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Marikina Polytechnic College

City of Marikina, Philippines


SY: 2016-2017

Written Report in AT 222:


Metallic and Solid Color
Painting Applications and
Techniques

Submitted by:
APRIL F. FENOLAN
BTTE 3-I PHYSICS

Submitted to:
MR. EDWARD ALONZO
PHYSICS FOR AUTOMOTIVE AND HVACR INSTRUCTOR
Teaching content:

ASSESSING PAINTING JOB PERFORMING SOLID AND METALLIC


1. Assesses painting job COLOR MIXING
2. Check vehicle identification 1. Clean spray gun
number and color codes 2. Apply primer and surfacer
PREPARING DAMAGE SURFACE FOR 3. Apply filler and putty
PAINTING 4. Apply sanding technique
1. Perform removal of paint and 5. Mix and spray paint
surface treatment 6. Apply clear coat
2. Wears personal protective PERFORMING POLISHING AND
equipment and device WAXING
3. Apply and remove masking 1. Perform polishing and waxing
2. Perform housekeeping and
detailing

Vehicle painting requires a great deal of skill as the surface produced is almost as smooth as glass and
as shiny or glossy as a mirror. For a paint job to be succesful in preparation has to be undertaken to which it is
applied. This surface is called the substrate. Vehicle painters must develop a keen eye for color and detail of
the vehicle.

Check vehicle identification number and color codes:


The car's vehicle identification number (VIN) is the identifying code for a SPECIFIC automobile. It is the car A
VIN is composed of 17 characters (digits and capital letters) that act as a unique identifier for the vehicle. You
can usually see it at dashboard on the driver's side of the vehicle or the driver's side door.

How to read VIN:


REMOVING PAINT
It is a good idea to remove the paint completely instead of covering it up unless the original paint is in
good condition. This is because the original paint has poor adhesion and tends to flake off.

Several methods used to remove paints:


SANDBLASTING - A blast of air or steam carrying sand at
high velocity to etch glass or to clean stone or metal
surfaces.

CHEMICAL STRIPPING OR DIPPING- This consists of 2


different dipping operations. The first dip is into a hot-tank
filled with caustic solution and second dip is into vat filled
with a de-rusting solution.

MECHANICAL SANDING uses chemical stripper to strip the


paint quickly due to high speed rotation of the disk.
MASKING PROCEDURE
The masking of a vehicle or panel involves the covering or protecting an area paint overspray from
damaging or contaminating the autobody surface.
MASKING CAN BE DONE WITH:

Masking Tapes
Paper/cardboard
Plastic or cloth covers
Masking cream or paste
Strippable spray and mask coatings
Masking Despenser

Precautions in masking:

Masking tape should be applied only to clean, dry surfaces. Such surfaces must be free from silicone
polish, rubber lubricants, dust, rust, etc.
Unless masking a curve surfaces, tape should not be stretched.
Tape manufacturers caution against applying or removing tape at temperatures below 50F.
Do not leave taped car in the sun.
When masking lines for two colours, sight along tape for straightness.
Avoid folds or gaps in the paper.
Always rub the tape firmly after it is placed in position to ensure good adhesion.

Precautions in removing masking:

Before removing masking, the painted surface should be touch dry.


Slowly watch for any signs of paint bridging.
Remove the tape at the 90 direction.
Do not leave areas taped up for a long time.

