In this paper neutrosophic frontier and neutrosophic semi-frontier in neutrosophic topology are introduced and several of their properties, characterizations and examples are established.

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In this paper neutrosophic frontier and neutrosophic semi-frontier in neutrosophic topology are introduced and several of their properties, characterizations and examples are established.

© All Rights Reserved

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16, 2017

Semi-frontier in Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

1 2

P. Iswarya and Dr. K. Bageerathi

1

E mail ID : iswaryap3@gmail.com

Department of Mathematics, Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur, India

2

E mail ID : sivarathi_2006@yahoo.in

ABSTRACT. In this paper neutrosophic frontier and Kharal [4] in 2014. In this paper, we are extending

neutrosophic semi-frontier in neutrosophic topology are the above concepts to neutrosophic topological

introduced and several of their properties, characterizations spaces. We study some of the basic properties of

and examples are established. neutrosophic frontier and neutrosophic semi-frontier

MATHEMATICS SUBJECT CLASSIFICATION

in neutrosophic topological spaces with examples.

(2010) : 03E72 Properties of neutrosophic semi-interior, neutros-

ophic semi-closure, neutrosophic frontier and neut-

KEYWORDS : Neutrosophic frontier and Neutrosophic rosophic semi-frontier have been obtained in neutros-

semi-frontier. ophic product related spaces.

I. INTRODUCTION

Theory of Fuzzy sets [21], Theory of II. NEUTROSOPHIC FRONTIER

Intuitionistic fuzzy sets [2], Theory of Neutrosophic In this section, the concepts of the

sets [10] and the theory of Interval Neutrosophic sets neutrosophic frontier in neutrosophic topological

[13] can be considered as tools for dealing with space are introduced and also discussed their

uncertainties. However, all of these theories have characterizations with some related examples.

their own difficulties which are pointed out in [10].

In 1965, Zadeh [21] introduced fuzzy set theory as a Definition 2.1 Let , , [0, 1] and + + 1.

mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainties A neutrosophic point [ NP for short ] x(,,) of X is a

where each element had a degree of membership. The NS of X which is defined by

Intuitionistic fuzzy set was introduced by Atanassov

[2] in 1983 as a generalization of fuzzy set, where

besides the degree of membership and the degree of

In this case, x is called the support of x(,,)

non-membership of each element. The neutrosophic

and , and are called the value, intermediate

set was introduced by Smarandache [10] and

explained, neutrosophic set is a generalization of value and the non-value of x(,,), respectively. A NP

Intuitionistic fuzzy set. In 2012, Salama, Alblowi x(,,) is said to belong to a NS A = A, A, A in X,

[18], introduced the concept of Neutrosophic denoted by x(,,) A if A(x), A(x) and

topological spaces. They introduced neutrosophic A(x). Clearly a neutrosophic point can be

topological space as a generalization of Intuitionistic represented by an ordered triple of neutrosophic

fuzzy topological space and a Neutrosophic set points as follows : x(,,) = ( x , x , C ( x C ()) ).

besides the degree of membership, the degree of A class of all NPs in X is denoted as NP (X).

indeterminacy and the degree of non-membership of

each element. Definition 2.2 Let X be a NTS and let A NS (X).

The concepts of neutrosophic semi-open Then x(,,) NP (X) is called a neutrosophic

sets, neutrosophic semi-closed sets, neutrosophic frontier point [ NFP for short ] of A if x(,,)

semi-interior and neutrosophic semi-closure in NCl (A) NCl (C (A)). The intersection of all the

neutrosophic topological spaces were introduced by NFPs of A is called a neutrosophic frontier of A and

P. Iswarya and Dr. K. Bageerathi [12] in 2016. is denoted by NFr (A). That is,

Frontier and semifrontier in intuitionistic fuzzy NFr (A) = NCl (A) NCl (C (A)).

topological spaces were introduced by Athar

P. Iswarya, Dr. K. Bageerathi. A Study on Neutrosophic Frontier and Neutrosophic Semi-frontier in Neutrosophic Topological

Spaces

Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 16, 2017 7

Proposition 2.3 For each A NS(X), A NFr (A) Example 2.7 From Example 2.4, NFr (C) = G C.

NCl (A). But C C ().

Proof : Let A be the NS in the neutrosophic

topological space X. Then by Definition 2.2, Theorem 2.8 If a NS A is NOS, then NFr (A)

A NFr (A) = A ( NCl (A) NCl (C (A)) ) C (A).

= (A NCl (A) ) ( A NCl (C (A)) ) Proof : Let A be the NS in the neutrosophic

NCl (A) NCl (C (A)) topological space X. Then by Definition 4.3 [18] ,

NCl (A) A is NOS implies C (A) is NCS in X. By Theorem 2.6,

Hence A NFr (A) NCl (A). NFr (C (A)) C (A) and by Theorem 2.5, we get

NFr (A) C (A).

From the above proposition, the inclusion cannot be

replaced by an equality as shown by the following The converse of the above theorem is not true as

example. shown by the following example.

Example 2.4 Let X = { a, b } and = { 0N, A, B, C, Example 2.9 From Example 2.4, NFr (G) = G

D, 1N }. Then (X, ) is a neutrosophic topological C (G) = C. But G .

space. The neutrosophic closed sets are C () = { 1N,

E, F, G, H, 0N } where Theorem 2.10 For a NS A in the NTS X, C (NFr (A))

A = ( 0.5, 1, 0.1), (0.9, 0.2, 0.5) , = NInt (A) NInt (C (A)).

B = ( 0.2, 0.5, 0.9), (0, 0.5, 1) , Proof : Let A be the NS in the neutrosophic

C = ( 0.5, 1, 0.1), (0.9, 0.5, 0.5) , topological space X. Then by Definition 2.2,

D = ( 0.2, 0.5, 0.9), (0, 0.2, 1) , C (NFr (A)) = C (NCl (A) NCl (C (A)))

E = ( 0.1, 0, 0.5), (0.5, 0.8, 0.9) , By Proposition 3.2 (1) [18] ,

F = ( 0.9, 0.5, 0.2), (1, 0.5, 0) , = C (NCl (A)) C (NCl (C (A)))

G = ( 0.1, 0, 0.5), (0.5, 0.5, 0.9) and By Proposition 4.2 (b) [18] ,

H = ( 0.9, 0.5, 0.2), (1, 0.8, 0) . = NInt (C (A)) NInt (A)

Here NCl (A) = 1N and NCl (C (A)) = NCl (E) = E. Hence C (NFr (A)) = NInt (A) NInt (C (A)).

