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Referensi :

Bahan Training -
TOYOTA
Common-rail Diesel
Diagnosis Training
High-tech Diagnosis Course for Common-rail
Goals

Reduce unnecessary replacing of parts


(NTF parts reaches 70% in some cases)

Reduce troubleshooting time

Improve overall customer satisfaction

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High-tech Diagnosis Course for Common-rail
Objectives

Improve system knowledge

Learn DTC detection conditions

Implement structured and logic troubleshooting


procedures

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History of Common-rail System
Different variations on Common-rail
3 Generations

Diesel EFI Common-rail

1st-generation
Common-rail
HP2 Supply Pump 2nd-generation
Solenoid Injector
HP3 Supply Pump
135 MPa Discharge Valve 3rd-generation
Injector Compensation
NSR + DPNR
Code
Piezo Injector
Max. Common-
rail Pressure 135 - 160 MPa
160 - 180 MPa

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System Overview
Common-rail System Diagram (for IMV)

NE Signal Engine
EDU
G Signal ECU
Other Injectors
Various
Signals
Pressure
Fuel Pressure Limiter
Sensor Common-rail

Injector
Pressure
Switch

Fuel Cooler
Fuel
SCV Fuel SystemFilter
Supply Pump Fuel Tank
Warning Light

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System Overview
Main Components for Common-rail System
Shown for the 1KD-FTV engine on the IMV
Engine
Front

Injection Pipe Injector

Fuel Inlet Pipe

Common-rail
Fuel Pressure Sensor
Supply Pump Pressure Limiter
SCV (Suction Control Valve)
Fuel Temp. Sensor
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System Overview
Features of Common-rail System

Injection pressure, volume and


timing are controlled electrically High accuracy engine control

High pressure fuel Higher atomization of fuel

High pressure injection in all


Stores high pressure fuel
engine speed range

High performance and fuel economy


Low noise and vibration
Clean emission

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System Overview
Sensors and Actuators

Intake Restrictor
Air Flow Meter Valve (Step Motor)

Atmospheric Intake Air


Temp. Sensor Temp. Sensor

E-VRV (for EGR Turbo Pressure


Valve Control) Sensor

VSV (for EGR


VSV (for Turbo
Valve Close)
Pressure Sensor)

Camshaft
Position Sensor Glow Plug

Injector Water Temp.


Sensor
Crankshaft
Position Sensor

Illustration is for 1CD-FTV on CDE120


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ECD System Components
Supply Pump
Supplies the high pressure fuel to the common-rail
HP2 HP3

Type HP2 (Outer Cam) HP3 (Inner cam)


Generation 1st 2nd/3rd
SCV 2 (Time controlled) 1 (Duty-cycle)
Plunger 4 (Radial Type) 2 (Opposite type)
Weight [g (lb.)] 6040 (13.32) 3800 (8.38)
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ECD System Components
Supply Pump (HP3)
Fuel flow

Click!
Movie

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ECD System Components
Supply Pump (HP3)
The SCV opening regulates the pumping volume to
control fuel pressure

[Fuel Pressure Control]


Fuel Pressure
Sensor

Common-rail
pressure
SCV (Feedback)
Controls Crankshaft
SCV Calculation of Position Sensor
opening target injection
pressure
Accelerator Pedal
Engine ECU Position Sensor

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ECD System Components
Injector
High pressure injection for higher atomization

Solenoid Solenoid
Coil From Coil
Common-rail
Return to
Fuel Tank
Control
Chamber
Nozzle
Spring

Click! Nozzle Piston


Movie Needle

Nozzle
Injector Hole 6 or 8 Spring

Injector Pressure 135 180 MPa


Nozzle
Voltage 150 V Needle

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ECD System Components
Overview ECU Inputs

Basic Parameters
Crankshaft Position Sensor (Ne)
Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor (VA)
Injector
Correction Parameters

Intake Air Temp. Sensor (THA) EDU


Water Temp. Sensor (THW)
Fuel Temp. Sensor (THF) EGR Valve
Engine
Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)
ECU
Vehicle Speed Sensor (SPD)
Fuel Pressure Sensor (PCR)

Ignition Switch (STA)
Blower Switch (BLW)
A/C Amplifier (AC) DLC3

Alternator (ALT)

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ECD System Components
Overview ECU Outputs

Injector (Timing and duration)

Suction Control Valve

Various Sensor EDU (Power supply)


Engine
Intake Restrictor Valve
ECU


Glow Plug

EGR Valve

DLC3

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ECD System Components
Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)

Turbo Pressure
Sensor

Engine
ECU

VSV (for Turbo


Pressure Sensor)

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Common-rail Control Systems
Overall
Consists mainly two parts, fuel metering part and fuel
supply part
[Electrical Part] Injection Volume Control Injection rate Control
Injection Timing Control Turbo Control
Idle Speed Control EGR Control
Fuel Pressure Control Glow Control
Diagnosis

