2600

Volume 4, Number 2 February, 1987 $2
Page 2
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February, 1 987
2600
We've been swaed with mail from
pople who either wanted to renew at
the ol rate or who wanted to coment
on our new style. Please forgive u i we
seem to tae a little longer to process
your particulr request-thi avalnche
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Thi probably means we're doig
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lng, 2600 wil be a household word.
Look for a lit of newstans we can be
found at in a future isue.
Thi month we're hapy to present an
exclusive interview with one of Britain's
most notorious hackers, Hugo Corwal.
It's one of many we'l be presentig and
we thik there's a lot to be leared from
STAFFBOX
Editor and Publisher
Twenty Six Hundred
Associate Editors
his observations.
We've also got an article on
COSMOS that many readers wil no
doubt fail to utand entirely. This
has alays been a problem for us here as
we must constatly try to please both
the beginners and the advanced hackers
aong us. One thing we beleve
everyone can get out of thi article i a
realization of all of the diferent ways
your phone service can be categorized
and how easy it i to change thi with a
siple stroke of the keyboard. I might
lend some insight as to why you din't
get what you askedfor or perhaps how
you managed to wind up with a prison
phone lie.
Phones and comuters are icredile
and the two together ca be quite scary.
The purpose of our magazie i to show
you what's goig on with both-in as
many ways as possile.
Eric Corley David Ruderman
Ofice Manager
Helen Victory
PSOS Operations
Tom Blich
Writers: John Drake, Paul Estev, Dan Foley, Mr. French,
Emmanuel Goldstein, Chester Holmes, The Kid & Company,
Lex Luthor, Bill from RNOC, Mike Salerno, The Shadow, Silent
Switchman, and the usual anonymous bunch.
Arists: Dan Holder, Mike Marshall, Tish Va Iter Koch.
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2600 February, 1 987 Page 3
AN INTERVIEW WITH HUGO
b Jo Dlu
Wh did yo get your alias fr?
I t wa actually derive over a rather drunke lunch
with the publisher, all that I had deide that it was to
b a psdony, bt I will elain geeis. Originally it
wa going to be Hugo Corwell with an E rather than
an "A" bs David Corell is the real na of John
Le Care, a spy writer who I rath adirehe ha als
got a nurber of talete brothes and siste. So the
original thought was that it was going to be, in order to
mislead the public, yet another mebr of a very
talete family.
But at the tire a nurber of the Elite hakers were
operating under the name Pesanze, a SIG called
Pesanze which had originally becalle The Pirate
of Pesae for fairly obvious reasns. So Pesanze is
in Corwall, so that's how I came about. So we deide
to call it Corwall with an "An and Hugo was chosen as
a Christian name sirply beause I think it is one of the
less likely nae I could possibly have.
How did you start off as a hacker?
Not very delibrately. I got into communicating
computers probably very early round about '78 and I
just got ver curious abut what was going on in big
corputers and like to drop in and eavedrop and no
one particularly see to mind and I never thought of
it particularly as naughty or illeal but if I picked up a
phone number or a password the I simply carried on
colleting it. I eded up with a fe shets full of thee
things and I would pass the around to friends out of
curiosity and it wasn't probably until '82 o '83 that I
beame aware that there were not just other peple
colleting [in a] similar sor of way but there was a
proper culture outlet called Hacking and I said, "OK,
well I suppose I a a hacker."
Wat did you do previous to haCking-did you have
any other interets that were along the same line?
I guess I have been interested in what I call in the book
the larger area of teh phreaking. In other words,
making tehnology misbehave in the nicest possible
way. I got interested in that when I was an
undergraduate at Oxford and everone I knew was
interested in Phone Phreaking and that in fact one of
the bet phone phreakers was one of the dns and in
the primitive sort of phone syste that operated there
you could really do a lot. So I was interete in that.
I certainly got intereted in what we over here in
England called bunker hunting. In other words, trying
to find out seret sites use by the govemment and
also by the U.S. goverment. There wa partly a
political motive in that but it was really rather a lot of
fun.
I got interested also in the brief illegal citizen band
radio thing that was going on in this countr. I got a
radio amateur license and I got also ver interested in
Page 4 February, 1987 260
those parts of the radio spetrm that are not terribly
well advertised. In most countrie in the world,
wester world, you can buy books that tell you where
all the various serice lie. You can't in this country or
you couldn't until ver reetly and I say [it] was great
fun tring to work out the patter of the allocation of
the frequency bands and then using radio scanners [to]
actually eavesdrop on the. You know although some
of the stuff is now more widely known, there is a lot of
the stuff that isn't known. There are a handful of peple
in this country who are really rather good at it.