MASKING TRIM AND HARDWARE - When masking chrome trim,


door handles and similar ornamentation, no paper is required, only
masking tape. Select a tape of sufficient width to cover the parts as
completely as possible.
MASKING WINDSHIELD - Two or three sheets of masking paper are
needed to successfully mask a windshield of a modern car. The
number of sheets is dependent on the height of the windshield and also on the width of paper that is
available.
MASKING A PANEL - When masking a panel for a two-tone
paints job, select a paper which is slightly wider than the
panel to be masked. Attach tape to one edge, and apply
upper edge of car body. Then crease paper to needed width
and tape into position.
MASKING WINDOWS - First apply paper to lower area, and
then to the upper. When two sheets are in position, run a
length of tape on the overlapping edge to completely seal it.
MASKING HEADLIGHTS - Use 6 in, wide paper and cut a piece
that will go approximately three-quarters the distance around the
light. Place the tape along one edge of the paper so that of the
tape is exposed. Place the paper and tape at the desired point
along the edge of the lamp rim.
MASKING WHEELS - First, cut a piece of masking paper the
desired length. Next make a pleat about in, deep by crimping
both edges. The pleat should extend the full width of the apron. Continue pleating the full length of the apron,
making a pleat every 2 to 4 in. Apply the apron to the surface.

PAINTING MATERIALS

SPRAY GUN - is a precision air tool with delicate finely machined fittings, holes and passages to transport air
and paint through the gun so that it can be propelled towards a surface in a controlled pattern producing a
smooth finish.

PARTS OF SPRAY GUN:

CONTAINER - Reservoir for the paint, which is connected to the gun by a tube; here a low-pressure
zone is created causing the liquid to be sucked in.

VENT - Opening through which the air enters the container to maintain the atmospheric pressure.

TRIGGER - Device that controls the supply of both air


and paint.

AIR CAP - Part directing the compressed air toward


the nozzle; here the air comes in contact with the
paint jet, which is atomized.

NOZZLE - Opening through which the paint flows; its


size depends on the position of a conical part
(pointer).

AIR HOSE CONNECTION - Threaded part receiving a


flexible tube; it is connected to a compressor that
allows the compressed air into the body of the gun.

AIR VALVE - Movable part whose opening is regulated


by the trigger; it lets compressed air into the gun.

FLUID ADJUSTMENT - Screw for controlling the maximum size of a pointer, thereby determining the
amount of paint emitted by the nozzle.

SPREADER ADJUSTMENT - Movable part whose opening is controlled by a screw that controls the
volume of air pushed into the air cap, thereby defining the size and shape of the paint jet.
CLASSES OF SPRAY GUN:

EXTERNAL MIX-GUN - the air and paint are mixed outside and in front of the air cap.
This type of gun requires high air pressure, thereby using more cubic feet of air per
minute.

INTERNAL-MIX GUN - air and paint are mixed within the gun. In this type of gun,
atomization of the paint is coarse, and the spray pattern is fixed.

SUCTION-FEED GUN - the air cap is designed to draw the fluid from the
container by suction. The suction-feed spray gun is usually used with 1-quart
(or smaller) containers.

GRAVITY-FEED GUN - most gravity feed spray guns are meant for
airbrushing and other similar finishing needs for a wide variety of
products. It is often used this type of sprayer to complete large
projects.

PRESSURE-FEED GUN - operates by air pressure which forces the fluid


from the container into the gun. This is the type used for large-scale
painting.

ELECTROSTATIC SPRAY GUN - a spray gun that creates an electrical charge on


powder particles, while the substrate to be coated is grounded (made
neutral).
AIR BRUSH small gun used for decorative effects.

PAINTS
2 BASIC INGREDIENTS OF THE AUTOMOTIVE PAINTS:
The Volatiles
- Is that portion of paint which evaporates.
- A.k.a Thinner

Film forming materials


- the part which remains in the dried film.
- A.k.a Nonvolatile
- Made up of binders in pigment.

Solid Paints - Solid car paint colors are those which do not contain a pearl or metallic sparkling agent.

Metallic Paints - Metallic paints are effectively the same as solid paints, only with a small quantity of
powdered metal added.

Acrylic paints - Acrylic paints are water-based, which makes water their primary agent.
Urethane paints - These paints are the standard for
automotive paint in the industry. These paints are extremely
long-lasting. They can easily outlast most acrylic paints.

PRIMER AND PRIMER-SURFACERS

PRIMER - Is the first coat applied to an unpainted surface mainly


for the purpose of providing a bond between the surface and
succeding coats.

