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Structural analysis of a commercial vehicle disc brake


caliper
M Tirovic1*, N Sergent1, J Campbell1, P Roberts2, and R Vignjevic1
1
Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, UK
2
Meritor Heavy Vehicle Braking System (UK) Ltd, Cwmbran, South Wales, UK

The manuscript was received on 20 December 2010 and was accepted after revision for publication on 24 August 2011.

DOI: 10.1177/0954407011423447

Abstract: Disc brake calipers are subjected to significant mechanical loading, with design
requirements being particularly stringent with respect to the stresses, the deflections, the
installation envelope, the noise, vibration, and harshness, and the thermal aspects. Modern
finite element (FE) techniques can successfully model caliper assemblies; however, the limita-
tions in predicting the caliper behaviour are primarily related to accurate definition of the
boundary conditions, because of complex interactions between the individual components.
Traditionally, strain gauges and displacement transducers have been used for measuring the
caliper strains and deflections. This approach is expensive and time consuming, requiring
installation of numerous transducers and complex data processing, and has limited accuracy.
The application of digital image correlation (DIC) to a commercial vehicle disc brake caliper
provided valuable strain results. In comparison with strain gauges, DIC proved to be excep-
tionally easy to use and enables straightforward comparison of measured strains with FE pre-
dicted values. Initial work dealt with the static actuating forces, and excellent correlation
between the predicted and the measured strain values was achieved throughout the operating
range of clamp forces. The present authors are confident that the addition of the dynamic fric-
tional forces will give even more interesting results, providing insight into the interaction of
different components within the brake assembly.

Keywords: commercial vehicle, disc brake, caliper, finite element modelling, digital image
correlation

1 BACKGROUND and Ouyang [5], and Kim et al. [6]; brake squeal by
Bajer et al. [7]; pad wear by Hohmann and
Over the years, all types of brake caliper have been Schiffner [8]. There is little information about the
substantially developed and finite element (FE) mod- influences of the boundary conditions and com-
elling has, in recent times, considerably helped to ponent interaction on the caliper loading and
create new higher-performance designs. However, design optimization. There is even less published
most published work deals with the design aspects of work on commercial vehicle disc brakes, which
sliding calipers for passenger cars, such as the papers mostly deals with disc thermal aspects, the excep-
by Rath and Micke [1], and Samie and Sheridan [2]. tion being the papers by Micke et al. [9], and more
In addition to design considerations, other aspects of recently by Thomas and Jackson [10], who
the caliper operation have also been researched and explained in detail the complexities of commercial
reported: thermal aspects by Day et al. [3]; pres- vehicle caliper design.
sure distribution by Tirovic and Day [4], Bakar Some interesting results regarding the analysis,
boundary conditions, and design optimization of a
*Corresponding author: Cranfield University, Cranfield, fixed (opposed hydraulic piston) type of caliper for
Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK. high-performance cars were presented by Sergent
email: m.tirovic@cranfield.ac.uk and Tirovic [11]. The results indicated that, by

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614 M Tirovic, N Sergent, J Campbell, P Roberts, and R Vignjevic

