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elements of mining

P L AC E R D O M E is one of the worlds largest and most successful gold mining B E N E F I C I AT E : The treating of ore D R I L L : There are various types of G R A D E : The value of a mineralized P R E CA M B R I A N S H I E L D : A U-shaped one side only, but not confirmed by full
which results in a more concentrated drills for exploration such as a diamond deposit. Precious metals are usually area surrounding Hudson Bay consisting development work.
companies. Our core business is strengthened by the contributions of our copper form of the product. drill or reverse circulation drill. Other expressed as ounces per ton or tonne. of older rocks of the Precambrian age.
(iii) Possible or Inferred OreInferred
types of drills are used for the mining Base metals are expressed as a percent. The Shield contains many areas of min-
C L A I M : A normal claim is an area of from geological projection and more
and silver assets. Headquartered in Vancouver, Canada, PDG now has interests in land or water approximately 40 acres in
process which do not produce a core, but
L E V E L : An underground mining term
eralization, some of which have become
general exploration drilling.
are used to make circular holes in the producing mines.
size which carries the mineral rights denoting a horizontal tunnel leading
17 mines employing 12,000 people in six countries around the world. PDG is rock which are filled with explosives. S H A F T : An opening cut downward
and must be recorded in a government away from the shaft. Levels are usually P R O S P E CT : A geologically favorable
from the surface for transporting person-
widely acknowledged as the best in the industry at building mines. Over the past claim recording office. E L E CT R O LY T I C : Part of the refining at regular intervals of depth. area for minerals to occur.
nel, equipment, supplies, ore and waste.
process in which the product from
C O N C E N T R AT E : The treating of ore M AT T E : The metal-bearing product R A I S E : An underground tunnel that has It is also used for ventilation and as an
10 years, the company has built four new mines and has completed significant the smelter is refined using an electrolyt-
in a mill to remove much of the waste from the smelter which is sent to the been driven upwards, either at an incline auxiliary exit. It is often equipped with a
ic process to purify the metal. The metal
prior to shipment to the smelter. refinery. or vertically. surface hoist system which lowers
expansion projects at four existing properties. For more information about PDG being refined forms the positive anode
and raises a cage in the shaft as well as
C O R E : The resulting test sample from a and is deposited on the cathode by an M I L L : The plant which concentrates the R E C OV E R Y : The amount of mineral in
skips or containers for bringing up
visit diamond drill. electric current. raw ore by separating the waste from the ore that is separated and recovered in a
ore or waste.
valuable metals. The concentrate from mill usually expressed as a percentage
C R O S S C U T : A horizontal underground FA U LT : A crack or break in the bedrock
A D I T : A tunnel driven into the side of a the mill is sent to the smelter. per tonne of ore treated. S M E LT I N G : The partial recovery of
tunnel driven from a shaft or drift of the earth where one side has slipped
mountain to access a mineral deposit. metal from processed ore. The latter will
toward an orebody or vein and cut across in relation to the other. M U C K : A slang term for broken rock R E F I N I N G : The final purification
have been treated and concentrated at
A I R B O R N E M AG N E TO M E T E R : the direction of the orebody. or ore. process of a metal or mineral (See
F LOTAT I O N : A separation process a mill, but smelting is required to actual-
A device to measure variations in the Electrolytic).
D E P L E T I O N : When an orebody is used in milling ore in which the valuable O U TC R O P : Bedrock which is exposed ly recover the metal content and convert
earths magnetic field while being
mined, it is depleted. minerals cling to bubbles and float to on the surface of the earth. R E S E R V E S : Tonnes of ore in place it to a form that is ready for refining.
transported by an aircraft.
the surface while others sink. the measurement of the size of a mineral
D I LU T I O N : The lowering of the grade OV E R B U R D E N : The sand, gravel, soil, S TA K I N G : The measuring of an area
A N O M A LY : Not an ore deposit, but a deposit. Ore is usually classified in one of
of an orebody being mined by the G LO R Y H O L E : A colloquial term for a swamp, water, etc., which lies on top of and marking with stakes or posts to
statistical abnormality encountered three categories:
addition of lower grade or waste rock pit or large hole made from surface to the bedrock. establish and acquire mineral rights.
during geochemical and/or geophysical
to the mill feed. mine a mineral deposit. (i) Proven Ore: (Also known as blocked
exploration. An anomaly provides a target P I LOT P L A N T : A small-scale mill set S TO P E : A mining area established
out, measured and positive ore)devel-
for further exploration, however, very D R I F T : A horizontal underground G R A B S A M P L E : A randomly selected up on the mine property to test recovery on an underground level where ore is
oped by underground work or definitive
few anomalies are of economic grade. opening driven alongside or through an sample of rock to be assayed. A grab techniques before building a large mill. blasted and broken.
drilling from the surface (for a pit); usu-
orebody to gain access to the deposit. sample will not give a realistic picture of
A S S AY : Testing of a rock sample. P L AC E R : A deposit of gold or other ally blocked out on at least two or three TA I L I N G S : Waste material from a
the value of a deposit, only an indication.
metals which are contained in a sand or sides by drifts and raises in the ore body. mineral-processing mill.
B A S E M E TA L : Metals such as lead,
gravel bar in a river or beach, present
zinc, and copper. (ii) Probable or Indicated OreOutlined V E I N : An opening, fissure, or crack in
or former.
by diamond drilling and development on rock containing mineralized material.
B E D R O C K : The solid rock, comprising
the crust of the earth upon which lies V E N T S H A F T : An opening cut
overburden in the form of soil, pebbles, downward for circulating fresh air
gravels, water, etc. throughout the mine workings.

Talus W I N Z E : A vertical or inclined internal

Blocks Head Frame shaft sunk form one level to another
in a mine.

Lava Open Pit
Mill Hole Outcrop Spiral
Reverse Tailings Pond
Circulation Decline
Heap Overburden
Leach Pad
Drill Hole
Anticline Pregnant
Pond Vent
Placer Trackless
Dyke Mining Mining
Sill Dip

Batholith Ore Pass

Mucking Fault
(Magma) Shaft Vein
Syncline Vein in Level
Shear Zone Raise
Sedimentary Rock
Ore car Broken Ore
Stope Reserves

Igneous Rock
Development Ore
Heading Chute
Drill Sump


June 2003