite the prescription. The extract should not be used as it . There will be a little silver permanganate thrown out of solution. 213. is decomposed by light and also by heat. which is insoluble in a neutral aqueous liquid. In this prescription the silver is not all precipitated. The carbonate in the solution of potassium arsenite pre- cipitates the yellow white silver carbonate. When the cocaine is mixed with the solution of silver nitrate itgives a black precipitate of silver oxide. The yellow white precipi- tate becomes dark on standing for a day. Yellow silver phosphate is precipitated. A better method of filling would be to use the cocaine hydrochloride and follow the directions under No. forming yellow silver arsenite. 152. This salt.containing silver nitrate. 153. the solution can be mixed with the silver nitrate without any precipitation. 2 turned yellow in a few days. due to the reduction of silver. An organic suspend- ing agent is not admissible because it would reduce the silver. with the formation of silver oxide or metallic silver or both. This reduction continued for some time. The prescriber has plainly indicated that he wishes the extract only as an excipient. 154. The arsenic also combines with the silver. it being soluble in 109 parts of water. like other silver salts. precipitation can be prevented. By slightly acidifying Fowler's solution with nitric acid. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 2OI No. If the cocaine is first dissolved in water with the aid of a little dilute nitric acid. Solution No. 150. began to darken within an hour.

using kaolin also as a dusting powder. . forming the nearly insoluble quinine salicylate. 155. The salt. The silver powdered and then massed with petrolatum or nitrate should be wool fat and kaolin. Had the prescriber used the solu- tion of arsenous acid instead of potassium arsenite no trouble would have resulted. An arsenite in an alkaline solution reduces mercuric chloride to mercurous chloride and in excess to metallic mercury. When and creosote are triturated together there silver oxide is great danger an of explosion. depending on the order of mixing. i. Wool fat makes a more adhesive mass than petrolatum. 157. 156. which has been previously mixed with liquorice root. The mass should not be rubbed hard and should be kept cool. It has been proposed to mix the creosote with powdered soap and then with the oxide. In making Fowler's solution the excess of potassium bi- carbonate used is changed to the carbonate by boiling and the ' carbonate makes the solution alkaline. The silver nitrate can be massed with some petrolatum and kaolin and put into No. In this prescription there may be a red brown precipitate of the oxychloride of mercury but more generally a white precipitate of calomel forms. 158. The compounder should neutralize the Fowler's solution with hydrochloric acid before adding to the solution of mercuric chloride. The sodium salicylate combines with the quinine 2. Potassium carbonate precipitates a solution of mercuric chloride as the basic mer- curic chloride.202 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS quickly reduces the silver to the metallic form. Powdered opium reduces silver nitrate quickly. Several chemical reactions take place. 5 capsules and these together with the opium into larger capsules. The quinine sulphate is not all dissolved by the elixir.

The tannin in the tincture will make a black mixture with the iron. In filling this. To avoid the precipitations noted above the solution of potassium arsenite should first be neutralized with hydrochloric acid. The . INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 203 quinine sulphate forms with the mercuric chloride a double compound which is insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol. little or no precipitation takes place. If the Fowler's solution is added to the solution of dialyzed iron ferric hydroxide is precipitated. and this combines with the arsenic to form an insoluble basic ferric arsenite. Some samples are sufficiently acid to prevent any precipitation by Fowler's solution. But if it is nearly neutral. Ifthe solution of dialyzed iron has been improperly made and is strongly acid no precipitation occurs. according to the order of mixing the ingredients. Though liquid at first the mixture may gelatinize after several days. 160. In this particular instance there is not enough of alcohol in the elixir to dissolve it. 159. as it should be. Syrup or water added to the tincture of cinchona causes a turbidity. ferric hydroxide is precipitated by the The ferric hydroxide forms alkali that is in Fowler's solution. Sugar to some extent acts as a solvent for the ferric hydroxide. Different results are obtained. The quinine is also precipitated as the free alkaloid by the alkali in Fowler's solution. 4. but in this prescription there is not enough to make any trouble. Solu- tion of dialyzed iron varies considerably in the amount of acidity which it has. But if the syrup is added to the iron and the Fowler's solution is diluted a little with water and then added to the iron. 3. The Fowler's solution should be neutralized with a little acid. which to some extent changes to ferrous arsenate. An alkaline solution potassium arsenite reduces mercuric chloride to of calomel. There is some danger of the strychnine being precipitated by the alkali in the Fowler's solution. quite a bulky precipitate results. with the arsenic an insoluble compound of basic ferric arsenite. if properly made it is nearly neutral.

slowly precipitates the strychnine. 164. however. Pharm. as it is soluble in 136 parts of alcohol. but it will be held in solution by the alcohol until the infusion is added. If the Fowler's solution is added to the tincture of nux vomica the alkali in the solution will liberate the free alkaloid strychnine. Fowler's solution con- potassium arsenite. According to the National Formulary. The strychnine will not be precipitated. 161. 163. and the prescription can be filled without difficulty. The Fowler's solution should be neutralized before using. If there is an excess of the alkaline carbonate the strychnine will be liberated as the free alkaloid. The difficulty is to get the arsenous acid into solution. The solution of potassium arsenite. Label: Let a teaspoonful be taken after dinner. 301) suggests the use of the component . This carbonate will react with the acetic acid. besides the ate or carbonate (formed by the boiling of the bicarbonate in water). forming a soluble salt. but the infusion of cin- chona contains sulphuricacid. 162. xx. With the addition of most infusions the alkaloids would be precipitated. together with some acetic acid. As this prescription is written it would make a dangerous mixture. If the solution of arsenous acid were directed instead of Fowler's solution there would be no danger and the physiological effect would be the same. Hall's solution of strychnine contains TV f a grain of strychnine acetate to the dram. The water of the infusion will precipitate some of the inert matter from the tincture. some potassium bicarbon- tains..204 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS directions translated into English are: Mix. being alkaline. Hyn- son (Bui. liberat- ing a little carbon dioxide and forming potassium acetate. which combines with the alka- loids.

The pills should be dispensed in a bottle protected from the atmosphere otherwise they will become soft. The pre- scriber should be consulted. is not over ^o of a grain. which. A little precipitate slowly forms on account of the boro-salicylic acid acting on the alkaloids. previously triturated with some sugar of milk. By dissolving the arsenous acid in the solution of iron and then adding the alcoholic solution of the bichloride and strychnine a clear solution is obtained. each pill would contain about seven grains of medicinal matter. which are alcohol and solution of ferric chloride. considering the bulky quinine sulphate and extract of gentian. added. twice as many pills are sometimes made as directed and then the number to be taken at one time is doubled. The maximum dose of each. 166. Next add the mass of iron and if necessary a little water. This mixture is slightly acid. Where such a large pill is prescribed. This prescription should not be dispensed on account of the excessive doses of atropine and strychnine. the salicylic acid more than neutralizing the alkalinity of the borax. 167. The free alkaloid is soluble in about 38 parts of olive oil. The dose of the arsenic and of the strychnine is between y and ^ of a grain in this prescription. such as althaea. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 205 parts of the tincture. Moreover. and then the arsenic. It should be powdered with some absorbent powder. The physician should be notified of the change. makes a very large pill. This is a principle that can be used to great advantage sometimes. The potassium carbonate is deliquescent. 165. Atropine sulphate is nearly insoluble in fixed oils. as generally given. and this is what should be used in filling this prescription. . 168.

decom- posed in pure water. KIAuI3 then a . brown.206 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 169. very unstable. 6th ed. which is quickly soluble in small excess of the reagent as a colored solution. and when equivalent proportions have been reached. there is first a dark green solution of potassio-auric iodide. Aul. Reaction takes place between the gold chloride and the potassium iodide. the precipitate is accompanied with separation of free iodine. 172. It is also easily reduced by many other inorganic compounds as well as by organic matter and light.. (Pres- cott and Johnson's Qualitative Chemical Analysis. insoluble in water. soluble in large excess of the reagent. The and potassium iodide tincture of iodine contains iodine dissolved in alcohol. The physician should be notified of the change which takes place. But the minute dose of atro- pine in this prescription assists rather than diminishes the action of morphine by relieving the cardiac depression.) Probably the organic matter present also tends to the reduction and precipitation of the gold. No apparent change takes place at first but in less than four hours a yellow brown precipitate of metallic gold forms." forming the yellow aurous iodide. 171. The arsenous acid reduces the gold chloride. Gold and sodium chloride precipitates the sulphates of atropine and strychnine and the alkaloids in cinchona. In medium-sized medicinal doses morphine and atropine are physiologically incompatible. indigestion. There . Only a very small amount of menthol is dissolved. "Potassium iodide. so that the latter is in excess at the point of chemical change. added in small portions to a solution of auric chloride (so that the latter is constantly in excess where the two salts are in contact). and constipation. dark green precipitate of auric iodide. But on gradually adding auric chloride to solution of potassic iodide. 170. 92. gives a yellow precipitate of aurous iodide.

the action of the pepsin will not be destroyed. This precipitate is bismuth citrate. the hydrochloric acid breaking up the double salt and combining . and while this solution makes a clear one with the strychnine at first yet on standing over night the strychnine is precipitated. and in that case an overdose is liable to be taken. At best the solution of this salt is usually slightly alkaline. the hydrochloric acid is used in alkali. Rubbing the ingredients with separate portions of lard and then these together seems not to prevent the reaction between the exalgin and naphthol. 175. Water precipitates inert matter from the fluidextract. 174. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 207 isabout thirty per cent of alcohol present but not enough to prevent precipitation. The gold may be reduced on standing for some time. The strychnine frequently adheres to the sides of the bottle. By dissolving the gold and sodium chloride in waterand adding an equal weight of sodium thio- sulphate a compound is formed that does not precipitate the alkaloids from this mixture. however. There is not enough of alcohol in the saccharin solution to prevent it. The prescription was filled by replacing one half the lard by that amount of simple cerate. Sodium bicarbonate is used in making the solution of sac- charin. but may be loose. but a precipitation will take place. Atropine and strychnine are somewhat an- tagonistic in their physiological action. Anold specimen of bismuth and ammonium citrate is gener- ally not entirely soluble in water unless a little ammonia water is added. 173. When the two ingredients are rubbed together a liquid first is produced. dissolving the pepsin in water and this solution added to the bismuth and ammonium citrate dissolved in the balance of the water. and this mixed with the lard makes a very thin oint- ment in warm weather. and the pepsin on being added to this is rendered inert by the If.

requiring several hours for comple- tion. According to Watts' Dictionary. A "Shake well" label is necessary. F. The aromatic spirit of ammonia precipitates the zinc as zinc carbonate. In massing these two chemicals with an excipient containing water reaction takes place. The bismuth insoluble in the syrup. with the liberation of carbon dioxide. the oxyiodide of bismuth is copper-colored and the bismuth iodide is a brilliant gray. which causes the mass to swell to several times its original size. due to the presence of ammonium carbonate. 178. Bismuth sub- nitrate white. This glycerite is acid to litmus and can be mixed with pepsin without injury to the pepsin but hydrochloric acid cannot be added to the glycerite without precipitating the bismuth. 177. liberating carbon dioxide. as is evidenced by the change in color. The carbonate may be slowly decomposed by the bismuth subnitrate. . By using glycerite of starch little or no trouble is experienced. By using four fluid drams of the N. glycerite of bismuth about the same amount of bismuth is taken. Syrup is sufficiently viscid to keep the insoluble matter in sus- pension while pouring out a dose. on mixing is it with the syrup the color becomes yellow and quickly turns to a grayish black. but a subnitrate is chemical reaction takes place between it and the hydriodic acid. The bismuth subnitrate is not dissolved. The tragacanth is best rubbed up with one fourth to one half of the water gradually added until the lumps are all rubbed out. as one or the other loses much of its activity. 176. Pepsin should not be prescribed with bismuth and ammonium citrate. This reaction goes on slowly. and the mass should not be made into pills until the reac- tion has been completed. 179. which might burst the bottle if tightly corked.208 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS with the ammonia.

In order to avoid making any more liquid than was necessary the corresponding amount of solid iodine was used in place of the tincture. When camphor and carbolic acid are brought together a liquid results. The iodine dissolved readily in the phenol-camphor liquid and then the powdered lead acetate was added. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 209 Then rub in the quinine. and the cam- phor powdered and mixed with the syrup and then with the solution of chloral. and this shaken with the syrup and water. The chloral hydrate may be dissolved in the water. the chloral going into solution and the . Potassium iodide in the above proportions gives a yellow iodide of bismuth and the mixture becomes orange on standing. The camphor will rise to the top. Starch was then used together with some glucose syrup so as to form the easily decomposed iodide of starch. The oily chloral-camphor does not dissolve in the water. One half the amount of tragacanth called for will be sufficient to suspend the bismuth. This made the pills very large and they were finally put into capsules. This makes a thick yellowish mixture. Ordinarily bis- muth subnitrate with mucilage of tragacanth gives stringy masses but filled as above these are rubbed out. 181. but the amount required made the pills entirely too large. and lastly the rest of the water. Even on mixing them in smaller amounts the chemical reaction is quite violent. bismuth. There are white fumes given off and the mixture is turned brown. This prescription can be filled in one of two ways. and iodide. There is some danger an explosion in mixing of causing these two chemicals. The odor of chlorine is soon lost. Chlorine oxidizes glycerin to oxalic and carbonic acids with intermediate products. 182. Kaolin was tried as an absorbent excipient. but seems to be decomposed by it. 180. Or the camphor may be triturated with the chloral hydrate until liquefied.

Tincture of guaiac if freshly prepared may color acacia blue. 185. In either case the mixture is a difficult one to pour so as to get an even dose of the camphor. 183. 184.. the cocaine can be readily mixed with the oily liquid. Resinous matter and the oils in the tincture are thrown out of solution by the water. If about fifteen grains of powdered soap are then added and a little drying powder if necessary. Carbon dioxide will be generated by the sulphuric acid and the potassium bicarbonate. . which is 5 decigrams or one half of a gram. which is nearly insoluble. the pills becoming hard in an hour or two. but to get it into solution the free alkaloid should be used. a mass can be made. or rubbing the camphor with acacia. which is undoubtedly a mistake. This will not dissolve all of the cocaine hydrochloride for which the prescription calls. When the first two ingredients are rubbed together the liquid chloral camphor is formed.210 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS camphor coming to the top as a soft white solid. But if the acetanilid and salol are rubbed together first and then the camphor added a damp powder is obtained. There is a sufficient amount of the bicarbonate to neutralize all of the acid and also to liberate quinine as free alkaloid. Triturating salol and monobromated camphor together produces a liquid. A more elegant prepara- tion would be made by dissolving the camphor in a little ex- pressed oil of almonds and then emulsifying it with acacia. 5 Dg. is 5 dekagrams or 50 grams. There seems to be no difference in the final result as to which method of filling is used. It will also liberateammonia from the ammonium carbonate in the aromatic spirit of ammonia used as the menstruum in making the tincture. The prescriber probably meant 5 dg. That being the case.

189. To this was added the first solution. and boric acids. and what- ever of these may have been dissolved by the glycerin is thrown " out of solution by the water. A Shake" label is necessary. which combines with the ammonium of the ammonium carbonate. The syrup of garlic contains acetic acid. The bottle containing this mixture burst. due to the libera- tion of carbon dioxide. salicylic and benzoic acids in water. This makes a clear solution at first but on standing a reddish precipitate forms and adheres to the bottle. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 211 186. then the eucalyp- tol. liberating carbon dioxide. If water is a part of the excipient. and the oil of wintergreen were added. nor does the oil of wintergreen. This was filled by dissolving the sodium bicarbonate. the latter being formed by the action of glycerin on borax. but is separated on the addition of water. It is also liberated by the iron salt which is often a little acid. benzoic. the glycerin. After allowing the mixture to stand an oily liquid separated. 187. The oily liquid formed by the menthol and thymol does not make a clear solution with glycerin. If glycerite of starch or similar excipient is used no trouble will be experienced. An occa- sional shaking for an hour or two before sending out this prescrip- tion will get rid of much of the gas. Solutions of magnesium sulphate and potassium bicarbonate when shaken together give carbon di- oxide. The thymol and menthol were rubbed together until a liquid resulted. rising to the top. Eucalyptol makes a clear mixture with glycerin. Effervescence is due to a reaction between the bicarbonate and the salicylic. the pills are liable to swell on account of slow liberation of carbon dioxide. borax. The reaction should be completed before the . 188. Rhubarb contains considerable tannic acid.

If there is not more than about ten grains of chloral hydrate and ten grains of potassium bromide in a dram of the solution there is but little danger of the chloral alcoholate separating. Several cases have been reported where alarming symptoms have been caused by the taking of a tea- spoonful of chloral alcoholate. such as sodium bromide or sodium chloride. formed from the This oily liquid chloral hydrate and the alcohol of the elixir. Just what part the potassium bromide takes in the reaction seems not to be well understood. Chloral alcoholate is more soluble in alcohol than it is in water. The wine of pepsin of the National Formulary contains hydrochloric acid and the syrup of ipecac contains acetic acid. . On filling a similar combination. two ingredients are dissolved in separate portions If the first of the elixirand then mixed a clear solution results. unless it be to render the alcoholate less soluble in the elixir. This. or the pressure of the gas is formed may be sufficient to burst the bottle. and the liquid separates into two layers. 191. the upper one having somewhat of an oily appear- ance. for the pressure of the gas might burst the bottle. becomes turbid in a few minutes. act in a similar way. ifa turbidity results the mixture should be kept until it can be determined whether there will be a separation into two layers. how- ever. In the reaction carbon dioxide is given off and the bottle must not be corked until the reaction is complete. Other inorganic salts. is chloral alcoholate.and by the addition of a more little alcohol the separation of the two fluids can sometimes be pre- vented. 190. thereby destroying the activity of the pepsin. then remedied by adding a little alcohol or putting on a "Shake well" label. There is a sufficient amount of ammonium carbonate to neutralize both of these acids and render the solution alkaline. and if so. This prescription when rilled as written may be con- sidered a dangerous one.212 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS bottle containing the solution corked.

and in concentrated solutions form a crystalline compound which is not very soluble in water (M. The phenacetin and quinine can be mixed and put into the capsules and then the chloral hydrate. Chloral hydrate rubbed with phenacetin gives a liquid. to this solution add the alcohol and then the water containing the bromide. . Some precipitate will form but it can be readily diffused through the liquid by agitation. Absorbent powder is hardly admissible. 193. a sticky mass is also obtained when chloral hydrate is rubbed with quinine sulphate. The best way is to make a very strong aqueous solution of the chloral hydrate and this will dissolve the extracts. 194. but the ointment ultimately becomes brown. 4). By dissolving the chloral and bromide in water and then adding the quinine a mixture is produced which on standing gets almost too thick to pour. the latter solution to be added slowly with constant stirring. n. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 21$ 192.. as each capsule contains fifteen grains of medicinal matter. 195. When the two ingredients are rubbed together in a first mortar chemical reaction takes place with enough violence to amount almost to an explosion. The trouble in filling this prescription comes in getting the extracts into solution. Rub- bing them together in the presence of water gives about the same result. If the two chemicals are powdered separately and then mixed together lightly the change is slower and the mixture gradually turns brown. Rubbing chloral hydrate and quinine sulphate together in a mortar gives a sticky mass which is insoluble in water. and there is an evolution of a large volume of white fumes. If mixed with separate portions of the cerate and then these mixed the reaction is retarded. & M. Chloral hydrate and potassium cyanide form dichloro-acetic acid.

The amount of chlorine formed will depend upon the order of mixing the ingredients. If the potassium chlorate and hydro- chloric acid are mixed and then the water added a yellow liquid containing much free chlorine with oxides of chlorine will result. the salt is first and then hydro- dissolved in water chloric acid added the amount of chlorine formed will be small. If the ingredients are powdered separately and then mixed lightly together there will probably be no danger of explosion. This pre- scription will give a bluish green mixture. Although this may be considered a rather dangerous prescription it has been filled and taken with- out apparent ill effect. and then the bottle should be loosely stoppered for a time before giving to the patient. The physician should indicate which is wanted. But when taken into the stomach the potassium chlorate with the hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice may oxidize the calomel. forming mercuric chloride. chlorine will be formed. 198. Or if the chlorate be added to the solution of ferric chloride.214 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 196. 197. however. which will turn to a yellowish orange in a day or two. This latter change is prob- . If the potassium chlorate isrubbed with the glycerin explosion is liable to take place. con- verting it into oxalic and carbonic acids. and this will act upon the glycerin. There is considerable danger of having a sudden production of gas in attempting to fill this and there have been such cases reported. 199. and no chemical reaction will take place while the powder is dry. although it has been dispensed many times. This color is destroyed by excess of acid or by alcohol. Tincture of iron not too strongly acid will give a color if varying from a blue to a dirty green with morphine. which always contains some free hydrochloric acid.. The chlorate is not entirely dissolved. If. In filling this the temperature should not go above 70 F.

