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# THE RESERVOIR

PETROLEUM
RESERVOIR
ROCK PROPERTIES

FLUID PROPERTIES

PRESSURE

RESERVOIR DRIVE
ROCK PROPERTIES
Rocks are described by three properties:
Porosity - quantity of pore space
Permeability - ability of a formation to flow
Matrix - major constituent of the rock

## note: porosity & permeability has been discussed partially in

Chapter I. Introduction
PERMEABILITY
Permeability is a property of the porous medium and is a
measure of the capacity of the medium to transmit fluids
Absolute Perm: When the medium is completely
saturated with one fluid, then the permeability
measurement is often referred to as specific or absolute
permeability
Effective Perm: When the rock pore spaces contain
more than one fluid, then the permeability to a particular
fluid is called the effective permeability. Effective
permeability is a measure of the fluid conductance
capacity of a porous medium to a particular fluid when
the medium is saturated with more than one fluid
Relative Perm: Defined as the ratio of the effective
permeability to a fluid at a given saturation to the
effective permeability to that fluid at 100% saturation.
DARCYS LAW
p2 L p1

q
A
Direction of flow

q L L = length
k=
A ( p1 p 2 ) q = flow rate
p1, p2 = pressures
k = permeability A = area perpendicular to flow
(measured in darcies)
= viscosity
k/ =
kh/ =
DARCYS LAW:
rw. r

2kh( P Pw )
q=
ln r / rw
h = height of the cylinder (zone)
P = pressure at r
Pw = pressure at the wellbore
PERMEABILITY POROSITY
CROSSPLOT
Limestone A1 Sandstone A1
100 1000
Permeability (md)

100
10

10
1
1

0.1
0.1

0.01 0.01
2 6 10 14 2 6 10 14 18
Porosity (%)
CALCULATING RELATIVE
PERMEABILITIES
k
Oil k ro = eo
k

k
Water k rw = ew
k

k eg
Gas k rg =
k
Relative Permeability Curve
IRREDUCIBLE WATER SATURATION
In a formation the minimum saturation induced by
displacement is where the wetting phase becomes
discontinuous.
In normal water-wet rocks, this is the irreducible water
saturation, Swirr.
Large grained rocks have a low irreducible water
saturation compared to small-grained formations
because the
capillary
pressure is
smaller.
TRANSITION ZONE
The phenomenon of capillary pressure gives rise to the
transition zone in a reservoir between the water zone and the
oil zone.
The rock can be thought of as a bundle of capillary tubes.
The length of the zone depends on the pore size and the
density difference between the two fluids.
Relative
Take a core 100% water-
saturated. (A)
Force oil into the core Permeability
until irreducible water
saturation is attained
(Swirr). (A-> C -> D)
Reverse the process:
force water into the core
until the residual
saturation is attained. (B)
During the process,
measure the relative
permeabilities to water
and oil.
FLUID SATURATIONS
Basic concepts of hydrocarbon accumulation
Initially, pore space filled 100% with water
Hydrocarbons migrate up dip into traps
Hydrocarbons distributed by capillary forces and gravity
Connate water saturation remains in hydrocarbon zone

## Fluid saturation is defined as the fraction of pore volume

occupied by a given fluid

Definitions
Sw = water saturation
So = oil saturation
Sg = gas saturation
Sh = hydrocarbon saturation = So + Sg
Saturations are expressed as percentages or fractions, e.g.
Water saturation of 75% in a reservoir with porosity of 20%
contains water equivalent to 15% of its volume.
SATURATION

## Amount of water per unit volume = Sw

Amount of hydrocarbon per unit volume = (1 - Sw) =
Sh

(1-Sw)
Hydrocarbon
Sw Water

1 Matrix
RESERVOIR PRESSURE

## Lithostatic pressure is caused by the

pressure of rock, transmitted by grain-to-
grain contact.
Fluid pressure is caused by weight of
column of fluids in the pore spaces.
Average = 0.465 psi/ft (saline water).
Overburden pressure is the sum of the
lithostatic and fluid pressures.
RESERVOIR PRESSURE
Reservoir Pressures are normally controlled by the
High pressures exist in some reservoirs.
Reservoir Pressure Calculation