How do the laws in the U. K. verus the U. S. ecourge
this type of invetigation?
How do they encourage it? Well they discourage it
really. It is done in two ways. First of all there is a lot
les publishe in this countr. We have got much
tougher about what we publish. We don't have a
Freo of Inforation act. Anything that is geerate
by the goverment is dee to b seret unless [it]
ha ben speifically released for publication so there
is a hell of a lot less inforation that is openly
availale. So there is that one aspt. The other aspet
is that a lot of our laws are all eveloping in ther
though they're widely ignore in practice. There is a
contrast to the United States in particular. I know less
abut Canada and that is if you look speifically at
hacking there is no speific anti-hacking leislation.
You can be done for stealing telephone time if you look
at telephone hacking, stealing eletricity sometime.
You can be done for stealing CPU time on a computer
ad reently they have done to pple for forger which
is basically using passwords to which they are not
entitle and that case is going to appeal.
What was your motivation for writing 'The Hacker'S
Handbook"?
The motivation was that I was asked to do it and it was
ver very easy. The way it happened was a man who
was a hacker by interet and a publisher by profesion
wrote/scrawled a note on a bulletin board saying does
anyone want to write a book on hacking and I wrote
back not very seriously, in effet saying [you] cannot
be serious, it can't be done. He wrote back, said I don't
know, call me back and we will have a chat about it. I
rang up, said/listed all the obvious things, why all the
obvious reasons shouldn't be published and he sort of
had a debate with me and at the end of it I felt maybe it
could be done. I wrote him a synopsis within 24 hours.
24 hours afterards he said it was terrific, would I
mind waiting two or thre days till he had his eitorial
meting, but he wante to do the bok and at the end of
all of that, you know within one wek, beginning of the
week I hadn't thought of writing the book, I hadn't
thought of writing any book in fact and at the end of the
we I actually had a contract.
So I would have never written a synopsis for the
CORNWALL
a British hacker/author
book, I would have never hawked it around publishers
but since there was the opportunity and I had already
thought about the synopsis, I thought, well why not
and I did. There was no great bumlng desire, there was
a opportunity ... so I wet ahead and did it.
What has ben thepubliclbusiness and media response
to your book?
There was a great deal of interest, the book was for
several weeks on the Sunday Times Bet Seller List so
It was competing with some pretty popular Ites. I
think it got popular interet largely beause a reporter
on the Sunday Times rang up the head of The Computer
Security Squad at Scotland Yard I and I asked his
comments. The man hadn't read the book but said
sufficient for her to be able to headline a stor ''Yard
Condemns Hacker Book". This Immediately made the
book appear very very important and very very serious
and alier that it took on a life of its own and I was from
my amenity the whole thing with a great degree of
auseent.
Those people who knew anything abut hacking
deided that it was not a ver intereting book and I
never thought that it would do but it obviously excited
a lot of other interest. I think peple created the book
for theselves-they badly wante a book about
hacking, they wante to make hackers into some sort
of modem myth and my book hapene to b around to
capture all of that interest. Though there was a great
deal of luck in it.
One of the effects of the Scotland Yard
condenation is that the books that hadn't ben ver
widely distributed up till then, the original print rn was
very small, disappeared very rapidly from the
bokshops and it created a furher myth that the book
had been banned in some way so everyone was rushing
around like mad to get hold of the until about a few
weks whe the book trade had reovered, copies were
there, peple grabbed it like cray for fear that it [was I
really going to disappar.
About two weks afte the book was published, a
couple of guys were arreted for hacking the Prestel
system and the nespaper reporters deide that one
of those peple was me, so there were headline saying
"Hacker Author Arrete" and things like that and
again it wasn't true but it all help sale.
It was really quite a pheomena and I do say to all
hackers the attention that the book got was somehat
undeserved and I feel a little bit apologetic among
serious hackers for sort of getting lucky.
In the first book you had a scheatic for the Black Box.
In the sequel it wasn't there. What was British
Telecom's response to the book and how did it
mfluence you in a s�uel?