There is not enough water to dissolve all of the chlorate. 203. Potassium chlorate forms an explosive mixture with each of the three other ingredients.thoroughly washed with water. It was filtered out. There is a sufficient amount of water to dissolve the potas- sium salts and the solution remains clear for a time after the spirit isadded. If the two are rubbed together with some force slight crackling explosions take place. The part left undissolved is probably some oxidation product of carbolic acid. If the directions to rub these solids together be followed an explosion will probably result. The color soon changed to brown. With a little care on the part of the pharmacist and patient no ill results will follow from this combination. The amount of precipitate continued to increase for some time. produced by the chlorine liberatedby the acid in the tincture acting on the potassium chlorate. Some pharmacists would decline to fill this . part went into solu- tion and part remained undissolved. The alcohol in the spirit throws the potassium chlorate out of solution. and heated with water acidulated with hydrochloric acid. A sharp blow would probably cause serious results. Chlorine turns a morphine solution orange color. 202. A clear solution was obtained which had at first a dark violet color. however. The patient should be cautioned. The filtrate showed the presence of iron. 201. and in a few hours a dark brown precipitate began to form. Each substance should be powdered separately and all mixed together lightly. before crystals begin to separate. Each ingredient should be powdered separately and then mixed lightly with the other. It is not long. 200. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 215 ably due partly to the slow formation of chlorine by the action of the hydrochloric acid in the tincture on the potassium chlorate.

and aromatic spirit of ammonia mixed make a clear solution. There is no danger of the morphine being precipitated. a precipitatevery slowly forms after the addition of the chloroform. alcohol'. although the free alkaloid is formed by the ammonia. however. While there is sufficient water to dissolve the two salts and the acid. there is enough of " alcohol and chloroform to keep it in solution. If filled. Amixture of thymol. the patient should be in- formed of the nature of the mixture and cautioned to keep it where there will be no danger of its receiving a blow between two hard surfaces. but on the addition of the tincture and the whiskey the oil and chloroform are thrown out of the solution. Sodium bicarbonate requires 10 parts of water for solution. and ammonia a light green clear solution is formed at once. The oil. Carbolic acid does not liberate carbon dioxide from the sodium bicarbonate. and on standing the mixture separates into two clear layers the lower one being chloroform and oil. bicarbonate in water heat should not be used. to the throwing out of solution some of the bicarbonate by the chloroform. because carbon dioxide is liberated.2l6 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS prescription. spirit of camphor. but acquires a decided though not deep green color on standing for a week. alcohol. On allowing it to stand of a a day an oily fluid separates from the dark green solution in little round globules. 206. If the chlorinated soda solution is added to a mixture of thymol. In dissolving sodium dissolved. chloroform. probably. These globules are black in appearance. The chloroform is not all but sinks to the bottom. and ammonia is colorless at first. due. 205. Within ten minutes this becomes slightly turbid and deep green color. A "Shake well label should be used. 204. forming the normal sodium carbonate. for. but when broken up into very small ones they are blue red or purple .

The reaction is very violent. but no explanation is given nor intimation of the chemical change which takes place. Salicylic acid and resorcin dissolve in the collodion. 208. 211. the color gradually deepening. it oxidizes alcohol to aldehyde and acetic acid. The chromic and cocaine hydrochloride were dissolved acid dram for each. in. A heavy yellow sticky precipitate formed which made a mass. The prescription cannot well be dispensed as written. Probably a part of the calomel is reduced to metallic mercury. The addition of an acid turns Mention it red. It is necessary to use about twelve drams of water to get a clear solution and then it may precipitate on standing for a time. p. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 217 in color. and a turbidity is produced. This oily liquid has nearly the same specific gravity as the aqueous liquid. The prescription should not be filled. 207. Chromic acid oxidizes glycerin to oxalic and carbonic acids. and also in Muir and Morley's edition of Watts' Dictionary (vol. It requires 16 parts of ether and 385 parts of alcohol for solution. 210. using one solutions were mixed. 832). 209. Alcohol or glycerin cannot be used with chromic acid. There is great danger of causing an explosion or igniting the organic matter in filling this prescription. and . and these in separate portions of water.. This mixture quickly becomes blue. When calomel and cocaine hydrochloride are triturated together a gray mixture results. which gives the gray color. The chromic acid is changed to an insoluble oxide of chromium. is made of this change in Allen's Organic Analysis. Chrys- arobin only partially dissolves and is difficult to mix with collo- dion after standing in the bottle for a time.

The alcohol in the tincture is not present in sufficient amount to dissolve all of the morphine sul- phate. the free alkaloids are much more soluble in ether or chloroform than are their salts. 213. Mixing a solution of silver nitrate with a solution of cocaine hydrochloride produces a white precipitate of silver chloride. 214. Cocaine hydrochloride is insoluble in ether and soluble in 3. to inquire the age of the patient and the fre- quency of the dose. If he does not have it he can make it by dissolving the one grain of cocaine hydro- chloride in a little water and adding one half a grain of silver nitrate in a little water. The pharmacist should use cocaine nitrate. 3. It would be well. and insoluble in ether.5 parts of water. Thetrouble with this prescription is to get into and to keep in solution the two alkaloidal salts. 12. If this is filtered out about one half of the silver is removed. The precipitate can then be filtered out and the requisite amount of silver nitrate added. and the ether and chloroform would throw out about all that the alcohol dissolves. 212. is and con- sequently in collodion and this should be used. this salt will not dissolve in it. 565 parts of alcohol. As collodion is made up of 3volumes of ether to i of alcohol. Morphine sulphate is soluble in 15. Cocaine hydrochloride is soluble in 0.5 parts of chloroform. the pepsin giving sufficient adhesive qualities.2 parts of alcohol.2l8 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS another part is oxidized to mercuric chloride. but mor- . The free alkaloid cocaine readily soluble in alcohol or ether. As the amount in each pill of the mercuric chloride formed is within the limits of the dose of that substance. This makes cocaine nitrate and silver chloride.4 parts of water. the pills may be dispensed. By the addition of about five grains of starch or liquorice root and a little water a suitable pill-mass can be made. As a rule.2 parts of alcohol. and nearly insoluble in ether or chloroform. however.

and it can hardly be expected that the dispenser will know and remember such complicated formulas as the first one and of a compound which is used com- paratively seldom. It is im- possible to get the morphine sulphate or the free alkaloid into solution. Cocaine alkaloid somewhat soluble in liquid petrolatum. 215. Morphine dissolves in 210 parts of is alcohol (not enough in the two ounces of the tincture to dissolve the amount that would correspond to 15 grains of the sulphate). . 216. After several days. in 6250 parts of ether. Using forty-five minims of acid with little heat gives a good prepara- a tion. Potassium iodide pre- cipitates quite a number of the alkaloids from their solutions. 217. Ci H iN0 is 8 2 3 codeine. C 3 H8 3 is glycerin. there was a deposit of very fine crystals. Evidently the prescriber wished to air a little of his knowledge or then had some kind of an agreement with a certain pharmacist to fill his prescriptions. This precipitation can be prevented by having a small amount of alcohol present. without any precipitation occurring at once. The compounder (Dimmitt) filled it by dissolving the alkaloid in alittle oleic acid and adding this to the liquid petrolatum with which it makes a clear mixture. and H 2 is water. The prescription should not be dispensed. It is unusual to employ the chemical symbols in writing prescriptions. cocaine hydrochloride does not dissolve. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 219 phine an exception. or 1220 parts of chloroform. The free alkaloid cocaine should be used as it is soluble in the liquid petrolatum called for. is requiring about 75 to 100 parts. This prescription was filled by dissolving the codeine in the glycerin and part of the water. but not in the proportion given in this prescription. Camphor and menthol dissolve in liquid petrolatum. however. The iodide was dissolved in the remainder of the water and the two solutions mixed. KI is potassium iodide.

collodion. and stronger ammonia water are prescribed. Codeine is strongly basic and liberates ammonia from a solution of ammonium This can be readily proved chloride. Sometimes equal volumes of tincture of iodine. should be used. S. no coagulation is produced on adding ammonia water. This prescription becomes nearly or entirely colorless in a few days. so that in the presence of the ammonia which is formed in this prescription there is some danger of the morphine being precipitated. The coagulum is the gun-cotton thrown out of solution. . If the tincture of iodine contains an iodide as the U. If the tincture is a solution of iodine in alcohol without an iodide the collodion is coagulated and on adding ammonia this goes into solution in a day or two. This mixture makes a solid mass which cannot be applied with a brush. A slight precipitate makes its appearance after some hours and gradually increases. but the morphine is not nearly all thrown out of solution. When there is a deficient amount of am- monia some explosive iodide of nitrogen is liable to be formed. as the sulphate. P. The tincture of iodine and the collodion mix without any : trouble or any reduction of the iod ne even on standing for several days.220 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 218. 220. by suspending wet red litmus paper in the bottle over the liquid. tincture now does. A gelatinous mass which possibly might be ap- plied with a brush is obtained when one half of the collodion is replaced by alcohol. Codeine also liberates morphine from its salt. The ammonia changes ammonium iodide chiefly and a small amount of the iodine to ammonium iodate. A salt of codeine. In this case some coag- ulum is formed but dissolves in a few hours and the solution be- comes yellow by the next day. 219.

To make a presentable mixture some emulsifying agent must be used. But on adding the syrup to this mixture the resinous matter from the fluidextract and tincture is precipitated. a little water aids the reaction and it may be necessary to use the heat of a water- bath. All of the ingredients except the syrup can be mixed without producing much turbidity. but the syrup and glycerin are viscid enough to hold it in suspension for some little time. of alcohol. There is no effervescence at first. but if the bottle is tightly corked it may be burst by the gas which is slowly evolved. although it On the further addition of glycerin the mixture was made more turbid and the syrup when added threw out of solution most of the copaiba. . A mixture of these ingredients quite quickly separates into two layers. It " should be dispensed with a Shake well" label. The copaiba when mixed with the tinctures does not make a clear solution. 222. and camphor are separated. so that the patient can get a uniform dose. The N. pills Freshly calcined magnesia dampened with a water little is the best. as it requires from three to four times its amount is readily soluble in absolute alcohol. the lower one being about one fourth the total volume. and the copaiba. There is not sufficient alcohol to dissolve the other liquids. An absorbent excipient is necessary in order to make a pill-mass. 224. oil of turpentine. 223. F. mass of copaiba can be used. as it is only necessary to use six or eight grains. The magnesia combines with the copaibic acid in the oleoresin to form a solid mass. On standing the copaiba rises to the top. which had been dissolved by the alcohol of the tinctures. To use a powder like liquorice root or althaea would make the too large. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 221 221.

In case the prescriber cannot be reached and seems urgent that the prescription should be filled the it quantities can be reduced to grains and the prescriber notified at the earliest opportunity. Creolin is said to be an emulsion of cresol.222 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS caused by decomposition of the spirit. some authorities giving it as high as three. The liquid becomes red brown on standing. the pharmacist might be justified in declining to fill it until he has consulted the prescriber. . an attempt was made to filter it. It forms a milky emulsion or mixture with water. obtained by means of resin soap. or ascertained that it is an urgent case. Part of the creolin separates on standing. As this is an eye-lotion and not clear. Probably the prescriber meant grains instead of drams. as it would cause intense irritation. This prescription may be filled by dissolving the acid in the water and adding the creolin slowly with constant shaking. In this prescription it is five minims. 227. Taking into consideration the frequency of the dose and that digitalis is cumulative. 228. but with the result of separating " nearly all of the creolin. 225. but it may be readily mixed by agitation. The usual maximum dose of the fluidextract of digitalis is two minims. This solution has a much larger proportion of active in- gredients than is usually prescribed in an eye-wash. The mixture is not clear at best but can be dis- pensed with a shake label. 226. It should not be dispensed without consulting the physician. It should be dispensed with a Shake well" label. Ergotin does not mix well with alcohol and should be rubbed up with a little water first and then triturated thoroughly with the tincture.

and as two of the ingredients are liquids. The U. 230. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 22$ 229. and at the same time a larger amount of medicinal matter can be taken. forming sodium phosphate and citric acid. If it is a mixture the ex- planation given is that the sodium citrate is readily soluble in water and an aqueous solution of it is a good solvent for the ferric phosphate. S. This combination has perhaps caused more trouble than almost any other one prescription. 231. in the form of capsules than in a pill. By dilut- ing the acid with twice its weight of powdered althaea and then with the other ingredients a fair powder can be obtained. phosphate of iron may be a double compound of sodio-ferric citro-phos- phate or it may be a mixture of phosphate and sodium ferric citrate. being . Prob- ably the best way would be to put the ingredients into capsules. if the mixture is to be used internally. If it is the double compound (and there are reasons for thinking that it is) the phosphoric acid decomposes it. of course increasing the number to be taken at a dose. separating the acid from the exalgin by the phenacetin and cocaine. This pre- scription should either be put into capsules or be made into two or three times as many pills as directed. Now when phosphoric acid is added it is supposed that the sodium citrate is decomposed. A smaller amount of excipient can be used. pre- cipitating the phosphate of iron. the ferric phosphate. P. it would require a large amount of an absorbent powder to make a mass and the would pills be entirely too large. This prescription would make pills weighing nearly eight grains each even though no excipient is used. The with this prescription is that triturating the difficulty salicylic acid with the exalgin produces a soft sticky mass which is unfit for dispensing in powders. Even by mixing all of the other ingredients except the acid and adding it last and then mixing lightly on paper the mixture becomes sticky.

When quinine sul- phate present in a much larger proportion than two grains to is the dram a precipitation of the quinine by the ortho. the sulphuric acid probably com- is bining with the sodium and liberating citric acid. There is sometimes. The appearance of the precipitate is that of iron pyro- phosphate. Precipitation can be prevented by making the elixir slightly alkaline with ammonia. The quinine is not precipitated. The official soluble pyrophosphate of iron may be a double compound of sodio-ferric citro-pyrophosphate. The dispenser must decide for himself as to the substitu- tion proposed. and there seems to be no way to make a per- manent solution. or it may be a mixture of ferric pyrophosphate and sodium citrate.224 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS no longer soluble in this solution. but on standing a precipitate begins to form in a few hours and continues for some time. and then this added to the tine- . A solution of metaphosphoric acid changes in time. consisting of ferric hydroxide and basic ferric chloride. another difficulty present in this combination of ingredients.or the meta- acid takes place. forming some orthophosphoric acid. is precipitated. been suggested that potassium acetate salts It has out the iron pyrophosphate. 232. 234. This makes a clear prescription at first. 233. When sulphuric acid is added to the solution of this compound or mixture the ferric pyrophosphate precipitated. and if the meta-acid contain some of the ortho-variety a precipitation will occur. Pure ferric pyrophosphate of iron is insoluble in water. This difficulty can be overcome by using strictly pure dilute metaphosphoric acid (known also as glacial phosphoric acid) in place of the official orthophosphoric acid. however. If the ammonia water is added to a part of the syrup. the former being soluble in a solution of the latter. In neutralizing tincture of ferric chloride by adding am- monia water to it a precipitate is formed.

Sodium bi- carbonate precipitates ferric hydroxide from the tincture of iron. Sodium bicarbonate pre- cipitates morphine from a solution of its salt. Several chemical reac- tions are liable to take place. 235. Iodine . The resulting fluid is of a very dark red color. The aqueous solution of iron and quinine citrate is acid. Potassium acetate with a solution of quinine sulphate gives the almost insoluble quinine acetate. S. It is better to add a strong solution of ammonia than a weak one. The morphine sulphate gives a blue green solution with the tincture of iron. The syrup acts as a solvent for the ferric hydroxide. P. An alkali citrate in solution is a good solvent for salts of iron which are insoluble in water. 6. tincture no pre- is cipitate results on account of the citrate present. no precipitation will occur even though an excess of ammonia is used. with the formation of free iodine and a reddish brown precipitate. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 22$ ture of iron previously diluted with the balance of the syrup. Phosphoric acid will redissolve it but the amount of acid required is too large to use. Sodium bicarbonate precipitates the quinine from a solution of the sulphate. 5. as the water dilutes the syrup so much that it may not prevent the precipitation. No matter what order is used in mixing these ingredients a clear solution cannot be obtained. Potassium acetate with tinc- ture chloride of iron gives a red solution of ferric acetate. If tincture citro- chloride of iron used in place of the U. 4. 236. iodine being liberated. 3. 237. The sodium phosphate gives a white gelatinous precipitate of ferric phosphate. 2. and ferric salts in acid solutions with potassium iodide are reduced to ferrous compounds. By replacing one half of the water with glycerin the precipitation can be prevented to some extent. i. On mixing solutions of the first two ingredients a reaction takes place.

there is enough of acid in the prescription to prevent any precipitation by it.226 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS inan aqueous solution of potassium iodide is a general alkaloidal reagent and precipitates the quinine. The precipi- tate is ferric hypophosphite which is decomposed by the phos- phoric acid forming ferric phosphate which is soluble in excess of acid. By using the tincture of citro-chloride of iron no precipitation results at once. If there were much more free iodine than would combine with the quinine the prescription should not be dispensed. 238. the iron having a stronger affinity for the hypophosphorous acid than for hydrochloric but less than for the phosphoric. but does after a day or two. 240. A Shake well" label is necessary. Adding the tincture to the syrup produces a gelatinous precipitate which dissolves on adding the acid. Neutralizing the solution will prevent liberation of iodine for a time. 239. Syrup of hypophosphites does not give a precipitate with tincture citrochloride of iron. liberating iodine. This iodine then combines with the quinine to form " an insoluble compound. Although the Fowler's solution is alkaline. The presence of a citrate retards liberation of iodine so that it isnot liberated to such an extent in this prescription as it would be with ferric chloride. In a neutral solution potassium iodide does not react with the tartrate of iron and potassium. If the prescriber had used hydrochloric acid instead of the phosphoric the precipitate would not have dissolved. If it were admissible to use twice as much phosphoric acid as tincture of iron there would be no precipitation. but in the presence of the sulphuric acid the ferric salt oxidizes the iodide. or using the soluble iron and quinine citrate. . The insoluble ferric phosphate or hypophosphite is thrown down.

but soon com- mences tobecome turbid and give a slight deposit. 3. giving the black tannate of iron. Between the hydrochloric acid and the ammonia and glycyrrhizin in the fluidextract. 4. If the tincture of iron is not so very acid the quinine may precipitate some of the iron. This precipitation is due chiefly to the action of the eugenol in the pimenta on the tincture of iron. 242. S. sticky mass of salicylate of iron and the liquid will have a purplish color. The arsenic and quinine are not precipitated. 245. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 22? 241. The red color of Basham's mixture is changed by the citrated caffeine. 243. . The acetate and citrate of iron are both red but many of the double salts of iron are yellow to green and there may be a double salt here. precipitating the glycyrrhizic acid. By using the tincture citro-chloride of iron in place of the U. 244. and the color varies with the dilution. but within a few minutes itbegins to grow turbid from the production of a light brown precipitate. giving a greenish yellow. depending upon the manner of filling this prescription: i. which quite rapidly increases and be- comes dark brown. Filled as written there will be a purplish brown. Several chemical reactions take place. The chlorine thus formed upon the may act glycerin or alcohol. This mixture makes a clear solution at first. This mixture gives at first a clear solution. liberat- ing chlorine. This is somewhat characteristic of all phenols. P. Between the hydro- chloric acid in the tincture and the potassium chlorate. Between the iron and tannic acid in the fluidextract. This is due to the action of the ferric chloride on the cinnamic aldehyde in the oil of cinnamon which is in the water. 2.