carefully considering the loading cases and boundary conditions obtained from the measured displace-
conditions and by applying optimization procedures, ments at the sample border were applied to FE
the caliper mass can be considerably reduced. The models. Although the paper deals with the fracture
present authors are following this approach and occurring in deep-drawing forming, the basic
investigating all parameters and procedures related approach in using the boundary conditions from
to caliper structural optimization. The initial results experimental investigations can be suitably applied
obtained by the present authors [12] in studying the in brake caliper modelling, in dynamic conditions,
caliper structural performance were published in when frictional forces are applied in the contact
2008, with further work reported here. areas. Fagerholt et al. [15] conducted an experimen-
Modelling and analysis of commercial vehicle tal and numerical investigation of the fracture beha-
calipers remain considerable challenges for numer- viour of a cast aluminium alloy. Newly developed
ous reasons. The definition of the boundary condi- software features allowed DIC to be used for detect-
tions is related to interaction of the components, ing and following crack propagation. Numerical cal-
and in particular to interface friction (on all contact culations included a user-defined material model
surfaces), thermal aspects (expansion, and change implemented in an explicit FE code. This is an inter-
in the material properties), and friction material esting approach which has potential application in
wear. These aspects, in addition to numerical prob- studying brake component fatigue in endurance
lems (model instability), are the limiting factors in tests.
obtaining accurate and reliable modelling results. It Brake calipers are notoriously difficult to model
should be noted here that experimental results, even under braking conditions because of complex inter-
when the measurements are conducted under action between the caliper components. As a result,
nominally identical conditions, may vary owing to the FE modelling results are highly dependent on
the changes in the parameters listed above. the boundary conditions, which can vary consider-
The values of the interface parameters are diffi- ably. DIC is expected to help to assess the caliper
cult to obtain in isolation, and measurements of strain fields in these dynamic conditions. It should
deflections and stresses on the entire caliper assem- be noted that the maximum strain (stress) levels are
blies are necessary in order to validate modelling often reached in non-accessible areas. Since DIC
work. Obviously, such experimental work can only can (only) measure strains within the field of view
be conducted on existing calipers, and utmost care (of two cameras), combination with strain gauge
is necessary in applying the findings to any new measurements and FE analyses is necessary, at this
designs, regardless of their apparent similarity to stage, to obtain full information about strain levels.
existing solutions. Digital image correlation (DIC) The effective combination of the three methods is
provides a practical method to measure deflections seen as the next important development tool in
and strains in the caliper assemblies for validation designing stiffer and lighter calipers.
of the analysis results. As a first step in analysing the brake caliper struc-
DIC is a non-contact optical technique that uses tural behaviour, only actuating forces are applied,
one or more cameras to take a series of images dur- without any torque or thermal loading. In this man-
ing an experiment. These images can then be post- ner, all components will have a nominal geometry
processed to give full-field deformation information, and the caliper behaviour should be consistent; the
allowing the strain field to be calculated. This measurements are expected to give reliable and
method requires a stochastic pattern to be applied repeatable results. No doubt, friction material prop-
on to the surface of the test object. The experimen- erties represent the most likely source of uncertainty.
tal deformation and strain fields for the region of To limit potential variations in the results obtained, a
interest can then be directly used and/or compared new caliper and brand new pads with known friction
with other experimental or modelling results. material compressibility were used.
Publications on the use of DIC in structural analysis
are becoming more numerous but the present
authors are not aware of any publication related to 2 CALIPER DESIGN AND LOADING
friction brake analysis. Nevertheless, the work con-
ducted by Wang et al. [13], addressing FE model The computer-aided design (CAD) model of the
updating from full-field strain data, is considered brake assembly (without the pneumatic actuator) is
particularly useful since it combines DIC experi- shown in Fig. 1.
mental and FE modelling techniques. Pottier et al. The principle of caliper and brake operation is
[14] applied the FE updating inverse method to sev- schematically presented in Fig. 2. The disc 1 can
eral sample geometries using DIC. The boundary rotate but cannot move axially; the fixed (carrier)

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Structural analysis of a commercial vehicle disc brake caliper 615

Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the brake and caliper


assembly
Fig. 1 Commercial vehicle disc brake assembly (CAD
model)
disc. If the disc is to rotate in the direction shown,
the frictional forces Fm0 and Fm00 are being generated
at the contact interfaces. These forces are trans-
part 2 of the caliper is bolted on to the axle or an mitted through the pad friction material and back
upright or a knuckle; this part 2 houses the pads plates and react with the fixed part 2 of the caliper,
and takes on (reacts with) the frictional forces devel- i.e. the forces R and R. The forces Fm0 and Fm00 , and
oped at the paddisc interface. The carrier 2 also their reactions R and R provide braking forces
guides the sliding (actuating) part 3 of the caliper. which result in vehicle deceleration (or ensure park-
The actuating force is provided by the pneumatic ing forces on the gradients).
actuator 4, which is attached to the body of the slid- Although the principle of caliper operation is rel-
ing part 3 of the caliper. It should be noted here that atively simple (Figs 1 and 2) and the functions (and
infinitely rigid mounting of the fixed part 2 of the loading) of the two caliper parts, i.e. the fixed part
caliper is considered adequate for modelling the 2 and the sliding part 3, are individually clear, the
actuating forces at this stage (as tested on the rig) interaction of the components is more compli-
but, owing to the high torques developed when fric- cated. Because of the high applied actuating forces
tional forces are generated on friction surfaces, the Fa0 and Fa00 , up to 240 kN for the largest calipers at
carrier 2 is usually modelled with part of the axle, the maximum braking duty, the generated fric-
torque plate, or knuckle, as the axle deflection can tional forces Fm0 and Fm00 at the discpad interfaces
have a significant effect. are also high. All these forces deform the compo-
When the air pressure is supplied to the actuator nents and, as a result, considerable frictional forces
4, the rod in the actuator transfers the force to the will also be developed at all contact surfaces where
actuating mechanism in the sliding part 3 of the there is relative movement and/or load transfer.
caliper, which amplifies this force (using a lever or For instance, the frictional force Fm will be gener-
similar mechanism) and the actuating forces Fa0 are ated between the actuating pistons and the back
applied to the inboard pad 5 via two pistons. Since plate of the inboard pad 5, as well as the frictional
the actuator 4 is bolted to the body of the sliding force Fm between the sliding part of the caliper
caliper part 3, reaction actuating forces Fa00 are gen- and the back plate of the outboard pad 6.
erated on the opposite end, acting on the outboard Furthermore, deflection of the pad back plates will
pad 6. The actuating forces Fa0 and Fa00 are trans- cause frictional forces in the contacts with the fixed
mitted through the back plates and friction material part 2 of the caliper; forces R* and R** will be gen-
of the pads (inboard 5 and outboard 6), to the (fric- erated. There will be further forces (not shown in
tion) interface surfaces between the pads and the Fig. 2) in the actuating pistons guiding the

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616 M Tirovic, N Sergent, J Campbell, P Roberts, and R Vignjevic

mechanisms and in the sliding mechanisms (pins) Each camera takes the image of the component
guiding the sliding part 3 within the fixed part 2 of from a different view angle and both images are
the caliper. It is important to note that all these captured, logged, and processed by the computer
secondary frictional forces will change throughout and supporting software. When the component is
the brake application, even if the actuating forces loaded, it will deform, which will result in changes
remain constant. Heat generated at the discpad in both images (as captured by the two cameras),
interface will cause the components to expand, and this is the fundamental principle of DIC opera-
which will alter the relative positions and also tion. It is possible to measure small strains but the
influence the local coefficients of friction. The surfaces must be prepared and the set-up must be
change in the secondary frictional forces is influ- calibrated. The area of interest on the component
enced by many other parameters such as the local surface is first painted white and then sprayed with
temperatures, the interface pressures, the friction a mist of black paint, as shown in Fig. 3(b). A fine
lining wear, and the conditions of the surfaces random pattern is necessary for the measurement
(lubricated, painted, or corroded). As a result, these to give accurate results. Furthermore, the system
forces can vary substantially in magnitude and requires calibration by placing a special calibration
direction. plate (with a precisely produced chequered pattern,
Such complex relationships require careful as shown in Fig. 3(c)) in the proximity of the mea-
experimental investigation in order to obtain the sured area in various positions towards the cameras.
data necessary to define the boundary conditions Figure 4 shows the brake assembly installed on a
and component interactions required for adequate brake spin rig, with the DIC equipment set-up for
FE modelling and ultimately model validationcor- taking the measurements. More information about
relation. As the first step in this direction, a study of the brake assembly and rig installation has been
the static loading conditions has been performed; given by Culierat [16]. The figure also shows numer-
the pressure is applied in the system but the disc is ous thermocouples for investigating the thermal
not rotating. effects. The actuating air pressure is measured using
a pressure transducer, and the rod of the pneumatic
actuator is strain gauged for measuring the actuat-
3 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ing force. A specially adapted displacement transdu-
cer was suitably attached to the actuator rod to
As mentioned earlier, DIC was employed for mea- measure the stroke (displacement) during brake
surement of the experimental strain field. This is a application. For conducting the measurements and
non-contact test procedure, which allows three- data collection, a National Instruments (NI) DAQ-
dimensional (3D) measurements of the strain and 9172 data measurements, control, and logging sys-
deformation. The DIC method also has the ability to tem, suitable NI modules, and a computer running
cancel any rigid body motion. The DIC system used LabVIEW software were used. All transducers were
in this work was a Dantec Dynamics Q-400. The calibrated and, in order to assess the actuating force
basic principles are illustrated in Fig. 3. The two losses within the caliper, a special set of pads with
cameras (Fig. 3(a)) are directed towards the area of built-in force transducers was also used during the
interest of the component tested. set-up process. The entire procedure is well