Then by Definition 2.2, NFr (A) = E.

Also A NFr (A) = (0.5, 1, 0.1), (0.9, 0.8, 0.5) Theorem 2.11 Let A B and B NC (X) ( resp.,

1N. Therefore NCl (A) = 1N (0.5, 1, 0.1), (0.9, 0.8, B NO (X) ). Then NFr (A) B ( resp., NFr (A)

0.5) . C (B) ), where NC (X) ( resp., NO (X) ) denotes the

class of neutrosophic closed ( resp., neutrosophic

Theorem 2.5 For a NS A in the NTS X, NFr (A) = open) sets in X.

NFr (C (A)). Proof : By Proposition 1.18 (d) [12] , A B ,

Proof : Let A be the NS in the neutrosophic NCl (A) NCl (B) -------------------- (1).

topological space X. Then by Definition 2.2, By Definition 2.2,

NFr (A) = NCl (A) NCl (C (A)) NFr (A) = NCl (A) NCl (C (A))

= NCl (C (A)) NCl (A) NCl (B) NCl (C (A)) by (1)

= NCl (C (A)) NCl (C (C (A))) NCl (B)

Again by Definition 2.2, By Definition 4.4 (b) [18] ,

= NFr (C (A)) =B

Hence NFr (A) = NFr (C (A)). Hence NFr (A) B.

Theorem 2.6 If a NS A is a NCS, then NFr (A) A. Theorem 2.12 Let A be the NS in the NTS X. Then

Proof : Let A be the NS in the neutrosophic NFr (A) = NCl (A) NInt (A).

topological space X. Then by Definition 2.2, Proof : Let A be the NS in the neutrosophic

NFr (A) = NCl (A) NCl (C (A)) topological space X. By Proposition 4.2 (b) [18] ,

NCl (A) C (NCl (C (A))) = NInt (A) and by Definition 2.2,

By Definition 4.4 (a) [18] , NFr (A) = NCl (A) NCl (C (A))

=A = NCl (A) C (NCl (C (A)))

Hence NFr (A) A, if A is NCS in X. by using A B = A C (B)

By Proposition 4.2 (b) [18] ,

The converse of the above theorem needs not be = NCl (A) NInt (A)

true as shown by the following example. Hence NFr (A) = NCl (A) NInt (A).

P. Iswarya, Dr. K. Bageerathi. A Study on Neutrosophic Frontier and Neutrosophic Semi-frontier in Neutrosophic Topological

Spaces

8 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 16, 2017

Theorem 2.13 For a NS A in the NTS X, Then C (A2) = ( 0.2, 0.1, 0.7), (0.3, 0.1, 0.5) . Then

NFr (NInt (A)) NFr (A). by Definition 2.2, NFr (A2) = G.

Proof : Let A be the NS in the neutrosophic Therefore NFr (A2) = G 0N = NFr (NCl (A2)).

topological space X. Then by Definition 2.2,

NFr (NInt (A)) = NCl (NInt (A)) NCl (C (NInt (A))) Theorem 2.17 Let A be the NS in the NTS X. Then

By Proposition 4.2 (a) [18] , NInt (A) A NFr (A).

= NCl (NInt (A)) NCl (NCl (C (A))) Proof : Let A be the NS in the neutrosophic

By Definition 4.4 (b) [18] , topological space X. Now by Definition 2.2,

= NCl (NInt (A)) NCl (C (A)) A NFr (A) = A (NCl (A) NCl (C (A)))

By Definition 4.4 (a) [18] , = ( A NCl (A)) (A NCl (C (A)))

NCl (A) NCl (C (A)) = A NCl (C (A))

Again by Definition 2.2, NInt (A).

= NFr (A) Hence NInt (A) A NFr (A).

Hence NFr (NInt (A)) NFr (A).

Example 2.18 From Example 2.14, A1 NFr (A1) =

The converse of the above theorem is not true as ( 0.3, 0.2, 0.8), (0.1, 0.1, 0.6) .

shown by the following example. Therefore A1 NFr (A1) = ( 0.3, 0.2, 0.8), (0.1, 0.1,

0.6) 0N = NInt (A1).

Example 2.14 Let X = { a, b } and = { 0N, A, B, C,

D, 1N }. Then (X, ) is a neutrosophic topological Remark 2.19 In general topology, the following

space. The neutrosophic closed sets are C () = { 1N, conditions are hold :

E, F, G, H, 0N } where NFr (A) NInt (A) = 0N,

A = ( 0.5, 0.6, 0.7), (0.1, 0.9, 0.4) , NInt (A) NFr (A) = NCl (A),

B = ( 0.3, 0.9, 0.2), (0.4, 0.1, 0.6) , NInt (A) NInt (C (A)) NFr (A) = 1N.

C = ( 0.5, 0.9, 0.2), (0.4, 0.9, 0.4) , But the neutrosophic topology, we give

D = ( 0.3, 0.6, 0.7), (0.1, 0.1, 0.6) , counter-examples to show that the conditions of the

E = ( 0.7, 0.4, 0.5), (0.4, 0.1, 0.1) , above remark may not be hold in general.

F = ( 0.2, 0.1, 0.3), (0.6, 0.9, 0.4) ,

G = ( 0.2, 0.1, 0.5), (0.4, 0.1, 0.4) and Example 2.20 From Example 2.14,

H = ( 0.7, 0.4, 0.3), (0.6, 0.9, 0.1) . NFr (A2) NInt (A2) = G C = G 0N.

Define A1 = ( 0.4, 0.2, 0.8), (0.4, 0.5, 0.1) . Then

C (A1) = ( 0.8, 0.8, 0.4), (0.1, 0.5, 0.4) . NInt (A2) NFr (A2) = C G = C 1N = NCl (A2).

Therefore by Definition 2.2, NFr (A1) = H 0N =

NFr (NInt (A1)). NInt (A2) NInt (C (A2)) NFr (A2) = C 0N G

= C 1N.