Well, the decision to take it out wasn't mine, it was the
publishers. in fact it went in three stages. It was in the
first edition the scheatic was there complete with
values for the various components and then gradually
everthing disappeared. I don't know that British
Telecom did anything ver much other than to
conden I the bok I and what the publ ishers deide
not unreasonably that things were getting a little bit
hot and they I anticipated I trouble and reoved the
stuff so that they could show that they were being
responsible. I think that is the way it happened. British
Telecom said that they didn't approve of that sort of
thing, that you know there are hackers on British
Telecom's staff as you might expet so you know I
think to answer to my certain knowledge a lot of peple
Within British Teleom found It amusing and I also have
reason to believe that some of the British Teleom
Security people were not displeased about the book
because it made everyone a lot more alert about the
use of passwords.
There is s evidec als to show that quite a fe
of the bo ks wee actually sold either to coputer
surity pple or sld by the to, if you like, thir
customers in esce to sy, "Look how easy it all is,
red this boad b aa.
"
How would you sy that U. K. hacker would b
difet fro U.S. hke?
I think that the diffeec is of sublety rathe tha of
essece. I think thre are to area of differece. Firt
of all my guesis that the majority of U.K. peple, U.K.
copute ethusiasts, that have modes prbably
acquire the abut two or thre years after the
majority of U. S euivalets.
That's relly a quetion of how modes are sld.
We I firt got interete In coputers, the only
modems that were available were from British
Teleom. You couldn't buy the ove the counter in the
sop and you had to by the on retal and they wee
ver expensive. If you had the, you either had fairly
illicit one, ones that had bemodifie from U.S. use
and that was only of limite use or you had the ver
expensive one which were registered with British
Teleo.
So you got this to or thre year gap. The sond
way I think is that again although it wasn't the c for
me, most British ethusiats, their firt databas thy
clle into was going to b Pretel which is a vid tet
syste 75/120 baud. The comunication softare
that they had wa for that a well. It meat that a lot of
their Lacking was either into Prestel or into systes
which looked like it. Of course there was the univeity
situation in the state where peple would ted to b
looking at microl clue de gras teletype sice
300/300. I suppos that American hobbyists would
call into The Source or into a BBS. After Pretel had
ben going for a bit then In the early eighties you
started to get the BBS which people used 300/30. I
(cont inued on page II)
260 February, 1 987 Pale 5
some cosmos documentation
b Sir WiIIill
Thi s article is intended for the serious
COSMOS hacker. Many basic and fundamental
functions of COSMOS were left out intetionally,
such a logging onto COSMOS, etc. This is
meant as an introduction in the operation and use
of COSMOS (COmputer Syste for Mainframe
Operations) .
S Oie
COSMOS aids in the follOWing functions:
• maintaining accurate reords (for orders)
• processing wor/serice orders and keping
track of their status
• maintaining shortest jumpers on the MDF
• load balancing on the switching systes
• issuing reports
COSMOS can be run on a DEC PDP 1 1 /45,
PDP 1 1 /70, or an An 3820
Login
COSMOS identifies itself by its unique logon:
;LOGIN:
PASSWORD:
le"
You can hack passwor ds, usual l y 4
alphanumeric characters-try SSOX, NAOX
where X is a number. There are easier ways to get
an account on COSMOS; i.e. social enginering a
COSMOS support line. Wire Centers (WC) are 2
alphanumeric characters representing each
central office.
Once you are on the syste, you have full
access to the COSMOS program. There is no
surity hierarchy while running the COSMOS
program. Every user has full access to all the
capabilities of COSMOS. However, there is a
security hierarchy in the operating system. For
example, not everyone can edit /etc/passwd on
COSMOS-only a user with the root user ID 0:1
can do that. The shell privs of a user have nothing
to do with COSMOS itself.
Tranion Coe Formal
To have COSMOS perfor some action, you
must enter a transaction. All transaction codes
share a common format. In addition, there are
speific rules for each transaction as speified in
this aricle.
Generic Formal
MCl xxx (CR) MHERE m IS A SPECIFIC TRANSACTION CODE
H II .. llito.21.lc (CR) H-lINE
I ito.lilto.21.lc (CR) I-LINE
o ito.liit •• 21.lc (CR) D-lINE
R ito.IJito.21.lc (CR) RE"ARKS
Page 6 Februry, 1987 260
• The H-LiNE indicates a HUNT and is required
in most transactions. Generally it refers to either
order data, or inquiry and repor data.
• The I-LINE indicates that INWARD moveent
is required, as when telephone serice is being
installed.
• The O-LiNE indicates the transaction requires
OUTARD moveet, as when a telephone line
is disconnete.
