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You are on page 1of 19

1 1

Sets

2 Real Numbers 16

3 Algebraic Expressions 56

5 Graphs 117

7 Statistics 218

Std. IX

Algebra

(B.Sc., B.Ed.) (B.Sc., B.Ed.)

N.E.S. High School, Bhandup HOD Maths

Swami Vivekanand International

School and Jr. College, Kandivali

Salient Features:

9 Written as per the new textbook

9 Exhaustive coverage of entire syllabus

9 Covers answers to all textual questions

9 Comprehensive solution to Question Bank

9 Detailed theory for every topic

9 Self evaluative in nature

g

Tar et PUBLICATIONS PVT. LTD.

Mumbai, Maharashtra

Tel: 022 6551 6551

Website : www.targetpublications.in

www.targetpublications.org

email : mail@targetpublications.in

Std. IX

Algebra

Price: ` 150/-

Printed at:

India Printing Works

42, G.D. Ambekar Marg,

Wadala,

Mumbai 400 031

Published by

Target PUBLICATIONS PVT. LTD.

Shiv Mandir Sabagriha,

Mhatre Nagar, Near LIC Colony,

Mithagar Road,

Mulund (E),

Mumbai - 400 081

Off.Tel: 022 6551 6551

email: mail@targetpublications.in

PREFACE

Algebra is the branch of mathematics which deals with the study of rules of operations and relations, and

the concepts arising from them. It has wide applications in different fields of science and technology. It

deals with concepts like linear equations, quadratic equations, arithmetic and geometric progressions etc.

Its application in statistics deals with measures of central tendency, representation of statistical data etc.

The study of Algebra requires a deep and intrinsic understanding of concepts, terms and formulas.

Hence, to ease this task, we present Std. IX: Algebra, a complete and thorough guide, extensively

drafted to boost the students confidence. The topic-wise question and answer format of this book helps

the student to understand each and every concept thoroughly. It covers all the textual as well as higher

order thinking problems which are completely solved with accurate answers. The book also includes

detailed theory for every topic, definitions, formulas and procedures to solve the problems. Graphs are

drawn with proper scale with correct measures.

Lastly, I would like to thank all those who have helped me in preparing this book. There is always room

for improvement and hence I welcome all suggestions and regret any errors that may have occurred in

the making of this book.

A book affects eternity; one can never tell where its influence stops.

Yours faithfully

Publisher

TARGET Publications Std. IX - Algebra

01 SETS

2. If r is an element of set P, it is written as

Introduction r P and is read as:

i. r belongs to set P or

George Cantor, (1845-1918) a German ii. r is a member of set P or

Mathematician, gave the first thought to arrange iii. r is an element of set P.

objects in order. Symbol stands for belongs to, is a

For example: member of or is an element of.

i. Collection of books in a library. 3. If r is not an element of set P, then it is

ii. Collection of vowels in English alphabet. written as r P and it is read as:

iii. A group of students in a project. i. r does not belong to set P or

iv. A collection of clothes in a shop. ii. r is not a member of set P or

iii. r is not an element of set P .

Such well defined collections or groups are termed The symbol stands for does not belong to

as sets which are derived from set theory. or not a member of or not an element of.

4. The set of natural numbers, whole numbers,

DefinitionofSets integers, rational numbers, real numbers are

denoted by N, W, I, Q, R respectively.

set.

Example: There are two methods of writing a set:

i. Collection of odd natural numbers. a. Listing method or Roster form

ii. Collection of whole numbers. b. Rule method or set builder form

a. Listing method or Roster form

Each object in the set is called as an element or a In this method

member of the set. i. Elements of the set are enclosed within

Example: curly brackets.

i. For a set containing odd natural numbers, ii. Each element is written only once.

elements are 1, 3, 5, 7, iii. Elements are separated by commas.

ii. For a set of whole numbers, elements are iv. The order of writing the elements in a

0, 1, 2, 3, set is not important.

Example:

Collection of elements which are not well-defined, A = {a, b, c, d, e} or A = {b, d, a, c, e} are

do not form a set. Such sets usually contain relative same or equal sets that represent first five

terms like easy, good, favourite, etc. letters of the English alphabet.

Example:

The collection of good books in a library. Few examples of writing a set by listing

method are:

Here good is a relative term whose meaning will

i. L is a set of letters of the word Fatal.

vary from person to person.

L = {f, a, t, l}

Important Points to Remember ii. M is a set of integers less than 5.

M = { , 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4}

1. Sets are denoted by capital letters viz: A, B, C, iii. O is a set of even natural numbers from

X, Y, Z, etc. but the elements of a set are 1 to 100.

denoted by small alphabets viz: a, b, p, q, r,

O = {2, 4, 6, 8, , 100}

etc.

Sets 1

Std. IX - Algebra TARGET Publications

In this method, elements of the set are iv. D = {2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3}

described by specifying the property or rule v. Putting n = 0, 1, 2, we have, E = {1, 0, 1}

that uniquely determines the elements of a set.

