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Thermal and Mechanical Separation Solutions

Thermal and Mechanical Separation Technology

Your single source for sulfuric acid solutions.

Technical ability, flexibility and customer commitment are the key elements in the growth of
Clark Solutions.

From design to manufacturing, from assembly to after-sales service at each stage of

the process the company operates under strict quality standards, always aiming to
surpass our customers expectations.

With an optimized structure, Clark Solutions allows total flexibility in customer

service and agility to adapt quickly to market demands. The attempt to solve
the customers problems has no limit. We are commited to find a satisfactory
solutions to our customers requirements.

The knowledge and expertise acquired in technical exchanges with the

academic and the long experience of its technical staff ensures Clark
Solutions a privileged position in thermal and mechanical separation,
mass transfer and pollution control. There are thousands of projects and
equipments which have been developed and installed in Brazil and
abroad, according to technical specifications that ensure the reliability
and quality of our products. The factory in Barueri / So Paulo plant,
established in 1996, produces our range with own know-how as well
as under license.

Mist Eliminators
MaxiMesh (wire mesh pads)....................................................................5
FiberBed (fibre bed brownian diffusion and impactation candles)...........7

Strong and Weak Acid Distibutors

Evenflow2 Trough and Downcomer..........................................................11
FairFlow Pipe distributor.........................................................................12

Edmeston SXTM Sulfuric Acid Stainless Steel...........................13

SXTM Sulfuric Acid Piping..........................................................................14
SXTM Filters, Strainers and Vortex Breakers.............................................14
SXTM Inserts and fabricated parts..............................................................14
SXTM Acid Distributors................................................................................14

Ceramic Packing & Tower Internals...........................................15

MaxiSaddle Ceramic tower packing.......................................................16
MaxiDome Ceramic packing support......................................................17
MaxiDur high alumina balls.....................................................................17
Cross Partions Rings.................................................................................17

Turn-key Projects...........................................................................18

Consulting/Engineering Services...............................................19

MaxiMesh wire mesh
mist eliminator
MaxiMesh is an essential equipment in the sulfuric plant
drying towers, whether in a sulphur burner, metallurgical
or spent acid plant.

When a vapor steam carrying entrained liquid droplets

passes through a MaxiMesh mist eliminator pad, the
vapor will move freely through the mesh. The inertia of
the droplets will cause them to disengage from the gas
stream, contact the wire surface, coalesce and ultimately
drain out by gravity as large droplets.

A properly designed and installed MaxiMesh in a drying,

absorption or stripping tower will eliminate downstream
acid carryover, protecting equipment such as blowers
and compressors, gas-gas heat exchangers, converter
catalyst as well as minimizing stack emissions.

The MaxiMesh mist eliminator is an assembly of a

knitted metal or plastic mesh held on each side by
high open area grids . The mesh is designed to the
specific efficiency, pressure drop and capacity of required
by each customer.

Available in virtually any size or shape, using special

alloys to provide maximum corrosion resistance, such as
Alloy-20, Alloy-66 and SXTM (see figure 01) enabling our
products to operate for decades without replacement.

Indication of use at towers by respective colors.

5 5
Corrosion Rate of Some Stainless Steels in Strong Sulphuric Acid 98%

Easy to install

Corrosion Rate - mils/yr

Most cost-effective solution for mechanical 15
entrainment applications
Low pressure drop (usually less than 50 mm wc)
High efficiency (up to 100% for particles greater than 2 m) 5
High capacity (up tp 50 m3/hm2) sx
Emergency delivery available 0
40 65 90 115 140
Temperature - C

MaxiMesh Safety Scrubber

Fast and easy access to the mist eliminator

Easier and simple maintenance intervention
Turn-down adjustments (blanks)
Eliminates safety risks to operators
Conventional Design Safety Scrubber Design

100 50

90 45 Style 338
Style 338 Style 713
Collection Efficiency (%)

80 40
Style 655
70 35
Style 713
30 Style 655
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Droplet Diameter (micron) Gas Flow (x1000 Nm/h)