Theorem 2.15 For a NS A in the NTS X,

NFr (NCl (A)) NFr (A). Theorem 2.21 Let A and B be the two NSs in the NTS

Proof : Let A be the NS in the neutrosophic X. Then NFr (A B) NFr (A) NFr (B).

topological space X. Then by Definition 2.2, Proof : Let A and B be the two NSs in the NTS X.

NFr (NCl (A)) = NCl (NCl (A)) NCl (C (NCl (A))) Then by Definition 2.2,

By Proposition 1.18 (f) [12] and 4.2 (b) [18] , NFr (A B) = NCl (A B) NCl (C (A B))

= NCl (A) NCl (NInt (C (A))) By Proposition 3.2 (2) [18] ,

By Proposition 1.18 (a) [12] , = NCl (A B) NCl ( C (A) C (B) )

NCl (A) NCl (C (A)) by Proposition 1.18 (h) and (o) [12] ,

Again by Definition 2.2, (NCl (A) NCl (B)) (NCl (C (A)) NCl(C (B)))

= NFr (A) = [(NCl (A) NCl (B) ) NCl (C (A)) ]

Hence NFr (NCl (A)) NFr (A). [ ( NCl (A) NCl (B) ) NCl (C (B)) ]

= [(NCl (A) NCl (C (A)))(NCl (B) NCl(C (A)))]

The converse of the above theorem is not true as [(NCl (A) NCl (C (B)))(NCl(B) NCl(C (B)))]

shown by the following example. Again by Definition 2.2,

= [NFr (A) ( NCl (B) NCl (C (A))) ]

Example 2.16 From Example 2.14, let A2 = ( 0.7, [ ( NCl (A) NCl (C (B)) ) NFr(B) ]

0.9, 0.2), (0.5, 0.9, 0.3) . = ( NFr (A) NFr (B)) [ ( NCl (B) NCl (C (A)) )

( NCl (A) NCl (C (B)) ) ]

P. Iswarya, Dr. K. Bageerathi. A Study on Neutrosophic Frontier and Neutrosophic Semi-frontier in Neutrosophic Topological

Spaces

Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 16, 2017 9

NFr (A) NFr (B). The converse of the above theorem needs not be

Hence NFr (A B) NFr (A) NFr (B). true as shown by the following example.

The converse of the above theorem needs not be Example 2.26 From Example 2.24,

true as shown by the following example. ( NFr (B1) NCl (B2) ) ( NFr (B2) NCl (B1) ) =

(1N 1N ) (1N 1N ) = 1N 1N = 1N H =

Example 2.22 By Example 2.14, we define NFr (B1 B2).

A1 = ( 0.2, 0, 0.5), (0.4, 0.1, 0.1) ,

A2 = ( 0.7, 0.9, 0.2), (0.5, 0.9, 0.3) , Corollary 2.27 For any NSs A and B in the NTS X,

A1 A2 = A3 = ( 0.7, 0.9, 0.2), (0.5, 0.9, 0.1) and NFr (A B) NFr (A) NFr (B).

A1 A2 = A4 = ( 0.2, 0, 0.5), (0.4, 0.1, 0.3) . Then Proof : Let A and B be the two NSs in the NTS X.

C (A1) = ( 0.5, 1, 0.2), (0.1, 0.9, 0.4) , Then by Definition 2.2,

C (A2) = ( 0.2, 0.1, 0.7), (0.3, 0.1, 0.5) , NFr (A B) = NCl (A B) NCl (C (A B))

C (A3) = ( 0.2, 0.1, 0.7), (0.1, 0.1, 0.5) and By Proposition 3.2 (1) [18] ,

C (A4) = ( 0.5, 1, 0.2), (0.3, 0.9, 0.4) . = NCl (A B) NCl ( C (A) C (B) )

Therefore NFr (A1) NFr (A2) = E G = E G = By Proposition 1.18 (n) and (h) [12] ,

NFr (A3) = NFr (A1 A2). (NCl (A) NCl (B)) (NCl (C(A)) NCl (C (B)))

= ( NCl (A) NCl (B) NCl (C (A)) )

Note 2.23 The following example shows that ( NCl (A) NCl (B) NCl (C (B)) )

NFr (A B) NFr (A) NFr (B) and Again by Definition 2.2,

NFr (A) NFr (B) NFr (A B). = ( NFr (A) NCl (B) ) ( NCl (A) NFr (B) )

NFr (A) NFr (B)

Example 2.24 From Example 2.22, NFr (A1 A2) = Hence NFr (A B) NFr (A) NFr (B).

NFr (A4) = E G = NFr (A1) NFr (A2).

From Example 2.14, We define B1 = ( 0.4, 0.5, 0.1), The equality in the above corollary may not hold as

(0.2, 0.9, 0.5) , seen in the following example.

B2 = ( 0.5, 0.2, 0.9), (0.8, 0.4, 0.7) ,

Example 2.28 From Example 2.24,

B1 B2 = B3 = ( 0.5, 0.5, 0.1), (0.8, 0.9, 0.5) and

NFr (B1) NFr (B2) = 1N 1N = 1N H = NFr (B4)

B1 B2 = B4 = ( 0.4, 0.2, 0.9), (0.2, 0.4, 0.7) .

= NFr (B1 B2).

Then

C (B1) = ( 0.1, 0.5, 0.4), (0.5, 0.1, 0.2) ,

Theorem 2.29 For any NS A in the NTS X,

C (B2) = ( 0.9, 0.8, 0.5), (0.7, 0.6, 0.8) ,

(1) NFr (NFr (A)) NFr (A),

C (B3) = ( 0.1, 0.5, 0.5), (0.5, 0.1, 0.8) and

(2) NFr (NFr (NFr (A))) NFr (NFr (A)).

C (B4) = ( 0.9, 0.8, 0.4), (0.7, 0.6, 0.2) . Proof : (1) Let A be the NS in the neutrosophic

Therefore NFr (B1) NFr (B2) = 1N 1N = 1N H topological space X. Then by Definition 2.2,

= NFr (B4) = NFr (B1 B2). NFr (NFr (A)) = NCl (NFr (A)) NCl (C (NFr (A)))

Again by Definition 2.2,

Theorem 2.25 For any NSs A and B in the NTS X, = NCl ( NCl (A) NCl (C (A)) )

NFr (A B) ( NFr (A) NCl (B) ) ( NFr (B) NCl ( C ( NCl (A) NCl (C (A)) ) )

NCl (A) ). By Proposition 1.18 (f) [12] and by 4.2 (b) [18] ,

Proof : Let A and B be the two NSs in the NTS X.