Example: 3. Write the following sets in the set builder

i. Y = {x|x is a vowel in the English form.

alphabet} i. F = {5, 10, 15, 20}

In the above notation, curly brackets ii. G = {9, 16, 25, 36, , 81}

denotes set of, vertical line denotes iii. H = {5, 52, 53, 54}

such that.

iv. X = {8, 8}

set Y is read as:

Y is a set of all x such that x is a 1 1 1 1

v. Y = 1, , , ,

vowel in the English alphabet. 8 27 64 125

ii. B = {x|x is a whole number less than 10} Solution:

set B is read as: i. F = {x|x = 5n, n N, n 4}

B is a set of all x such that x is a

whole number less than 10. ii. G = {x|x = n2, n N, 2 < n < 10}

iii. H = {x|x = 5n, n N, n 4}

Exercise1.1 iv. X = {x|x is a square root of 64}

1

1. Which of the following collections are sets? v. Y = {a|a = , n N, n < 6}

n3

i. The collection of prime numbers.

ii. The collection of easy sub topics in 4. Write the set of first five positive integers

this chapter. whose square is odd.

iii. The collection of good teachers in Solution:

your school. X = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}

iv. The collection of girls in your class.

v. The collection of odd natural

numbers. Venndiagrams

Solution:

i. It is a set. L. Euler, a great Mathematician, introduced the idea

ii. Meaning of easy sub topics may vary from of diagrammatic representation of sets. Later, British

person to person, as it is a relative term. logician, John-Venn (1834-1883) used and

Therefore it is not a set. developed the idea of the above concept to study

iii. Choice of good teachers varies from student to sets. Such representations are called venn diagrams.

student as good is a relative term. Therefore A set is represented by a closed figure in a Venn

it is not a set. diagram, where the elements of the set are

iv. It is a set. represented by points in the closed figure. Some of

v. It is a set. the closed figures used to represent Venn diagrams

are: rectangle,circle, triangle, etc.

2. Write the following sets in the roster form. Examples:

i. A = {x|x is a month of the Gregarian

year not having 30 days} A B

.a .c .i .

ii. B = {y|y is a colour in the rainbow} . 2

iii. C = {x|x is an integer and 4 < x < 4} .o .u 0

iv. D = {x|x I, 3 < x 3}

.

1

v. E = {x|x = (n 1)3, n < 3, n W} C

Solution: D

.a . .

i. A = {January, February, March, May, July,

August, October, December} .b .c 2 4

ii. B = {violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, . .

.d .e 8 6

orange, red}

2 Sets

TARGET Publications Std. IX - Algebra

Solution:

Typesofset

i. x = 16

x = 256

i. Singleton set: A set containing exactly one A = {256}

element is called as a singleton set.

It is a singleton set.

Eg. A = {5}

B = {x|x + 3 = 0} ii. Square root of 36 is either +6 or 6.

ii. Empty set: A set which does not contain any B = {6, +6}

element is called as an empty or a null set. It is It is not a singleton set.

represented as {} or (phi). iii. Cube root of (8) is 2.

Example: C = {2}

a. A = {a|a is a natural number, 5 < a < 6}

It is a singleton set.

A = { } or A =

iv. (q 4)2 = 0

b. B = {x|x is a natural number, x < 1}

q4=0

B=

q=4

iii. Finite set: If counting of elements in a set D = {4}

terminates at a certain stage, the set is called It is a singleton set.

as finite set.

Example: v. 1 + 2 x = 3x

A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} 1 = 3x 2x

B = {x|x is a colour of the rainbow} 1=x

The above sets A and B have finite elements. x=1

Set A and set B are finite sets. E = {1}

iv. Infinite set: If counting of elements in a set It is a singleton set.

does not terminate at any stage, the set is

called as infinite set. 2. Which of the following sets are empty?

Example: i. A set of all even prime numbers

P = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, } ii. B = {x|x is a capital of India}

W = {x|x is a whole number} iii. F = {y|y is a point of intersection of

The above sets P and W have elements that two parallel lines}

cannot be counted. They are sets that do not iv. G = {z|z N, 3 < z < 4}

terminate at any stage. Therefore, P and W are v. H = {t|t is a triangle having four sides}

infinite sets. Solution:

Note: i. A = {2}

1. X = {0} is not a null set as 0 is an It is not an empty set.

element of set X.

2. An empty set is a finite set. ii. B = {Delhi}

3. Sets of natural numbers, whole numbers, It is not an empty set.

integers, rational numbers and real

numbers are all infinite sets. iii. Parallel lines do not intersect each other.

F={}

Exercise1.2 It is an empty set.

iv. z is a natural number. There is no natural

1. State which of the following sets are number between 3 and 4.

singleton sets. G={}

i. A = {x| x = 16} It is an empty set.

ii. B = {y|y2 = 36}

iii. C = {p|p I, p3 = 8} v. A triangle is a three-sided figure.

iv. D = {q|(q 4)2 = 0} H={}

v. E = {x|1 + 2x = 3x, x W} It is an empty set.