We specify and design traditional MaxiMesh

models in stainless steel like the standard
sulfuric acid Style 655; Style 338 and Style 713 in
special Alloy 20 / Alloy 66 / SXTM steels co-knitted
with Teflon or fiber glass providing extremely high
efficiency for metallurgical and spent acid plant.
These models collect 99.9+% of particles 2 m and
larger and up to 75% of particles smaller than 2 m.
Standard Mesh Co-knitted Mesh

Extensive inventories make us capable to emergency fabricate, with delivery in 48 hours or less;
Stock of special materials: SXTM / exotic alloys / plastic and stainless steel grades to supply emergency equipments.

FiberBed Mist Eliminator
More than 25 years of experience at the design and
manufacturing of fiber bed mist eliminators associated
to an extensive experience in sulphuric acid plants
and related processes, Clark Solutions developed a
very complete and efficient line of brownian difusion
and impactation fibre bed candles.

Benefits of FiberBed:
Reduce or eliminate visible stack gas plumes
Provide unlimited turndown from design capacity
(brownian difusion candles)
Achieve a guaranteed pressure drop as low as
25 mm WC
Nearly 100% efficiency for particles smaller than 1 m
Long service lifetime
Interchangeable with existing fiberbed equipment
No moving parts
Special glass fiber filter media for strong acid services

FiberBed mist eliminators consist of a packed

fiber bed a packed mesh or even a mix of this two
components, assembled between two concentric
screens or two parallel screens, designed to capture
and drain with high efficiency submicron liquid
particles (< 1 m) from the gas flow.

Indication of use at towers by respective colors.

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Collection efficiency [%]




0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Particle Size [m]

Total Efficiency Inertial impaction Brownian Diffusion Direct interception

FiberBed BD (Brownian Diffusion)

FiberBed BD (Brownian Diffusion) was developed
to capture liquid and soluble solids particles larger
and smaller than 1 m with nearly 100% efficiency
in both, large and small particles. The BD elements
are usually manufactured in cylindrical shape,
and they are available in a large range of special

FiberBed DualBed Extended

Surface Mist Eliminator
Increase in filtration area of up to 50%
Provides a lower pressure drop than standard
available design
Efficiency equal or superior to standard designs
Precise cage opening and wire diameter resulting
in a more rigid element during operation
Reinforced Internal Structure providing more
structural resistance
Reinforced flange thicknesses

FiberBed IC (Impaction Cylinder)

Intended to economically remove liquid particles
1 to 3 m and above. The collection efficiency in 1
m size particles can fluctuate from 90% at liquid
mist with specific gravity 1,0 up to 97% at liquid mist
with specific gravity of 1,8 depending on gas velocity
through the bed.
Usually provided in cylindrical shape available in a
large range of special materials and dimension.

Clark Solutions has an unique, state-of-the- art,
FiberBed manufacturing technology, that allows
complete control of performance parameters,
guaranteeing high efficiency and capacity on each
and every installation.

The filtering media of the FiberBed mist eliminator is one, responsible for the capture of the smaller
usually constituted as follows: droplets, this layer is normally one to three inches
thick and can be adjusted be adjusted in accordance
Capture Layer: The first layer of the mist eliminator with the process;
which meets the flux captures the biggest set of Drainage Layer: The main principal of this layer
droplets, reducing the mist volume that load the is to facilitate the drainage process of the mist
next layers; coalesced at the previous layer avoiding droplets
Coalescing Layer: A denser layer than the previous carryover.

Clark Solutions FiberBed mist eliminators main

application in sulfuric acid plants is on interpass,
final or single absorption towers, were the SO3 and
moisture present of the gas streams generate very
fine mist, highly corrosive and diffilcult to capture
by mechanical means. Fiberbed mist eliminators
provide unmatched efficiency at economical
pressure drops.
A properly design and specified Fiberbed will
minimize mist carryover to downstream equipment,
protecting gas-gas heat exchangers, economizers,
gas ducts and other equipment, as well as minimizing
sulfuric acid carryover to the stack, guaranteeing
emissions levels well under regulations.