( NCl (NCl (A)) NCl (NCl (C (A))) )

Then by Definition 2.2,

NCl ( NInt (C (A)) NInt (A) )

NFr (A B) = NCl (A B) NCl (C (A B))

By Proposition 1.18 (f) [12] ,

By Proposition 3.2 (1) [18] ,

= ( NCl (A) NCl (C (A)) ) ( NCl (NInt (C (A)))

= NCl (A B) NCl ( C (A) C (B) )

NCl (NInt (A))

By Proposition 1.18 (n) and (h) [12] ,

NCl (A) NCl (C (A))

(NCl (A) NCl (B)) (NCl (C(A)) NCl (C (B)))

By Definition 2.2,

= [ ( NCl (A) NCl (B) ) NCl (C(A)) ]

= NFr (A)

[ ( NCl (A) NCl (B) ) NCl (C(B)) ]

Therefore NFr (NFr (A)) NFr (A).

Again by Definition 2.2,

= ( NFr (A) NCl (B) ) ( NFr (B) NCl (A) ) (2) By Definition 2.2,

Hence NFr (A B) ( NFr (A) NCl (B) ) NFr (NFr (NFr (A))) = NCl (NFr (NFr (A)))

( NFr (B) NCl (A) ). NCl (C (NFr (NFr (A))))

P. Iswarya, Dr. K. Bageerathi. A Study on Neutrosophic Frontier and Neutrosophic Semi-frontier in Neutrosophic Topological

Spaces

10 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 16, 2017

By Proposition 1.18 (f) [12] , NCl (An) ] [ NCl (A1) NCl (A2)

(NFr (NFr (A))) NCl (C (NFr (NFr (A)))) NFr (An) ].

NFr (NFr (A)). Proof : It suffices to prove this for = 2. Let Ai be

Hence NFr (NFr (NFr (A))) NFr (NFr (A)). the NS in the neutrosophic topological space Xi. Then

by Definition 2.2,

Remark 2.30 From the above theorem, the converse NFr (A1 A2) = NCl (A1 A2) NCl (C (A1 A2))

of (1) needs not be true as shown by the following By Proposition 4.2 (a) [18] ,

example and no counter-example could be found to = NCl (A1 A2) C ( NInt (A1 A2) )

establish the irreversibility of inequality in (2). By Theorem 2.17 (1) and (2) [12] ,

= ( NCl (A1) NCl (A2) ) C ( NInt (A1) NInt (A2) )

Example 2.31 Let X = {a, b} and = {0N, A, B, 1N }. = ( NCl (A1) NCl (A2) )

Then (X, ) is a neutrosophic topological space. The C[( NInt (A1) NSCl (A1) ) (NInt (A2) NCl (A2) )]

neutrosophic closed sets are C () = { 1N, C, D, 0N } By Lemma 2.3 (iii) [12] ,

where = ( NCl (A1) NCl (A2) ) [ C ( NInt (A1)

A = ( 0.8, 0.4, 0.5), (0.4, 0.6, 0.7) , NCl (A1) ) 1N 1N C ( NInt (A2) NCl (A2) ) ]

B = ( 0.4, 0.2, 0.9), (0.1, 0.4, 0.9) , = ( NCl (A1) NCl (A2) ) [( NCl (C (A1)) NInt (C

C = ( 0.5, 0.6, 0.8), (0.7, 0.4, 0.4) and (A1)) ) 1N 1N ( NCl (C (A2)) NInt (C (A2)) ) ]

D = ( 0.9, 0.8, 0.4), (0.9, 0.6, 0.1) . Define = ( NCl (A1) NCl (A2) ] [ ( NCl (C (A1)) 1N )

A1 = ( 0.6, 0.7, 0.8), (0.5, 0.4, 0.5) . Then ( 1N NCl (C (A2)) ) ]

C (A1) = ( 0.8, 0.3, 0.6), (0.5, 0.6, 0.5) . = [ ( NCl (A1) NCl (A2) ) (NCl (C (A1)) 1N ) ]

Therefore by Definition 2.2, NFr (A1) = D C = [( NCl (A1) NCl (A2) ) ( 1N NCl (C (A2)) )]

NFr ( NFr (A1)). By Theorem 2.32,

= [ ( NCl (A1) NCl (C (A1)) ) ( 1N NCl (A2) ) ]

Theorem 2.32 Let A, B, C and D be the NSs in the [ ( NCl (A1) 1N ) ( NCl (A2) NCl (C (A2)) ) ]

NTS X. Then ( A B ) ( C D ) = ( A D ) = ( NFr (A1) NCl (A2) ) ( NCl (A1) NFr (A2) ).

( B C ). Hence NFr (A1 A2) = ( NFr (A1) NCl (A2) )

Proof : Let A, B, C and D be the NSs in the NTS X. ( NCl (A1) NFr (A2) ).

Then by Definition 2.2 [12] ,

( A B ) ( C D ) (x, y)

= min { ( A B ) (x), ( C D ) (y)}

= min { min { A(x), B(x) }, min { C(y), D(y) } }

III. NEUTROSOPHIC SEMI-FRONTIER

= min { min { A(x), D(y) }, min { B(x), C(y) } }

= min { ( A D ) (x, y), ( B C ) (x, y) }. In this section, we introduce the

neutrosophic semi-frontier and their properties in

Thus ( A B ) ( C D ) (x, y) = ( A D ) ( B C ) (x, y).

Similarly neutrosophic topological spaces.

( A B ) ( C D ) (x, y)

Definition 3.1 Let A be a NS in the NTS X. Then the

= min { ( A B ) (x), ( C D ) (y)}

neutrosophic semi-frontier of A is defined as

= min { min { A(x), B(x) }, min { C(y), D(y) } }

NSFr (A) = NSCl (A) NSCl (C (A)). Obviously

= min { min { A(x), D(y) }, min { B(x), C(y) } } NSFr (A) is a NSC set in X.

= min { ( A D ) (x, y), ( B C ) (x, y) }.

Thus ( A B ) ( C D ) (x, y) = ( A D ) ( B C ) (x, y). Theorem 3.2 Let A be a NS in the NTS X. Then the

And also following conditions are holds :

( A B ) ( C D ) (x, y) (i) NSCl (A) = A NInt (NCl (A)),

= max { ( A B ) (x), ( C D ) (y)} (ii) NSInt (A) = A NCl (NInt (A)).