Sets 3

Std. IX - Algebra TARGET Publications

infinite. A = {x|x is Physics laboratory in your school}

i. A = {1, 3, 5, 7, } B = {y|y is Chemistry laboratory in your school}

ii. B = {101, 102, 103, , 1000} C = {z|z is Biology laboratory in your school}

iii. C = {x|x Q, 3 < x < 5} U = {l|l is laboratories in your school}

iv. D = {y|y = 3n, n N} It can be seen that A U, B U, C U.

Solution: Set U is the universal set of sets A, B and C.

i. A is an infinite set.

Note: Universal set is a set that cannot be changed

ii. B is a finite set. once fixed for a particular solution.

rectangle.

iv. D is an infinite set.

Exercise1.3

4. Let G = {x|x is a boy of your class} and

H = {y|y is a girl of your class}. What type

of sets G and H are? 1. Observe the following sets and answer the

questions given below:

Solution:

A = set of all residents in Mumbai

Set G and set H are finite sets.

B = set of all residents in Bhopal

C = set of all residents in Maharashtra

Subset D = set of all residents in India

E = set of all residents in Madhya Pradesh

If every element of set Y is an element of set X, then i. Write the subset relation between the

Y is said to be subset of set X. sets A and C.

Symbolically, it is represented as Y X ii. Write the subset relation between the

If we have say a, an element which belongs to set sets E and D.

Y, we can say that, it (a) also belongs to set X. iii. Which set can be chosen suitably as

But if a Y and a X then it is said that set Y is universal set?

not a subset of X or Y X. Solution:

Example: i. All residents of Mumbai are residents of

If Y = {b, z} and X = {b, l, z} then we say that Maharashtra.

Y X. AC

If Y is a subset of X and set X contains atleast one

element which is not in set Y, then set Y is the ii. All residents of Madhya Pradesh are residents

proper subset of Set X. It is denoted as Y X. of India.

Set X is said to be the superset of set Y and is ED

denoted as X Y. iii. Mumbai, Maharashtra, Bhopal, Madhya

Note: Pradesh are integral parts of India.

i. If Y X and X Y, then X = Y or

D is suitably choosen as the universal set.

If X = Y then Y X and X Y.

ii. Every set is a subset of itself i.e. Y Y.

2. Let A = {a, b, c}, B = {a}, C = {a, b}, then

iii. Empty set is a subset of every set i.e., X.

i. Which sets given above are the proper

subsets of the set A?

UniversalSet ii. Which set is the superset of C?

Solution:

A suitably chosen non-empty set of which all the i. Elements of set B and set C are the proper

sets under consideration are the subsets of that set is subsets of set A.

called the universal set. It is denoted by U. ii. Set A is the superset of set C i.e. A C.

4 Sets

TARGET Publications Std. IX - Algebra

3. Draw a Venn diagram, showing sub-set Note: To prove that sets A and B are equal, it is

relations of the following sets. always necessary to prove that A B and

i. A = {2, 4} B A.

ii. B = {x|x = 2n, n < 5, n N}

iii. C = {x|x is an even natural number 16} i. Let A = {x|x is multiple of 2, x N and

Solution: x < 10}

A = {2, 4} B = {2, 4, 6, 8}

B = {2, 4, 8, 16} then it is seen that A B and B A

C = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16} A=B

C ii. Let P = {x|x is an odd natural number,

B x < 8}

.12 A

.10 Q = {y|y is an even natural number,

.8 .2 .16 y <10}

.4 In roster form,

P = {1, 3, 5, 7}

.6 .14 Q = {2, 4, 6, 8}

P Q and Q P

4. Prove that if A B and B C, then A C. PQ

(Hint: Start with an arbitrary element

x A and show that x C) b. Intersection of sets:

Solution: If A and B are two sets then a set of common

Let us assume that x A, then x B as A B. elements in A and B is called intersection of

set A and B. It is represented as A B and is

But, B C xC

read as A intersection B.

As every element of set A is an element of set C

(from above). Example:

AC .1

.3

.5 .12

5. If X = {1, 2, 3}, write all possible subsets of X.

Solution: .7 .9

All possible subsets of X are as follows: A B

i. { } [a null set is a subset of every set] Let A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}

ii. {1} B = {3, 9, 12}

iii. {2} A B = {3, 9}

iv. {3} Shaded part in the Venn diagram represents

v. {1, 2} intersection of sets A and B.

vi. {2, 3}

Properties of intersection of sets:

vii. {1, 3}

viii. {1, 2, 3} [every set is a subset of itself]. i. AB=BA [Commutative property]

ii. A (B C) = (A B) C

OperationsonSets [Associative property]

iii. A B A; A B B

a. Equality: iv. A P; B P then A B P

If A is a subset of B and B is a subset of A, v. If A B then A B = A

then A and B are said to be equal sets and are If B A then A B = B

denoted by A = B. vi. A = and A A = A

Both the sets A and B contain exactly the

same elements. c. Disjoint sets:

If the elements of A and B are not same, then A = {2, 4, 6, 8} B = {1, 3, 5, 7}

we write A B. AB=

Sets 5

Std. IX - Algebra TARGET Publications

then such sets are called disjoint sets. Let A = {a, b, c, d, e}, B = {a, c, e, f},

Example: then A B is given as A B = {b, d}

A B

.2 .4 .1

.3 .b .a

.6 .8 .7 .5 .c

.f

.e

.d

A B

For disjoint sets

i. AB= A B = {x | x A and x B}

ii. AB Properties of Difference of two sets:

iii. B A i. ABBA

d. Union of sets: ii. ABA

If A and B are two sets then a set containing iii. If A B, then A B =

all the elements of A and B together is called iv. If A B = , then A B = A

union of sets A and B.

Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and B = {3, 5, 7, 9} f. Complement of a set:

A B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9} If U is a universal set and set A is a subset of

the Universal set, then set of all elements of U

Union of two sets A and B is denoted as which are not in set A is called the

A B and is read as A union B. complement of set A.

Example: It is denoted by A or Ac.

AB

A B Example:

.1 .2 .7 Consider U = {x|x is a natural number, x 9}

.3

A = {1, 3, 5, 7}

.5

.4 .9 In roster form

U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}

The shaded portion in the Venn diagram

U A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 9}

represents A B.

A = { 2, 4, 6, 8, 9}

Properties of Union of two sets:

In Venn diagram complement of set A is given as:

i. A B = B A (commutative property)

ii. A (B C) = (A B) C (associative U .2 .4

.3

property) .1 A .8

iii. A A B and B A B A .5 .7

iv. If A B, then A B = B and if B A, then .6 .9

AB=A Note:

v. A=A i. A A =

vi. A A = A ii. A A = U

Distributive Property

i. A (B C) = (A B) (A C) Properties of Complement of a set:

ii. A (B C) = (A B) (A C) i. (A) = A

ii. = U

e. Difference of two sets:

iii. U =

If A and B are two sets then a set C of all the

elements in set A but not in set B is called iv. If A B, then B A

difference of two sets A and B. v. A A =

It is written as C = A B. vi. A A = U

6 Sets

TARGET Publications Std. IX - Algebra

If A and B are two sets, then universal set. A = {y|y = 4n, n W, n < 4}

i. (A B) = A B and B = {z|z = 8n, n W, n 2}. Then find:

ii. (A B) = A B i. A ii. B

These are De Morgans laws. iii. (A B) iv. (A B)

v. (A B)

Exercise1.4 Solution:

U = {1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128}

1. Let P = {x|x is a letter in the word A = {1, 4, 16, 64}

CATARACT} and Q = {y|y is a letter in B = {1, 8, 64}

the word TRAC}. Show that P = Q. i. A = {2, 8, 32, 128}

Solution: ii. B = {2, 4, 16, 32, 128}

P = {c, a, t, r} iii. A B = {1, 4, 8, 16, 64}

Q = {t, r, a, c} (A B) = {2, 32, 128}

The elements of set P and set Q are same. iv. (A B) = {1, 64}

P=Q (A B) = {2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 128}

v. (A B) = {4, 16}

2. Find the union of each of the following

(A B) = {1, 2, 8, 32, 64, 128}

pairs of sets.

i. A = {2, 3, 5, 6, 7}, B = {4, 5, 7, 8} 6. Let A = {a|a is letter in the word college}

ii. C = {a, e, i, o, u}, D = {a, b, c, d}

and B = {b|b is letter in the word luggage}

iii. E = {x|x N and x is a divisor of 12}

and U = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, l, o, u}. Verify

F = {y|y N and y is a divisor of 18}

Solution: De Morgans law.

i. A B = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} Solution:

ii. C D = {a, b, c, d, e, i, o, u} In roster form set A and B can be written as

iii. E = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12} A = {c, o, l, e, g}

F = {1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18} B = {l, u, g, a, e}

E F = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18} U = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, l, o, u}

A = {a, b, d, f, u}

3. Find the intersection of each of the

following pairs of sets. B = {b, c, d, f, o}

i. A = {1, 2, 4, 5, 7}, B = {2, 3, 4, 8} (A B) = {a, c, e, g, l, u, o}

ii. C = {x|x N, 5 < x 10} (A B) = {b, d, f} . (i)

D = {y|y W, 5 x < 10} (A B) = {l, g, e}

iii. E = {x|x I, x < 0}, F = {y|y I, y > 0} (A B) = {a, b, c, d, f, o, u} . (ii)

Solution:

(A B) = {a, b, c, d, f, o, u} . (iii)

i. A B = {2, 4}

ii. C = {6, 7, 8, 9, 10} (A B) = {b, d, f} . (iv)

D = {5, 6, 7, 8, 9} From (ii) and (iii),

C D = {6, 7, 8, 9} (A B) = A B

iii. E = { , 4, 3, 2, 1} From (i) and (iv),

F = {1, 2, 3, 4, } (A B) = A B

E F = { } or

Hence, De-Morgans law is verified.