The resulting mixture is nearly black and very turbid. There is not enough of ammonia in the ammoniated tinc- ture of guaiac to form the ferric hydroxide unless the tincture of guaiac is freshly made with a fresh aromatic spirit of ammonia and the tincture of iron is free from excess of acid. then red. and when the tincture of rhubarb is added the tannic acid in it precipitates the quinine. and with tincture of ferric chloride gives the black tannate of iron. This solution is bluish red in color. 247. but is nearly all precipitated when the syrup is added. dark red. With a dilute solution of iron an alcoholic solution of salol gives a violet color.228 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS tincture a red clear solution is produced. When the salol is added to the tincture of iron a dark green to red mixture is produced. The mixture is quite thick from the precipitated matter. which gives the increase of color. and finally violet red. Podophyllin gives a black brown color with the tincture of iron and nearly all is dissolved on warming. Quinine sul- phate dissolves in this solution. The ammoniated tincture of guaiac if it has not been ex- posed too long to light and air gives a blue color with the tincture of iron. 246. No chemical reaction occurs except that the salicylic acid occurring as methyl sali- cylate in the oil of wintergreen combines with the iron to form a salicylate of iron. The tincture of aloes gives a green brown to a black brown with the iron. . 249. This change should be made. but an old tincture of guaiac gives a brown black. The syrup precipitates the resinous matter from both tinctures. Even then the syrup will tend to keep the ferric hydroxide in solution. 248. The salol is partially dissolved. By adding the water gradually to the iron a play of colors is noticed: first yellow.

which changes to ferrous sulphate and becomes colorless. On adding the sul- phurous acid the color is destroyed within a few minutes. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 22Q 250. 251. on allowing it to stand the glycerin separates out. forming sodium metaborate and boroglycerol. as might be sup- posed. forming a red brown basic ferric salt. changing to a dark green. In filling this prescription there will be an effervescence. and rubbing with it the glycerin and borax and then the oint- ment. which is white if purely ferrous. It is not caused by the carbolic acid and sodium bicarbonate. 253. 252. This slowly oxidizes still more. but quickly oxidizes. The . By using three fourths of a dram of lanolin in place of that much of the ointment. Adding the carbolic acid to this gives no coloration. The carbonate in the Fowler's solution precipitates the ferrous carbonate. The firsttwo ingredients when mixed give a greenish brown solution. It makes little or no difference what order is observed in filling this prescription. The sugar in the syrup tends to prevent the oxidation of the ferrous carbonate. and a ferrous salt does not give a coloration with carbolic acid. an excellent mass is formed. Water reacts with the boroglycerol to give glycerin and boric acid. from which the glycerin does not separate. Probably some of the arsenic is also precipitated. While these ingredients make a homogeneous mixture. If the sulphurous acid is added direct to the tincture of ferric chloride a deep red solution of ferric sulphite is formed. Fowler's solution should first be neutralized with dilute sulphuric or hydro- chloric acid. due to the generation of carbon dioxide. which when diluted with water gives a deep blue color and largely diluted gives a violet color. Glycerin in the presence of water decomposes borax. The ferric chloride is reduced to the ferrous chloride and sulphate.

and this increases slowly for several days. dextrose. levulose. The best way to fill this prescription is to dissolve the corro- sive sublimate in the glycerin mixed with a half dram of water. Other polyhydric alcohols. but more probably the thickening is due to the separation of part of the resinous matter. 257. Certain organic substances. A slight light-gray pre- cipitate is formed after standing a day. and there is not enough to dissolve replacing one half of the water with glyc- it. The trouble with this prescription is that the water breaks up the boroglycerin. 256. 255. [See GLYCERIN No. Using lanolin in place of vaselin no separation occurs. but this quickly disappears and a clear slightly yellowish liquid results. Then to this solution add all at once the syrup of lime. but it separates on standing.). sugar. boric acid being soluble in about 4 parts of glycerin. liberating boric acid. D. S. the balsam combining with the iodoform (U. On adding a part of the glycerin to the balsam a nearly solid mass results which is thinned some by the balance of the glycerin so that it will run slowly. and glucose. and gum arabic. have the power of preventing the pre- . By erin no precipitation results. There may be some chemical reaction. Boric acid requires about 1 8 parts of water for solution. such as manni- tol. act like glycerin in decom- posing borax. The odor of the iodoform is destroyed. such as glycerin. On standing exposed to the air the glycerin absorbs moisture and the mixture becomes thinner. the balsam coming to the top. ij 254.230 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS boric acid with sodium bicarbonate gives sodium borate and carbon dioxide. A yellow precipitate is formed at first. The glycerite of boroglycerin which is called for can be mixed with the vaselin.

and these act similarly in precipitating the corrosive sublimate as ammoniated mercury (NH2 HgCl). but is redissolved again when the water is added. 258. though not very readily. A similar result takes place if the solution of mercuric chloride is added to the syrup of lime. Quite a heavy steel gray pre- cipitate forms within an hour and slowly increases on further it standing. The aromatic spirit of ammonia contains ammonium hy- droxide and ammoniumcarbonate. Probably the ammoniated mercury was decomposed and the soluble double compound of potassium mercuric iodide was formed. so that the sulphuric acid in the infusion will redissolve it. The potassium iodide solution was added to the mercuric chloride solution. Ammoniated mercury is soluble in solutions of ammonium salts and somewhat soluble in acids. 259. On the addition of the ammonium carbonate solution to this no change of any kind was noticed. However. forming the soluble potassium mercuric iodide. The precipitation may be prevented by mixing the infusionand spirit together first. The oils in the spirit are thrown out of solution by the . Mercuric chloride precipitates the cinchona alkaloids from their aqueous solutions when not too dilute. If the syrup of lime is added slowly to the solution of corro- sive sublimate a yellow precipitate is formed. In filling this prescription each of the salts was dissolved in separate portions of water. which was dissolved by the further addition of the potassium iodide. when the ammonium carbonate solu- tion was added to the mercuric chloride solution a white pre- cipitate of ammoniated mercury was formed. and at first there was a red precipitate of mercuric iodide. On adding the potassium iodide solution to this mixture the precipitate dis- appeared and a clear nearly colorless solution was formed. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 231 cipitation of solutions of some of the metallic salts by alkali hydroxides.

260. The prescription should not be dispensed without first consulting the prescriber. and in this particular instance almost entirely thrown out of solution. arsenites reduce mercuric compounds to mercurous compounds and then to metallic mercury. . The quinine sulphate was dissolved in the tincture of iron with the hydrobromic acid and then an aqueous solution of the corrosive sublimate added. Label: Tea- spoonful twice a day. Several reactions may occur when the first two ingredi- ents are mixed. The maximum dose of mercuric chloride is about J of a grain and of sodium arsenate about ^ of a grain. Under certain circumstances mercuric arse- nite is formed and is dissolved in a solution of potassium arsenite. A precipitation commenced at once and continued for some time. In such a prescrip- tion as this the danger lies. the mercury. A mercuric oxychloride is formed by the carbonate of potassium in the Fowler's solution. due to the reduction to metallic mercury. The doses of the first two ingredients are too large. and the iron salts. depending upon the proportions. The directions are: Mix. On further standing it turns dark. Fowler's solution added to the quinine sulphate liberates the free alkaloid. consisting of calomel and is first the coloring matter of Fowler's solution. and so also is the double compound that it forms with the hydrobromic acid. and the arsenites are oxidized to arsenates.232 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS water of the infusion. 262. In this prescription a pink- ish white precipitate formed. Should it be filled the potassium carbonate will react with the strych- nine. Mercuric chloride is a general alkaloidal reagent. but of the mercuric chloride. but the activity is not increased. these combine with the quinine to form insoluble compounds. In the presence of an alkali. 261. not in the precipitation of the qui- nine. it is This prescription might be considered dangerous to dispense.

This prescrip- less soluble in tion deposits a precipitate of long needle-shaped crystals on standing a few houis. 4. 5. If the mercuric . which is soluble in a fairly strong alcohol? the presence of hydrochloric acid. The dispenser should neutralize Fowler's solution before mixing with the other ingredients. Several reactions are possible. Strych- nine alkaloid is liberated from the nitrate by the carbonate in Fowler's solution. 264. With Fowler's solution the mercury may first be precipitated as the basic chloride by the carbonate and later reduced to mer- curous salt and metallic mercury by the arsenite. Potassium carbonate in Fowler's solution carbon dioxide with hydrochloric acid in essence of will give off pepsin and if it were in excess would render the pepsin inert. i. 263. Corrosive sublimate pre- cipitates the strychnine nitrate as a double compound. 6. although there is danger of precipitation after the patient has received it. Fowler's solution if sufficiently alkaline will precipitate many of the in- gredients in the syrup. It is reduced to mercurous compound and then metallic mercury by the hypophosphites. There is enough of acid present to prevent this. If the ingredient is omitted no precipitation takes place within at first least twenty-four hours. 7. but not immediately on filling. then the solution of strychnine and lastly the solution of mercury. to most of the syrup add the essence and then the Fowler's solution previously neutralized. the strychnine nitrate in another portion of water. This prescription can be filled without danger by first dissolving the corrosive sublimate in a little water. Department of Pharmac logy INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTION^ If the prescriber had directed the solution of rsenous acid instead of potassium arsenite there would have been no reduction' and but little precipitation. The mercuric chloride precipitates the strychnine sulphate as a double compound. 3. 2. The addition of a few drops of hydrochloric acid quickly brings it down. the arsenite being changed to an arsenate. Mercuric chloride gives a precipitate with pepsin.

forming ferrous carbonate. The insoluble red iodide of mercury thus formed is redissolved in the excess of ferrous iodide. Creosote only slightly soluble in water. Quinine sulphate and hydrobromic acid give a slight greenish color. and with the ferrous iodide. 265. By adding the calomel last the reaction can be prevented to some extent. The mercuric chloride and ferrous iodide react to form mercuric iodide and ferrous chloride. In this case is there is an excess and it forms an oily layer on top of creosote. but pepsin frequently hygroscopic and absorbs moisture in is sufficient amount to enable a reaction to take place between the calomel and sodium bromide. unless it is emulsified. because of the precipitation of strychnine and also because of the large dose of strychnine. Sodium bromide is deliquescent and in the presence of moisture breaks up calomel. and if this is really so there would be about one fourth of a grain of mer- curic chloride to the dose which would be dangerous. Theoretically one half of the calomel goes to form mercuric chloride. 266. The directions are: Mix and divide into 10 equal . the latter giving the dark color. causing the powder to turn black. By hydrobromic acid a part of the mercurous chloride is reduced to metallic mercury. which is much more active than calomel. This prescription as written should not be filled. This mixture if kept perfectly dry will not change in color. forming ammoniated mercury.234 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS chloride be omitted there will be but little danger of precipita- tion. and the amount of mercuric chloride formed is probably not dangerous. 267. and a part is oxidized to mercuric chloride. and in such a case it might give a precipitate with the mercuric chloride. forming a mercuric compound and metallic mercury. Occasionally the solution of 'ammonium acetate is alkaline.

" (U.] If all of the calomel is thus decomposed there would be over six grains of the mer- curic compound and the amount taken in one capsule would be a dangerous dose. so that.] The directions are: Mix and divide into 20 equal parts. 271.) This is not now generally considered a dangerous prescription. S. [See HYDRAGYRI CHLORIDUM MITE. Label: Take one powder two or three times a day. Ammonium carbonate acts like ammonium hydroxide. Ontriturating these two substances together the mixture becomes black. "According to M. No. 7. It a somewhat disputed question whether in such a pre- is scription there would be any mercuric chloride formed. [See HYDRARGYRI CHLORIDUM MITE. No. of the body. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 235 parts and put into gelatin capsules. except under unusual conditions. Label: One capsule to be taken every three hours. the change not taking place within four to six weeks ordinarily. Mialhe. 3.. If the prescription is to be used up in a short time probably no bad results would follow. 7. 695. calomel is partly converted into corrosive sublimate and metallic mercury by ammonium chloride and by sodium and potassium even at the temperature chlorides. [See HY- DRARGYRI CHLORIDUM MITE. . No. any prescription would be used before mercuric chloride is formed.] 269. iyth ed. The statement has been made that sodium bicarbonate with calomel forms corrosive sublimate slowly. 270. forming metallic mercury and a mercuric salt. 268. and if so whether the amount formed would be sufficient to have any disagreeable physiological effect. It is a very common practice of physicians to direct the us^e of these two chemicals together and no ill effect seems to have resulted. Dispensatory.

This might be considered a rather dangerous prescription. 274. . There would be approxi- mately eighty doses. This prescription will measure a over five fluid ounces. It has been proved that calomel with hydrocyanic acid is changed to mercuric chloride. insoluble mercurous oxide. while in concentrated solutions hydrochloric acid displaces hydrocyanic acid. mercuric cyanide. the three ounces of iodide increasing little the volume a little over two ounces. The dose of mercuric salt then would not be over the maximum. 273. the latter combining with the excess of potassium to make the soluble potassium mercuric chloride. while at the same time some mercuric chloride is formed (M. but probably there is not enough of the mercuric salt formed to cause dangerous symptoms. This is due to the formation of metallic mercury and mercurous oxide. If these three ingredients are mixed in the absence of moisture no change in appearance is noticeable. and metallic mercury.i per cent of hydrocyanic acid. This is similar to the "black wash" of the National Formulary. Reaction takes place between the calcium hydroxide and the mercurous chloride. In the presence of mois- ture the mixture at once begins to turn gray.4 grains of mercuric iodide. R. There issuch a small amount of hydrocyanic acid that there would not be much of the mercuric salts formed. vn. 275. contains o.236 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 272. Theoretically there would be formed about 9. P. making metallic mercury and mercuric chloride.. The cherry laurel water of the Br. Potassium iodide decomposes mercurous iodide. 492). The sodium bicarbonate seems to play some part in the reaction since calomel and antipyrine with water do not readily darken. forming calcium chloride and the black. Hydrocyanic acid displaces hydrochloric acid in dilute solutions.

then the zinc sulphate added and thoroughly mixed. It is zinc ichthyolsul- phonate. rubbing well after each addition. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 276. If the zinc sulphate is dissolved in water. then a little water and the balance of water in portions. then adding phenol and lastly the ichthyol. This mixture is said to be irritating to the eye due to the reaction between the cocaine hydrochloride and mercuric oxide forming cocaine and mercuric chloride. 278. 280. if to the mixture of ichthyol and glycerin. a nearly black mass is formed which sticks to the bottle and cannot be shaken up. due to the ichthyol and iodine. the mix- ture remaining neutral to litmus. However. Ichthyol when rubbed with ammonium chloride makes a mass resembling a pill mass and gas isslowly evolved. The trouble was prevented by using the free cocaine in a portion of warmed petrolatum. the precipitate separates quickly and after standing forms masses. the mass softens and mixes readily with the wool fat. Crystallized phenol when rubbed with ichthyol makes it thinner. 279. 277. fifteen grains of powdered acacia are added. glycerin added and then the ichthyol. then the zinc sulphate and lastly the water in portions. Although this ointment is brown at first it becomes blue and then greenish black. Ichthyol gives sticky precipitates with most alkaloids. This should berilled by mixing the ammonium chloride with wool fat. A soluble mercuric salt is formed. In this prescription as ordinarily filled the precipitate sticks to the . the precipitate re- mains suspended for some time and can be more easily shaken up. If ichthyol and glycerin are mixed in a mortar. the latter being the agent that causes the irritation. On adding the phenol.

but by mixing the two syrups first the iodine is reduced by the hypophosphorous acid in the syrup of hypophosphites. enough so that capsules will be softened if not dissolved. The ichthyol. but this solution slowly acquires a red color and liberates iodine. Very frequently syrup of hydriodic acid contains some which would free iodine. 281. The strychnine and the iodoform are insoluble in the syrups. or to diffused light for a longer period. then a little water added in portions. Iodoform dissolves rather slowly in ether and the solution generally gets brown red in a few minutes. deepening on stand- ing. The strychnine sulphate should be used instead of the alkaloid and then it will dissolve in the syrups. stirring well after each addition. Iodine is liberated.238 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS bottle. Filled in this way the precipitate remains suspended for some time and can be shaken up. Iodoform dissolves less readily in liquid petrolatum. 284. Ichthyol contains about 50 per cent water. The ichthyol can be evaporated some and then a drying powder added to make a stiff mass. So long as this mixture is kept from the light it does not change in color. as under certain conditions iodides precipitate that alkaloid. but on exposure to direct sunlight for a few hours. There is perhaps a little danger of the hydri- odic acid precipitating the strychnine. precipitate the alkaloids. It has been suggested to swab the inside of the capsules with a fixed oil before putting in the ichthyol but this is not always satisfactory in preventing the trouble. 282. it acquires a red . 283. The iodoform should be finely powdered before mixing with the other ingredients and a " " Shake label should be put on the bottle. quinine and resorcin with about twenty grains of powdered acacia should be rubbed in a mortar.

Terpin hydrate dissolves in about 200 parts of water and iodol in about 5000 parts of water. S. liberating iodine. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 239 color. is This prescription is given in one of the standard works on thera- peutics.5 Cc. Ac- cording to the U. the odor of the iodoform slowly diminishes. which might have been avoided by mixing the in- gredients separately with portions of petrolatum and then mixing these. forming mercurous iodide and then mercuric iodide. The glyc- erin and syrup are sufficiently viscid to keep the insoluble substances in suspension for a time. These should be finely powdered before mixing with the other ingredients. The odor is still prominent at the end of a month. This solution was then . One gram of iodine is soluble in about 12. forming mercuric iodide. As much of the iodine as possible was dissolved in the alcohol and then the camphor dissolved in this. Reaction takes place between the mercury and iodine. 289. 287. No change is noticed in the appearance of this mixture on standing unless exposed to sunlight when it becomes a dirty gray. Triturating the iodol with the mercuric oxide caused an explosion. of alcohol. Tannic acid reduces the iodine to hydriodic acid. then adding the glycerin. and lastly the tannic acid. Considerable red iodide of mercury is precipitated. This is due to the decomposition of iodoform. due to the decomposition caused by the tannic acid.. 285. and the iodine combines with and oxidizes the calomel. 288. and the " " prescription dispensed with a Shake well label. This prescription was filled by rubbing the mercury with the iodine. although some probably dissolved. D.

On the third day the red precipitate had disappeared. By mixing these ingredients a bright-red precipitate is formed in a few minutes and the iodine color of the liquid is nearly destroyed. Probably three chemical reactions take place. which dissolved the mercuric iodide. 290. The mercury with the iodine forms mercurous metallic Iodide. This mixture was such that it could be shaken up and applied. In the bottom was this red precipitate. . and part was probably reduced to a soluble iodide. and this with more iodine makes the red mercuric. leaving the yellow fatty matter and a fluid somewhat red and containing a little free iodine. Another part of the iodine probably combined with some of the camphor and fatty matter. After a day or two there is no free iodine present. By mixing the first two in- gredients with separate portions of lard and then mixing these there is but little danger. Although the activity of the iodine is very much diminished the mixture is decidedly active on account of the mercuric salt formed. The National Dispensatory states that when the first two ingredients are rubbed together explosion takes place. then a layer of fatty matter. On standing a few minutes a red precipitate was formed and the mixture separated into three layers. The mercurous chloride and potassium iodide in the tincture form potassium mercuric iodide. 291. and metallic mer- cury. and on top a hydro-alcoholic fluid containing free iodine. Seven days later the liquid was yellowish brown and contained only a trace of iodine. iodide.240 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS gradually added to the mercurial ointment with constant tri- turation and the water was added last. potassium chloride. Part of the iodine probably combined with the mercury to form mercuric iodide. The final products depend to some extent upon the proportion of the tincture to the calomel. due to the formation of iodide of nitrogen. The iodine is reduced and the oint- ment becomes nearly white. prob- ably mercuric iodide.

forming addition products which are nearly colorless. and camphor all reduce the iodine to some extent.] 295. This makes a clear brownish red solution.The iodine soon combines with the free oleic acid. but becomes colorless as the iodine is changed. This mixture on standing separates into two layers. 296. which on stand- ing two or three days loses much of its color. oil of rosemary. The color varies with the proportion of free iodine which also varies with the condition of the soap liniment. . There is some danger of forming the explosive iodide of nitrogen. lodoform might be produced on heating the mixture but no odor of it is noticeable in the cold. 293. . and this with the iodine forms ammonium iodide and a little ammonium iodate. In some cases all of the iodine is changed so that it no longer gives a test with starch. due to the free iodine. 294. About one eighth of the iodine is reduced. 297. The benefit derived from the iodine is questionable. less offensive in odor than cod liver. The color of this mixture is brown at first. The compound liniment of camphor contains ammonia. the oil coming to the top. Probably some other oil. The organic matter in the infusion changes the iodine so that it no longer gives a test with starch. The arsenite in alkaline solution reduces the iodine to an iodide while the arsenite becomes an arsenate. Soap. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 241 292. [See under IODUM. The products formed are not well known. The mixture at first is red brown. Part of the iodine combines with the oil. might have been used by the physician with equal advantage. but not all.

The writer has filled this prescription several times and has sometimes had it separate into two layers and sometimes not. of glycerin. the spirit containing ammonium carbonate. nearly insoluble in water. The U. 300. No explanation is offered. 301. soft solid. Iodine makes a cocaine hydrochloride which compound with is insoluble in water or glycerin. and water does not precipitate iodine because the present tincture contains potassium iodide. It might be dissolved in alcohol and this solution added to the lard. On testing oil of turpentine he has found that some samples mix clear with an equal volume of alcohol and some will not. using equal amounts of potassium iodide and iodine and three times as much glycerin as iodide. Iodine is powdered with difficulty.The first two ingredients mix. The lime water also throws out of solution the oils of the aromatic spirit. or solution. S. Ordinarily the precipitate would not be .5 Cc. In that case this prescription will separate into two layers. Pharmacopoeia directs that it be dissolved in a glycerin solution of potassium iodide. One gram of iodine is soluble in 12. It is doubtful if this compound has much anaes- thetic effect and the suggestion should be made that separate solutions would be more effective. volumes of alcohol.242 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 298. The U. In making ointments the medicinal ingredients must be in the form of a fine powder. says that oil of turpentine is soluble in five S. although glycerin holds it in suspension. 302. P. making a clear solution. 299. of alcohol or 80 Cc. On mixing these two ingredients a white precipitate of calcium carbonate is formed.

if the . 303. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 243 " " filtered out but the mixture dispensed with a Shake well label. this prescrip- mercury tion might be dangerous if applied in large amounts to an abraded surface. The order of mixing these ingredients makes a difference in the products first formed. On adding the zinc chloride solution and allowing itto stand the precipitate is changed within two hours from a dense yellow to a flocculent white precipitate. Sometimes the lime liniment causes a darkening when mixed with citrine ointment. since if all of the mercury is redissolved it will be in the proportion of about i to 500. If the solution of zinc chloride and the lime water are mixed a white precipitate of zinc hydroxide is formed. If some of the clear solution is taken after the zinc chloride has been added and the yellow precipitate turned white. but after standing the results are probably similar. and there is no change in appearance on adding the mercuric chloride dissolved in the water. In making the citrine ointment. If the lime water is added to the solution of mercuric chloride a red brown precipitate of oxychloride of mercury is formed. and this solution treated with hydrogen sulphide. lime water the yellow oxide of mercury (yellow wash) is pre- cipitated. 304. the mercuric chloride solution is added to the If. however. a heavy black pre- is cipitate of mercuric sulphide is produced. That the lime water precipitates nearly all of the mercuric chloride when these two chemicals are brought together in the above proportions is evidenced by taking some of the clear supernatant liquid and passing hydrogen sulphide gas through it and getting little or no black precipitate of mercuric sulphide. and this is replaced by a white precipitate when the zinc chloride is added. Owing to the fact that the is in solution. showing that the mercuric oxide has been dissolved and the zinc precipitated.