Functional principle


Inertial impaction

LIQUID Brownian Diffusion


Direct interception

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When a FiberBed mist eliminator is at the end Repacks can be done in a very short term, allowing
of its lifetime, Clark Solutions offers the option for the equipment to be removed, inspected, have its
to remove the old fiber, repair its structure and structure eventually repaired and later repack within
flange, if necessary, and repack the bed with new the timeframe of a turnround, saving inventories
fiber, providing the same quality and performance and the need to acquire equipment prior to the plant
guarantees of a new equipment to your product. maintenance turnround.

Fiber Layer analysis

Adequate fiber selection is among of the main application. Different layers of fibers can be applied
concerns to guarantee that the FiberBed give to combine each fiber advantages, giving a wider
the desired filtering and drainage. Fibers qualities manipulation of the FiberBed capacity, efficiency,
are analyzed to ensure that its materials, diameter drainage and pressure drop.
and strength are in accordance to the required


It is a suitable method to be performed in FiberBeds to

give quick qualitative information about the homogeneity
of the winding. It consists of a hot air current blown
through the Fiberbed inside. With an infrared analyzer,
the temperature over its surface is mapped in order
to visualize if there are any excessively hot spots,
corresponding to leakage of air.
This test and the winding can be done simultaneously
to verify how bed homogeneity is attained layer by layer.

EvenFlow Trough and Dowcomer
Sulfuric Acid Distributor
Benefits of Distributor Clark Solutions:

Irrigation rate of 15 to 60 pts/m provides a complete

coverage of the entire tower cross section irrigation area.
Lighter weight than cast iron distributors, can be easily
installed and maintained.
A high distribution density (> 25pts/m2) allows drying and
absorption towers to be designed for higher velocities and
lower packing heights, saving capital and operating costs.
Improve distribution allows reduction of packing heigths
and volumes
A high open area at the acid pour region minimizes mist
carryover and pressure drop when compared to pipe type
and cast iron distributors.
Design to fit through the manholes, can be installed and
maintained very easily.
No sulfate formation and build up on packed bed.

Materials of Construction Temperature Profile

Evenflow distributors use Edmeston SXTM sulfuric
acid steel, AISI 310 stainless steel, Alloy 20 or any
Gas Temperature (oC)

Cast Iron Distributor 1 pts/ft2

weldable sulfuric acid resistant material. 85

The corrosion resistance of the materials used SXTM Distributor 4 pts/ft2
reduce sulfate formation when compared with 75

conventional cast iron distributors. The metal 70

working facility involved in handling stainless steels
and alloy favours a more sophisticated design of -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 02 46 8 10
the equipment, allowing it to achieve better results Distance from the center of the tower
than conventional cast iron products.

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FairFlow Pipe Distributor SXTM ISO Corrosion Curve (0.1 mm/y)

Pipe Type acid distributors have a configuration that 143

Temperature (C)

provides high irrigation densities reaching 60 pts/m.

With a uniform distribution of irrigation points along 127

the pipe, this device will achieve good results in gas 110
processing capacity, coupled with a reduction in a
pressure drop, resulting therefore in lower operating
cost for the plant. Can be produced in Edmeston SXTM 77

Alloy 20 or AISI 310. Conducting a process design will 60

90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
lead to specifying the ideal construction material.
Concentration H2SO4%

This special stainless steel was developed in Sweden

by Sandvik, and today is marketed in South America
by Clark Solutions SXTM, offers superior corrosion
resistance throughout the 93-99% concentration
ranges of sulfuric Acid Plant. SXTM has been installed
in hundreds of plants worldwide with excellent
corrosion result.

Indication of use at towers by respective colors.