4. If A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {4, 5, 6}, C = {1, 3, 5},

Find i. A B ii. B C, iii. C A.

Solution:

Numberofelementsintheset

i. A B = {1, 2, 3}

ii. B C = {4, 6} If A is any set and n is the number of elements in set

iii. C A = {5} A then it is denoted by n (A).

Sets 7

Std. IX - Algebra TARGET Publications

Example: Solution:

i. If A = {x|x N, 7 < x 12}, then n(A) = 5

A = {8, 9, 10, 11, 12} in roster form. n(A B) = 9

n(A) = 5 n(A B) = 2

For an empty set, n(B) = ?

n() = 0 By using identity,

Illustration: n(A B) = n(A) + n(B) n(A B)

From the given figure 9 = 5 + n(B) 2

A B

9 5 + 2 = n(B)

n(B) = 6

A B B A

AB out of which 60 drink tea, 50 drink coffee

i. n(A B) = n(A) n(A B)

and 30 drink both tea and coffee. Find the

ii. n(B A) = n(B) n(A B) and if number of students who do not drink tea or

B A, then n(A B) = n(A) n(B) coffee.

iii. n(A B) = n(A B) + n(B A) + Solution:

n(A B) Let T be the set of students who drink tea and

= n(A) n(A B) + n(B) n(A B) + Let C be the set of students who drink coffee.

n(A B) n(T) = 60, n(C) = 50, n(T C) = 30

= n(A) + n(B) n(A B) n(T C) = ?

n(A B) = n(A) + n(B) n(A B) By using the identity,

n(T C) = n(T) + n(C) n(T C)

Exercise1.5 = 60 + 50 30

= 110 30

1. Let A = {1, 3, 5, 6, 7}, B = {4, 6, 7, 9}, then n(T C) = 80

verify the following identities: There are 80 students who either drink tea or

i. n (A B) = n(A) n(A B) coffee or both. But there are 100 students in

ii. n (A B) = n(A) + n(B) n(A B) the hostel.

Solution: Number of students who neither drink tea nor

i. (A B) = {1, 3, 5} n(A B) = 3 coffee are (100 80) = 20

(A B) = {6, 7} n(A B) = 2

Students who do not take tea or coffee = 20

A = {1, 3, 5, 6, 7} n(A) = 5

n(A) n(A B) = 5 2 = 3

4. 110 children choose their favourite colour

n(A B) = 3

from blue and pink. Every student has to

n(A B) = n(A) n(A B) choose atleast one of the colour. 60 children

ii. (A B) = {1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9} choose blue colour, while 70 children

n(A B) = 7 choose pink colour. How many children

A = {1, 3, 5, 6, 7} n(A) = 5 choose both the colours as their favourite

colour?

B = {4, 6, 7, 9} n(B) = 4

Solution:

(A B) = {6, 7} n(A B) = 2

Let the number of children who choose blue colour

n(A) + n(B) n(A B) = 5 + 4 2 = 7

be n(B) and number of children who choose pink

Also, n(A B) = 7 colour be n(P).

n(A B) = n(A) + n(B) n(A B) n(B) = 60 and n(P) = 70

Total number of children who choose their favourite

2. Let A and B be two sets such that n(A) = 5, colour from blue or pink.

n(A B) = 9, n(A B) = 2, find n(B). n(B P) = 110

8 Sets

TARGET Publications Std. IX - Algebra

n(B P) = n(B) + n(P) n(B P) persons of India.

110 = 60 + 70 n(B P) iv. The collection of first ten prime integers.

110 60 70 = n(B P) v. The collection of all days in a week

n(B P) = 20 starting with the letter T.

n(B P) = 20 vi. The collection of some months in a year.

vii. The collection of all books in your

Number of students who choose both the

school library.

colours as their favourite colours = 20

viii. The collection of smart boys in your class.

ix. The collection of multiples of 7.

5. Observe the adjoining figure and verify the

following equation: x. The collection of students in your

class who got a lot of marks in the

n(A B C) = n(A) + n(B) + n(C) n(A B)

first unit test.

n(B C) n(C A) + n(A B C)

Solution:

Solution:

A B From the given collections (ii), (iv), (v), (vii), (ix)

.1 .8

.2 are sets. Remaining collections are not considered as

.7 sets as they have relative terms.