= max { max { A(x), B(x) }, max { C(y), D(y) } } Proof : (i) Let A be a NS in X. Consider

= max { max { A(x), D(y) }, max { B(x), C(y) } } NInt ( NCl ( A NInt (NCl (A)) ) )

= max { ( A D ) (x, y), ( B C ) (x, y) }. = NInt ( NCl (A) NCl ( NInt (NCl (A)) ) )

Thus ( A B ) ( C D ) (x, y) = ( A D ) ( B C ) (x, y). = NInt (NCl (A))

Hence ( A B ) ( C D ) = ( A D ) ( B C ). A NInt (NCl (A))

It follows that A NInt (NCl (A)) is a NSC set in X.

Theorem 2.33 Let Xi, = 1, 2, . . . , be a family of Hence NSCl (A) A NInt (NCl (A)) ------------ (1)

neutrosophic product related NTSs. If each Ai is a NS

in Xi. Then NFr ( ) = [ NFr (A1) NCl (A2)

NCl (An) ] [ NCl (A1) NFr (A2) NCl (A3)

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By Proposition 6.3 (ii) [12], NSCl (A) is NSC set in Theorem 3.6 If A is NSO set in X, then NSFr (A)

X. We have NInt (NCl (A)) NInt (NCl (NSCl (A))) C (A).

NSCl (A). Proof : Let A be the NS in the neutrosophic

Thus A NInt (NCl (A)) NSCl (A) -------------- (2). topological space X. Then by Proposition 4.3 [12] ,

From (1) and (2), NSCl (A) = A NInt (NCl (A)). A is NSO set implies C (A) is NSC set in X. By

Theorem 3.4, NSFr (C (A)) C (A) and by

(ii) This can be proved in a similar manner as (i). Theorem 3.3, we get NSFr (A) C (A).

Theorem 3.3 For a NS A in the NTS X, NSFr (A) = The converse of the above theorem is not true as

NSFr (C (A)). shown by the following example.

Proof : Let A be the NS in the neutrosophic

topological space X. Then by Definition 3.1, Example 3.7 From Example 3.5, NSFr (J) = J

NSFr (A) = NSCl (A) NSCl (C (A)) C (J) = E. But J NSO.

= NSCl (C (A)) NSCl (A)

= NSCl (C (A)) NSCl (C (C (A))) Theorem 3.8 Let A B and B NSC (X) ( resp.,

Again by Definition 3.1, B NSO (X) ). Then NSFr (A) B ( resp., NSFr (A)

= NSFr (C (A)) C(B) ), where NSC (X) ( resp., NSO (X) ) denotes

Hence NSFr (A) = NSFr (C (A)). the class of neutrosophic semi-closed ( resp.,

neutrosophic semi-open) sets in X.

Theorem 3.4 If A is NSC set in X, then Proof : By Proposition 6.3 (iv) [12] , A B ,

NSFr (A) A. NSCl (A) NSCl (B) -------------------- (1).

Proof : Let A be the NS in the neutrosophic By Definition 3.1,

topological space X. Then by Definition 3.1, NSFr (A) = NSCl (A) NSCl (C (A))

NSFr (A) = NSCl (A) NSCl (C (A)) NSCl (B) NSCl (C (A)) by (1)

NSCl (A) NSCl (B)

By Proposition 6.3 (ii) [12] , By Proposition 6.3 (ii) [12] ,

=A =B

Hence NSFr (A) A, if A is NSC in X. Hence NSFr (A) B.

The converse of the above theorem is not true as Theorem 3.9 Let A be the NS in the NTS X. Then

shown by the following example. C (NSFr (A)) = NSInt (A) NSInt (C (A)).

Proof : Let A be the NS in the neutrosophic

Example 3.5 Let X = { a, b, c } and = { 0N, A, B, topological space X. Then by Definition 3.1,

C, D, 1N }. Then (X, ) is a neutrosophic topological C (NSFr (A)) = C (NSCl (A) NSCl (C (A)))

space. The neutrosophic closed sets are C () = { 1N, By Proposition 3.2 (1) [18] ,

F, G, H, I, 0N } where = C (NSCl (A)) C (NSCl (C (A)))

A = ( 0.5, 0.6, 0.7), (0.1, 0.8, 0.4) , (0.7, 0.2, 0.3) , By Proposition 6.2 (ii) [12] ,

B = ( 0.8, 0.8, 0.5), (0.5, 0.4, 0.2) , (0.9, 0.6, 0.7) , = NSInt (C (A)) NSInt (A)

C = ( 0.8, 0.8, 0.5), (0.5, 0.8, 0.2) , (0.9, 0.6, 0.3) , Hence C (NSFr (A)) = NSInt (A) NSInt (C (A)).

D = ( 0.5, 0.6, 0.7), (0.1, 0.4, 0.4) , (0.7, 0.2, 0.7) ,

E = ( 0.8, 0.8, 0.4), (0.5, 0.8, 0.1) , (0.9, 0.7, 0.2) , Theorem 3.10 For a NS A in the NTS X, then

F = ( 0.7, 0.4, 0.5), (0.4, 0.2, 0.1) , (0.3, 0.8, 0.7) , NSFr (A) NFr (A).

G = ( 0.5, 0.2, 0.8), (0.2, 0.6, 0.5) , (0.7, 0.4, 0.9) , Proof : Let A be the NS in the neutrosophic

H = ( 0.5, 0.2, 0.8), (0.2, 0.2, 0.5) , (0.3, 0.4, 0.9) , topological space X. Then by Proposition 6.4 [12] ,

I = ( 0.7, 0.4, 0.5), (0.4, 0.6, 0.1) , (0.7, 0.8, 0.7) NSCl (A) NCl (A) and NSCl (C (A)) NCl (C (A)).

and Now by Definition 3.1,

J = ( 0.4, 0.2, 0.8), (0.1, 0.2, 0.5) , (0.2, 0.3, 0.9) . NSFr (A) = NSCl (A) NSCl (C (A))

Here E and J are neutrosophic semi-open and NCl (A) NCl (C (A))

neutrosophic semi-closed set respectively. Therefore By Definition 2.2,

the neutrosophic semi-open and neutrosophic semi- = NFr (A)

closed set topologies are NSO = 0N, A, B, C, D, E, 1N Hence NSFr (A) NFr (A).

and C ()NSC = 1N, F, G, H, I, J, 0N . Therefore

NSFr (C) = H C. But C C ()NSC. The converse of the above theorem is not true as

shown by the following example.