Fig. 3 DIC principle

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Structural analysis of a commercial vehicle disc brake caliper 617

In Fig. 6(a), the area of interest is clearly marked.


DIC enables this area to be extracted and repre-
sented as a 3D surface, as shown in Fig. 6(b). For
illustration purposes, the strain distribution at the
area of interest is shown in Fig. 6(c).
The experiment was conducted as follows. First,
images of the caliper (area of interest) were taken
when no air pressure (actuating force) was applied.
This corresponds to the zero-strain state. Then, air
pressure was applied in 1 bar increments, up to 6 bar,
and subsequently decreased also in 1 bar increments
to 0 bar. Images were taken for each step.
Figure 7(a) shows the principal strain contour
and also a selected point (within the area of interest)
Fig. 4 Experimental set-up on the caliper for which the full history plot (shown
in Fig. 7(b)) is presented for all 12 steps. Each step
represents a 1 bar increase and a subsequent
established and the caliper was precisely adjusted decrease in pressure in the pneumatic actuator. It
prior to mounting on the spin rig, with the set-up was possible to adjust the air pressure using a
shown in Fig. 4. closed-loop system; however, it was found that this
The DIC system consists of two digital cameras was not necessary since the pressure values were
(1392 3 1040 pixels resolution), a monochrome stable throughout each step (lasting approximately
lighting source, and a computer with special DIC 1 min). The pressure was therefore changed using a
image-analysing software. Figure 5(a) indicates the manual control valve (adjustable visually to within
area of interest, with Figs 5(b) and (c) showing the + 0.05 bar). The actual pressure values were mea-
digital outputs from the two cameras. As expected, sured using a pressure transducer and, in order to
the two images are different but show the same part measure the resulting actuating force accurately, the
of the component. pneumatic actuator rod was suitably strain gauged.

Fig. 5 (a) Area of interest; (b), (c) images captured by the two cameras

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618 M Tirovic, N Sergent, J Campbell, P Roberts, and R Vignjevic

Fig. 6 (a) Selection of the area of interest; (b) 3D representation; (c) strain distribution