## The chart shows three possible temperature gradients. The

temperature can be determined if the depth is known.
High temperatures exist in some places. Local knowledge is important.
FLUIDS IN A RESERVOIR
A reservoir normally contains either water or
hydrocarbon or a mixture.
The hydrocarbon may be in the form of oil or
gas.
The specific hydrocarbon produced depends
on the reservoir pressure and temperature.
The formation water may be fresh or salty.
The amount and type of fluid produced
depends on the initial reservoir pressure,
rock properties and the drive mechanism.
HYDROCARBON COMPOSITION
Typical hydrocarbons have the following composition in Mol Fraction

Hydrocarbon C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6+

## Heavy oil .11 .03 .01 .01 .04 .8

Tar/bitumen 1.0

The 'C' numbers indicated the number of carbon atoms in the molecular chain.
HYDROCARBON STRUCTURE

The major
constituent of
hydrocarbons is
paraffin.
HYDROCARBON CLASSIFICATION
Hydrocarbons are also defined by their weight and the Gas/Oil ratio. The
table gives some typical values:

## Heavy oil 0 10-30

Tar/bitumen 0 <10
HYDROCARBON GAS
Natural gas is mostly (60-80%) methane,
CH4. Some heavier gases make up the rest.
Gas can contain impurities such as
Hydrogen Sulphide, H2S and Carbon
Dioxide, CO2.
Gases are classified by their specific
gravity which is defined as:
"The ratio of the density of the gas to that
of air at the same temperature and
pressure".
FLUID PHASES
A fluid phase is a physically distinct state, e.g.: gas or
oil.

## In a reservoir oil and gas exist together at equilibrium,

depending on the pressure and temperature.

## The behaviour of a reservoir fluid is analyzed using the

properties; Pressure, Temperature and Volume (PVT).

## There are two simple ways of showing this:

Pressure against temperature keeping the volume constant.
Pressure against volume keeping the temperature constant.
PVT Experiment
PHASE DIAGRAM SINGLE COMPONENT
The experiment is conducted at different temperatures.
The final plot of Pressure against Temperature is made.
The Vapour Pressure Curve represents the Bubble Point
and Dew Point.
(For a single component they coincide.)
Black Oil Volatile Oil
Dewpoint line

THE FIVE
Pressure path Critical
1 point
in reservoir

Pressure path 2
in reservoir

RESERVOIR
Dewpoint line

0
Critical Volatile oil

80 9
60 0
point

7
Pressure, psia

Pressure

50
Black Oil
% Liquid

40
lin
nt
90

30
oi
% Liquid

FLUIDS
ep
e 80
lin

bl
int

ub
790

20
po

B
le 60
bb
Bu
50

10
40

33
30

5
20
10

Separator Separator
t li ne
poin
Dew
Temperature, F Temperature

Pressure path
in reservoir Pressure path
Pressure path
in reservoir in reservoir
1
2
e
in
tl
in
po

e
lin
w

line
De

Pressure

int
Pressure

Wet gas

Pressure
po

nt
poi
Dry gas
w

Critical
De
e

Dew
lin

point
t
in

% Liquid
300
po

% Liquid
le

20

Critical % Liquid
bb

15 point
30 e int
Bu

2
lin epo

30 2
1
l
bb

25

1
Bu

50
25
5 Separator Separator

1
Separator 0

## Retrograde Gas Wet Gas Dry Gas

THREE GASES - WHAT ARE THE
DIFFERENCES?

## Dry gas - gas at surface is same as gas in

reservoir
Wet gas - recombined surface gas and
condensate represents gas in reservoir
Retrograde gas - recombined surface gas
and condensate represents the gas in the
reservoir but not the total reservoir fluid
FIELD IDENTIFICATION

## Black Volatile Retrograde Wet Dry

Oil Oil Gas Gas Gas
Initial <1750 1750 to > 3200 > 15,000* 100,000*
Producing 3200
Gas/Liquid
Ratio, scf/STB
Initial Stock- < 45 > 40 > 40 Up to 70 No
Tank Liquid Liquid
Gravity, API
Color of Stock- Dark Colored Lightly Water No
Tank Liquid Colored White Liquid

## *For Engineering Purposes

LABORATORY ANALYSIS

## Black Volatile Retrograde Wet Dry

Oil Oil Gas Gas Gas
Phase Bubblepoint Bubblepoint Dewpoint No No
Change in Phase Phase
Reservoir Change Change
Heptanes > 20% 20 to 12.5 < 12.5 < 4* < 0.8*
Plus, Mole
Percent
Oil < 2.0 > 2.0 - - -
Formation
Volume
Factor at
Bubblepoint

