You are on page 1of 5


Linking words
:;; '
Before you start
1 Read the extract from a geography textbook . look at the highlighted grammar examples.

The Indian monsoon

The Indian monsoon is rain caused by hot
air blowing over India from the Arabian Sea.
Monsoon rains are very heavy in India because
of the Himalayan mountains in the north of the
country. The mountains are too high for the
clouds 10 pass over, so all the rain falls on the
south side - over central and northern India. In
addition to the rain, there are high winds and
frequent storms.
The monsoon begins some time dunng June and lasts for several months. Up to 10,000 millimetres of
rain can fall during this period. Even though Indians are used to the monsoon, there are many towns
that still can't deal with all the water. In fact there is so much rain that most cities get flooded . After
falling continuously for two or three months, the rain eventually stops in September.
Although people in most countries complain about rain, Indians are pleased to get the monsoon.
Not only does It cool the air, but it provides the water that is necessary for growing crops. Since 80
percent of the year's rain falls during the monsoon, farmers have learned to grow suitable crops -
mostly rice and cotton_

2 Now read the sentences and choose the correct words in italics. The highlighted grammar
examples will help you.
1 We didn't go to the beach because of/because the bad weather. >- Unit 78
2 For / Since we have a large ga rden, we should have the party at our house. >- Unit 78
3 There was so much sun tllat we gOI / to gel sunburnt . >- Unit 79
4 The suitcase was too heavy me / (or /lie to carry. >- Unit 79
5 Not only lie arrived / did he arrive late, but he didn't bring a present. >- Unit 80
6 In additi on to we paid tile hotel bill / /lIe hotel bill, we had to pay for parking. >- Unit 80
7 Despite / Although it is hot in Augu st, we enjoy going to the beach then. >- Unit 81
8 The ma nager refused to give us a refund despite / even tllollgll we had a receipt. >- Unit 81
9 We u sually take ou r hOlidays d/lring / while the summer. >- Unit 82
10 After living / to live in Thailand for a year, we got a taste for spicy food. >- Unit 82
3 Check your answers below. Then go to the unit for more information and practice.

SU!A!] 01 2upnp 6 q Sn0 4~ uaAa 8 lj2nOlHlY L II! Q laWlj a41 9

,;)A!llC ;)lj P!P S ;}W 101 t 108;}M lcql <l:JU!S Z 10 asn C:Jaq

o Go Gr1 ' lne for a full diagnostic test 237

-~"'," ~';;Jjll~/l't.~e~,:au5e there is plenty of sunshine and rain,
farmers in some parts of Asia can grow two nce
crops a year They flood the nce fields With water
in order to the

1 Join ing clauses

We always use linking words (e.g. becallse, sin ce) to ioin a subordinate clause to t he main
clause in a sen tence. The subordinate clause gives us more in format ion abou t the main
main clause lin ki ng word ubordinat cia
f"'armers ({Ill 'W 0 ro s u arused an fain
We can pu t the subordinate clause (+ comma) at the beginning of the sentence for emphasis:
Because there is p len ty of sunshine mId raj", farmers call grow two crops a )'ear.
o r we can use it to talk about something we've al ready mentioned ( ~ Unit 103):
T lley always ask to see a members/lip card. Since we (Iou 't I/(I ye OfIC, \\le ca ll't get i"to the elub.

2 Int roducing a reason

We use 1x'C(IIlSe to introduce the reason for something:
I don't Ilse traim because tl,ey are too expensive. Tile sllow was cancelled bealllse it ra ined .
If we use a noun fo r the reason, we use because of.
f do,,'t use tmins beca use of tile cos t. Tile sllow was cal/celled IJealllse of tile rai ll .
We use as or sinci' to introduce a reason we already know:
A s we're IM e, we'd better get a tax;' (We know we are late.)
We ca,,'t get into tllis club s ince we don 't h ave a m em bers/l il) wrd. (We know we don't
have it.)
Other meanings of as )- Units 22.213 and 82.1 and since )- Unit 37.3

3 Introducing a purpose
We use ill order to, so as to, ill order tlwl and so tllat to say why we do something.
They flood the rice fields to I in order la I protect the
with water so as to young plants.
They've changed the law in order that' so that the police can listen to caffs .

We often use modal verbs (e.g. ca", could, will, would) after so that and i" order tllat:
I'm buying a l1Iagazille so thatI'll have som eOliug to reatl on tile flig llt .
We can lIse all these expressions to introduce a negative result:
I callght tile earlier trai" so ( I S not to be late for my interview.
We look plenty of dollars so Olat we wouldn 't r,," Ollt of cas h while we were ill tile US.
Infin itive of purpose (e.g. f went to the shop to get some milk.) )- Unit 76.3

1 Choose the correct words in italics. In one place.
both answers are possible. CIIIl'I listen and check.
AMAI\'OA Hello, Elizabeth. W hat are you doing here?
F,Lll.... 1I1'.T1-I f've come (O)@lforbuyoneof those patio heaters.
"' MANOA ReaUy?
EU7.ARETH Yes, we thought we'd buy o ne (1) because ofI as it's
getting cooler now. We need one (2) ill order / so that
we' ll be able to carry on sitting outside in the evenings
.. . and - well, it's (3) because I because of the grandchildren, too.
They love playing in th e garden when they come to us after
school. I want' to be able to si t outside (4) ill order I so that to watch
them . What about you?
AMANUA Oh, I'm looking for a hosepipe. (5) As I Sinci.' the garden's so large,
it's really rather hard work with just a watering can - and ['m not getting an y
younger! But th e> ones here are al[ too short. I need an extra lo n g anI!
(6) so as to I ill order Owl reach the plants at the back of the ga rden.
I'.LlZAIIF.111 What about an automatic watering system? (7) Bealllse of I Becallse this summer
has been so dry, we've put o ne in our garden . It 's very good. It comes with an
automatic timer (8) so tllClt / sillc(' you don't have to worry about turning it on
or o ff.
" ).,lANDA What a good idea! I'll see if they' ve got one here.

2 Match the two parts of the sentences.

o We water the plants because ~ A we water the plants.
1 We water the plants because of B make them grow.
2 Because it doesn't rain very o ften, C it doesn't rain very often.
3 We wa ter the pl ants so as 0 that they wi ll grow.
4 In order to make the plants grow, E the lack of rain .
S We water the plants so F we wate[ them .
6 We wale.f the plants to G to make t hem grow,

3 Find six more mistakes and correct them . Tick (.f) the correct sentences.
CIIiID listen and check. .,
o Carri e wore a big hat so fef not to get her hair wet in the rain.
We arrived at the theatre early that wc could get good tickets.
2 I'm going swi mming every day for to lose weight.
3 Since you don't have any money, I' ll h ave to pay fo r you r meal.
4 I got up early so not to be late for the job interview.
S The fi sh are packed in ice so as to stay fresl1 for the journey.
6 I couldn 't play football for six months because my broken leg.
7 Louis studied English in order understand Ame.rican films.
8 Wc didn't h ave a h oliday last summer because of we didn't have enough m oney.

4 Complete the sentences so they are true for you.

o I'm stud ying English so that .!. .~~..~~,1..~t:!1.L.i:t.~. ~.~~.~ . ~~..~~~~~~.......
1 I'm studying En glish so that .. ... ......... .
2 I en joy ..... ... .... .... because
3 I'd like to .... in order to
4 [can 't stand .. .... ..... .... because of .. _.. .