Various Sensor Engine ECU EDU

Supply Pump

Common-rail
Injector
[Mechanical Part]

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Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection volume decision
Engine ECU compares the basic and maximum
injection volumes, and determine the smaller
calculated value to be the final injection volume

Basic Injection Fuel Compensation


Volume Pressure Value
EDU

Decision on
Comparison
Duration

Maximum
Injector
Injection
Feedback Value
Volume
Engine ECU
Injector

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Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Basic injection volume

Accelerator Pedal Crankshaft Position


Position Sensor (VPA) Sensor (Ne)

Basic Injection
Volume Water Temp. Sensor (THW)
(Map Data in ECU)
+
Clutch Switch (CLSW)
Basic Injection
Volume Correction
Vehicle Speed Sensor (SPD)
Engine ECU ISC* Correction

*: Idle Speed Control


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Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Maximum injection volume

Crankshaft Position
Sensor (Ne) Overheating Protection
Water Temp. Sensor (THW)

Fuel Temp. Sensor (THF)

Basic/Maximum Fuel Pressure Sensor


Injection Volume (PC, VPC)
(Map Data in ECU)

Intake Air Temp. Sensor (THA)


Maximum
Injection Volume Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)
Correction Air Flow Meter (VG)
Engine ECU Intake Air Mass

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Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection duration

Decides opening time of injector Controls opening


by final injection volume timing of injector

NE Signal Engine
EDU
G Signal ECU
Various
Signals
Pressure
Limiter
Common-rail
From
Supply Pump
Fuel Pressure Sensor Injector

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Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection duration

Basic Injection Fuel


Volume Pressure

Comparison INJ Time EDU


Volume Calculation

Maximum Injector
Injection Injector
Compensation
Volume Feedback Value
Value
Engine ECU

Injector

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Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection volume control during starting

Increase

Correction
Coefficient

Starting Injection Volume 1

Basic Injection 40
Volume Water Temperature (deg)

+ Ignition Switch (STA)

Corrections Water Temp. Sensor

Crankshaft Position Sensor


Engine ECU

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Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Timing Control
Basic injection timing
(injection timing control after started)

Accelerator Pedal Crankshaft Position


Position Sensor (VPA) Sensor (Ne)

Basic Injection Timing


Intake Air Temp. Sensor (THA)
+
Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)
Injection Timing Water Temp. Sensor (THW)
Correction

EDU
Engine ECU
Injector

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Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Timing Control
Injection timing control during starting

Crankshaft Position Sensor


(Ne)
Target Injection
Ignition Switch (STA)
Timing Correction
Water Temp. Sensor (THW)

Engine ECU

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Common-rail Control Systems
Idle Speed Control
Target idle speed control

Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor


(VPA)

Water Temp. Sensor (THW)


Target Engine Speed
Calculation Vehicle Speed Sensor (SPD)

Ignition Switch (STA)

A/C Amp. [Idle-up Signal] (ACT)

Injector Electric Load


Comparison Volume
Correction

Actual Engine
Crankshaft Position Sensor (Ne)
Speed
Engine ECU

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Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Pressure Control
Target injection fuel pressure

[Fuel Pressure Control]


Fuel Pressure
Sensor

Common-rail
pressure
SCV (Feedback)
Controls Crankshaft
SCV Calculation of Position Sensor
opening target injection
pressure
Accelerator Pedal
Engine ECU
Position Sensor

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Common-rail Control Systems
Injection Rate Control
Pilot injection

Accelerator Pedal Crankshaft Position


Position Sensor (VPA) Sensor (Ne)

Basic Pilot Timing


Intake Air Temp. Sensor (THA)

Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)


Correction
Water Temp. Sensor (THW)

Pilot Injection
EDU
(Volume, Timing, Interval)
Injector
Engine ECU

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Common-rail Control Systems
Other System Operation
EGR control system
Intake Restrictor Valve
Position Sensor
Crankshaft
Position Sensor
Accelerator Pedal
Intake Restrictor
Intake
Valve Control Motor
Position Sensor
Restrictor Engine Water Temp.
Valve ECU Sensor
Turbo Pressure
EGR Valve Vacuum Sensor
Position Pump Atmospheric Intake Air Temp.
Sensor Pressure Sensor
Sensor

Vacuum
Damper

EGR Valve
E-VRV
(for EGR valve control)
Engine

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Common-rail Control Systems
Other System Operation
Intake restrictor valve control system

Crankshaft Position Sensor


Intake Restrictor (Ne)
Valve Control
Motor Water Temp. Sensor (THW)

Intake Air Temp. Sensor


Engine
(THA)
ECU
Accelerator Pedal Position
Intake Restrictor
Sensor (VPA)
Valve Position
Intake
Sensor
Restrictor Valve Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)

Ignition Switch (STA)

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