PRIMER-SURFACERS Is evolved for the dual function of priming


or adhesion and levelling or filling. It is available in many colors to
assist in the paint coverage of subsequent color coats.

FILLER AND PUTTIES

FILLERS - It is generally required for smoothing a surface


particularly one that has been stripped of paint when old repairs
have been revealed.

It is designed for levelling:


Surface Defects
Small Dents
Heavy scratches
Metal irregularity

How to Apply Filler:


Check carefully the amount of hardener catalyst.
Measure the amounts accurately.
Mix only enough required for the job.
Do not put mixed filler back into its original container.
Check safety requirements of the products before use:
Ensure that the filler used is compatible with the surfacers and topcoat to be applied over them.
PUTTIES -Putties are very heavy pigment material designed for
deep filling or repairs, uneven surface scratches or file marks.
Putties are available in:
HAND PUTTY a thick paste ready to use in can.
SPRAY PUTTY Putty in a spray gun.

HAND PUTTY SPRAY PUTTY


Applied with a Broad Knife, Putty Knife, Applied through a gravity gun and suction
rubber squeegee applicator or plastic feed gun(if thinned).
applicator. Putty may have to be thinned slightly for
Can be thinned out with lacquer primer- atomization and this may require an extra
surfacer. coat being applied for levelling purposes.
Putty is fast drying so you have to work
quickly
Allow 2 hours drying per coat applied.

SANDING
It is the act or process of smoothing or polishing a surface with
sandpaper or sand. It is an important part in the preparation of a
surface for painting.

WET SANDING sanding automotive paints with water.


DRY SANDING Involves using hand out machine with dry open coat.

MACHINE SANDING - Orbital Sanders or rotary orbital sanders can


be used on putty sanding operations. Machines can be electrical or
pneumatic appliances.

HOW TO MIX PAINT?

CHOOSING THE AUTO PAINT - Before mixing any auto paint it is important that you choose a paint
thats suitable for your car. Each type of paint has its ownmixing procedure.

ESTIMATE THE AMOUNT OF PAINT NEEDED - Auto paints can be expensive.

MIXING RATIO
A. Mixing synthetic enamels: This type of auto paint is both pre-thinned and ready for spraying, or
you will need to add a reducer to thin it out. A thinner should be used based on the type of
spray gun you will be using.
B. Mixing acrylic enamels: If you will be using acrylic enamels, you will need a paint reducer and a
small amount of hardener to mix the paint. Each type of enamel auto paint has a different
mixing ratio.

Measuring tools in paints:

Measuring cup Measuring ruler

MIXING THE PAINT


1. Pour the paint in to a clean disposable mixing container. Make sure that the container you will be
using is thoroughly clean.
2. Mix the paint with the thinner and hardener. Use the same container to do this.
3. Pour the auto paint through a disposable filter to strain off any clumps or debris from the paint for
a smooth finish. Thoroughly mix the paint before you transfer the mixture to the paint gun.
4. Enjoy Painting!

USING SPRAY GUN:


PROPER POSITION:
Spread the feet apart for even balance
One hand holds the air hose for gun balance
Hold the gun approximately 1m with the other hand
Spraying start the horizontal stroke

GUN STROKE:
Move the gun in even straight strokes horizontally
accross the panel.
Progress down or up the panel orderly and evenly
w/ each horizontal stroke overlapping.
Overlapping is vitally important for smooth even
coat.

GUN SPEED
Match spray gun with the gun stroke and gun
distance to achieve a smooth level coat.
Gun speed must be even and the resultant spray pattern produced watched carefully to ensure a level
surface.

ARCING THE GUN


Maintain parallel strokes over the entire surface for an even coating
Avoid lifting or tilting the gun at the end of each strokes.
Maintaing the right angle
FAULTS IN SPRAYING TECHNIQUE:

TILTING THE GUN - Excessive overspray, dry, pebbly finish, rugs, uneven gloss and spray line across the panel
are major problems caused by not maintaining the vertical axis of the spray gun parallel to the spraying
surface.