.5 .3

.4 .6 2. Write the following sets in roster form.

i. A = {x|x I, x W}

.9 ii. B = {x|x is two digit number such that

the product of its digits is a

L.H.S. = n(A B C) multiple of ten}

(A B C) = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} iii. C = {x|x is a prime divisor of 120}

n(A B C) = 9 . (i) iv. D = {x|x I and x2 < 10}

R.H.S. n

= n(A) + n(B) + n(C) n(A B) n(B C) v. E = {x|x = 2 , 2 n 4, n N}

n 1

n(C A) + n(A B C)

Solution:

A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} n(A) = 5

B = {2, 3, 6, 7, 8} n(B) = 5 i. A = { , 3, 2, 1}

C = {3, 4, 6, 9} n(C) = 4 ii. B = {25, 45, 52, 54, 56, 58, 65, 85}

(A B) = {2, 3} n(A B) = 2

iii. C = {2, 3, 5}

(B C) = {3, 6} n(B C) = 2

(C A) = {3, 4} n(C A) = 2 iv. D = {3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3}

(A B C) = {3} n(A B C) = 1 2 3 4

v. E= , ,

By putting the above values in R.H.S., we get 3 8 15

n(A) + n(B) + n(C) n(A B) n(B C) n(C A)

+ n(A B C) 3. Write the following sets in the set builder

=5+5+4222+1 form.

=9 . (ii) i. F = {I, N, D, A}

From (i) and (ii), we get L.H.S. = R.H.S. ii. G = {1, 1}

n(A B C) = n(A) + n(B) + n(C) n(A B) iii. H = {3, 9, 27, 81, 243}

n(B C) n(C A) + n(A B C)

iv. J = {15, 24, 33, 42, 51, 60}

1 2 3 4 5

ProblemSet1 v. K = , , , ,

2 5 10 17 26

Solution:

1. Which of the following collections are sets?

i. F = {a|a is a letter in the word INDIA}

i. The collection of rich people in your

district. ii. G = {a|a is a square root of 1}

ii. The collection of natural numbers less

than 50. iii. H = {a|a = 3n, n N, n 5}

Sets 9

Std. IX - Algebra TARGET Publications

digits is 6}

7. Let A = {7, 5, 2} and B = { 3

125, 4, 49 .}

Are these sets A and B equal? Justify your

n

v. K = {x|x = 2 , n N, n 5} answer.

n +1 Solution:

A = {7, 5, 2}, B = { 3

125, 4, 49 }

empty. B = {5, 2, 2, 7, 7}

i. A = {x|x is a negative natural number} A is a subset of B, but B is not a subset of A.

ii. B = {y|y is an odd prime number < 4} AB

iii. C = {z|z is a natural number, 5 < z < 7}

iv. D = {d|d N, d2 0} 8. If A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {2, 4, 6, 8},

Solution: C = {3, 4, 5, 6} and U = {x|x N, x < 10}.

Verify the following properties.

i. A={} It is an empty set.

i. A (B C) = (A B) C

ii. B = {3} It is a singleton set. ii. A (B C) = (A B) (A C)

iii. A ( C) = (A B) (A C)

iii. C = {6} It is a singleton set. iv. (A B) = A B

iv. D={} It is an empty set. v. (A B) = A B

vi. (A) = A

Solution:

5. Classify the following sets as finite or i. By listing method,

infinite.

U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}

i. A = {x|x is a multiple of 3} A = {1, 2, 3, 4}

ii. B = {y|y is a factor of 13} B = {2, 4, 6, 8}

iii. C = {, 3, 2, 1, 0} C = {3, 4, 5, 6}

iv. D = {x|x = 2n, n N} (B C) = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8}

Solution: (A B) = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8}

i. A = {3, 6, 9, 12, } It is an infinite set. L.H.S. = A (B C)

= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8} . (i)

ii. B = {1, 13} It is a finite set.

R.H.S. = (A B) C

iii. C is an infinite set = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8} . (ii)

From (i) and (ii),

iv. D = {2, 4, 8, 16, 32, } D is an infinite set. L.H.S. = R.H.S.

A (B C) = (A B) C

6. State which of the following sets are equal.

ii. (B C) = {4, 6}

i. N = {1, 2, 3, 4, } (A B) = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8}

ii. W = {0, 1, 2, 3, } (A C) = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

iii. A = {x|x = 2n, n W} L.H.S. = A (B C)

iv. B = W {0} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6} . (i)

R.H.S. = (A B) (A C)

Solution:

= {1, 2, 3, 4, 6} . (ii)

i. N ={1, 2, 3, 4, }

From (i) and (ii), we get,

ii. W = {0, 1, 2, 3, } L.H.S. = R.H.S.

iii. A = {20, 21, 22, 23, } = {1, 2, 4, 8, } A (B C) = (A B) (A C)

iv. B = W {0} = {1, 2, 3, 4, }

iii. (B C) = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8}

So , in set N and set B, the elements are the same. L.H.S. = A (B C)

Set N = set B = {2, 3, 4} . (i)

10 Sets

TARGET Publications Std. IX - Algebra

A B = {2, 4} Solution:

A C = {3, 4} i. Whether a number is positive or negative its

R.H.S. = (A B) (A C) square is always a positive.