P. Iswarya, Dr. K. Bageerathi. A Study on Neutrosophic Frontier and Neutrosophic Semi-frontier in Neutrosophic Topological

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12 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 16, 2017

Example 3.11 From Example 3.5, let A1 = ( 0.4, Example 3.16 Let X = { a, b, c } and NSO = 0N, A,

0.1, 0.9), (0.1, 0.2, 0.6) , (0.1, 0.3, 0.9) , then B, C, D, E, 1N and C ()NSC = 1N, F, G, H, I, J, 0N

C (A1) = ( 0.9, 0.9, 0.4), (0.6, 0.8, 0.1) , (0.9, 0.7, where

0.1) . Therefore NFr (A1) = H J = NSFr (A1). A = ( 0.3, 0.4, 0.2), (0.5, 0.6, 0.7), (0.9, 0.5, 0.2) ,

B = ( 0.3, 0.5, 0.1), (0.4, 0.3, 0.2), (0.8, 0.4, 0.6) ,

Theorem 3.12 For a NS A in the NTS X, then C = ( 0.3, 0.5, 0.1), (0.5, 0.6, 0.2), (0.9, 0.5, 0.2) ,

NSCl (NSFr (A)) NFr (A). D = ( 0.3, 0.4, 0.2), (0.4, 0.3, 0.7), (0.8, 0.4, 0.6) ,

Proof : Let A be the NS in the neutrosophic E = ( 0.5, 0.6, 0.1), (0.6, 0.7, 0.1), (0.9, 0.5, 0.2) ,

topological space X. Then by Definition 3.1, F = ( 0.2, 0.6, 0.3), (0.7, 0.4, 0.5), (0.2, 0.5, 0.9) ,

NSCl (NSFr (A)) = NSCl (NSCl (A) NSCl (C (A))) G = ( 0.1, 0.5, 0.3), (0.2, 0.7, 0.4), (0.6, 0.6, 0.8) ,

NSCl (NSCl (A)) NSCl (NSCl (C (A))) H = ( 0.1, 0.5, 0.3), (0.2, 0.4, 0.5), (0.2, 0.5, 0.9) ,

By Proposition 6.3 (iii) [12] , I = ( 0.2, 0.6, 0.3), (0.7, 0.7, 0.4), (0.6, 0.6, 0.8)

= NSCl (A) NSCl (C (A)) and

By Definition 3.1, J = ( 0.1, 0.4, 0.5), (0.1, 0.3, 0.6), (0.2, 0.5, 0.9) .

= NSFr (A) Define A1 = ( 0.2, 0.3, 0.4), (0.4, 0.5, 0.6) , (0.3, 0.4,

By Theorem 3.10, 0.8) .

NFr (A) Then C (A1) = ( 0.4, 0.7, 0.2), (0.6, 0.5, 0.4) , (0.8,

Hence NSCl (NSFr (A)) NFr (A). 0.6, 0.3) . Therefore NSFr (A1) = I 0N =

NSFr (NSInt (A1)).

The converse of the above theorem is not true as

shown by the following example. Theorem 3.17 For a NS A in the NTS X, then

NSFr (NSCl (A)) NSFr (A).

Example 3.13 From Example 3.5, NFr (A1) = H J

Proof : Let A be the NS in the neutrosophic

= NSCl (NSFr (A1)).

topological space X. Then by Definition 3.1,

NSFr(NSCl(A))=NSCl(NSCl(A))NSCl(C(NSCl (A)))

Theorem 3.14 Let A be a NS in the NTS X. Then

By Proposition 6.3 (iii) and Proposition 6.2 (ii) [12] ,

NSFr (A) = NSCl (A) NSInt (A).

Proof : Let A be the NS in the neutrosophic = NSCl (A) NSCl (NSInt (C (A)))

topological space X. By Proposition 6.2 (ii) [12] , By Proposition 5.2 (i) [12] ,

C (NSCl (C (A))) = NSInt (A) and by Definition 3.1, NSCl (A) NSCl (C (A))

By Definition 3.1,

NSFr (A) = NSCl (A) NSCl (C (A))

= NSFr (A)

= NSCl (A) C (NSCl (C (A)))

by using A B = A C (B) Hence NSFr (NSCl (A)) NSFr (A).

By Proposition 6.2 (ii) [12] ,

= NSCl (A) NSInt (A) The converse of the above theorem is not true as

Hence NSFr (A) = NSCl (A) NSInt (A). shown by the following example.

Theorem 3.15 For a NS A in the NTS X, then Example 3.18 From Example 3.16, let A2 = ( 0.2,

NSFr (NSInt (A)) NSFr (A). 0.6, 0.2), (0.3, 0.4, 0.6) , (0.3, 0.4, 0.8) . Then C (A2)

Proof : Let A be the NS in the neutrosophic = ( 0.2, 0.4, 0.2), (0.6, 0.6, 0.3) , (0.8, 0.6, 0.3) .

topological space X. Then by Definition 3.1, Therefore NSFr (A2) = 1N 0N = NSFr (NSCl (A2)).

NSFr (NInt (A))=NSCl(NInt(A))NSCl(C(NSInt (A)))

By Proposition 6.2 (i) [12] , Theorem 3.19 Let A be the NS in the NTS X. Then

=NSCl(NSInt(A))NSCl(NSCl(C(A))) NSInt (A) A NSFr (A).

By Proposition 6.3 (iii) [12] , Proof : Let A be the NS in the neutrosophic

= NSCl (NSInt (A)) NSCl (C (A)) topological space X. Now by Definition 3.1,

By Proposition 5.2 (ii) [12] , A NSFr (A) = A (NSCl (A) NSCl (C (A)))

NSCl (A) NSCl (C (A)) = ( A NSCl (A)) (A NSCl (C (A)))

By Definition 3.1, = A NSCl (C (A))

= NSFr (A) NSInt (A).

Hence NSFr (NSInt (A)) NSFr (A). Hence NSInt (A) A NSFr (A).