Using DIC, it was possible to measure the strain further to the statistical errors. Systematic errors are
over a relatively large area, and also to monitor the introduced by the subpixel effects due to the discre-
strain change during time (loading and offloading), tization of the real speckle pattern by the charge-
i.e. to create a history plot. DIC enables rigid body coupled device pixels and potentially by non-linear
motions to be identified and isolated. distortion of the facets.
Uncertainty analysis of the entire experimental 3D reconstruction errors are related to the uncer-
process is a complex task, considering the variables tainties in the calibration parameters, which lead to
measured and the equipment used. For measure- errors when reconstructing the 3D coordinates from
ments of the caliper forcedisplacement relation- correlated facets of the two cameras. Calibration
ships, which also include the actuating air pressure, errors appear in a systematic manner as a function
a wealth of experience has been gained over the of the facet positions in the camera frames, causing
years. This enables accurate prediction of uncertain- local distortions of the reconstructed 3D space.
ties and detailed insight into the caliper amplifica- Detailed uncertainty analysis is very complex
tion ratio, caliper and pad deflections, friction but typically, for full-field displacement and strain
losses, and hysteresis within the actuating mechan-
ism. For the measurements presented here (Figs 4
to 7), of particular interest are the uncertainties
related to DIC measurements. From the information
provided by the system supplier Dantec Dynamics
[17], the accuracy of DIC analysis is strongly linked
to the resolution and quality of images. More specif-
ically, the Dantec Technical Note for the system
used (Q-400) states that corresponding data uncer-
tainties, originating from different sources, can be
grouped into two categories: correlation errors and
3D reconstruction errors.
Correlation errors can be divided into statistical
and systematic errors. Statistical errors primarily
result from the limited number of pixels and corre-
sponding grey values in each facet. These errors
decrease with increasing square root of the number
of facet pixels. Different illumination conditions for
the two cameras, the image contrast and size of the
speckle pattern on the specimen surface, and the Fig. 7 (a) Strain contour plot and (b) history (step)
statistical noise of the grey values all contribute variation for the selected point

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Structural analysis of a commercial vehicle disc brake caliper 619

measurements on a specimens surface, the displa-


cement errors are of the order of less than 0.02 pix-
els, and the strain errors are limited to 0.05 m Strain,
when using a lens with 50 mm focal length. If the
displacements are small (less than 50 pixels), the
errors scale linearly. The relative displacement
errors are of the order of 0.010.05 per cent, and the
strain errors typically are 15 m Strain/pixel, related
to the existent displacements.
Based on the above consideration, the accuracy
of DIC analysis is strongly linked to the resolution
and quality of the images. The DIC measurements
were conducted in a relatively small caliper area,
within the middle ranges of the field of view of the
camera (lens), the distance, and the angle of view,
with good light conditions, a suitable camera focal
length and resolution (1392 3 1040 pixels), and suc-
cessful repetitive calibration. The estimated errors
are considered to be within 6 5 per cent of the strain
measured.

4 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS


Fig. 8 FE model: (a) brake assembly and area of inter-
A FE model of the brake assembly was created on est; (b) actuating and contact details
the basis of the CAD model shown in Fig. 1. More
details about the FE meshing and modelling have
been given by Robinet [18]. The caliper geometry is more complex geometries, linear tetrahedral ele-
not quite symmetrical primarily owing to the long ments were necessary. The disc (made from grey
and short guide sleeve and to the manual adjuster; cast iron) was meshed using 14 188 hexahedral
however, for the considered static load case and elements. The fixed part of the caliper (made in
concentrating on the area of interest away from var- spheroidal graphite (SG) cast iron) consists of
iations between the geometries of the two caliper 14 596 tetrahedral elements and 15 hexahedral ele-
ends, it is considered sufficient to model only one ments. The sliding part of the caliper, also made of
half of the caliper. Obviously, the experimental SG iron, was modelled using 346 hexahedral ele-
result will be used to validate the assumptions ments and 117 824 tetrahedral elements. Finally,
made. As mentioned earlier, introduction of the fric- each pad was meshed with 7130 hexahedral ele-
tional forces will require modelling of the entire ments, with steel for the back plates and composite
caliper and even parts of the axle or torque plate organic friction material.
or knuckle in order to take into consideration The contact between the pad faces and the disc as
the actual boundary conditions during braking. well as the contact between the back plate of the out-
Figures 8(a) and (b) show the entire FE model and board pad and the caliper were defined as surface-
the details of the contact definition respectively. to-surface contact, with a frictionless tangential
The FE assembly (Fig. 8) consists of the brake disc, behaviour and hard normal behaviour, meaning no
the fixed and sliding parts of the caliper, and the penetration of nodes between surfaces. Figure 8(b)
pads (see also Figs 1 and 2). highlights the contact areas.
The mesh was created and FE analyses conducted Since the assembly was considered symmetrical,
using the ABAQUS software package. Several FE appropriate boundary conditions (zero displace-
models were created, varying the mesh type, com- ment through the plane of symmetry) were specified
plexity, and contact definition between the caliper for all nodes in the symmetry plane (Fig. 8). To
components. The model shown has been estab- ensure model stability and robustness of the simula-
lished as a reliable and effective tool in predicting tions, several approaches were tried for introducing
the caliper behaviour in static loading conditions. the actuation forces. The most appropriate solution
Linear hexahedral elements have been used for all was found to be the application of the actuating
contacting parts for better accuracy. However, for forces on actuating pistons (Fa0 in Figs 2 and 8(b)),