Edmeston SXTM Sulfuric Acid Stainless Steel
From all existing alloys in the market, SX is the most acid plants applications and can provide any
corrosion resistant for sulfuric acid installations. equipment in SX for sulfuric acid systems.
With over 25 years of unparalleled performance,
this material is corrosion resistant in a very wide Special alloy vessels and towers are much
range of temperature and acid concentrations lighter, reducing the cost for foundations and
keeping its desired mechanical properties, making facility installation.
SXTM the perfect material for pipes and equipment Overall installation time is reduced, circumventing
parts in contact with sulfuric acid, even in aggressive the time required for brick lining.
concentrations below 98%. Small and medium-size towers and tanks can
be shop-fabricated and shipped to site, reducing
The excellent mechanical and corrosion properties installation work and shut-down time.
make SXTM a very cost-effective material. Clark Maintenance, service and inspection are made
Solutions has an extensive experience in sulfuric considerably easier.

SX Corrosion Rate (0,1 mm per year)


Temperature (C)




90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99

Sulfuric Acid Concentration

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Sulfuric Acid Piping
The piping system, formerly made only in cast iron,
can be made in SXTM with smaller diameter and wall
thickness, as higher velocities can be allowed inside
these pipes with no risk of material loss by corrosion.
A SXTM sulfuric acid pipe system is cheaper (since it
will be much lighter) and lasts longer.

Filters and Vortex Breakers

The SXTM made pipe line filters raises durability and
keeps equipment efficiency by avoiding solids to
reach them, which are almost always unavoidable
to exist in the acid tank and may be harmful to pump
impellers. Also, when vortex breakers are needed,
they can be made on SXTM and have smaller
thickness since they will last much longer than if
made of any other alloy.

Inserts and fabricated parts

Maximesh mist eliminators can be manufectured
out of Edmeston SXTM to provide extremely high
efficiency on a long term basis. MaximeshTM mist
eliminators manufactured with SXTM will usually
have a lifetime of more than 10 years.

Acid Distributors
Clark Solutions designed Edmeston SXTM sulfuric
acid distributors will offer a long operating lifetime
without all the inconvenients associated with cast
iron distributors.
Also, the corrosion resistant material allows the
safe usage of thin plate and small parts, favoring
a better pour point density, a more precise and
uniform liquid distribution and less mist formation
due to lower tower cross section area obstruction.

Edmeston SX composition

Cr Ni Si Mn Cu Mo

16.5-19.5% 19-22% 4.8-6% 2% 1.5-2.5% 0.3-1.5%

Ceramic Packing
The tower packing for the drying and absorption surface so the required mass transfer from the gas
towers requires high mechanical and corrosion phase can occur. Clark Solutions has a line of
resistance, since a high acid load is distributed on random and structured ceramic packings to get all
the bed. Also, it must provide an effective contact these needs together.

MaxiSaddle = =BPC =

Pressure Drop 100 70 50

Mass Transfer 100 135 200

High mass transfer at

Comments STANDARD 30% pressure drop reduction
50% pressure drop
Available sizes 3/4 1 11/2 2 3 3 1/2 100 150 250

Pressure Drop


2,8 2,9 3,0 3,1 3,2 3,3 3,4 3,5 3,6 3,7 3,8

Hydraulic Capacity Liquid/Gas Flow

Indication of use at towers by respective colors.

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MaxiSaddle, are the most common and widely
used ceramic saddles. They provide highly effective
surface area and low resistance to the gas phase
flow, allied with a special ceramic composition that
has great mechanical and chemical properties,
making MaxiSaddles excellent for over a decade
of use.

MaxiSaddle BPC (Low Pressure Drop)

MaxiSaddles BPC have the same characteristics
of the common saddles, with a BPC have the same
characteristics of the common saddles, with a
singular geometry that provides a lower pressure
drop on the gas phase without altering the specific
surface of the bed, which guarantees effective mass

MaxiCeramic Consisting of geometrically arranged corrugated

MaxiCeramic is a structured ceramic media, improved
sheets, MaxiCeramic packings are the best solution
to provide greater specific surface area and the when high efficiency, corrosion and fouling resistance
lowest pressure drop compared to random packings. are required.