FAULTY GUN TRIGGERING - By not releasing trigger pressure on the completion of the gun stroke while
changing position for the next stroke will result to uneven film build on the outer edges of the panel.

THE GUN IS TOO CLOSE/ FAR - If the gun is too close or too far to the work will result to runs and sags,
uneven gloss and excessive overspray.

ARCING THE GUN - Arcing the gun is a spray fault caused by not correctly coordinaring the arm and wrist
action and in maintaining the distance of the gun to the vehicle. Effects of this are overspray on adjoining
panels, dry pebbly spray on the outer edges and runs or sags in the center of the spraying stroke.

INCORRECT SPRAY GUN SPEED - Caused by poor judgement of spray gun speed produced by movement of
the arm controlling the gun action. Slow speed results runs and sags while fast speed result dry pebbly finish
and poor gloss.

INCORRECT SPRAY OVERLAPPING - When moving from one stroke to the next, the previous stroke should be
overlapped by up to one and half of the spray fan width. This allows for the dry outer edges of the spray
pattern to be recoated and wet up.

CLEAR COAT

Clear coat car paint is paint or resin with no pigments and hence imparts no color to the car. Its simply a layer
of clear resin that is applied over colored resin.

Precautions:
NEVER paint in direct sunlight.
Try to create straight, even strokes with a 50% overlap upon one another.
Be sure to wait 10 minutes between each application of clear coat.
It is strongly recommended that you wait 30 days before waxing, buffing or taking the treated car
through a carwash. If you live in a cold climate, wait at least 45 days.
Be sure to never store the cans in an area where they can possibly freeze. This will permanently ruin
the paint inside.
WAX POLISHING:
To protect the finish and repel dust it is advisable to hand polish the
paint. Polishing should be done:
In small areas
Wiping off when dry with a very soft cloth
Using a soft damp rag for application

TIPS IN AUTO DETAILING:


Evaluate the Interior and Exterior of the car
Brush your Carpets
Duct Clean to Keep that New-Car Smell
Use Non-Acid-Based Tire Cleaners
The Best Carwash is a Hand Wash
Use wax polishing or rubbing method

PHYSICS CONCEPTS:

DISPLACEMENT - is a vector quantity that refers to "how far out of place an object is"; it is the object's overall
change in position.

*In painting the vehicle, the painter must observe the proper distance to the car to have a smooth and right
texture of the paint.
*There will be a changed in spray pattern (starts wide but ends narrow or vice versa) if you are in a wrong
distance.

ELECTROSTATIC - deals with electric charges at rest.

*In de-rusting solution(removing paint), Electric charges is connected to the material that is being
dipped/sprayed and pulls rust away from the metal.
*Electrostatic spray gun uses electrical charges and electric fields to attract particles of atomized coating
material to the surface of the car.
*During car production, the unpainted car body and the paint are given opposite electric charges.

FRICTION - the resistance that one surface or object encounters when moving over another.

*In removing and making the body of the car smooth, they uses different kinds of grit paper by scratching the
body of the car.
*Sanding operation

FORCE - something that causes a change in the motion of an object.

*In triggering a spray gun means how you momentarily release the trigger when the spray gun has passed the
end of the part and is moving to the position for the next spray pass.

PRESSURE - the continuous physical force exerted on or against an object by something in contact with it.

*Sandblasting (removing paint) uses great high pressure to remove paint.


*Air pressure adjusted to the guns specified capacity. Generally 350 kPa.
*Air Compressors
SPEED - the rate at which someone or something is able to move or operate.

*The speed of the spray gun should travel consistently to avoid different patterns and to get the perfect
coating.

TEMPERATURE - the degree or intensity of heat present in a substance or object.