The converse of the above theorem is not true as The converse of the above theorem is not true as

shown by the following example. shown by the following example.

P. Iswarya, Dr. K. Bageerathi. A Study on Neutrosophic Frontier and Neutrosophic Semi-frontier in Neutrosophic Topological

Spaces

Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 16, 2017 13

Example 3.20 From Example 3.16, A1 NSFr (A1) = B = ( 0.4, 0.9, 0.7) ,

( 0.2, 0.3, 0.4), (0.4, 0.3, 0.7) , (0.3, 0.4, 0.8) 0N C = ( 0.6, 0.9, 0.4) ,

= NSInt (A1). D = ( 0.4, 0.8, 0.7) ,

E = ( 0.4, 0.2, 0.6) ,

Remark 3.21 In general topology, the following F = ( 0.7, 0.1, 0.4) ,

conditions are hold : G = ( 0.4, 0.1, 0.6) and

NSFr (A) NSInt (A) = 0N, H = ( 0.7, 0.2, 0.4) . Now we define

NSInt (A) NSFr (A) = NSCl (A), B1 = ( 0.7, 0.6, 0.5) ,

NSInt (A) NSInt (C (A)) NSFr (A) = 1N. B2 = ( 0.6, 0.8, 0.2) ,

But the neutrosophic topology, we give B1 B2 = B3 = ( 0.7, 0.8, 0.2) and

counter-examples to show that the conditions of the

B1 B2 = B4 = ( 0.6, 0.6, 0.5) . Then

above remark may not be hold in general.

C (B1) = ( 0.5, 0.4, 0.7) ,

Example 3.22 From Example 3.16, define C (B2) = ( 0.2, 0.2, 0.6) ,

A1 = ( 0.4, 0.6, 0.1), (0.5, 0.8, 0.3) , (0.9, 0.6, 0.2) . C (B3) = ( 0.2, 0.2, 0.7) and

Then C (A1) = ( 0.1, 0.4, 0.4), (0.3, 0.2, 0.5) , (0.2, C (B4) = ( 0.5, 0.4, 0.6) .

0.4, 0.9) . Therefore NSFr (A1) NSInt (A1) = Therefore NSFr (B1) NSFr (B2) = 1N E = 1N E

F D = ( 0.2, 0.4, 0.3), (0.4, 0.3, 0.7), (0.2, 0.4, = NSFr (B3) = NSFr (B1 B2).

0.9) 0N.

Note 3.25 The following example shows that

NSFr (A B) NSFr (A) NSFr (B) and

NSInt (A1) NSFr (A1) = D F = ( 0.3, 0.6, 0.2),

NSFr (A) NSFr (B) NSFr (A B).

(0.7, 0.4, 0.5), (0.8, 0.5, 0.6) 1N = NSCl (A1).

Example 3.26 From Example 3.24, we define

NSInt (A1) NSInt (C (A1)) NSFr (A1) = D 0N

A1 = ( 0.5, 0.1, 0.9) ,

F = ( 0.3, 0.6, 0.2), (0.7, 0.4, 0.5), (0.8, 0.5, 0.6)

A2 = ( 0.3, 0.5, 0.6) ,

1 N.

A1 A2 = A3 = ( 0.5, 0.5, 0.6) , and

Theorem 3.23 Let A and B be NSs in the NTS X. A1 A2 = A4 = ( 0.3, 0.1, 0.9) . Then

Then NSFr (A B) NSFr (A) NSFr (B). C (A1) = ( 0.9, 0.9, 0.5) ,

Proof : Let A and B be NSs in the NTS X. Then by C (A2) = ( 0.6, 0.5, 0.3) ,

Definition 3.1, C (A3) = ( 0.6, 0.5, 0.5) and

NSFr (A B) = NSCl (A B) NSCl (C (A B)) C (A4) = ( 0.9, 0.9, 0.3) .

By Proposition 3.2 (2) [18] , Therefore NSFr (A1) NSFr (A2) = F 1N = F G

= NSCl (A B) NSCl (C (A) C (B) ) = NSFr (A4) = NSFr (A1 A2).

By Proposition 6.5 (i) and (ii) [12] ,

(NSCl(A) NSCl(B))(NSCl(C(A))NSCl(C (B))) Also NSFr (B1 B2) = NSFr (B4) = 1N E = 1N E

= [ ( NSCl (A) NSCl (B) ) NSCl (C (A)) ] = NSFr (B1) NSFr (B2).

[ ( NSCl (A) NSCl (B) ) NSCl (C (B)) ]

= [(NSCl(A)NSCl(C(A)))(NSCl(B)NSCl(C(A)))] Theorem 3.27 For any NSs A and B in the NTS X,

[(NSCl(A)NSCl(C(B)))(NSCl(B)NSCl(C(B)))] NSFr (A B) ( NSFr (A) NSCl (B) )

By Definition 3.1, ( NSFr (B) NSCl (A) ).

= [ NSFr (A) ( NSCl (B) NSCl (C (A)) ) ] Proof : Let A and B be NSs in the NTS X. Then by

[ ( NSCl (A) NSCl (C (B)) ) NSFr(B) ] Definition 3.1,

= ( NSFr (A) NSFr (B)) [ ( NSCl (B) NSFr (A B) = NSCl (A B) NSCl (C (A B))

By Proposition 3.2 (1) [18] ,

NSCl (C (A)) ) ( NSCl (A) NSCl (C (B)) ) ]

= NSCl (A B) NSCl ( C (A) C (B) )

NSFr (A) NSFr (B).

By Proposition 6.5 (ii) and (i) [12] ,

Hence NSFr (A B) NSFr (A) NSFr (B).

(NSCl(A)NSCl (B))(NSCl(C(A))NSCl(C(B)))

The converse of the above theorem needs not be = [ ( NSCl (A) NSCl (B) ) NSCl (C(A)) ]

true as shown by the following example. [ ( NSCl (A) NSCl (B) ) NSCl (C(B)) ]

By Definition 3.1,

Example 3.24 Let X = { a } with NSO = 0N, A, B, C, = ( NSFr (A) NSCl (B) ) ( NSFr (B) NSCl (A))

D, 1N and C ()NSC = 1N, E, F, G, H, 0N where Hence NSFr (A B) ( NSFr (A) NSCl (B) )

A = ( 0.6, 0.8, 0.4) , ( NSFr (B) NSCl (A) ).