## *For Engineering Purposes

PRIMARY PRODUCTION TRENDS

## Black Volatile Retrograde Wet Dry

Oil Oil Gas Gas Gas

GOR

GOR
GOR

GOR
GOR

No
liquid

API

API
API

API

API
No
liquid

## Time Time Time Time Time

BLACK OIL FLUID PROPERTIES
Sample : DRY GAS FLUID PROPERTIS
FVF
Formation
Volume Factor
Fluids at bottom hole
conditions produce
different fluids at
surface:
Oil becomes oil plus
gas.
Gas usually stays as
gas unless it is a
Condensate.
Water stays as water
with occasionally
some dissolved gas.
FLUID VISCOSITY
FLUID & FORMATION
COMPRESSIBILITY
DRIVE MECHANISMS
A virgin reservoir has a pressure controlled by the local
Hydrocarbons will flow if the reservoir pressure is sufficient to
drive the fluids to the surface (otherwise they have to be
pumped).
As the fluid is produced reservoir pressure drops.
The rate of pressure drop is controlled by the Reservoir Drive
Mechanism.
Drive Mechanism depends on the rate at which fluid expands
to fill the space vacated by the produced fluid.
Main Reservoir Drive Mechanism types are:

1. Water drive.
2. Gas cap drive.
3. Gas solution drive
Water Invasion
Water invading an oil zone, moves
close to the grain surface, pushing
the oil out of its way in a piston-
like fashion.

forces water to move ahead faster
in the smaller pore channels.

oil becomes smaller.
It finally breaks into smaller
pieces.

## As a result, some drops

of oil are left behind in
the channel.
Water Drive
Oil producing well

Oil Zone

Water Water

Cross Section
Water moves up to fill the "space"
vacated by the oil as it is produced.
Bottom Water Drive
Oil producing well

Oil Zone

Water

Cross Section
Water moves up to fill the "space"
vacated by the oil as it is produced.
Water Drive 2

## This type of drive usually keeps the reservoir pressure fairly

constant.
After the initial dry oil production, water may be produced. The
amount of produced water increases as the volume of oil in the
reservoir decreases.
Dissolved gas in the oil is released to form produced gas.
Gas Invasion

## Gas is more mobile than

oil and takes the path of
least resistance along
the centre of the larger
channels.

## As a result, oil is left

behind in the smaller,
less permeable,
channels.
Gas Cap Drive

## Gas from the gas cap expands to fill the space

vacated by the produced oil.
Gas Cap Drive 2
As oil production declines, gas production increases.

## Rapid pressure drop at the start of production.

Solution Gas Drive

## After some time the oil in the reservoir is below

the bubble point.
Solution Gas Drive 2
An initial high oil production is followed by a rapid decline.
The Gas/Oil ratio has a peak corresponding to the higher
permeability to gas.
The reservoir pressure exhibits a fast decline.
GRAVITY DRAINAGE

Gas

Gas
Oil

Gas
Oil Point C

Point B
Oil
Point A

## Recovery = to 60% of OOIP

Drives General
A water drive can recover up to 60% of the oil in place.
A gas cap drive can recover only 40% with a greater
reduction in pressure.
A solution gas drive has a low recovery.
Gas/oil Ratio Trends
5

Solution-
gas drive
4
Gas/oil ratio, MSCF/STB

Gas-cap drive
3

1
Water drive

0
0 20 40 60 80 100

## Cumulative oil produced, percent of original oil in place

Average Recovery Factors
Average Oil Recovery
Drive Mechanism Factors,
% of OOIP
Range Average
Solution-gas drive 5 - 30 15
Gas-cap drive 15 - 50 30
Water drive 30 - 60 40
Gravity-drainage 16 - 85 50
drive
Average Gas Recovery
Drive Mechanism Factors,
% of OGIP
Range Average
Volumetric reservoir 70 - 90 80
(Gas expansion drive)
Water drive 35 - 65 50
Drive Problems
Water Drive:
Water can cone upwards and be
produced through the lower
perforations.

## Gas Cap Drive:

Gas can cone downwards and be
produced through the upper
perforations.
Pressure is rapidly lost as the gas
expands.

## Gas Solution Drive:

Gas production can occur in the
reservoir, skin damage.
Very short-lived.
Secondary Recovery
Secondary recovery covers a range of techniques used to
augment the natural drive of a reservoir or boost production at
a later stage in the life of a reservoir.
A field often needs enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques to
maximise its production.
Common recovery methods are:
Water injection.
Gas injection.