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620 M Tirovic, N Sergent, J Campbell, P Roberts, and R Vignjevic

similar to that in the real caliper. However, rather 5 COMPARISON OF RESULTS


than allowing the sliding part of the caliper (com-
ponent 3 in Fig. 2) to move, this caliper part was The strain results obtained from the FE analyses are
fixed (by specifying zero displacement) at the compared with the DIC experimental results for two
actuator attachment area, as indicated in Fig. 8(b) cases. First, a node was selected in the high-stress
(see also Fig. 2). The disc and pads were allowed to area of the sliding part of the caliper, in a position
move (slide) axially (as indicated in Fig. 8(b) by the identical with the point selected for DIC data pro-
white arrows), which ensured that the actuating cessing, as indicated in Fig. 7. The DIC strain mea-
forces Fa0 are transmitted through the inboard pad surement results (also shown in Fig. 7) are compared
and the disc itself to the outboard pad. This, in with FE predictions for a range of actuating forces,
turn, ensured that the reaction forces Fa00 (see Figs 2 corresponding to pneumatic pressures from 1 bar to
and 8(b)) actuating the outboard pad are identical 6 bar, in 1 bar increments. Figure 10 shows the maxi-
with the forces Fa0 (which actuate directly the mum principal strain at the selected point for the
inboard pad). Caliper loading and interaction of all pressure range used (06 bar). The FE results show a
components are identical with those for the real linear change in the strain with the actuating pres-
brake assembly but this small modification in the sure, with the DIC values following closely. It can be
way that the boundary conditions were introduced seen (Fig. 10) that the DIC measurements are similar
helped greatly to ensure model stability and to to the FE predictions except for the values at an
simplify the analysis procedure. Obviously, this actuating air pressure of 2 bar, which showed some
approach is only possible for the considered static differences, and the values at an actuating pressure
loading condition, when no frictional forces are of 5 bar, which demonstrated more pronounced dif-
generated. ferences and deviation from the linear trend. It
The magnitude of the actuating forces Fa0 was cal- should be noted here that the experimental (DIC)
culated from the experimental loading conditions values can be affected by numerous influences (the
explained earlier. The FE model is presented in friction in the guiding pins, the temperature, etc.)
Fig. 9(a), with the area of interest highlighted. despite the fact that the measurements being con-
Figure 9(b) shows one of the FE result outputs, ducted ensure a high accuracy of the actuating force
namely the calculated contour plot of the maximum in a controlled laboratory environment within a short
principal strain in the area of interest, correspond- period of time. The average difference between the
ing to an actuating pressure of 6 bar. The results strains found by the FE results and the DIC results is
from the FE analyses and tests can be compared to only 0.045 mm/m (6.5 per cent difference) with a
assess the accuracy of the FE model and DIC suit- maximum difference of 0.1 mm/m at a pneumatic
ability for analysing brake calipers. actuating pressure of 5 bar.