To finish the transaction, type a "."-to abort,
pound on the keyboard, or hit a Control-C. After a
successful transaction has occurred, a double
asterisk norally appears before the answer (**) .
CDSNIX
COSN IX is the operating system of COSMOS.
Some COSNIX shell commands are the same as
the UNIX (I assume familiarity with the UNIX
operating syste) :
l S (.,thn ... ) - Ii.t I i h.
- Y.u con u .. thi. t. lind ill .thor cO.lind ••
bv li,tin. i • • nd ibin.
CAT .,thna..
-
CAT.n.h. Iii. IYI,. cantonh)
SH [-colk."tu"l [ar.l
in.uti.ulpul c ••••• ds : ). ». (. « .• di.it
- Thi. invok.s th. CDSNll oroorallina hnol1aol.
- Th. niantic. Df this cOI.and Ir. too vari.d
t.o,.I.In. Sullico to .. v. it is .Ioos!
idfntical to th. Unh ·SW cO'lund.
- for IUtDJ!, sh co •• and sht .. ,nts u,;
- CASE •• rd IN [ •• tlern : paltornl .. li.t;;l.sac
- FOR n, .. fiN wordl DO I ist DONE
- [F list THEN Ii,t .. . !ELSE Iistl FI
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- YARIABlES
- .. positional .raua.nt
- 11 1,,1 ."cut.d c .... nd bv tho .holl
- I' proCfU nUlb.,
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- OTHER CO""ANDS
- 1 •• ln [".1
- SET [".1
- .. it
CDS"OS It •• Prtli n •• nd Foro.to
P,.fh Dolinl tiD. F.rnt
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Bl Brido. lilter Bl 1111
BTN Billin. T.lo.hon. Nulor BTH lIl
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CAT C.nlr .. Trflto.nl cod. CAl li
CC C.II Counl CC XI
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CP r,bl. P,i, CP I III-Ill X
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m Ctntr .. Nu.ber e 1111
DD OUt Oah DO ""-OD-11
that may be useful
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locotlon 12-di.1I Ir ... )
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l.,.I lESS)
nUilUI nluf of .ntih
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Ruarks
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Dth ..
C.ntrll
SfrviCt Drd .. and Mork Drd.r Slot ....
P PendinG
" fOF cOloI.tion onIv
A PAD cOlpI.hon
C final cOlpltlion
So"ic. Drd.r--SICondar. Statui
P P.ndi nq
J J.opard.
Nilhh.I d
(continued on page 14)
26( February, 1987 Page 7
the telecot inf orter
BY DAN FOLEY
Cellular Phreaking
The future hinted in the Decembr
issue of 260 is already here. Cellular
fraud is becoming a concer of the
CPe's (Cellular Phone Companies).
Much fraud is from the same old
source-the thef of cellular phones or
even the entire car, resulting with the
new "owner" maki ng calls on the
victim's cellular ID (and phone bill).
Another form of fraud is from roamers
(cellular users using their phones in a
diferent city from where they signed up)
who don't bother to let the CPC in the
new city know their billing info.
Roaming will become more prevalent as
more people buy cellular phones and use
them while they travel. However this
form of fraud will soon become a thing
of the past, as the CPe's are creating a
national billing data clearinghouse
which will ensure that bills will reach the
right user. This clearinghouse will also
(further in the future) allow someone to
call a cellular telephone, and the call will
be correctly routed to wherever in the
United States the phone happens to be.
Of more interest to the readers of 2600
is something that is quickly growing and
represents the most dangerous threat to
CPe's billing. Spoofing another cellular
user's lD isn't as hard as it seemed.
Some of the more exotic schemes
involve reading cellular ID's of of the
airaves as calls are being placed. Most
CPe's don't even bother to encrypt the
I D signals (and you don't even need to
decrypt if the encryption algorithm
doesn't include time and date stamping).
But there is even a simpler method than
using an "ether" box (so called because
the box snatches I D's out of the
"ether').
The easiest method by far needs the
complicity of a cellular phone repair or
installation shop. For many brands of
phone the cellular I D is not in a ROM
l ike "they" tell you, but i nstead is
programmable. Motorola, for one, is
supposed to have easy-to-follow
Page 8 February, 1987 260
instructions on programming thei r
phone's cellular ID's inside the repair
manual. And even if the ID is encoded
in a ROM, you can just bum a copy.
Rumor has it that cellular ROMs are
already available on the black market.
Perfect for your local terrorist to call in
death threats and be untraceable, as the
authorities would accuse the wrong
person.