After some time it is oxidized to a yellow brown basic ferric oxide. 307. 306. the syrup. which soap helps to emulsify the balance of the oil. and the syrup iodide of iron. Ferrous hydroxide if free from ferric hydroxide is white. . forming a mercurous nitrate. Then add the oil of wintergreen. The calcium hy- droxide in the lime liniment acts on the mercurous salt. This prescription will go through these various colors. When the syrup of ferrous iodide is added to the mixture containing the calcium hydroxide ferrous hydroxide is precipitated. The calcium hydroxide of the lime water saponifies a small amount of the cod liver oil. A sticky mass formed which adheres to the of lead oleate is bottle and cannot be shaken up. Or. forming the black mercurous oxide. Emulsify the cod by adding it in portions to the liver oil lime water in a bottle. A nearly clear solution can be obtained by dissolving the salt in an ounce of water.244 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS nitric acid be insufficient in amount. Dissolving zinc sulphocarbolate in dilute solution of lead subacetate gives a white precipitate. the oxidation of the fatty matter is effected in part at the expense of the mercuric nitrate. A translation of the directions is: " Make an ointment. but it quickly oxidizes to ferroso-ferric hydroxide. adding two drams of glycerin and then adding a mixture of the balance of the water and solution of lead subacetate corresponding with the amount of dilute solution which the prescription calls for. There seems to be no way to overcome the difficulty and the prescriber should be asked to change the prescription. to be used as directed. which varies from a dirty green to almost black. the mercury may not be entirely converted into the mercuric nitrate." 305.

white masses are formed and stick to the bottle. On adding olive to solution of lead subacetate a very thick oil liquid results. Nat. The acid added was not enough to make the normal salt but made a less basic one. The possible reactions are as follows: Tannin gives the insoluble compounds of mercuric tannate. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 245 308. Adding the oil and shaking vigorously breaks up the masses somewhat but does not give as good a mixture as when rilled by the first method. v. Drug. The addition of phenol dissolved in glycerin causes no apparent change. Glycerin will keep the precipitates suspended. morphine sulphate with solution of lead subacetate gives the insoluble free alkaloid and also lead sulphate. making a good emulsion. By adding the glycerin to the lead solution first the lime water causes no precipitation. The lead solution was put into a twelve ounce bottle and heated on the water bath. Using the normal lead acetate gives no trouble. If the glycerin solution of phenol is added to the solution of lead subacetate. Most of the medicinal matter will be thrown out of solution. In filling this prescription. and lead tannate. the compounder (Dimmitt. mercuric with lead subacetate gives the chloride sparingly soluble lead chloride. If the lime water is added to the solution of lead subacetate the lead is partially precipitated as lead hydroxide. 309. 44. the amount increasing on standing. 311. morphine tannate. p. 118) added twenty drops of acetic acid (36 per cent) to the phenol and heated to the boiling point.. 310. The zinc oxide is insoluble and quickly settles to the bottom. then the acid phenol added and the whole heated under pressure until the precipitate formed redissolved. . Mixing these two liquids gives a sticky mass that is un- manageable.

making a nearly clear solution. by the end of twelve hours it is so firm that it cannot be shaken in the bottle. Even then the part left undissolved may form a crystalline mass that can be gotten out of the bottle only by heating. 314. The lead is also pre- cipitated by the meconic and sulphuric acids in the opium. This a very common combination. Sodium phosphate precipitates a solution of lithium bromide as lithium phosphate. The precipitate should not be filtered out but the mixture should be " " dispensed with a Shake well label. though there is still quite a heavy one. Lead subacetate forms is compounds with nearly all alkaloids. The opium alkaloids are no exceptions. Allow it to stand for half an hour and it solidi- fies. Even if only one half of the amount of magnesia is used the mixture will solidify so that it cannot be shaken up allowed to stand undisturbed for a day or two. since on cooling large crystals will form. Magnesium sulphate was dissolved in water and the other ingredients added. is more sodium phosphate than There the water will dissolve. Magnesium oxide takes up water to form the gelatinous magnesium hydroxide. The alcohol of the spirit and .246 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 312. but yet can be poured. 313. By if vigorous shaking several times the mass can be broken up so that it can be poured. Heat should not be used to aid the solution. The phos- phate should be powdered and the cold water allowed to dissolve what it will. The alkalies all tend to pre- vent the precipitation of the resinous matter in the tincture by the water. The alcohol undoubtedly tends to prevent the precipitation to some extent. This makes a mixture which is very thick at first. 315. Crystalliza- tion of magnesium sulphate soon began and ultimately the bottle was over half full of crystals. and these are insoluble in water.

317. as a similar result . then the thymol. being insoluble in alcohol. A turbidity occurred at once. Within a few hours the magnesium sulphate had crystallized out so that its bulk was nearly one half of that of the mixture. 316. glycerin. The first three ingredients were mixed and the Epsom salt dissolved in the water and the two solutions mixed. Thymol and menthol liquefy when triturated together. Using alcohol. 318. but it will be necessary to seal the capsules. If the mixture is made up to one pint with water the magnesium salt is not thrown out of solution. The prescription was dispensed by making up to eight ounces with water and doubling the dose. This additional water dissolves the crystals. the menthol separating in that form instead of in crystals. or a fixed oil instead of water will not make a clear solution. and lastly the eucalyptol. then the guaiacol carbonate. In this mixture the menthol floats on top and the boric acid goes to the bottom. This cannot be prevented except by diminishing the magnesium sulphate or increasing the proportion of water. If a powder were used to mass the liquid the required capsule would be entirely too large to swallow. a kind of mass will be formed. Magnesium sulphate. If the menthol is dissolved in the spirit and then the water added the mixture becomes turbid. By putting in the menthol. The atten- tion of the physician should be called to this prescription. This is probably not due to any effect of the ethyl nitrite or the acids usually present in the spirit. 319. and on standing an oily liquid comes to the top. due to the precipitation of extractive matter from the alcoholic liquids by the water. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 247 tincture caused the separation. is thrown out of its aqueous solution by the alcohol of the fluidextracts and the tincture.

in.. as there is less danger of a mistake. The potassium chlorate is soluble in about 11. no liberation of iodine takes place when a solution of potassium iodide is added to it. 322. Label: Let one be taken during the night. If the sulphate of iron is strictly ferrous. The solution of ferrous sulphate gradually deposits a precipitate of subsulphate of iron. The latter is perhaps a better method. 321.5 parts of is dissolved in the water. This mixture in a short time becomes yellow and within twenty-four hours it changes to a light brown. 323. Dispense in 10 capsules. The prescription should be filled as written. Less change takes place if the mixture is neutral. Some physicians when wishing to give unusual doses underscore the ingredient and the quantity. 320. The alcohol in the prescription clears it up but the solution turns red on account of the spirit of nitrous ether oxidizing resorcin. and another base (M. pseudo-morphine. & M. The prescriber shows his knowl- edge and appreciation of this fact by putting three exclamation- points after the ingredient. Or if the solution of ferrous sulphate and the morphine are mixed before adding the potassium iodide no free iodine is formed. but most of it contains some ferric salt which liberates iodine. If the morphine is now added it will be precipitated by the iodine. 436). The colora- tion due largely to the action of the nitrous acid on the mor- is phine. The directions are: Mix. consequently only a small proportion . The dose of the morphine sulphate is considerably in excess of the amount usually given.248 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS is produced when alcohol is used in place of the spirit. The morphine is converted into nitroso-morphine. the morphine seeming to reduce the ferric sulphate to ferrous.

It seems to make but little difference whether the alcoholic mixture is added to the aqueous or the aqueous to the alcoholic. The U. Castor oil and nearly all other fixed oils do not make clear " solutions with glycerin. S. Dispensatory gives a method of making it which consists in dissolving twenty grains of hydrastine sulphate in one pint of a mixture of equal parts of glycerin and water. and the tincture of iron last. 324. 325. some soap is formed in the reac- tion and this acts as an emulsifying agent. then the solution of potassium chlorate in small amounts with con- tinued shaking. Shaking the solution of potassium hydroxide with the olive oil gives a white emulsion. By using honey instead of glycerin the resin is separated but does not form masses. A Shake well " label is necessary for this prescription. Water precipitates the resinous matter from the tincture of myrrh. The fluid hydrastis colorless is a preparationwhich seems to vary much in composi- tion. since the fluids are all that the physician wanted only a saturated solution of the chlorate and the excess removed. The glycerin was added to the tincture of myrrh. as the two liquids are thick and do not separate quickly. The compound iodine solution added to this gives a red brown mixture. which . This might be allright if it were a simple mixture of the chlorate and water. 326. Tincture of iron gives a dark green-brown color with tincture of myrrh. The resinous matter of the tincture is precipitated by the water. and it forms in masses that cannot be evenly suspended. Some pharmacists would contend that the excess of the chlorate in a powdered condition should be left in the bottle. so that the patient could add water to it as the liquid was used up. consequently it can be evenly distributed through the liquid. The oil need not be emulsified. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 249 three ounces of water. it is evident tion. But in the above prescrip- more or less medicinal.

If the mercuric chloride is left out the lower layer is smaller in volume and is nearly colorless. The turpentine is the principal factor in reducing the iodine. it is best to dissolve as much as possible before adding the turpentine. The oil should first be emulsified with the syrup and about forty-five grains of acacia and then the other liquids added. thereby allowing the oil to combine with more iodine. While there is not enough of alcohol to dissolve all of the iodine. Leaving out either the turpentine or mercuric chloride. The upper layer consists chiefly of tur- pentine. 327. the upper being about one third of the volume of the lower. caused by the heat generated. Turpentine and alcohol are not miscible in all proportions. Part of the iodine combines with the oil to form a nearly colorless compound in which two atoms of the iodine are com- bined with one molecule of olive oil. with the formation of violet fumes of vaporized iodine. On stand- ing two layers are formed. the iodine is not all reduced. becoming white within a few hours. The iodine is partly changed by the alkali. The mercuric chloride perhaps acts as a carrier or acts by breaking up the compound which iodine forms with the oil. Filled as directed this prescription gives a nearly colorless mixture which does not give a test for free iodine. cooling the mixture if necessary. the lower one. forming an iodide and an iodate. 328. being much smaller in amount. When water is added to . Upon standing the liquid separates into two layers. while the upper one is chiefly alcohol containing free iodine. If the turpentine is poured upon the iodine violent chemical reaction results. is the alcohol. 329. while the lower consists of the alcohol containing some oil of turpentine and an iodide of mercury. which should be added in small portions.250 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS slowly loses its color. If these ingredients are mixed together and allowed to stand the oil of turpentine will rise to the top.

but on standing for a few days the balsam separates from the petrolatum. Rubbing the balsam with lard for afew minutes the mass gets granular and then the resinous matter seems to stick together and the lard is worked out. but these would be held in suspension by the emulsion. D. due. Some- times the solution of ammonium acetate is alkaline. This can be prevented ** by incorporating one and a half drams of simple cerate or of lanolin in place of a like amount of petrolatum. After making a thorough mixture of the ingredients. care being taken not to raise the melting point above the temperature of the body. The odor of iodoform gradually lost. a partial emulsion . S. 331. A little spermaceti might be melted and mixed in. to the is formation of a new compound. 330. Pepsin is rendered inert by alkalies. A little castor oil is said to be good in preventing separation. Pepsin is somewhat hygroscopic if contaminated with peptones. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 251 paregoric the oil of anise and the benzoic acid are precipitated. Sodium bromide on being exposed to the air attracts mois- ture. as sodium bi- carbonate. if the mass is allowed to stand a while it will harden so that it can be worked. In such a case the acid in the syrup of squills will liberate carbon dioxide. there having been an excess of ammonium carbonate or a deficient amount of acetic acid used in making it. Rubbing chloral hydrate with oil of theobroma causes the oil to soften so much that it is difficult to make suppositories unless a large amount of oil is used. By triturating the zinc oxide and carbonate with the petrola- tum. according to the U. The ingredients of this prescription can be mixed so as to make a homogeneous mass.. 332. and then adding the lime water gradually. 333.

If lanolin is used in- stead of petrolatum the acid can be mixed with it and about one half of the alcohol. as the hydroxide does not saponify the mineral oil. Menthol. 334. then the oxide and carbonate. If a vegetable or animal oil were used. as are the organic fixed oils and fatty substances. but the balance of the alcohol separates. 336. the middle chiefly of water. This prescription was sent in by a druggist. enough of soap would be formed to keep the oil and water mixed for a time. in admissible amounts does not help it. The best way to fill this prescription is to replace about one half of the petrolatum with anhydrous wool fat. The prescriber should be consulted. asking if it should separate into two layers. Acacia cannot be used to emulsify it on account of the alcohol present. The addition of soap or resinous matter. the mixture being so strong as to quickly make the skin white. Petrolatum is not saponified or otherwise chemically acted upon by calcium hydroxide or other hydroxides. mix the water with this. chloroform. The upper one is nearly clear and colorless and the lower one is red and of small volume.252 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS can be effected. making a homogeneous mass. but on shaking the mixture with the tincture it is made turbid and on standing separates into two layers. which soon separates into three layers. and lastly the petrolatum. Alcohol and the petrolatum oil do not remain mixed. The vaselin will not dissolve in the bay rum and on being melted and shaken with the bay rum until cold separates in a mass. the bottom consisting of the zinc salts. 335. It should. and the top of the emulsified petrolatum. The amount of carbolic acid is very large. and liquid petrolatum make a clear mix- ture. By the addition of thirty grains of acacia an emulsion can be made. . These are readily mixed on agitation.

If the brush should remain in the bottle between the periods of using it. By the use of two drams of glycerin in place of part of the water a clear solution can be made. and peppermint water. On warming a solution resulted. but again solidified on being chilled. and this is what the dispenser should use. going to the bottom. 338. there is danger that it will become saturated with the strong acid and that the patient will apply it in this condition. which remained so even at the ordinary temperature. Make 10 suppositories. a clear solution is said to be obtained. syrup. which remained clear for two days. When water has been added so that the pro- portion is about i part of acid to 15 parts of water. and the piperazine in the water. Under certain circumstances. . which remained clear at the ordinary temperature. and the reaction cannot be pre- vented by first mixing the ingredients with separate portions of the base and then rubbing these together. forming a clear solution. Water can be added to carbolic acid. The directions are: Mix. In this prescription there will be a layer of liquefied acid in the bottom of the bottle. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 253 337. 339. On adding more water the acid separates as an oily liquid. Either phenol or thymol soften the oil when rubbed with it. a clear solu- tion again results. It then happened to be chilled at night and crystallization took place. The mass is too soft to make into suppositories. carefully. making a clear solution. as when the phenocoll hydrochloride is from fifty to one hundred per cent in excess of the piperazine. making an almost solid mass. and it is necessary to use some drying- powder or spermaceti to stiffen it. Piperazine is strongly alkaline and when added to an aqueous solution of phenocoll hydrochloride precipitates the insoluble base phenocoll. This prescription was filled by dissolving the phenocoll hydro- chloride in the elixir. Crystallized carbolic acid when triturated with lead acetate or with thymol gives a liquid. The two solutions were mixed.

aristol. 343. it becomes very soft. The capsules must be sealed. Carbolic acid alone has a softening effect on the oil. This mixture cannot be dispensed in the form of powders unless a large amount of some absorbing .254 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 340. 342. 341. In summer it is necessary to render it firmer by the addition of wax. euphorin. On adding the crystallized carbolic acid to this mixture. Water and phenol in equal proportions make a turbid mixture which separates into two layers. Exalgin triturated with camphor makes a damp powder. After the cap put on the capsule should be left is standing on end until dry. and alum can be triturated The together. or some absorbing powder. Care should be used not to wet the cap too much or the capsule will be distorted. The trouble between the solution and the phenol is not on account of the cocaine but the water. producing a powder. almost liquid. This change is the result of bringing carbolic acid in contact with the euphorin. Glycerin is a good solvent for phenol and water does not cause its separation. the caps when taken off can be placed on end on a filter paper wet with a mixture of equal volumes of water and alcohol. Thedispenser in commenting on this prescription said that phenol and the cocaine solution gave a precipitate which was dissolved by the glycerin. This can be done by swabbing the inside of the cap with a damp wad of absorbent cotton on a match. or with salol it gives a liquid. these two substances liquefying when tritu- rated together. Salol and camphor triturated together give a liquid. The mass with the oil of theobroma makes a mixture too soft to be made into suppositories. A mass can be made with a drying powder but it is preferable to use no drying powder. spermaceti. Or. Salol dissolves in the mixture of oils. as starch or slippery elm or by standing. tannic acid. This prescription makes a clear solution.

and generally a larger capsule can be taken than a pill.olved in a little absolute alcohol or chloroform and then mixed with a part of the elixir. Or. 345. forming mercuric chloride which combines with the alkaloidal salt. the prescription can be filled by using some drying powder and putting the mass into capsules. as slippery elm. No allowance need be made for volume taken up by the solids. the mass can be much softer and smaller than if pills are made. as it can not be dissolved in the elixir. Aspirin rubbed with either salol or antipyrine does not become sticky. 347. 346. Salol rubbed with antipyrine makes a mass. When the other ingredients are added the mass is still much too soft to be made into pills. The oily liquid does not dissolve gelatin. is used. and metallic mercury which gives the mixture its dark color. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 255 powder. The soluble phosphate of iron should be dissolved in a little hot water and the strychnine in this solution and then added to the elixir containing the phosphorus and a sufficient amount of the elixir to make two fluid ounces. This prescription can be filled without trouble by powdering the salol alone and the other ingredients together then mixing the saloland a little drying powder (starch because it is white) with a spatula on a pill tile. In filling this prescription the phosphorus should be dis- s. Several of the alkaloids have that property. This prescription can best be dispensed in capsules. If a sufficient amount of liquorice root is added to make the mass of the required consistency the pills are too large to be taken easily and if dispensed as pills the number and the dose should be doubled. 344. Salol and thymol triturated together make a liquid. In the presence of moisture this mixture becomes black. The pilocarpine hydrochloride breaks up the calomel. The directions translated .

consequently only a small " " portion of it will be dissolved. It also takes up carbon dioxide from the air. Piperazine is quite strongly alkaline and causes a precipitation of the strych- nine. The terpin hydrate requires about 200 parts of water for solution. Piperazine is so deliquescent that it becomes liquefied when exposed to air. both of which are practi- cally insoluble in the syrup. The difficulty can be remedied by neutralizing the piperazine solution with dilute sulphuric acid. 351. 348. It should be dis- pensed in solution. Let 12 powders be made. Send 8 such powders. forming quinine acetate and lead sulphate. As written this should be considered a dangerous com- bination. A Shake label is necessary. A little acacia or tragacanth might be used if " desired. Label: Take one powder night and morning. consequently cannot well be dispensed in the it form of powders unless a large amount of absorbent is used. The pilocarpine differs from many alkaloids in that it is soluble in water. This is due to the chemical reaction which takes . 352. 349. The quinine sulphate and the lead acetate react. A Shake well ''label should be put on the bottle. The hydrochloride is used much more fre- quently than the free alkaloid. A more elegant preparation would be made by emulsifying it. Triturating the alum with the lead acetate produces a moist sticky mass. The syrup holds the insoluble substances in suspen- sion for a time. Although a clear solution is produced at first. The bismuth subnitrate is also insoluble. 350. within a few minutes a crystalline precipitate begins to form. The directions are: Let it be triturated well.256 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS into English are: Mix.