P. Iswarya, Dr. K. Bageerathi. A Study on Neutrosophic Frontier and Neutrosophic Semi-frontier in Neutrosophic Topological

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14 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 16, 2017

The converse of the above theorem is not true as By Proposition 6.3 (iii) [12] ,

shown by the following example. (NSFr (NSFr (A))) NSCl (C (NSFr (NSFr (A))))

NSFr (NSFr (A)).

Example 3.28 From Example 3.24, ( NSFr (A1) Hence NSFr (NSFr (NSFr (A))) NSFr (NSFr (A)).

NSCl (A2) ) ( NSFr (A2) NSCl (A1) ) = (F 1N )

(1N F ) = F F = F G = NSFr (A1 A2). Remark 3.32 From the above theorem, the converse

of (1) needs not be true as shown by the following

Corollary 3.29 For any NSs A and B in the NTS X, example and no counter-example could be found to

NSFr (A B) NSFr (A) NSFr (B). establish the irreversibility of inequality in (2).

Proof : Let A and B be NSs in the NTS X. Then by

Definition 3.1, Example 3.33 From Example 3.16, NSFr (A2) = 1N

NSFr (A B) = NSCl (A B) NSCl (C (A B)) 0N = NSFr ( NSFr (A2)).

By Proposition 3.2 (1) [18] ,

= NSCl (A B) NSCl ( C (A) C (B) ) Theorem 3.34 Let Xi, = 1, 2, . . . , be a family of

By Proposition 6.5 (ii) and (i) [12] , neutrosophic product related NTSs. If each Ai is a NS

(NSCl(A)NSCl(B))(NSCl(C(A)) NSCl(C(B))) in Xi, then NSFr ( ) = [ NSFr (A1) NSCl

= ( NSCl (A) NSCl (B) NSCl (C (A)) ) (A2) NSCl (An) ] [ NSCl (A1) NSFr (A2)

( NSCl (A) NSCl (B) NSCl (C (B)) ) NSCl (A3) NSCl (An) ] [ NSCl (A1)

By Definition 3.1, NSCl (A2) NSFr (An) ].

= ( NSFr (A) NSCl (B) ) ( NSCl (A) NSFr (B)) Proof : It suffices to prove this for = 2. Let Ai be

NSFr (A) NSFr (B). the NS in the neutrosophic topological space Xi.

Hence NSFr (A B) NSFr (A) NSFr (B). Then by Definition 3.1,

NSFr (A1 A2)= NSCl (A1 A2) NSCl (C (A1 A2))

The equality in the above theorem may not hold as By Proposition 6.2 (i) [12] ,

seen in the following example. = NSCl (A1 A2) C ( NSInt (A1 A2) )

By Theorem 6.9 (i) and (ii) [12] ,

Example 3.30 From Example 3.24, = (NSCl(A1) NSCl(A2)) C(NSInt(A1) NSInt (A2))

NSFr (A1) NSFr (A2) = F 1N = 1N G = = ( NSCl (A1) NSCl (A2) ) C [ ( NSInt (A1)

NSFr (A4) = NSFr (A1 A2). NSCl (A1) ) ( NSInt (A2) NSCl (A2) ) ]

By Lemma 2.3 (iii) [12] ,

Theorem 3.31 For any NS A in the NTS X, = ( NSCl (A1) NSCl (A2) ) [ C ( NSInt (A1)

(1) NSFr (NSFr (A)) NSFr (A), NSCl (A1) ) 1N 1N C( NSInt (A2) NSCl (A2) ) ]

(2) NSFr (NSFr (NSFr (A))) NSFr (NSFr (A)). =(NSCl(A1)NSCl(A2))[(NSCl(C(A1))NSInt(C(A1)

Proof : (1) Let A be the NS in the neutrosophic )) 1N 1N (NSCl (C (A2)) NSInt (C (A2)) ) ]

topological space X. Then by Definition 3.1, = ( NSCl (A1) NSCl (A2) ] [ ( NSCl (C (A1)) 1N )

NSFr (NSFr (A)) ( 1N NSCl (C (A2)) ) ]

= NSCl (NSFr (A)) NSCl (C (NSFr (A))) = [( NSCl (A1) NSCl (A2) ) (NSCl (C (A1)) 1N )]

By Definition 3.1, [(NSCl (A1) NSCl (A2) ) (1N NSCl (C (A2)) ) ]

= NSCl ( NSCl (A) NSCl (C (A)) ) By Theorem 2.32,

NSCl ( C ( NSCl (A) NSCl (C (A)) ) ) = [ (NSCl (A1) NSCl (C (A1)) ) ( 1N NSCl (A2))]

By Proposition 6.3 (iii) and 6.2 (ii) [12] , [(NSCl (A1) 1N ) (NSCl (A2) NSCl (C (A2)))]

( NSCl (NSCl (A)) NSCl (NSCl (C (A))) ) = (NSFr (A1) NSCl (A2)) (NSCl (A1) NSFr (A2))

NSCl ( NSInt (C (A)) NSInt (A) ) Hence NSFr (A1 A2) = ( NSFr (A1) NSCl (A2) )

By Proposition 6.3 (iii) [12] , ( NSCl (A1) NSFr (A2) ).

= (NSCl (A) NSCl (C (A))) (NSCl (NSInt(C (A)))

NSCl (NSInt (A))

CONCLUSION

NSCl (A) NSCl (C (A))

In this paper, we studied the concepts of frontier and

By Definition 3.1,

semi-frontier in neutrosophic topological spaces. In

= NSFr (A)

future, we plan to extend this neutrosophic topology

Therefore NSFr (NSFr (A)) NSFr (A).

concepts by neutrosophic continuous, neutrosophic

(2) By Definition 3.1,

semi-continuous, neutrosophic almost continuous and

NSFr (NSFr (NSFr (A))) = NSCl (NSFr (NSFr (A)))

neutrosophic weakly continuous in neutrosophic

NSCl (C (NSFr (NSFr (A)))) topological spaces, and also to expand this neutros-

ophic concepts by nets, filters and borders.

P. Iswarya, Dr. K. Bageerathi. A Study on Neutrosophic Frontier and Neutrosophic Semi-frontier in Neutrosophic Topological

Spaces

Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 16, 2017 15

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