*The air temperature, product temperature, the surface temperature; the air and surface temperature in
drying the paint is need to be observe in painting a vehicle.

THERMODYNAMICS - Air can be compressed in two ways:


ISOTHERMAL COMPRESSION - is the change of the volume of a substance when the temperature
remains constant.
ADIABATIC COMPRESSION - the pressure increases and its temperature rises without the gain or loss of
any heat.

REFLECTION is the turning back of the wave or light to the original direction it is travelling after hitting an
object.

*Silver metallic flakes in car paint reflects light causes the car to shine or glossy.

RADIATION - The transfer of energy through transparent medium.

*The car should be kept away from radiation especially if the paint of the car is not yet dry.

FORMS OF ENERGY:
Potential Energy
Mechanical Energy
Electric Energy
Heat Energy

ASSIGNMENTS:

HOW SANDBLASTING WORKS?


Sandblasting (or Mediablasting) works especially well for older cars with surface rusts. Sandblasting
media works fast to remove paint and traces or rust caught in tiny racks, crevices and pits. It requires
controlled use with a compatible pressure and media combination. Too much pressure mixed with harsh
media will cause sheet metal warping problems and other damage.

(Additional) The 3 major parts of Sandblaster is the an air compressor or pressurized air tank, a hand-held
pressure gun with air hose and a hopper on top of the gun. The hose connects to the air tank, and the hopper
is filled with silica sand. When the trigger of the gun is depressed two things happen. First, compressed air
fires through the gun as long as the trigger is held down. Second, an opening at the top of the gun into which
the hopper is connected opens. The air flowing through the gun and the force of gravity pulls the sand down
through the gun and out the barrel.

HOW MECHANICAL SANDING OPERATES?


Rotary Sanders or Disk Grinders particularly economical when used over large areas, as the machine is
designed for high material removal rates and fast work progress.

MAIN AREAS OF USE:


Sanding paint, varnish, wood and plastic
Polishing metal
Rust removal

You have to choose what kind of grit paper or strip that you will use in removing paint using disk grinder:
Using 80 grit sand paper was able to take off all the topcoat, and other layers to expose the base metal.
Flap Discs is basically a flat disc with little pieces of sand paper glued to it in an overlapping pattern.
They do work great though for grinding and smoothing welds and surface rust.
320 grit hook and loop disc is less aggressive and more suited to taking off the clear coat and prepping
a recent car with just 1 coat of paint on it.
Old finish can be removed with No. 16 open-coat disk.
Exposed metal should be finished with a No. 220 grit paper.

PHYSICS CONCEPTS ABOUT MECHANICAL SANDING:


TORQUE - a twisting force that tends to cause rotation.

*As the sander rotates, theres a torque in the grit or sand paper due to the force coming from the electricity.

ELECTRIC MOTOR - involve rotating coils of wire which are driven by the magnetic force exerted by a magnetic
field on an electric current. They transform electrical energy into mechanical energy.

*Theres a electric motor inside the sanders.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SUCTION, GRAVITY AND PRESSURE FEED GUN

The difference of the suction, gravity and pressure feed gun is how the paint flows inside the gun. In
suction feed gun, the paint is being atomized and the air pressure from the gun sucks the paint up through the
tube and pushes it out the front of the gun. It is not adviceable to use this gun when spraying heavy paints,
since it will not pull heavy materials up to the nozzle. In Gravity feed gun, no atomization is requires since the
gravity itself will help the paint to flow inside the gun. And Last, in pressure feed gun, the air pressure will help
the gun to flow since the container of the paint is separated from the gun. The paint from the separated
container will flow by means of hoses.

PHYSICS IN PAINTS:

VISCOSITY - Viscosity is defined as the resistance of a fluid to deformation under shear stress. It is generally
considered as flow behavior or resistance to pouring.

*Viscosity is described as the internal resistance of a fluid to flow and may be considered as a measure of fluid
friction. Viscosity is an important parameter in the paint industry processing stage.