= {2, 3, 4} . (ii) Square of an integer cannot be negative,

except zero, whose square is neither positive

From (i) and (ii), we get,

nor negative.

L.H.S. = R.H.S.

A = {0}

A ( C) = (A B) (A C)

Set A is not a null set.

iv. (A B) = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8} ii. Since value of 2b + 1, for any value of b N

(A B) = {5, 7, 9} is an odd number, set B is a null set.

A = {1, 2, 3, 4} A = {5, 6, 7, 8, 9}

iii. Square of an odd number is always an odd

B = {2, 4, 6, 8} B = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}

number.

L.H.S. = (A B)

c2 cannot be even.

= {5, 7, 9} . (i)

Set C is an empty set.

R.H.S. = A B

= {5, 7, 9} . (ii)

10. Give an example of the set which can be

From (i) and (ii), we get, written in set builder form but cannot be

L.H.S. = R.H.S. written in roster form.

(A B) = A B Solution:

Consider the set of rational numbers Q.

v. A = {1, 2, 3, 4}

In set builder form, it is

B = {2, 4, 6, 8}

a

(A B) = {2, 4} Q = { |a I, b I and b 0}

b

(A B) = {1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}

But same set Q cannot be written in roster form.

A = {5, 6, 7, 8, 9}

B = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9} 11. Write down all possible subsets of each of

L.H.S. = (A B) the following sets.

= {1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} . (i) i.

R.H.S. = A B ii. A = {1}

= {1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} . (ii) iii. B = {1, 2}

From (i) and (ii), we get, iv. C = {a, b, c, d}

L.H.S. = R.H.S. Solution:

(A B) = A B i. Subset of a null set is only one i.e.

vi. A = {1, 2, 3, 4} ii. Subsets of set A are empty set { } and set A

A = {5, 6, 7, 8, 9} itself i.e. {1} and .

L.H.S. = (A) iii. All possible subsets of B are {1}, {2}, {1, 2},

= {1, 2, 3, 4} . (i) .

R.H.S. = A iv. All possible subsets of set C are {a}, {b}, {c},

= {1, 2, 3, 4} . (ii) {d}, {a,b}, {a,c}, {a,d}, {b,c}, {b,d}, {c,d},

From (i) and (ii), we get {a,b,c}, {b,c,d}, {c,d,a}, {d,a,b}, {a,b,c,d}, .

L.H.S. = R.H.S.

(A) = A

12. Write proper subsets of the following sets.

i. A = {a, b}

9. For each of the following sets, state with

ii. B = {a, b, c}

reasons whether it is a null set.

Solution:

i. A = {x|x I, x2 is not positive}

i. Proper subsets of A are {a}, {b}.

ii. B = {b|b N, 2b + 1 is even}

ii. Proper subsets of B are {a}, {b}, {c}, {a,b},

iii. C = {c|c N, c is odd and c2 is even}

{b, c}, {a, c}.

Sets 11

Std. IX - Algebra TARGET Publications

13. Write the sets A and B such that A is finite, By using identity,

B is finite, A and B are disjoint sets. n(E M) = n(E) + n(M) n(E M)

Solution: = 50 + 60 40

Let A = {2, 4, 6, 8}, B = {1, 3, 5, 7} be the finite = 110 40

sets. But their intersection is a null set, = 70

i.e. A B = A and B are disjoint sets. Number of students who passed either in

English or in Mathematics is 70.

14. Let A = {a, b, c, d}, B = {a, b, c},

C = {b, d, e}, then find the sets D and E 17. A T.V. survey says 136 students watch only

satisfying the following conditions: programme P1, 107 watch only programme

i. D A, D B P2, 27 watch only programme P3, 25

ii. C E, B E = students watch P1 and P2 but not P3. 37

Solution: watch P2 and P3 but not P1. 53 students

i. D = {a, d} watch P1 and P3 but not P2. 40 students

ii. E = {e} watch all three programmes and 80

students did not watch any programme.

15. Let U = {x|x N, x < 10}, A = {a|a is even, Find with the help of Venn diagram.

a U}, B = {b|b is a factor of 6, b U}. i. Number of P1 viewers.

Verify that: ii. Number of P2 or P3 viewers.

n(A) + n(B) = n(A B) + n(A B). iii. Total number of viewers surveyed.