353. while manganese dioxide is precipitated. with morphine sulphate. When the mixture is put into water the tannic acid will precipitate the lead. forming with bismuth subnitrate. Potassium permanganate oxidizes salicylic acid to formic acid and carbon dioxide and oxidizes the ferrous sulphate to ferric sulphate. if any remains not combined with sulphuric acid. and no difficulty will ensue. 355. which . Lead subacetate would also combine with the morphine to make a compound insoluble in water. A mass is obtained when zinc sulphate and lead acetate are rubbed together. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 257 place. In filling this prescription the water of crystallization may be removed by heating. potassium acetate. These incompatibilities do not make a dangerous mixture. and liberating the water of crystallization which makes the mixture sticky. part of it is precipitated as a red brown basic ferric salt. Either in the presence of ab- sorbed moisture or when taken into the stomach several reactions are liable to take place. There not being enough of acid to combine with all of the ferric iron. Lead sulphate would be formed from the lead subacetate and morphine sulphate. but in a damp one it absorbs moisture. forming lead sulphate. The other two salts arenot so readily precipitated as tannates. bismuth subcarbonate and carbon dioxide. or the ingredients may be powdered separately and then mixed lightly. lead carbonate. and there is no reason for declining to fill it. If simple syrup flavored with lemon is used no precipitate results. This gives a white precipitate of lead citrate due to the action of the citric acid in the syrup of lemon acting on lead acetate. aluminum sulphate. 354. as lead tannate. The sodium bi- carbonate would react with each of the other three ingredients. with lead subacetate. the free alkaloid. This mixture is permanent in a dry atmosphere. In either case the odor of acetic acid is noticeable.

The potassium permanganate was dissolved in part of the water and the glycerin was diluted with the balance of the water. This prescription has come to the writer from several different sources. When the solid matter settles there is left a violet colored super- natant liquid. Oxalic acid reduces the ferric iron and the permanganate. Petrolatum may be used but the mass is not quite as adhesive. When potassium permanganate and concentrated glyc- erin are brought together there is some liability of the mixture exploding or inflaming. The due to the formation of ferric violet color is salicylate. The object of the prescriber is not plain. 832. Potassium permanganate oxidizes carbolic acid to oxalic acid and carbon dioxide. in. After standing the precipitated manganese dioxide settled. using kaolin as a drying and dusting powder. The perman- ganate quickly changes the oxalic acid to carbon dioxide.) The permanganate is reduced and precipitated as manganese dioxide. in an alka- line mixture oxalic and carbonic acids are formed. 358. which makes the mixture a semi-solid. but by shaking it may be . leaving a clear colorless solution. Within two minutes the mixture was of a brownish black color and almost solidified by the manganese dioxide that was formed. showing that the permanganate was all re- duced. and tartronic acids. 357. There is not enough of permanganate to oxidize all of the salicylic acid or all of the ferrous sulphate. 356. the two solutions were then mixed.258 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS with the black manganese dioxide makes a dark brown mixture. The oxidation products of the glycerin are probably formic. propionic. (Morley and Muir. The best method to use in making pills is to powder each ingredient separately and mix each with a little wool fat so that the particles will not come in contact with one another.

It was almost impossible to mix these masses so as to make a homogeneous mixture or even one that would pour readily. paraffin. & M. The excipient should be one that will not reduce the permanganate. . a mixture of equal parts of paraffin. and kaolin makes a good one. ridin tricarboxylic acid. When the permanganate and the iron are rubbed together a detonation takes place. oxalic acid. Dark brown masses were formed. consisting of coagulated acacia holding in it the manganese dioxide. This prescription was filled by dissolving the quinine sul- phate in the acid and mixing with the mucilage. Some excipient must be chosen that will not reduce the permanganate.. the permanganate being reduced. and it should also protect the other ingredients. There is a large excess of carbolic acid not oxidized. 375). It also oxidizes the iron. The potassium permanganate was dissolved in a little water and added slowly to the other mixture. The patient using this prescription had it refilled several times. petrolatum. or wool fat with kaolin may be used. and kaolin is a good one. When filled as written no permanganate could be detected at the end of a week. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 259 gotten into a condition so that it can be poured. The pharmacist should not use the excipient directed. On standing a few hours the manganese dioxide is further reduced to manganous sulphate and the mixture becomes colorless. and then adding the oil of cloves. which it in turn oxidizes. 360. or resin cerate with kaolin may be used. Potas- sium permanganate is easily reduced by organic matter. 361. A mixture of equal parts of petrola- tum. Potassium permanganate oxidizes quinine sulphate to py- and ammonia (M. 359. iv.

which turns dark in a few days. The addition of about eighty minims of ammonia water clears it. 363. 364. Saturating the water with boric acid seems to retard the precipitation. . while the pyrogallic acid is changed to acetic and oxalic acids (Richter) . 365. The lead in this prescription is not all precipitated. It is also oxidized by the mercuric chloride. which is nearly white at first. On mixing solution of protargol and cocaine hydrochloride a precipitate is produced in a few hours and precipitation goes on slowly for several days. The pyrogallic acid is oxidized and turned black by contact with air and light. An absorbent powder will be necessary to make a mass that can be put into capsules. but when settled it is of a bluish purple. On adding a solution of pyrogallol to a solution of lead ace- tate a white precipitate is formed. 366. on standing a dark green precipitate forms in a few hours and remains sus- pended. The precipitate in suspension has a grayish color.260 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 362. and the morphine gives only a slight precipitate with it. which is reduced to metallic mercury. soon becomes darkened and ultimately nearly black. When pyrocatechin is rubbed with acetanilid or phenacetin a liquid results. This ointment. the upper portion getting black much sooner than the lower. The liquid has a blue fluorescence like quinine sulphate. On adding the zinc sulphate to the protargol solution a voluminous light brown precipitate forms and settles. The prescription should be filled as written. Acetanilid and phe- nacetin do not liquefy.

368. If the prescription must be dispensed quickly the carbonate should be added directly to the acid. 369. and then the phosphoric acid last. The effer- vescence is due to the liberation of carbon dioxide by the acid and comes off slowly. which is insoluble in water but soluble when there is an excess of free acid. The three disturbing causes are tincture of iron. getting a little yellow if allowed to stand for two or three weeks. white. and the carbonate in the remainder of the syrup. This makes a clear solution at first but in a day or two a gelatinous precipitate begins to form and ultimately gives a gelatinous mass. This can be filled by dissolving the alkaloidal salts in the syrup of lemon and tincture of iron. Ordinarily the prescription will be used up before there is enough gelatinization to trouble. There is enough of ammonium carbonate present to neutralize all of the sulphuric acid and liberate the free alkaloid. By using . The decoloration is due to the formation of ferric phosphate. If the amount of quinine is reduced to three grams there is but little precipitation and none if it is reduced to two grams. neutralizes a part of the free acid and quinine is precipitated. These two solutions should be cooled thoroughly before mixing. adding the water. phosphoric acid. After the addition of the acid the solution becomes colorless and slightly turbid and in a few minutes a heavy precipitate is formed. and quinine sulphate. because when warm the free alkaloid collects in sticky masses and it is impossible to get it evenly divided. perhaps as the sulphate or as the sulphate in combination with hydriodic acid. The solution is clear and of a pale reddish color previous to the addition of the acid. leaving out any one of which prevents precipitation. The quinine sulphate should be dissolved in part of the syrup with the aid of the acid. being alkaline. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 261 367. Fowler's solution.

however. forming the nearly insoluble quinine tannate. The pharmacist in dispensing the prescription should see that the tincture is quite strongly acid. The acetic acid quinine salt dissolves in this. and are a quinine salt separated out from a supersaturated solution. is The precipitate was filtered out and washed with water until the washings no longer gave a test for iron. This prescription makes at first a clear solution. The tannic acid should . the solution was not fluorescent or bitter. The tannic acid combines with the quinine. but within a few minutes it is thrown down as a bulky crystalline quinine acetate. which gives a precipitate on standing a short time. on adding ammonia water it gave a heavy red brown precipitate of ferric hydroxide. These crystals dissolve readily on addition of water. Basham's mixture contains and an acetate. This prescription should be by dissolving the quinine sulphate in a part of the filled syrup with the aid of the sulphuric acid. From this it was supposed that the original precipitate was a basic salt of iron which had been thrown out the quinine taking some of the hydro- of solution by chloric acid from the tincture to form a more soluble quinine salt. or the tincture is quite strongly acid. 372. some hydrochloric acid is added to the tincture before adding the alkaloidal salts. 371. If. the solution deposits pris- matic crystals. or quinine bisulphate is used. The mixture is so thick that it would be difficult to pour out an even dose.262 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS enough of dilute sulphuric acid to dissolve the quinine in water no precipitation results. It was then dis- solved in dilute sulphuric acid. The physician should also give his consent to allow the solution to be diluted with water with an increase in the dose. 370. If the tincture of iron not strongly acid the precipitate is yellowish brown.

The citrate of iron and quinine was dissolved in a part of the wine. The from the fluidex tract is precipitated. The quinine sulphate would not be entirely soluble even though there were no tannic acid in the infusion. By using the more dense quinine bisul- phate and putting the mixture into capsules. 373. Both solutions should be cold. 375. The difficulty with this prescription is that the pills would be entirely too large. The oil in the spirit of rosemary is thrown out of solution. making masses resin and sticking to the bottle so that it cannot be shaken loose. The precipitate is not dissolved by the further addition of the tincture. even for an external preparation. The tincture darkens the mixture a little and slightly increases the turbidity. To this was added the carbolic acid dissolved in the balance of the wine. The composition of the precipitate was not determined. but on testing it quinine was proved to be present. because mixed when warm the pre- if cipitate formed is sticky and will make a mass that cannot be evenly divided. it can be dis- pensed. 376. light A yellow sticky precipitate was formed. The tannic acid converts the quinine sulphate into the less soluble quinine tannate. as well as some of the inert matter in the tincture. neither is precipitation prevented by adding a little dilute sulphuric acid. The syrup of tolu should then be diminished a half ounce. 374. when iron citrate is used instead of the iron and quinine citrate no precipitation occurs. making a clear acid solution. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 263 be dissolved in the remainder of the syrup and this gradually added to the other solution with constant stirring. Moreover. . This is a poor combination. By adding a half ounce of honey to the fluidextract first the precipitate formed can be readily mixed.

Probably the best that can be done is to dissolve the resorcin in a few minims of water and add to the liquid petrolatum. Solutions of resorcin in alcohol and in ether were added to the petrolatum and heat applied to volatilize the solvent. but resorcin was precipitated. The turpentine does not mix. The maximum dose of santonin. Having ties. The resorcin destroys the fluorescence and precipitates the quinine. is two maximum doses coming so close together renders this prescription a dangerous one. 378. as two grains are said to have killed a child. Inquiry should be made to determine whether it is for a child or an adult and if for the former the prescription should not be filled. 379. although this is not a good preparation for a spray. Prescriptions containing santonin should be protected from the light. as given by most authori- four grains. The amount prescribed is not all soluble in the mixture. One gram of santonin is soluble in about 43 Cc. alcohol. On dissolving the quinine bisulphate in glycerin. or ether. alcohol. a clear solution is obtained. as light causes a change in color from white to yellow. of alcohol. 380. It has been suggested that it be dissolved in alcohol before mixing with the petrolatum. probably with the formation of new compounds. In a few minutes small needle- shaped crystals are formed and crystallization continues for some time.264 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 377. and not readily soluble in turpentine. nearly insoluble in water. Resorcin does not dissolve in liquid petrolatum but it is easily soluble in water. and part of the water and the resorcin in the balance of the water. It would be well to communicate with the prescriber. The santonin should be . but alcohol does not make a clear solution with liquid petrolatum and separates. but floats on top. Extractive matter from the fluidextracts is precipitated. sending the prescription out with a shake well label. some giving as high as five grains.

Several chemical reactions will take place.and sulphur. 384. There is not enough water to dissolve all of the chlorate. The soap acts as an emulsifying and solidifying agent and the consistency of this mixture is about that of lard. This explains why the mixture slowly turns dark. If dispensed in a pasteboard box. This combination is an unusual one but one which the writer has seen twice. With potassium chlorate. 3. The possible reactions are as follows: i. 2. and after the reactions have taken place there is not enough acid to form a normal ferric salt of all of the iron. the sulphurous acid thus formed gives potassium sulphate. chlorine. producing the black mercurous oxide. 381. 5. the box becomes greasy. sulphurous reacts with the thiosulphate. The chlorine thus formed oxidizes the reduced ferric salt back to the ferric condition and oxidizes the hyposulphite to a sulphate. it becomes sticky on standing. Hydrochloric acid with potassium chlorate gives potassium chloride. water. 4. 382. a part of it remains as an insoluble oxy chloride. depending upon the order of mixing. While this makes a fair powder at first. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 265 in the form of a fine powder and the mixture made into an emulsion. The thiosulphate reduces calomel to metallic . Ferric iron is reduced to ferrous iron. hydrochloric and sulphuric acids. giving at first a red solution of ferric thiosulphate. Soap is nearly always alkaline and acts on the calomel. 383. Quinine sulphate and boric acid seem not to react on each other but either one with soap liberates some oleic acid which causes the mixture to become sticky. forming acid. and several oxides of chlorine. The hydrochloric acid of the tincture sodium chloride.

a sufficient amount of water to keep the alkaloid in solution. 385. In triturating the mixture. When this prescription is filled as written a crystalline pre- cipitate forms at once.266 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS mercury. but there will still be danger from its the potassium iodide precipitating the strychnine. but not precipitated... On adding sodium bicarbonate to this the hydrochloric acid combines with it. 388. A thick gelatinous mass of strontium citrate is formed. Much commercial potassium iodide contains a carbonate. and the strychnine is liberated. The mass isso thick that it is difficult to pour. In this prescription we have only about 0. that the strychnine would be precipitated. .015 Gm. but in about a half hour needle-shaped crystals begin to fall. in 100 Cc. or i part to 7500 of water. it becomes almost liquid from the water of crystal- lization liberated. 387. but in this case an iodide free from carbon- ate was used. the mixture being darkened at once. A clear solution is formed at first. It has been suggested to use acacia to suspend the precipitate. but it is objectionable if not dangerous to send out a shake mixture in which strychnine is precipitated. B. The precipitate increases for several hours and contains strychnine which is thrown out of solution with the iodide. P. Neutralizing Fowler's solution will prevent causing trouble. Both Fowler's solution and potassium iodide precipitate the strychnine. Giving but a glance at this prescription we would conclude that it should not be dispensed. Strych- nine (free alkaloid) is soluble in about 6420 parts of water. is an acid hydro-alcoholic solution contain- ing about one per cent of strychnine hydrochloride. 386. But upon closer study we find that the solution of strychnine.

depending on the proportions. This is the first reaction in making the official precipitated sulphur. 390. There is a sufficient amount of alcohol and water to pre- vent the gold salt from precipitating strychnine. In the absence of the prescriber the nitrate should be dispensed. largely alcohol but partly by the syrup. However. acids decompose Theobromine differs from it. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 267 389. Diuretin is sodium-theobromine salicylate and is readily soluble in water. later notifying him of the change. . and the elixir contain- ing the other ingredients. Terpin hydrate is not entirely soluble in elixir and separates quickly. and a drying powder is necessary. Trional and salol produce a soft mass when rubbed together. The strychnine will not dissolve in the glycerin or in the water. Strychnine sulphate or nitrate (the nitrate is the more common for hypodermic injection) should be used. then a little water. 394. many alkaloids in that it does not readily combine with acids. When lime and sulphur are boiled together a red solution is formed. It should be rubbed with about thirty grains of powdered acacia first. The calcium and sulphur unite to form calcium thiosulphate and calcium disulphide or pentasulphide. 393. 392. the gold is reduced to the metallic condition in a few hours. by the The gold as precipitated has a purplish color by transmitted light but yellow or brown by reflected light. 391.

the sodium metaborate formed still gives a precipitate with zinc sulphate but not so great as borax. Mixing the bismuth with the salol and putting into the konseal. and then the spirit of nitrous ether added. The thymol should be powdered with about fifteen grains of acacia and water added and after- wards the borax dissolved in water. the acids in the tincture and spirit liberate the theobromine and salicylic acid. When the iron is added a very deep violet color is pro- duced. 397. 24. 5 capsule and putting it with the proper amounts of salol and bismuth into a konseal.268 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS In this prescription the diuretin was dissolved in the syrup. 395. Dissolving it first in a little alcohol does not help. V. and lastly the tincture of iron. While glycerin decomposes borax and liberates boric acid. . Pharmacy. This procedure may avoid trouble in other cases. Salol and thymol rubbed together make a liquid. The prescriber should be advised of this fact and the suggestion made that he use boric acid in place of borax. The zinc entirely precipitated by the borax. producing is a white flocculent precipitate of zinc borate or a mixture of the borate with a basic compound. due to the formation of ferric salicylate. and on allowing the mixture to stand a few hours a white precipitate falls. p. 290) advises putting the proper amount of thymol into a No. then putting in the thymol without mixing will give a mass on standing which does not affect the konseal. If the prescription is dispensed the pre- cipitate should be filtered out. Dunning (Bui. not in borax. Thymol dissolves in a solution of potassium or sodium hy- droxide but. It floats on top and will not stay mixed long enough to get an even amount. 396.

mix with the petrolatum and put on a shake well label. Menthol is soluble in the petrolatum but zinc sulphate is not. Some samples of zinc chloride do not entirely dissolve on account of the formation of some oxy- chloride resulting from too high fusion. 398. expecting to get a clear solution. potassium sulphate. The prescriber should rewrite this pre- scription. . Some samples of zinc iodide do not entirely dissolve in water and when filtered give a precipitate with a solution of zinc chloride. and potassium thiosulphate. This is due to an alkali being left in to preserve the iodide. There is left in solution some zinc sulphate. but instead got quite a heavy precipitate. About the only way this can be filled is to dissolve the sulphate in about ten minims of water. The pharmacist in filling this prescription shook the two salts with the water. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 269. " " The potassium sulphide in the liver of sulphur precipitates part of the zinc as the white zinc sulphide. It is not a good practice to send out such mixtures for sprays. 400. 399.

'S o xi ^.^H r '"' !>s -^ S'c ^. fx. a. 0^0^ OH tumpog uuoijdng psuaoq jotjdureQ .g a e g 8 ^ .270 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS umipog : n.S-B^ >>13 - - A - - - lllll^ijllr* o o B-S^C'S'R'S.

INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 271

TABLE OF SOLUBILITIES
The Pharmacopoeia and National Formulary now give the number of
millileters of the solvent required to dissolve one gram of the solid, in-
stead of parts by weight as heretofore. The U. S. P., IX and the N. F.,
IV compounds are marked with a star (*), and the solubilities here given
are those given by these authorities, provided they give numbers. In
other cases the solubilities are given in parts by weight and, being taken
from a large number of sources, are often only approximate.
Abbreviations: sol., soluble; v. s., very soluble; a., all proportions;
m. s., moderately soluble; sp. s. sparingly soluble; dec., decomposed;
,

ins., insoluble.

272 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS

TABLE OP SOLUBILITIES Continued

INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 273

TABLE OF SOLUBILITIES Continued

274 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS

TABLE OF SOLUBILITIES Continued

INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 275

TABLE OF SOLUBILITIES Continued

276 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS

TABLE OF SOLUBILITIES Continued

INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 277 TABLE OF SOLUBILITIES Continued .

278 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS TABLE OF SOLUBILITIES Continued .

INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 279 TABLE OF SOLUBILITIES Continued .

280 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS TABLE OF SOLUBILITIES Continued .

INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 281 TABLE OF SOLUBILITIES Continued .

282 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS TABLE OF SOLUBILITIES Continued .

INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 283 TABLE OF SOLUBILITIES Continued .

284 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS TABLE OP SOLUBILITIES Continued .

etc. internal or external. The price of the prescription is the compounding fee + the cost of the container -f twice the cost of the material. These prices are based on a $1. (All figures are compounding fees only. 25^. All simple or compound mixtures. sprays for nose and throat. add $1. Liquid Prescriptions: Minimum total charge. 35^. cost 70 j.00 multiply cost by ij instead of 2.10. and further.) How to Fix Price. compute price as follows: Compounding fee. D. Eye remedies. + con- tainer. .20. 25^ (12 X 2) = total. R. Dose. add $1. Example. 65^. INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS 285 N..00. i. add $1. cost 80^. adopt the follow- the cost ing sliding scale:Cost 60^. This is Important. if is over 50^ and under $1. cost 90^. (Exception: When the cost of material is over $1. injections.40. + twice cost of material.30. A." Quantity. 5^. add $1.50 per hour scale. dry or liquids and veterinary preparations are included in this table. 3 ii-5 i. should be " charged for as in the column. Prescription Pricing Schedule. If the ingredients of a four-ounce mixture cost i2<.

45^. 16 oz. etc. 12 oz. 25 ff for 2 doz.. 2 oz.. 75^. and 20^ for i doz. 50^ for 3 doz. Proprietaries costing 20^ per hundred or less.. OINTMENTS AND CERATES i OZ . Costing over 20^ and under 50^ per hundred. 40^ for 4 doz. 35^... 6oj for 4 doz. 55^. then ioj for each additional dozen. and 15 for i doz. 35 for 2 doz.. 4 oz.. Fatty Mixtures. 3 oz. 50^.. 35 ^ for 3 doz. 65^. then 5^ for each additional dozen. Etc. 6 oz.. i oz. 8 oz. charge as follows for compounding fee: 25^. 10^ for labeling and package.....286 INCOMPATIBILITIES IN PRESCRIPTIONS Where powders are prescribed by the ounce. 4. 40^. When the wholesale price is over per hundred. 10^ for labeling and package.... special rates may be made..