Fig. 9 (a) Area of interest; (b) maximum principal strain distribution

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Structural analysis of a commercial vehicle disc brake caliper 621

A similar comparison was carried out for a sus-


tained pressure of 6 bar across a geometrical line on
the caliper. Figure 11(a) shows the area of interest
and the line selected for comparing the DIC results
with the FE results. Figure 11(b) shows the DIC
strain contour plot and the selected line. The strains
were extracted on each node along that line.
Figure 11(c) shows the measured (DIC) and the cal-
culated (FE) maximal principal strains along the
selected line (as shown in Fig. 11(a), with zero dis-
Fig. 10 FE and DIC strain results at the selected point tance corresponding to the left end, i.e. the proxim-
ity of the caliper edge). The results are very similar,
with FE results showing some scatter because the
actual, nodal strain results were used without any
averaging. The maximum difference is only
0.07 mm/m, which is encouraging in building the
necessary confidence in both the theoretical method
and the experimental method. The maximum strain
along the selected line was about 1.4 mm/m (both
calculated and measured). The maximum principal
predicted strain, as shown in Fig. 9(b), is 1.857 mm/
m (i.e. 1.857 3 103). Considering that Youngs mod-
ulus for the SG iron is 170 GPa, the maximum stress
is just over 300 MPa. This is well within acceptable
limits but, for the final strain (and stress) assess-
ment of the caliper, it is necessary to analyse also
the influence of the frictional forces and the distri-
bution of the service loads.

6 CONCLUSIONS

The use of FE modelling and DIC for assessing the


strain levels of a commercial vehicle caliper proved
successful. The results are almost identical, with
only minor differences across the large, most
stressed area of the caliper. DIC proved to be easy
to use and the comparison of the strain values with
the FE results is straightforward, requiring little
time. Initial investment in DIC equipment is high
but the ease and speed of use at almost no addi-
tional costs, combined with the ability to investigate
large caliper areas, make the technology cost effec-
tive. The only limitation in using DIC is related to
the ability to obtain a clear view of the area of inter-
est by the two cameras.
The study presented here concentrates on the
actuating forces, and further work in strain assess-
ment is required, in order to include the frictional
forces. This will give better insight into caliper load-
Fig. 11 Comparison of the DIC and FE strain results ing conditions but ultimately, to simulate true ser-
along the line: (a) DIC image and FE mesh,
vice duties, pad wear aspects would also need to be
showing the area of interest and the selected
line; (b) DIC strain contour and the selected considered.
line; (c) DIC and FE strain results along the The results obtained so far are building confi-
selected line for an air pressure of 6 bar dence in FE analyses and present a good base for

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622 M Tirovic, N Sergent, J Campbell, P Roberts, and R Vignjevic

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designs. tion. In Proceedings of the Brems-tech 2008 Con-
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13 Wang, W., Mottershead, J. E., Sebastian, C. M.,
and Patterson, E. A. Shape features and finite ele-
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
ment model updating from full-field strain data.
The authors are grateful to former MSc students Int. J. Solids Structs, 2011, 48, 16441657.
Benjamin Robinet and Jeremy Culierat for their 14 Pottier, T., Toussaint, F., and Vacher, P. Contribu-
modelling and experimental work on this brake tion of heterogeneous strain field measurements
assembly. and boundary conditions modelling in inverse
identification of material parameters. Eur. J. Mech.
A/Solids, 2011, 30, 373382.
FUNDING
15 Fagerholt, E., Drum, C., Brvik, T., Laukli, H. I.,
This work was supported by Meritor Heavy Vehicle and Hopperstad, O. S. Experimental and numeri-
Braking System (UK) Ltd, Cranfield University, and cal investigation of fracture in a cast aluminium
the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research alloy. Int. J. Solids Structs, 2010, 47, 33523365.
Council, UK [grant no. GR/T18424/01]. 16 Culierat, J. Experimental investigation of commer-
cial vehicle disc brake in respect of parking braking.
Authors 2011 MSc Thesis, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bed-
fordshire, UK, 2008.
17 Dantec Dynamics, Laser Optical Measurements
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