Solution: Solution:

U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}

P2 U

A = {2, 4, 6, 8} [Even numbers within the P1

universal set] 136 25 107

n(A) = 4

40

B = {1, 2, 3, 6} [ b U] 53 37

n(B) = 4, A B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8}

n(A B) = 6 27

A B = {2, 6} n(A B) = 2 80

L.H.S. = n(A) + n(B) P3

=4+4

=8 P1 = 136 P2 = 107

R.H.S. = n(A B) + n(A B) P3 = 27 P1 P2 = 25

=6+2

P2 P3 = 37 P3 P1 = 53

=8

n(A) + n(B) = n(A B) + n(A B) P1 P2 P3 = 40

No. of students who did not watch any

16. In a group of students, 50 students passed programme = 80

in English, 60 students passed in i. No. of P1 viewers = 136 + 53 +25 + 40 = 254

Mathematics and 40 students passed in ii. No. of P2 or P3 viewers = 107 + 25 + 40 + 37

both. Find the number of students who + 53 + 27 = 289

passed either in English or in Mathematics.

iii. Total no. of viewers surveyed = No. of only P1

Solution:

viewers + No. of P2 or P3 viewers + 80

Let the number of students who passed in

English be denoted by set E. = 136 + 289 + 80

n(E) = 50 and = 505

The number of students who passed in

Mathematics be denoted by set M. 18. Show that it is impossible to have sets A

n(M) = 60 and B such that set A has 32 elements, set B

The number of students who passed in English has 42 elements, A B has 12 elements and

and Mathematics = n(M E) = 40 A B has 64 elements.

12 Sets

TARGET Publications Std. IX - Algebra

Solution: Solution:

Set A has 32 elements. n(A) = 32 i. AB

Set B has 42 elements. n(B) = 42 ii. AC=

Given that n(A B) = 12 and n(A B) = 64 iii. BC

By using the identity, (B C)

B C

n(A B) = n(A) + n(B) n(A B), we get,

A

n(A) + n(B) n(A B)

= 32 + 42 12 = 62

But, n(A B) = 64 .(given)

Sets A and B are impossible.

A (B C)

21. Let A, B, C be sets, such that A B ,

19. Let the universal set U be a set of all

students of your school. A is the set of boys, B C and A C . Do you claim that

B is the set of girls and C is the set of A B C ? Justify your answer.

students participating in sports. Describe Solution:

the following sets in words and represent There are two possibilities which can be

them by a Venn diagram. justified.

i. BC ii. AC i. If A = {a, b}

iii. A (B C) B = {b, c}

Solution: C = {c, a}

i. B C represents the set of girls participating then, it is observed that A B ,

in sports. A C B B C , C A ,

but, A B C =

ii. If A = {a, b}

B = {a, c}

BC

C = {a, b, c}

ii. A C represents the set of boys not playing then, it is observed that A B ,

sports. A C B

B C , C A ,

but, A B C = {a}

AC the following statements.

iii. A (B C) represents the set of all the boys If A B, B C, then A C.

and girls that participate in sports. Solution:

A C B Let A = {x, y, z}, B = {a, x, y}, C = {y, w}

Since, each element of A does not exist in set B.

(B C) AB

Each element of B does not exist in C.

BC

A (B C)

Each element of set A not exist in set C.

AC

20. Represent sets A, B, C such that A B,

A C = and B C by Venn diagram

and shade the portion representing 23. If set C is superset of set A and B and

A B, then prove that (C B) (C A).

A (B C).

Sets 13

Std. IX - Algebra TARGET Publications

Let A = {a, b}, B = {a, b, c}, C = {a, b, c, d}, B = {x|x is a natural number and

then we can say that 4 x < 10}

AB Solution:

(C B) = {d} . (i) B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}

(C A) = {c, d} . (ii)

From (i) and (ii), we can say that 3. If A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} and B = {1, 3, 5, 7}

(C B) (C A) then draw Venn diagram for A B.

Solution:

24. For any two sets A and B, prove that U B

A

(A B) = (B A). 2 1

Solution: 4 3 7

6 5

Let U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}

A = {1, 2, 5}

B = {2, 5, 6, 7} AB

A = {3, 4, 6, 7}

B = {1, 3, 4} 4. If A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {3, 4, 5} then draw

(B A) = {6, 7} . (i) Venn diagram for B A

(A B) = {6, 7} . (ii) Solution:

From (i) and (ii), we get A B U

(A B) = (B A)

1 3 4

2 5

25. If A and B are any two sets, then prove that

i. (A B) = A B BA

ii. (A B) = A B

Solution:

i. Let U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} 5. If U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} is the universal

A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} set and C = {5, 6, 7, 8} then find C.

B = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7} Solution:

(A B) = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} C = {1, 2, 3, 4, 9}

(A B) = {8} . (i)

A = {6, 7, 8}

6. If A = {a, b, c, d} and B = {b, c, e, f} then

B = {1, 2, 8}

find A B

A B = {8} . (ii)

From (i) and (ii), we get, Solution:

(A B) = A B A B = {a, d}

(A B) = {3, 4, 5}

find A B

(A B) = {1, 2, 6, 7, 8} . (iii)

Solution:

A B = {1, 2, 6, 7, 8} . (iv)

A B = { } or

From (iii) and (iv), we get,

(A B) = A B

8. With the help of the above figure, Answer

the following:

One-Mark Questions

i. What is ray TR ray RT?

ii. What is ray TR ray RT?

1. Write the following set in set builder form.

A = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17}

S T R

Solution:

Solution: i. Line TR

A = {x/x is a prime number, x < 18} ii. seg TR

14 Sets

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