38 lactic 20 Alumnol 38 meconic 20 Alypin 39 metaphosphoric 25 Ammonia water 44 nitric 20 Ammoniated mercury 82 nitrohydrochloric 22 Ammonium carbonate 39 nitrous 22 chloride 39 oleic 24 iodide 40 oxalic 24 salts 40 phosphoric 24 valerate 40 picric 25 Amyl nitrite 40 pyrogallic 106 Amylum 40 pyrophosphoric 25 Analgesin 41 salicylic 25 Antifebrin 3 stearic 27 Antimony and potassium tartrate 40 sulphuric 27 sulphide 41 sulphurous 28 Antipyrine 41 287 . acetic 6 Adrenalin 65 acetylsalicylic 8 33 arsenic 47 aceticus 33 arsenous . dil 19 naphthol sulphonate. tannic 29 Acetanilid 3 tartaric 32 methyl 67 trichloracetic 33 Acetates 6 Acids . dil 17 Aluminum hydroxide 38 hypophosphorous. 44. INDEX TO INCOMPATIBILITIES References are to pages. 90 hydriodic 13 Alkaloids 36 hydrobromic 16 Aloin 37 hydrochloric 17 Alum 38 hydrocyanic. Acacia i Acid." 5 Acetone-chloroform 59 Aconitine 33 Acetozone 4 Adeps 33 Acetphenetidin 4 Adnephrin 65 Acid. 48 lis bromidum 34 benzoic 8 carbamas 34 boric 9 iodidum 34 camphoric 10 ^Ethylmorphinae hydrochloridum . 34 carbolic 99 Agurin 115 chromic 60 Airol 51 chrysophanic 10 Albumin 34 citric 10 Alcohol 35 gallic 12 Alkalies 36.

. dimethylamido 105 Cacao butter 97 Apomorphine hydrochloride 43 Cadmium salts. 51 Citrophen 61 betanaphtholate 51 Cocaine 62 oxyiodogallate 51 Codeine 62 subgallate 51 Colchicine 62 subnitrate 51 Collargol 46 subsalicylate 52 Collodion 63 Borates 9 Colloidal mercury 82 Bromides 16 silver 46 Bromoform 52 Coniine 63 Bromine 52 Copaiba 63 Butyl chloral hydrate 52 Copper sulphate 64 . .288 INDEX TO INCOMPATIBILITIES Antipyrine. c* oo Aqua 44 Caffeine 53 Aqua ammoniae 44 Calcium betanaphthol sulphonate 53 chlori 87 hypophosphite 54 Aquse 45 phosphate 54 Argenti nitras 45 salts 54 oxidum 46 Calomel 78 Argentum colloidale 46 Calx 54 Argonin 47 chlorata 54 Argyrol 47 sulphurata 55 Aristochin 108 Cambogia 55 Aristol 117 Camphor 55 Arsenic iodide 47 monobromated 56 pentoxide 47 Cannabis indica 56 trioxide 48 Cantharidin 56 Arsenates . 47 Carbo 56 Arsenites 48 Carbolic acid 99 Asaprol 53 Carbonates 56 Aspirin 8 Cargentos 46 Atropine 49 Catechu 57 Auri et sodii chloridum 49 Cerium oxalate 58 Charcoal 56 Chinosol 58 Balsam of copaiba 63 Chloral hydrate 58 Barium salts 50 Chloralamide 58 Benzaldehyde 95 Chloralformanide 58 Benzoates 8 Chlorates 59 Benzosulphinide 50. 87 Chloretone 59 Benzoyl-acetyl peroxide 4 Chlorides 17 Benzosol 74 Chlorine 60 Betaeucainae hydroc 50 Chloroform 60 Betanaphthol 50 Chromates 60 hydroxy-toluic acid 65 Chromium trioxide 60 salicylate 51 Chrysarobin 61 Betol 51 Cinchona 61 Bicarbonates 57 Citrates 10 Bismuth and ammonium citrate.

INDEX TO INCOMPATIBILITIES 289 PAGE PAGE Corrosive sublimate 76 Gallates 12 Cream of tartar 103 Gambir (see Catechu).. 33 Hydrargyri chloridum corrosivum 76 acetic 33 chloridum mite 78 Ethyl bromide 34 cyanidum 81 carbamate 34 iodidum flavum 81 iodide 34 iodidum rubrum ... volatile alkali 44 Ferri phosphas solubilis 67 Hydroxides. 74 Dermatol 51 Gold and sodium chloride 49 Diacetylmorphine hydroc 65 Guaiac resin 75 Digitalis 65 Guaiacol 75 Dionin 34 benzoate 74 Diuretin 116 carbonate 74 Duotal 74 salicylate 75 Gum arabic .. Criticisms of prescriptions 158 Gamboge 55 Creosotal 63 Gelatin 72 Creosote 63 Glonoin 74 carbonate 63 Glucosides 72 Cresol 64 Glycerin 72 Cupri sulphas 64 Glycerite of boroglycerin 74 Cyanides 17 Glycerophosphates 74 Glyceryl nitrate 74 Decoctions 65. 84 ammoniated Glycyrrhizin. fixed alkali 90 pyrophosphas solubilis 67 Hyoscyamine 83 Ferripyrine 67 Hypochlorites 54 Ferrous salts 70 Hypophosphites 19 Ferrum 71 Hyposulphites 112 Fluidextracts 72 Hyrgol 82 Formaldehyde 88 Formalin 88 Ichthyol 83 Formin 75 Infusions 84 Fowler's solution QO lodates 84 . i Elaterin 65 Gun cotton 107 Emulsions 65 Epicarin 65 Heroine hydrochloride 65 Epinephrine 65 Hexamethylenamine 75 Ergot 66 Holocaine hydrochloride 76 Erythrol tetranitrate 66 Homatropine 76 Eserine 101 Honey 92 Ether ..... 81 Eucaine hydrochl 50 oxidum flavum 81 Eucalyptol 66 salicylate 81 Euphorin 66 subsulphas flavus 82 Euquinine 108 Hydrargyrum ammoniatum 82 Europhen 66 colloidale 82 Exalgin 67 Hydrogen dioxide 88 Hydroquinone 82 Ferric salts 68 Hydroxide.

.2QO INDEX TO INCOMPATIBILITIES PAGE Iodides 13 Mercuric oxide 81 Iodine 85 salicylate 81 lodoform 84 subsulphate 82 lodol 85 Mercurous chloride 78 lodophenacetin 85 iodide 81 lodophenin 85 Mercury. ammoniated 82 Iron (metallic) 71 colloidal 82 (ferric) 68 Methylene-blue 93 (ferrous) 70 Methyl acetanilid 67 (reduced) 71 salicylate 93 phosphate solubje 67 Methylthioninae hydrochlor 93 pyrophosphate soluble 67 Morphine 93 Mucilage of acacia i Lactates 20 Lactophenin 87 Lard Naphthalene 94 33 Lead acetate Naphthol 50 103 subacetate Neosalvarsan in 90 Nitrates 20 Lime 54 Nitrites 22 chlorinated 54 Nitroglycerin 74 sulphuretted 55 Novocaine 94 water 87 Liquid petrolatum 98 Liquor acidi arsenosi 87 almond Oil of bitter 95 ammonii acetatis 87 cinnamon 96 arseni et hydrargyri iodidi 87 cloves 95 benzosulphinidi 87 ethereal 95 calcis 87 linseed 96 chlori comp 87 theobroma 97 ferri dialysati 87 turpentine 96 f ormaldehydi 88 Oils. fixed 94 hydrogenii diox 88 volatile 95 plurnbi subacetatis 90 Oleates 24 potassii arsenitis 90 Opium 97 hydroxidi 90 Orphol 51 sodii hydroxidi 90 Orthoform new 97 silicatis 91 Oxalates 24 Lithium salts 91 Oxidizing agents 98 Oxyquinolin sulphate 58 Magnesium oxide 91 salts. 81 Peroxides 98 . 91 Manganese salts 92 Pancreatin 97 Meconates 20 Paraldehyde 97 Mel 92 Pelletierine tannate 98 Menthol 92 Pepsin 98 Mercuric chloride 76 Perborate of sodium 112 cyanide 81 Permanganates 104 iodide .

90 Pyrogallol 106 sodium silicate 91 Pyroxylin 107 Sozoiodol Spirit nitrous ether Quinine 107 Spirits carbonic ester of 108 Starch 40 ethylcarbonate 108 Stovaine . . . 109 of milk no Saccharin 50 Sulphates 27 Saccharum 109 Sulphites 28 lactis no Sulphonal H5 Salacetol in Sulphonethylmethane 114 Salicin . 116 Phosphates 24 Sodium hydroxide 90 Phosphorus 101 hyposulphite 112 Physostigmine 101 perborate 112 Picrates 25 thiosulphate 112 Picrotoxin 102 Solution of ammonium acetate. 87 Pilocarpine hydrochloride 102 arsenous acid 87 Piperazine 102 arsenic and mercury Plumbi acetas 103 iodide 87 subacetas 90 chlorine comp 87 Potassium bitartrate 103 formaldehyde hydroxide 90 hydrogen dioxide ." 111 Sulphur Salicylates 25 iodide Salocoll 99 Supracapsulin 65 . . permanganate 104 iron dialyzed 87 salts 104 lead subacetate 90 Prescriptions 118 lime 87 Protargol 105 potassium arsenite . . Resin 108 Strontium salts Resins 108 Strychnine Resorcin 109 Sugar . . . 90 Pyoktannin 105 hydroxide. INDEX TO INCOMPATIBILITIES 291 PAGE Petrolatum 98 Salol IOO liquid 98 Salophen III Phenacetin 4 Saloquinine III Phenazone 41 Salvarsan III Phenetidin citrate 61 Santonin III lactate 87 Silver casein 47 Phenocoll hydrochloride 98 colloidal 46 salicylate 99 nitrate 45 Phenol 99 oxide 46 Phenolphthalein 100 protein 105 Phenyl urethane 66 vitellin 47 Phenylis salicylis 100 Soap 112 Phloridzin 101 Sodio-theobromine salicylate. 90 Pyramidon 105 saccharin 87 Pyrocatechin 106 sodium hydroxide. . . . .

115 Waters 45 salicylate. 116 White precipitate 82 Thiol 116 Thiosinamine 116 Zinc chloride 117 Thymol 116 iodide 117 iodide 117 salts 117 ..2Q2 INDEX TO INCOMPATIBILITIES PAGE PAGE Suprarenalin 65 Tragacanth 117 Table of prices 285 Trional 114 solubilities 271 Turpeth mineral 82 showing effect of rubbing solids together 270 Urea 117 Tannalbin 31 Urethane 34 Tannates 29 phenyl 66 Tannigin 31 Urotropine 75 Tannismuth 3i Tannoform 31 Veronal 117 Tannopin 32 Tartar emetic 40 Water 44 Tartrates 32 of ammonia 44 Terebene 115 chlorine 87 Theobromine 115 hydrogen dioxide 88 sodium acetate . ...

ac. " cocainae hydrochlor boric. pepsin 175 potass. 31 " " ac. tannic. terebin 70 293 . boras " pot. petrolatum ung. eucalyptoi thymol menthol sod. ferri chlor 14 (insoluble in water) 13 " chloral. ferri chlor n acetphenet. sod. cocainae hydrochlor. bicarb 56 " nitricum creosot. chloras 109 " sapo quin. antipyrina 345 sp. et ammon. muc. am. cor. codeina tinct. salicyl. mag. Acetanilidum camph. chlor. . chlor. syrup phenylis salicyl. quin. acaciae). sulph 382 " 28 citric. subnit. arom. bicarb. quinin. salol 343 " tinct. hypophos 64 " 60 hydrocyan. exalgin 230 camphora exalgin. mit 268 bis. sulph. iodi sod. 186 " 22 (insoluble in water) . 364 Acidum acetylsalicylic. brom 53 " acetanilid pyrocatechin. chloras 196 hydrarg. chloroform 69 ac. sulph 194 " caff eina cit. acaciae 15 ac. bis. sulph " hydrochlor. am. sod. salicyl 449 " 261 hydrarg. (incomplete) 55 " hydrobrom. mit. ac. sulph 35 " gallic. resorcin 12 spiritus setheris nitrosi 10 " tinct. cit. ac. salicyl. quinin. dil. phosphor. chlor. pyrocatechin 364 sp. acetylsalicyl 401 Acetphenetidinum sod. hydrarg. sod. sulph 19 pot. acetanilid 401 " benzoic. brom. cit. pot. arom. phenacetin 267 " quinin. sulph. ac. syr. carb. salicyl. INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS (References are to Prescriptions) NUMBER Acacia (see Muc. cit. quinin. salol 184 antipyrin. ol. monobrom. zinci oxidi 36 " hyd. iodid 20 " 21 pot.

sulph. potass. ol. tinct. 368 " " " " acid. iodidum 47 " ol. hypophosphit 107 " " ac. tart. terebin 70 " bichrom picis liq. hydrarg. sulph. pot. codeina 60 " ferri et quinin. iodi quinin. plumbi acet. sulph 231 " syr. potass. carb. " " ferri sod. oleatum menthol 67 " ammon. ferri chlor 404 " pyrogallic. ferri chlor 86 liq. hypophosphitum tinct. lini. hydrarg. strych. carbolic. ferri et quin. chloras 105 . iodid. cit. ac. tinct. tinct. tart " " " massa ferri carbon 100 " " " quin. sod. sp. tinct. nucis vom 74 glycerin 73 quinin. iodi comp 93 " sodii boras 168 atropinae sulph. phenacetin 230 aqua glycerin 99 " insolubility in water 22 ferri sulph. sulph. potass. ferri chlor 68 " nitrohydrochlor. pot. bicarb 98 " " menthol sod. et sod. potass. ferri chlor 250 " " tinct. strych. tinct. co. tannic 372 " " " " flext. hydrocyan. ferri chlor 84 " tinct. ferri chlor. boric. chloras . cardam. hypophos. co 85 " ferri phosphas quinin. syr. 103 " " 102 ol. sulph. pyrophos. ferri iodidi 42 " ferri et pot. nitrat potass. chlor. 232 " " ac. ferri chlor 239 quin. sod. tinct. sulph 40 " quinin. perman.2Q4 INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS NUMBER Acidum nitricum ac. benzoic. sulphas strych. chlor. cocainae hydrochlor 31 " ammon. sulph. cor 436 " " sod. quin. ferri chlor glycerin. ammon. cor 366 plumbi acet 365 " salicylic. ferri chlor. terebin 72 syr. nitric. phos 91 " " ac. sulphurosum. benz. permang 355 " tinct. phos. sulph. potass. comp 71 " oxalicum pot. bicarb 185 " ferri sol pyrophosph. pot. digital. sulph 23 " sod. cit 356 " phosphoric.glycyrrh 104 " potass. phosphoric. nitric 68 tinct. carb sulphuricum quinin. ferri chlor 369 " ac. tinct. iodidum 238 " " 101 arom. tinct. tinct. aromat 408 " " " sod. sulph. bicarb 186 ac. thymol " exalgin. tinct.

carbol. ceratum 409 " " tinct. 309 " tartaricum quinin. terebinthin 328 " ol. cor. quinin. liq. calcis ?. iodi 113 " " liq. fer. quinin. allii 189 " syr. cor. cajuputi petrotatum 405 Aloinum sp. liquid 283 Albumin hydrarg. iodi 446 " " in ferri sulph " " tinct. ol. myrrh 117 " " alumen acet. cit 24 " brom. tinct. nit.. hydrochlor. myrrhae pot. iodi ac. chlor. " ac. pepsin 190 " hydrarg. sulphur. diox 147 " " hydrarg. subac " " menthol cocaina 116 petrolat. acet. iodidum 46 Aconitina (too large a dose) 118 ^Ether cocainae hydrochlor.chromic. ac. codeinae sulph 105 " carbon. tinct. ammon. nucis vom 122 Alumen plumbi acet 123 " ac. ac. digitalis acacia guaiacolum 128 " heroin. cor 120 Alcohol iodum ol. zinc sulph 352 " sod. glycerin 209 " hydrarg. J 114 " " glycerinum hydrargyrum iodum 288 " " tinct. nit " plumbi acet 125 " infus. boric. zinci sulph plumbi 352 " " ac. iodid. cor 126 ac. morph. salicyl. hyd. aeth. aether. liq. hydrog. mit 270 " hydrarg. mit 269 " " brom. plumbi subacet. sulph. hydrarg. hydrarg. potass. plumbi subacet. boras glycerinum 412 Alumnol resorcin 124 Ammonii benzoas caffeina cit. hydrarg. aq. tinct. chloras 109 " " 112 zinci sulph. iodidum 258 " sodii citras 80 sp. terebin 327 " acacia phenol benzoin 9 " sod. chlor. iodum ol. chlor. iodidum aq. cor 436 " chlorid. sod. sulph. morph. chlor. sulph 368 " syr. pot. morph.. chlor 121 potass. chlor. INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS 295 NUMBER 106 Acidum sulphurosum potass. scillae 127 " syr. chlor. codeinae sulph 15 . chlor. subsal. tannic. " " liq. chlor. chloras " tannic. sulphur. liq. plumbi acet. et quin. iodi tinct. rosae 439 " " bis. sulph 372 " " iodoformum 285 " " morph. vin. gaulth. chlor. ipecac. nit. potass. plumb. pot. cor. sulph 214 iodoformum menthol petrolat.

bor phenol 137 " tinct. diox. resorcin 12 " syr. ferri chlor 135 " sod. iodi lin. 139 " chloral. ferri chlor 141 " syrupus tinct. limonis aq. Liquor hydrogenii dioxidi). sod. ferri chlor 244 Argent. 413 sulphurat. tinct. ferri chlor 246 " hydrogen. iodidum 129 Amylum ichthyol liq. morph. sp. chlor 54 " " cocaina 153 " " potass. thymol " ac. ferri chlor 234 " " sod. iodi " camphora potass. tinct. mit 272 " pimentae tinct. dil. sulph. phosphas 151 " ext. acetylsal. sp. chloratae 206 liq. ferri chlor 243 ac. ferri iodidi 133 aq. cor. sapon. sulph 136 " caffeina sodii bromidum syr. codeina morph. lini 130 Antimon. liq. aeth. cinnam 422 caffeina citrata sodii salicylas 423 " caffeina sodii bromidum camphora cit. chlorat. salicyl 95 " " mag. carbolic. hydrarg. 415 Apiol. nitras sod. permangan 152 " liq. aconit 142 glycerin. arom. tinct. aeth. sulph 136 antipyrina caffeina sodii bromidum syr. ammon. hydrochlor 218 ichthyol phenol 279 iodid. chlor 38 Amylis nitris potass. dil. aconiti sp. tart. cor. hydrochlor . chlor. mit 274 " tinct. sod. tether. cinnamomi ac. chlor. acet. arsenit 15 " cocainaehydrochloridum 213 " sod. salicyl 414 " spir. sulph 134 " ac. (see " lauro-cerasi hydrarg. hydrarg. potass. pot. sulph. antipyrina quinin. gentianae 154 . chlor. limonis 422 " gaulther. hyd. nit. chlor.296 INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS NUMBER Ammonii chlorid. hydrarg. chlor. phenylis salicyl 345 pyramidon phenylis. (in pills) 229 Apomorph. calcis ol. ammon. chloratae liq. hydrochlor. tinct. 207 " 220 collodium tinct. et pot. bicarb. cor 131 1 hydrarg. nit 81 chloral 138 " acetanilid. bromid 144 " cinnamon. sulphur 203 Antipyrina sod. potass. tinct. quinin. nit 140 Aqua ammon.