MaxiDome Self Supporting Dome
This is quickly becoming the new standard in properly if the support grid produces a bottleneck
ceramic packing supports. and if liquid is poorly distributed over the packed
Clark Solutions uses the ceramic self-supporting bed, or if no provision is made to redistribute the
domes as a standard to support packing. Domes liquid at regular intervals. A proper selection and
allow for a lighter construction, without brick archers, design of support elements, packing and tower
with a better gas distribution. distributors as well as other column internals is
Even the most efficient packing cannot function essential for an optimum tower performance.

The MaxiDur ceramic balls are manufactured from because of gas flow. When compared with saddles
very high quality chemical-porcelain clay materials, and other ceramics, the MaxiDur balls absence of
which have an excellent chemical/structural stability, edges means less damage to the catalyst and less
high mechanical strength and resistance to thermal screening losses during the turnround .
Because of the high density, they are widely Available Sizes: 1 1 2

Other Chemical Resistant

Clark Solutions solutions manufactures an extensa
range of chemical and thermal resistant ceramics for
a variety of uses. Rings, tiles, brick and several other
ceramic products are readily avalable. Please contact
use for your acid resistant ceramic needs.

Cross-Partition Rings

The Cross-Partition Ring consists of a well-known

Raschig Ring modified with the cross-partitions inside to
increase the surface and enhance the transfer efficiency.
It is extensively used for the supporting packing at the
bottom of tower. Since the not-plane geometry of the
dome would make a poor distribution of the main random
packing above it, the cross-partition rings are applied as
ceramic supports for the main packing.

Indication of use at towers by respective colors.

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Turn-key Projects
Extensive experience in the design and for the supply of materials and equipment,
implementation of sulfuric acid plants allows us to warranties and performance responsibilities. In
offer turn-key projects. A turn key supply benefits addition it simplifies and expedites greatly the
the client by providing him with a single source project execution.


Experience in research and development of highest levels of customer satisfaction. The highly
products/equipment and a competent technical qualified field technician team, provides high reliance
team allows us to achieve excellence in the in execution and the utmost commitment to quality
design, manufacture and installation of acid drying, of service and timely delivery of our projects. The
absorption and oleum towers as well as acid cooling sum of all these features makes of Clark Solutions
systems. According to our clients the projects a company of excellence and a global reference for
developed by Clark Solutions have reached the project and service delivery.

Consulting/Engineering Services
Clark Solutions offers to its clients the services required efficiency in the shortest time, Clark Solutions has
for the execution and implementation of a project: a strong engineering team that analyzes all steps
feasibility study, conceptual design, basic engineering, required to complete a project, providing continuous
detailed engineering, project management, tower and direct lines of communication to the clients,
construction and assembly, installation of lining and using a modern manufacturing base, making a
internals, commissioning, start up and operation. global procurement, installing and training during
To meet the conditions for development and this process operators to efficiently operated the
deployment of engineering solutions and economic final product.

Teflon is a registered trademark of E.I. DuPont de Nemours. which may or may not apply to your requirements. No
SXTM is a registered trademark of Outotec Edmeston. warranties or guarantees are expressed or implied. No
MaxiMesh,FiberBed,Evenflow,FairFlow,MaxiSaddle, information contained in this brochure constitutes an
MaxiDome, MaxiDur are registered trademark of Clark invitation to infringe any patent, whether now issued or
issued hereafter. All descriptions and specifi cations are
All data in this brochure are for general information only subject to change without notice.
and are based on tests carried out under conditions

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Thermal and Mechanical Separation Solutions

Brazil Office
281 Av. Moema
Moema / SP 04077-020

Brazil Plant 1
69 R. Galeo - Vila Morellato
Barueri / SP 06408-050

Brazil Plant 2
91 Dn. Joaninha - Moinho Velho
Embu das Artes / SP 06807-690

411 SE Mizner BLVD #72
Boca Raton FL 33432-6001

Tel.: 55 11 3472-3333