subnit. sod. ammon. acetylsalicyl 401 " " antipyrina salol pyramidon 414 Calcii hypophosph. arom. 432 " " sp. sulph. capsic 421 " 112 ac. hydriod 178 " ac. et. cinchon 172 " " " " arsenic liq. hydrochlor 175 Bismuth. iodi 446 " subsalicylas ac. chlor. sulph. aqua ac. ferri dialys. cit. glycerin 171 Auri et sod. ferri chlor. chlor. (too large a dose) 165 " " tinct. benz. INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS 297 NUMBER Argent. ammon. strych 164 Asafcetida camphora ext. tannic. hydrochlor. ferri 242 " ammon. Peru ung. hypophos 64 " quinin. ac. plumbi acet 351 " " sp. strych. sulphat. aq. plumbi subacet. stram 425 Aspirin (see Acidum acetylsalicylicum) . ferri et quin. nitras glycerinum listerine 417 " " glycerinum pot. strych. cocae strych. sulph. 170 u u u alcohol strych. Atropin. hydrog. " hypophosphis 65 " lav. iodi co. atropin. syr. acet sp. ammon. auri et sod. strych. strych. carbol. ferri lact. am. dioxidi 147 Boroglycerinum petrolatum 256 Caffeina antipyrina sodii bromidum aq. ac. chloras 66 . nitras glycerinum 420 Auri chlor. ext. tinct. chlor. liq. tinct. 420 Bals. tr. liq. sulph " " auri et sod. sulph 169 " " ol. bicarb 177 " . olivae 167 " " sodii boras 168 ac. morph. plumbi subacet. tinct. salicyl. cit 24 " sp. aromat. bicarb 354 " ac. arom. iodidi 149 " " opium 155 " oxid. chlor. sulph 172 morph. tr. sulph. zinci acet 176 " " sod. ac. cor. aetheris nitrosi liq. syr. nitras atrop. potass. plumbi subacet " " syr. sulph. flext. cinnam. cinchon. tannic. creosot 156 Arseni triox. sulphur 132 Bis. hyoscy. co h'q. co. sulph. copaibae (see Copaiba). hydrarg. limonis 422 " citrata antipyrina sodii salicylas 423 " camphora antipyrina sodii bromidum 139 " et ammon. " Peru ung. tannic. sulphuris betanaphthol 132 " " glycerin 254 " " petrolat 332 Betanaphthol exalgin 174 bals. syn cinnamomi 389 " " " " flext.

bromid. salol 343 " ac. ac. cocainae hydrochlor. hypophos. nitras 153 " ichthyol glycerinum v 438 " 216 petrolat. indicae bromidum ext. 240 " " tinct. pot. sulph 214 exalgin. morph. hydroc 119 Chloroform. chlor. 425 " monobrom. iodi phenol 301 " " phenol 34i " " ac. aqua 195 " theobromatis ol. salol 184 Catechu potass. chlor. carbol. 61 Calx sulphur 392 " chlorata 180 glycerin Camphora chloral 182. boric. quinin. amylum 426 " asafoetida ext. hydrochlor 208 " " alcohol glycerin 209 Chrysarobinum collodium resorcin 210 Cocaina argent. gent. lactas. bor antipyrina phenol 137 " camphora amylum 426 " ext. ferri chlor phosphor. sod. zingiber " antipyrina 138 " pot. 183 " caffeina sod. 205 Chromii trioxidum cocain. boras 32 . can. et. cocainae hydrochlor. plumbi acet 181 chloral. sulph. opii am. arom sp. ferri sulph. pot. strych. stramon hyoscy.298 INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS NUMBER Calcii hypophosph. boras 33 " 182 camphora syr. 330 Chloretone magma magnes. potass. sulph 194 " sod. hydrochlor. acetanilid. syr. cyanid 193 " cocain. adrenalin. hypophos 403 hydrarg. mit 211 " " hydrarg. sarsap 63 " ac. ferri chlor . phenacetin. tinct. ferri chlor. morph. elixir 191 " brom quin. sulph 214 " phenacetin. ferri lactis potass. lactic. liq Cocainae hydrochlor. chloras 202 Chloral. ox. morph. mag. salicyl 31 " " sod. hydrarg. brom antipyrina 139 " ol. chloras 62 " el. bicarb 204 " tinct. sulph 214 " aqua sod. ext. theobrom phenylis salicylas 443 " iodum ung. hyoscyami pot. camphor. hydrarg. 289 " chloral. 192 camphora 183 " sod. flavi 276 " " tinct. ac. cor. liq. sulph.

carbolic 340 Exalginum acid. 215 " " ac. gallicum petrolatum ung. tinct. " " menthol petrolat. santali sp. iodidum 217 " ac. salicyl. menth. hydrochlor Copaiba (in pills) 223 " tinct. nitric 69 " hydrarg. ferri chlor. nucis vom 75 " ferri pyrophos. zingib " cubebae ol. lactic 403 " " " " " flext. ol. chlor. nit 263 Eucalyptol aqua 186 in capsules 318 Euphorin acid. chloroform. chlor. permangan 359 . INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS 2QQ NUMBER Cocainae hydrochlor. hydrochlor 218 Codeinse sulph. co 5 " 222 flext. ammon. (dose too large) 227 " gentianae argenti nitras 154 " glycyrrhiz. pot. oxid 156 Cupri sulph. nit. lav. pot. zinci oxidi 36 " morph. chlor. carbolic 219 " ammon. digital. ferri iodidi 265 " argent. syr acacia sp. permang. ferri chlor 394 Elixir chloral. pot. can. codeinae sulph 448 Essentia pepsini hydrarg. aether. canthar. nitrosi 224 " phenylis salicyl. tinct. hydrochlor. pip 428 tinct. aetheris nit 429 Creolin aqua 225 Creosotum ac. phosphor. arsen 233 Ergotina tinct. brom 191 " cinchonae hydrarg. acetas liq. chlor. exp 427 " " argenti nitras 213 Codeina potass. brom. chlor. ol. cocain. " ammon. phenacetin 230 camphora phenacetin. aq. iodi 60 ac. iodi 220 aq. 221 tinct. cor. cor. calc. cinnamomi 228 " potas. salol 343 " naphthol 174 Extract. seth. pot. et fer. liquid. hypophos. chlor 15 Collodium ac. camphorae syr. morph. tinct. ferri lactas ac. " 212 flex. indie. " resorcin 210 chrysarobin. iodidum 37 " gent. ammon. (too much) 226 Diuretin tinct. aether 214 " " 212 collodium flex " " protargol 363 " " chromic 208 ac. syr. pot. strych. tinct. cubebae sp. cor. amygd. digitalis flext. hydrocyan.

ferri chlor I4 1 sod. indicae pot. sulph. det. sulphurosi pot. carbolic 375 " " " " rnag. mag. acid. carb 79 " cinchonse auri et sod. phosphoric. bicarb 187 " " quinin. chlor. gent. calc. sulphuric glycyrrhizse 104 tinct. sulphur 232 ac. diox. ext. can. benz. iodidum 237 " " " " ammon. sulph. hypophos.. sp. el. hypophos. bicarb. chloras morph. stram 425 Ferri et ammon. permang 355 aq. acid. nit 78 " " " " pot. permangan 357 " ac. ferri chlor 105 . gent. aq. tinct.. carbol. nit. syr. caffeina cit 24 " " " " pot. sulph 231 phosphorus strych. nit. sod. chlor. indicae ext. cor. boras 253 " pot. pot. phos 91 " 62 sulphas calc. ferri chlor 241 pot. nucis vom ergotse 431 " acid. gent. tinct. permang. nitrohydrochlor 73 pot. hyoscyami pot. ferri chlor 198 acid. potass. sod. sulphuric. buchu. glycerin. iodidum argenti nitras 149 " pot. fer. potass. iodidum 238 " lactas calc. chloras. hypophos. can. iod 376 " nucis vom. -tinct. ferri chlor. et ferri chlor 75 Glycerinum pot. hypophos. tannic ac. permangan 360 Fluidext.300 INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS NUMBER Extract. ammon. cinchon 346 " pyrophos. hyosc 425 " hyoscyami chloral. chloras tinct. cit. cardam. phosphor. seth. ac. salicylic. chlor. et fer. hydrogen. chloras. strych. et ferri chlor 75 " " (large dose) 227 " tinct. bellad. el. potass. phosphas quinin. aqua 195 " " asafoetida camphora ext. chlor 172 pot. cit. diox 148 aq. chloras liq. sod. 195 " asafoetida camphora ext. pot. salicyl. sulph. hypophos. pot. acid. bichromas 145 Ferrum reductum potass. pot. lithii salicyl. sp. chloras 66 " " el. tart. calcis 257 " ac. oxalic 356 " " potass. pot. hydrogen. co 85 " " " " potass. iodidum 320 " " in ac. pot. tinct.. limon 92 " " " " ac. glycyrrh. pot. sulph. bromidum chloral. lactas 403 " acid.lactic. ferri chlor. bromidum aqua . ext. pot. tinct. tinct. ac. myrrhoe 324 hydrarg. el. chloras 241 " " tinct.

iodidum 258 " " " antimon. hydrogen. pot. pot. carb. Peru 254 " ol. arsenitis syr. arom. chlor. carb 436 " " pot. salicyl. 303 " " " liq. acid. iodid 38 " " pot. pot. iodidum tinct. sulph. ricini 325 " acet. ferri iodid 265 " " alcohol iodum ol. syr. ferri chlor 261 ' sp. et pot. chromic. plumbi subacet 311 " strychnina 390 aq. sarsap 435 " " spiritus aetheris nitrosi alcohol 76 . calcis. cinchon 418 pot. sulph. calcis 257 " " heroina ol. sulph 309 " " albumin 120 " " ammon. hydrogen. ac. arom 259 " " sod. arsenit 157 " " " " " quinin. ferri chlor. ferri chlor 164 " " liq. sulph. terebinthin 328 " antimon. carb. salicyl 158 " " " " " ammon. tinct. carb 126 " " pot. carb. sulph 262 " " " " " quiii. boras 26 plumbi " ac. elix. acacise 434 Heroinae hydrochlor. liq. chlor. syr. tinct. co 63 " " (too large a dose) potass. morph. iodidum ammon. pot. sulph. hypo. ammon. arsenosi strych. ol. ferri chlor. calcis. sp. chlor. ammon. morph. syr. diox. zinci sulphocarb. bichrom 145 sod. ferri iodidi el. ammon. ars. plumbi subacet.. pot. alcohol 209 " unguentum 252 " 180 calx chlorata " liq. carb 260 " " glycerin. morph. sulph 437 " " quinin. INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS 301 NUMBER Glycerinum bals. tannic. cinchon 37 " " " " ac. terebin. tart 131 " " calc. chloras 433 Heroina hydrarg. cor 126 Hydrarg. muc. hydrochlor 413 " " aq. pyrogal 366 " " " strych. boras 25 " " syr. diox. muc. zinci chlor. 416 " liq. chloras sod. iodid. sod.. ars. hydrarg. tinct. co 263 " liq. boras alum 412 Glyceritum boroglycerini aqua 255 ac. terebin 434 " " liq.. sod. liq. ammon. ferri sulph. tart. cor. cor. acaciae 8 " " " " liq. sulph 264 " " liq. strych. sarsap. et pot. pot. hypophos. syr. pot.

hydrochlor 211 " " " iodoform 284 " " pilocarpin. liquid 283 " 282 (insol. chlor 269 " " liquor calcis 273 " " pepsinum sodii bromidum 266 " " antipyrina sod. phenol 279 " amylum liq. in syr. chlor. ol. terebin 327 " camphora ung. iodi 297 " canthar salviae quinin. tannic. petrolatum tinct. boras 30 Ichthyol ammon. ac. sulph. cyanid 57 " " pot. 51 " " pot. tolu 287 Iodum ale. camphorae co 294 " (in ointment) 298 . glycerinum 288 ammon. iodid 39 " " sapo 381 _sod> bicarb 271 " " sod. laurocerasi 272 " " " cocain. chlor. rosemar. hydrobrom 267 " " ac. flay.) hydrarg. oxidum flav 286 " terpini hydras syr. calcis. mite 284 Iodol hydrarg. resorcin 280 " 281 (capsules) cocaina 438 Infus. tinct. chlor. iodi 278 " zinci sulph 277 quin. mite ac. iodi 290 " iodidum iodidum flavum potass. tinct. sp. carb 270 " " " ammon. petrolat 276 Hydrargyrum iodum ac. lini 130 resorcin. 275 " rubrum pilocarpinae hydroc 411 " iodol 286 oxid. aromat 259 " digitalis ammon. cinchon. carb.302 INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS NUMBER Hydrarg. hydrochlor 347 " " bromid pot. ammon. sulph. ol. chlor. chloras 197 " " " pot. " " cocainae hydrochlor. bicarb 274 " " aq. hydrarg. sp. thiosulph 384 " " " tinct. acacia guaiacolum 128 " humuli tinct. iodi 291 Hydrastinae sulph. tannic 285 aether menthol petrolat. cor. sod. 373 lodoform. hydrochlor 268 " " ammon. hydrarg 289 " lin.

sapon 295 " 288 ac. iodid. sulph 50 " calcis ol. nit 49 " arsenic auri et sod. menthol 410 " hydrarg. permanganas 146 " hydrarg. NUMBER lodum sp. pot. ferri iodidi 305 " " ichthyol ol. zinci carbon. acet. carbol. aeth. camphor lin. calamine 424 " " hydrargyri chlor. tannic 114 " ferri chlor. cor. olivae 326 " morphinae hypodermicus pot. liq 440 Liniment. acaciae hydrarg. tr. terebinthinae petrolat. sulph 264 " adrenalin. chlor. plumbi subacet. INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS 303. cor. cinchon. chlor. liq. iodid. aeth. hydrarg. quinin. tannic. pot. glycerin 148 ' ferri sulph. aromat 302 " " liq. subnit 432 " " et ammon. opii . co. lav. pot. hydroc. co. bis. plumbi subacet 307 Liquor acidi arsenosi hydrarg. liq. 312 " mucil. sulph 370 " sp. bis. magma magnes. ammon. potassae ol. cinchon 160 " mucil. chlor. 328 " oleatum hydrargyri 292 " ol. amylum 130 " " muc. zinci chlor 303 " " petrolat. glycerin 311 " " ac. iodidi quinin. iodidum 45 " plumbi subacet. glycerin. ac. 294 " iodum sp. chlor 170 " arseni et hydrarg. camphor saponis 295 " aq. ferri chlor 16 " " " sod. calcis unguent. chloras glycerin 198 " " dialys. zinci phenol- sulphonas 416 iodi co. morph. lini. sulphis sp. cor. mite 273 " " hydrarg. chloretone 119 " petrolat. acet. salicyl 245 " " " sod. aetheris nitrosi caffeina citrata 242 " hydrogen. subnit 147 " " ac. tinct. iodi 142 " " liq. chlor. bichrom 145 " potas. tannic. morrhuae syr. rub 411 " ammon. co. diox. nit 108 " " pot. strych. zinci oxidum 333 " " sp. acaciae 3 . liq. cor. sulph. ammon. arsenit 159 " " " " " " tinct. cor 8 " " zinci ox. sp. chlor. nitrat 304 " iodum camphor. liq. ol. glycerinum hydrargyrum " terebinthin alcohol hydrarg. tinct. acaciae 7 " tr. tinct.

ac. cor 126 hydrarg. ferri iodidi el. sod. strych. cor. phosphor. ferri chlor 404 " strych. strych. iodi 293 " " hydroxidi liq. carbol. hydriod 367 liq.. . iodi 446 " zinci sulph. sulph 43 syr. carb. chlor. hydrochlor 160 " " " liq. syr. hydrochlor 173 " sodae chloratae ammon. chlor. hypophos. sulphur. morph. hydroc 119 Magnesia aqua 314 Magnes. olivae 326 . " " saccharini hydrochlor. calcis 303 Listerine argent. hyd 112 " lin. hydrochlor. cor. oliva 310 zinci phenolsulphonas 306 " pot. cor. hydrarg. nit 263 " quin. liq 336 " " phos. nitras 162 " " syr. cor 157 " " " strych. tannic. arsenit 161 " " potassii iodidum 387 . nucis vom 163 " " " strych. tinct. sulph. thymol 206 aq. chlor. strych 161 " heroin. cor 309 " tinct. adrenalin. chlor. quinin. ferri iodidi 419 " " hydroxidi petrolat. liq. chlor. ammon 207 ' sodii arsenatis ac. ferri iodidi 251 " hydrarg. cit 92 Magma magnes. liq. sulph 388 " " " tinct. 173 " zinci chlor. liq. chlor. ac. chlor. co. pot. nitras 417 Lithii bromidum sodii phosphas sodii chloridum 313 " salicylas ferri et ammon. iodidum strych. quinin. ferri pyrophos 233 potassii iodidum 44 pot. boras 28 " calc. cor. ferri dialys.304 INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS NUMBER Liquor plumbi subacet. bicarb 386 liq. tinct. syr. sulph 40 liq. calcis 311 ac. cinchon 418 pot. morph. liq. 159 " hydrarg. hydrarg. ferri dialys. ol. fer. saiicyl 158 " argenti nitras 150 hydrarg. ferri 62 sulph. aq. sulph. sulph . saponis 307 " phenol 308 " phenol ol.< saccharini liq. sulph 262 " tinct. iodi co. hydrarg. citrici sod. sod. pot. iodidum quinin. chlor. acetas elix. arsenitis ac. glycerin.

diox. myrrhae 117 " sp. aqua . morrhuae sod. tannic. liquid 283 " cocainae hydrochlor. ammon. ferri chlor. bicarb. ferri chlor 235 protargol zinci sulph 362 ac. cor. atrop. sulph. morph. INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS 305 NUMBER Magnes. petrolat. guaiaci 4 tinct. et pot. zinci sulph. co 316 " " antipyr. calcis 8 liq. bicarb 354 " (large dose) 322 cupri sulph. boras syr. zinci sulph 226 " aether chloroform 214 " sod. sulph 169 " pot. ferri dialys 7 liq. liq. hydrarg. tannic. borici i " ol. iodidum 320 " hydrochlor. exp ol. plumbi subacet 3 " sod. codeina 218 hydrarg. chlor. liq. aeth. tinct. ac. nit 6 hydrarg. chlor. flext. aether. iodum 292 Oleum amygdalae exp. cit. liq 116 " chloroformum tinct. hydrarg. aconiti sp. antim. nit 5 Naphthol (see Betanaphthol). subnit. liq. sod. liq. Oleatum hydrarg. cor. sod. ferri chlor 199 " bis. ammon. petrolat. chlor. 427 ac. bicarb 186 " eucalyptol guaiacol carb 318 " (insolubility in water) 317 " resorcin. hydrochlor 427 . salicyl 134 " " tinct. zinci sulphocarb. salicyl. chloras. tarax. tinct. flext. tolu 2 alcohol. sulph. benzoini petrolatum liquidum 335 Morphinae acet. pot. potass. plumbi subacet 112 " sulph. boras ac. hydrogen. gent. sod. sod. liquid 215 " cocaina ac. sp. valerian. chlor. plumbi subacet 309 aq. cor. iodid 450 Massa ferri carb. chlor. tannic. aether nit. permanganas 361 " tinct. aeth. 187 " " strontii brom. tinct. ammon. sod. boras 29 Menthol thymol ac. tannic. ferri et am. arom. :opaiba sp. sp. cor. 9 n . nit. tinct. bicarb. 319 " aether iodoformum petrolat. acet 321 " ferri sulph. tart 413 cocainae hydrochlor. aetheris nit 315 " " pot. bicarb. sp. ac. amygd. benzoic. cyanid 58- " ac. 416 Mucilago acaciae potass. cocainae hydrochlor. aromat 100 Mel sod.

chlor. aeth. ferri iodidi liq. adrenalin. cit. cor. benzoini liquidum 335 " " cocainae hydrochlor. cajuputi 405 " chloroformum menthol tinct. acaciae 434 iodum petrolat. menthol cocaina 116 " " cocaina 216 " " iodoform. chlor. sodii hydrox 336 " " ac.plumbi subacet. phenol 310 " " liq. nitrohydrochlor 72 " " flext. ac. sulphuric 70 " iodum alcohol hydrarg. sulphur. carbol. myrciae 334 " cocainae hydrochlor hydrarg. gaulth. plumbi pot. chlor. 222 syr. aether menthol 283 " " resorcin menthol eucalyptol 378 " " zinci sulph. copaiba sp. 328 " " tinct. mite sodii bromidum 266 " sodii bromidum sodii bicarbonas 331 Petrolatum bals. sulph 167 " " liq. iodi co. ung. iodi 300 " ac. tolu 2 " tinct. liq. arnicae tinct. pot 326 " ricini glycerin 325 " sabinae (in pills) 229 " cubebae santali ol. liq 440 " theobrom. nitrosi 224 " alcohol ol. ol. hydrarg. calcis amylum ichthyol 130 " morrhuae syr. menthol 215 " liq. santali copaiba sp. lini ac. liq. gallicum cocainae hydrochlor. cor. iodum 327 ac. chloralum hydratum 330 camphora phenylis salicylas 443 Opium argenti nitras 155 Pepsinum bis. salicyl 342 " terebinthinae syrup 329 ale. et ammon. nitrosi '. sp. can. nitric. ind. iodi 296 " olivae atrop. menthol 400 . boras acacia syr. zinci oxidi 36 " boroglycerinum 256 " alcohol ol. hydrochlor 175 " hydrarg. 276 " ac. ac. syrupus 380 " heroina muc. ox. calcis 305 " " sod.306 INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS Oleum cubebae ol. Peru 332 " liq. chlor. nitras 102 " " _. zingib " santonin. calcis 333 liq. aether. pilocarpinae hydroc 411 " ac. tannic. flav. gaultheriae cajuputi petrolatum 405 " acet. 224 phenyl.

permang 358 " ferri et ammon. . santali copaiba aq. pot. cubebae ol. ferri chlor 250 " aq. boras 137 " ammon. sod. iodid. ferri chlor . det. aq. ferri chlor. zinci sulph 352 " " ac. thymol 339 " 102 ac. myrciae 334 " antipyrin. glycerin 148 " collodium 219 " plumbi acet. chloras tinct. chloral. liq. ol. bichromas 103 Pilocarpina hydrarg. camphor. sulph. pot. adrenalin menthol 41 " " iodum ol. gambir 445 " alum 123 " ac. hydrochlor. hydrog. lini plumbi acet. aeth. sulph. 343 " trional hydrarg. piperazina 337 Phenol euphorin 340 " aqua 338 " tinct. sulph. Phenocol. nitras " petrolat. opii zinci sulph. 308 " cocainae hydroc 341 Phenylis salicylas thymol 344 acetanilid. rub. tinct. ferri chloridi 200 " plumbi subacet liq. ferri phosphas sol. mite 391 " ol. ichthyol 279 " aq. monobrom 184 " ol. chlor. INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS 307 NUMBER Petrolatum liquidum liq. citras 375 " camphora plumbi acet. plumbi subacet. tinct. mite 347 hydrarg. adrenalin. ac. gaultheriae 342 " antipyrina aspirin 345 syr. iodi cocinae hydrochlor 301 " ac. 443 " tinct. cinchon 346 Picis liq. bis. chlor 411 Piperazina (in powder) 349 phenocoll. sp. sp. hyd. alum. nit 444 " " tinct. subnit 351 " tinct. sod. chlor. sulph. diox. ol. carbolic thymol 339 . 247 " camphora phenacetin exalgin. liq. sulphurosum tinct. ammon. subnit 396 antipyrina pyramidon 414 Phosphorus strych. chloratse 207 " potass. menth. limonis 353 " thymol bis. terebinthinae 440 Phenacetinum (see Acetphenetidinum). hydrochlor 337 strych. el. chloroform! 350 Plumbi acetas quinin. pip 428 " theobrom camphora ol. chlor. iodi 181 " liq. olivae 310 " pot. tannic. sulph.

hydrogen. hyoscyami aqua 195 " carbonas hydrarg. subnit. sulph. chlor. tinct. 89 " bichromas ac. 26 " ac. tinct. sulphuric.308 INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS Plumbi acetas ac. mit 197 ammon. ferri iodidi 42 " ac. carbolic ac. ferri sulph. ol. rhei 249 Potass. cit 187 ac. arsen 233 " sp. lini """102 " ammon. nit. sulph " tinct. tinct. pip. sod. can. acetylsalic 21 . carbol. nit 79 sod. tannic ac. aether. ferri lactas " " ferri sulph. phos i . aether. qiunin. sulph. ferri chlor ac. glycyrrh. picisJfiquid 103 aq. indicae ext. sodii bicarb 354 zinci sulph. bis. tinct. ferri pyrophos. chlor. sulph. hydrarg. sulphur. camphor 144 " strych. menth. pot. buchu sp. / 191 " ^-quin. sulph. tinct. chlor. hyposulph. vin. dlox. 62 mag. salicyl. ac. ferri iodid. ferri chlor 90 mag. cor. ferri chlor. 199 " " sod. ferri chloridi 200 " 201 spir. sulph. boric. 433 " " ac. hydrochlor 196 " tinct. 105 " " ac. ferri et am. syr. 109 " tinct. glycerin 241 " antimon syr. aether. pot. iodi 181 " subacet. nitrosi 18 " bicarbon. elixir. camphorse " citras sp. chloral. sulph 437 " massa ferri carbon. sulph 17 " elix. sulphuric. ferri chlor glycerin. flext. liq. sulphur. ac. ferri 198 " " ac. cor 38 " antimon. mit 51 " aq. hypophos. aether. glycerin 145 " bromid. 447 " 66 calc. chlor. 106 sulphuros " ac. catechu co. ext. 383 " " 202 catechu " " ac. sulph 52 " chloral. quinin. . nit 34 " " ac. sulph 192 " hydrarg. carb 125 " " glycerin. ferri chlor morph. iodid. liq. arsenosi 166 " chloras hydrarg. myrrh. strych. opii no Podophyllin. tinct. tinct. citras aq. pyrogallic 365 " ac. boras '. flext. tannic. . acet. >. sulph 185 sod. tinct. camphora tinct. ferri chlor. sulphuros. saccharum sulphur 203 " aq. carbol 323 " chlor glycerin. ferri chlor quinin. carbolici tinct. quinin.

salicyl. ferri sulph 355 ferrum reduct. citric. glycyrrhiz. pot. acet 58 " " hydrarg. acet 320 " " quinin. ac. mite 57 " " chloral 193 " " strych. chlor. sulph. brom 385 " " acid. liq. morrhuae tinct. diox 146 " " argent. oxalic. sulph 360 acid. strophan 75 " pennanganas mucil. sulph 179 " sod. sod. amyli 359 glycerin 357 aq. hydrogen. sulphuric 238 " ol. iodi. nitrohydrochlor 47 " ac. chlor. carb. quinin. acetylsalicyl " syr. 46 " " amyl. sarsap 435 " hydrarg. sulph. sulph. 217 " " tinct. tartaric quinin. carbolic 358 ac. ac. sulph 48 " " codeinar*. carb. tart. chlor hypophos. tinct. syr. chlor. citras stron. cinchon 37 " " bis. ac. aurantii sod. chlor. lini " nitris flext. sulph. opii " 102 plumbi acet. flext. hydrarg. cor 436 " 121 nitras sod. cor 258 " ferri sulph. ferri et quin. arsenit. quin. quinin. iodidum flavum 275 " liq. nit. nitras 152 ac. aether. salicylic. acid. chlor. 43 " argenti nitras glycerinum 149 " fer. aeth. aether. cit 237 " ac. quinin. 49 " " 20 acid. cor. glyc. cor. hypodermicus 45 " liq. nucis vom. arsenat. subnit. sulph 35 " cyanid.. 403 " iodidum hydrarg. morph. lactic. INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS 309 NUMBER Potass. ferri chlor sp. acaciae 361 ext. nit 77 " " hydrarg. morph. hydrarg chlor. nit. hydrarg. ferri lactas el. aqua ale. " et fer. arnicae 296 " ammon. strych. tart. digitalis tinct. chlor. sulphur. nitris 129 " " ferri et quinin. 41 " ammon. chlor. ac. gent. tinct. strych. ac. mit 39 " quinin. morph. salicyl 407 " " sp. sulph 59 " arom 101 et sod. sulph. ol. sulph. elix. cit sp. cit 356 ergotina codeinae sulph 448 . sulph 388 " liquor strychninae 387 " ferri et potass. tinct. potassii arsenitis 44 " " liq.

chloras. pot. subnit 351 " acid. arsenit 158 " ac. liq. sulphur. citric. phenacetin 194 ac. iodidi. 373 " " sod. iodidum strych. ferri chlor. cor. liq. aromat sp. 368 " " resorcin ichthyol. liq. arsenit 367 " ac. pot. nit 82 " alumnol 124 " 280 ichthyol. 383 " sod. 96 " ac. chlor. phosphor. ferri chlor. tinct. alcohol aqua 377 " syr. ammon. tannic. ac. nitrohydrochlor. pot. salicyl ac. quin. liq. Quinin. sulph 48 " " pot. 280 " ac. tinct. zinci sulph 399 Protargol cocainae hydrochlor 363 morph. acet 370 " " catechu co tinct. sod. pot. strych. bisulph. " sod. chlor. arom. bicarb 185 " tinct. liq. sapo 382 " ammon. pot. cor. sulph. tart 238 " " brom chloral. arsenat. aether. iod 43 " chloral. citras 35 " " infus. sulph 369 " " iodidum ac. . pot. acid. bicarb. 192 " 262 hydrarg. ferri et ammon. pot. tinct. liq. ferri chlor pot. sulph sulph. 50 " " sod. ferri chlor 86 strych. carb. pyrogallic. permang 360 " " tinct. 40 " j-pot. ac. 449 " " ac. pot. ferri chlor 261 hydrarg. sulph 372 " liq. acetylsalicyl 19 " plumbi acet. dil. hydriod. benzoas elixir 23 " " tinct. podophyl 406 " " sodii salicylas trional 374 " " ac. hydrobrom. iodi. hyposulph. ferri et pot. potass. ferri chlor 371 " ac. pot. arsen. phosphor. sulphurat. ars Resorcinol sp. 47 " " iodidum ac. tinct. chlor. zinci sulph 362 Pyrocatechin acetanilid. sulph. 249 ac. ferri chlor. acetphenet 364 Pyrogallol (see Acid. potass.310 INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS NUMBER Potass. salviae rosemar sp. 408 " sodii salicyl. sod.). rhei podophyllin. tinct. cor. arseni et hydrarg. acet 17 " " tinct. boric. " " ferum reduct. tartaric. bis. salicyl. sulph. sulph. sp. sulphuric. sulph. 115 " resorcin. aetheris nitrosi tinct. 46 " " tinct. ferri chlor 235 hydrarg.

glycerin 253 " " cocain. ferri chlor quinin. myrrhae 441 " " zinci sulphas 27 " " mel. boric. cor 25 " " 168 acid. " menthol sp. ferri chlor 40 " sod. syrup 380 Sapo hydrarg. strych. cor 271 " " (insolubility in chloroform) 204 " " sodii bromidum pepsinum 331 " boras zinci sulph 397 " chloral 33 " " 28 ac. ac. salicylic. ac. elix 23 " bicarbonas antipyrina hydrarg. sulph. subnit 29 " " hydrarg. aeth. aqua 377 " collodium 210 chrysarobin. sulph 30 " " sod. chlor. salicyl 186 " " sod. mag. sulph. salicyl. hyd. acaciae I " " hydrarg. bicarb 188 Saccharum pot. chlor. tolu 2 . phenol 137 " " acacia ol. bicarbon 29 " " 26 glycerin. 235 " " mel sod. Santoninum (too large a dose) 379 " terebin. sod. sulph. mit 274 rheum 188 " " liq. glycerin " " hydrastin. boras glycerin 253 " " ac. 67 Sodii arsenas (too large a dose) 260 " benzoas quinin. nit. boras bis. strych 386 " " acid. quin. ol. benzoic. salicyl 98 " " bis. aqua 319 Rheum tinct. iodi petrolatum 278 " acetanilid. menthol 3?8 " ichthyol tinct. plumbi subacet 354 " " ac. hydrocyanic 56 " " tinct. carb " " 186 ac. morrhuae syr. sulph 382 " menthol ac. INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS 311 NUMBER Resorcinol petrolat liq. chloras 203 Salol (see Phenylis salicylas). bicarb. hydrochlor 32 " " mucil. chlor. citric. sulph " " aqua tinct. mite 381 " ac. 12 antipyrina " alcohol quininae bisulph. benzoic. salicyl. sulph. morph. chlor. subnit 177 " " " " morph. atropinae sulph. plumbi acet " " antipyrina chloral.

sp. " flext. quinin. trional 374 " sulphis sp. iodid 77 " " mucil. hydrarg. pyrophos. subnitras 65 ac. ferri chlor. argent. cinnam. sp. mag. bis. chlor. sulph. bicarl?. tinct. ferri chlor 236 " argenti nitras 15 " salicylas quinin. chloras tinct. aeth. chlor. liq. mite 384 pot. iodid. sulph 88 fer. aeth. 41 . hypophos. ferri chlor 90 antipyrina 113 syr. aurantii pot. sulph 449 sp. sulph 134 pot. aeth. gent. podophyl 406 " caffeina citrata antipyrina 423 " quin. sulph 450 " oleatum ac. hydrargyri chlor. syr. aqua 121 " citras pot. bicarb 89 tinct. ammon. liq. sulph. ferri chlor. chlor. quinin. salicyl 91 " lithii bromidum sodii chloridum 313 " potas. sulphurosi 107 " calc. buchu 79 " " " tinct. aeth. sulph 96 " syr. menthol 67 " phosphas aqua syrupus 87 " " strych. limonis 97 tinct. ac. iodid 407 ammon. acet 245 " antipyrina mag. aether. ferri chlor 383 Spiritus aetheris nitrosi flext. acacias 6 tinct. potass. nitras 54 " ale. buchu 78 " potass. nit 49 " " sp. am. ferri lactas strych. salicylic. mite pepsinum 266 pepsinum sodii bicarbonatis 331 acetphenetidin. lactas 403 " iodid. hydrobrom. carb. aether. nit 402 " hypophos. chloras 38 " " strontii brom. nit. acet 108 " thiosulph. et ferri chlor. tinct. limonis 422 hydrarg. cor. nitrosi tinct. ferri chlor 240 el. iodid. ferri chlor potass. sp. nit 80 " antipyrina 95 ac. sulph 158 " quin. nit 94 " hydrarg.312 INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS NUMBER Sodii boras thymol 395 " " alum glycerinum 412 ' bromidum antipyrina camphora caffeina cit 139 antipyrina caffeina aq. cor. caffeina 53 " chlorid.

49 " " " mag. aconiti 315 " " " tinct. carbol. hydrochlor 413 " ac. citras 402 " camphorae iodum lin. tart. 313 NUMBER Spiritus aetheris nitrosi morph. saponis 295 " frumenti chloroform 205 " myrciae ac. sulph 450 Strychnina (insolubility in syr. sulph. lav. carbol. nucis vom 122 " antipyrina tinct. sulph. acet 140 " ammon. acet. chlor. petrolat 334 " rosemarini infus. morph. liq. liq. citras aq. liq. sarsap 408 " bis. quin. caffeina cit 401 " " " sod. INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS . cubebae ol. 406 " " liq. cor. syr. ferri 242 " " " copaiba ol. tinct. capsic 421 hydrarg. aqua 319 " phenacetin. cit 385 " sod. alcohol 76 " " " 18 potass. podophylli sodii salicylas quin. arsenit 160 nitras liq. citras syrup 34 " " " sod. bis. santali 224 " " " hydrarg. subnit 176 tinct. ammon. sulph. elixir 143 liq. potass. chlor. sulph. co 5 " apomorph. antimon. aconiti 13 " " am. salviae 373 Strontii brom. camphorae " " " tinct. aromat. potass. ammon. sod. pot. sulph. aromat.) 390 " ol. iodidum mag. colchici tinct. chlor. acet. cinchon 420 . sod. cor. ferri chlor 394 " " " 10 acetanilidum " " " caffeina citrata et ammon. salicyl 94 " " " tinct. acet 321 " " " 80 ammon. opii chloroform 205 " ac. 259 " " " strych. hydrochlor. calcis 302 " zinci acet. acet pot. sulphis 108 " menthol resorcin. aqua ac.) 282 " (insolubility in glycer. acetas " " " 201 pot. guiaci 83 " " " diuretin tinct. theobrom 442 Strychninae hydrochlor. salicyl " " 81 antipyrin " " " resorcin 82 " " " potass. cinchon hydrarg. carb. infus. acet liq. et pot. cor. aconiti 415 " copaiba acacia tinct. liq. ferri chlor salol 444 " " " aloin tinct. subnit. auri et sod. am. acetylsalicyl. tinct. sulph. chloras pot. chlor. arsenit 162 " " atrop. tinct. iodid. flext.

iodid 407 " " caffeina cit. muc. chlor. cinchon 418 " " " liq. chlor. ferri chlor 234 " acidi hydriodici bismuth subnit 178 liq. cinnamomi 389 " ferri phosphas sol. acet 265 " " " vin. hydrarg. nitrohydrochlor 73 Sulphonethylmethanum quin. chloras 203 " calx 392 Syrupus liq. cor. dil 71 " " " hydrarg. vin. ac. am. chlor. chlor. sulphur.3 14 INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS NUMBER Strychninae nitras hydrarg. auri et sod. atrop. cor. quin. cor 264 " pot. tinct. sodii arsenatis 419 " ac. ammon. nucis vom tinct. cor. sulph. lithii salicyl 92 " " plumbi acetas 353 . liq. ferri chlor. phosphorus det. chlor. antimon potass. strych. subnit 64 comp. cor. sodii boras atropinae sulph 168 " alcohol auri et sodii chlor. ars 263 sulph. pot. calcis 305 hydrarg. pot. phosphas 88 " arsen. glycerin 257 " cinnamomi alcohol auri et sodii chlor. tinct. mite 391 Sulphur potass. sulph 172 " sp. . salicyl 374 phenyl. ammon. hydrochlor. arsenit. tinct. cor. elix 143 " potass. ferri chloridi hypophosphitum phosphoricum 239 ac. salicyl. pot. syr. arom. hydrarg. bis. nitrohydrochlor. pepsin 190 " limonis sod. antipyrina 423 " calcis hydrarg. pot. chloras 447 " " " liq. salicyl. salicyl 97 " " ammon. carb. nit 263 " " " tinct. ferri et cit. ammon. ferri chlor. bromid 52 " potass. chlor. quin. salicyl. sod. triox. 430 " ipecac. sulph. pot. arsen. hydrarg. iodid 48 " potass. strych. arsenit 251 " " " antipyrina 133 " " " ac. chlor. arsenosi. bisulph 367 " allii ammon. arsenitis. morrhuae liq. chlor. . carb. carb 189 " aurantii sod. pot. tinct. chloroform! 350 " ac. acacias 7 " aq. cor 437 (too large a dose) 165 " sod. sulph 389 " ferri iodidi ol. liq. pot. phosphor. el. hydrarg. ferri dialys. ac. 388 " piperazine aq. chlor. dil. cyanid 59 " liq. chloras 42 hydrarg. . potass. cinchon 346 " iodidum liq. 164 " 86 ac. el. ferri chlor " ac. liq. cor. chlor.

tinct. chloras glyc. ac. syrupus 234 " pot. . gaultheriee 246 " " aq. sulph. calc. ac. tinct. chloras 199 " " quinin. sulph 371 " " " aq. nit 415 " aloes tinct. sulph. nit. hypophos. phosphor. plumbi acet 339 " eucalyptol guaiacol carb. acet 16 liq. tinct. gent. brom. tinct. hydrarg. chloratae 206 " ac. salicyl. arsen. sod. hypophos. aeth. arsen. pot. salviae quin. chloras quininae sulph. boras 395 " phenylis salicylas 396 Tinct. co. iodi liq. INDEX TO PRESCRIPTIONS 315 NUMBER Syrupus sarsapar. co. acid. aeth. lav. aether. nit 6 " " " * tinct. sod. sod. carbol. opii zinci acet " subnit cinchon. chlor. iodidum 41 " " " flext. ammon. aconiti antipyrina sp. rosemar 373 " cardam. phosphor. sulphurosum 250 " " " antipyrina 135 " " morph. aeth. pimentae 244 " " " ammon. tr. sp. benz. chloras 241 " " " ac. nit 444 " " " tinct. sulph. co. ac. ferri chlor 84 " ferri chlor. ammon. cit. tolu 287 " " (insoluble in water) 348 " morph. sod. bis. bicarb 186 " -salol 344 " aq. ferri et quin. tannici 433 " " " ac. cor 63 " scillae ammon. strych. bicarb 90 " " " " " " liq. potass. ac. hypophos. phosphor. sp. ammon. hypophos. glycyrrhizae glycerin. nitric 68 " " " syr. plumbi subacet. liq. pot. tinct. nit. guaiaci ammon 248 " " " liq. acid. quin. infus. pot. carbol. aloes tinct. co. f erri chlor. calc. phosphor. ferri dialys. boras 2 Terpini hydras iodol syr. phosphor 85 " no catechu co. carb 127 " tolu. phosphor 240 " " " aq. sulph 393 Thymol ac. 40 " " " muc. acacia sod. eucalyptol menthol sod. sulph. ac. am. guaiac 83 " digitalis ac. guaiaci ammon 248 " benzoini chloroformum menthol petrolatum liquidum 335 " canthar. glycerin 141 " " " * aq. menthol 318 " sod. ac. 430 " " " salol sp. liq. aeth. potass. pot. digitalis 84 u a SQ^ salicyl. hyposulph 383 " " " tinct. 432 " cinnamomi 228 ergotin " colchici sp. acaciae sp. acet 245 " " " pot. co.

chloras 200 " " " ac. ac. aloes tinct. chloras tinct. hypophos 61 " " " acetanilid 11 " " " diuretin 394 " gambir co. iodidi 41 " tinct. co. flext. subnit 446 " " hydrarg. aether. " " aqua glycerin 299 " " hydrarg. arnicas 296 " " iodidum tinct. 40 4< " co. sod. subnit lavendulae co. zingiber 117 aqua sodii boras 44* . sulph . sulph. phos 236 " " " calc. strych. pot. acaciae 4 ammon. tannic 113 " " " " liq. myrrhae 324 " " " hydrarg. tinct. bis. quin. camphor. rosae 439 " " tinct. zinc sulph plumbi 445 " gentian. rhei 249 " " " ac. J ^ JM _ 164 liq. 432 " " " . terebinthinae 300 " " ol. phos. nit. phosphoricum syr. ammon