The Larget Cellular Companie
The largest cellular system in the
world encompasses almost the entire
Gulf of Mexico. On July 15 Coastel (sic)
Communications began sering from
Brownsville, Texas to Mobile, Alabama,
with a switching office in Lafayette,
Louisiana, and cell sites on ofshore
platforms out to about 16 miles from
the coast. Coastel plans to target the oil
business, fishing and other commercial
marine operations. Ai rtime averages
$1. 0 a mi nute, rather expensive, but
they do provide a specialized service.
Cellular rates average about 6 cents a
minute peak.
The largest cellular telephone
company is now Southwestern Bell
Corp. It bought out Metromedia's
nonwireline rights for $1.65 billion. The
FCC originally broke the cellular
frequencies into three bands, giving one
to the local telephone company (the
wi reline carrier), one to a nonwireline
carrier, and saved one for the future.
However the distinction has become
academic as more RBOCs ( Regional
Bell Operating Companies) purchase
cellular rights in other cities (with our
local phone revenues we subsidize their
investment in real estate, manufacturing,
and all sors of things having nothing to
do with our dial tone). Southwestern
Bell now competes against Nynex in
Boston and New York, Bell Atlantic in
Philadelphia and Baltimorej
Washington, and Ameritech in Chicago
and Dallas. It also got about 500,00
paging customers in nineteen cities. US
West also competes against a fellow
(continued on page 16)
oH MIGHy nL t: pHON �
MONOPoL� You ARE G1f
AND MUCH TiPL£fFuL •• 0
g'
� .
������
260 February. 1 987 Page 9
I it31
Nlt� Bunes
Rei Cn:(l(1/il!:or
3J.? Mc(r frk
Rochester. {PIV York 1462.1
7161475-8000
P Rochester Tel Company
Page 10
February 2. 1987
Dear RCI Customer:
AS RCI continues to grow and expand its long distance
services. we have become susceptible to a problem faoing
all long distance companies_ Toll Fraud or making long
distance calls on another individual's account -- is an
industry-wide problem that has been increasing steadily.
We are concerned about Toll Fraud. and are adding 3 ¨ digit
Personal Identification Numbers (PIN) to help prevent abuse
on our customers' lines. Similar to a bank PIlI code.
customers will be required to dial their PIN code following
their authorization code.
Within the next several weeks. you will receive your
Personal Identification Number and dialing instructions.
We will also tell you on what date you should begin using
your code.
If your telephone equipment is programmed to dial RCI
access numbers and authorization codes. we will have to
work with you to re-program your eqUipment. To avoid any
service interruption. please contact Judy Allen in our
Customer Service Department. toll free. at 1- 800--828 2733
by February 18. 1987. Judy will also be able to answer any
other questions you have about this program.
Suzanne Crouse
Customer Service Assistant Manager
RCI Corporation
*******************°· ******************************°°*************�"¯""""¯°"""""""¯¯¯"¯"¯""¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯""""""¯¯¯¯¯¯¯"""¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
¯¯
¯
¯¯¯¯"
¯¯¯"¯
US SPRINT
8001 STEMONS
DALLS TX 75247
02 6
02/03/86 MA
Attention: US Sprint Customer
L*ÆkfL
A review of the number of calls made on each customer code is a
part of our deily maintenance program. A recent review of your
account shows a significant increase in calls as compared to your
previous usage.
We were unable to contact you by telephone today to discuss this,
and because we were concerned the calls being made on your code
were unauthorized, we have suspended the code in question and will
issue a new code as soon as you contact our Customer Service
Department. Call us toll free at: 1-800-531-4646
We apologize for any inconvenience caused by this procedure and
thank you for your continued business with US Sprint.
TM
Sincerely,
US Sprint
WE SEEM TO BE GETTING LETTERS LIKE THESE EVERY
COUPLE OF WEEKS. SOME, LIKE SPRINT, CANT EVEN
GET THE DATE CORRECT!
February, 1987 2600
CORNWALL
(continued/rom paKe 5)
also think that beaus there were so many vide text
srice, Pretel and type U H sice to lok at that
on the whole British hackers weren' t so much
intereted in big coputer networks so it took the a
bit longer to discover PSS and the various univerity
networs like JANET (Joint Acadeic Networ) and
things like that.
In esc there is ver little differece in the culture
bt a slight differece of preccupation in ters of
what they are looking for.
As a syste, what do you think of Pre tel ?
You could go on and on and on about that. Pretel is
etreely intereting as a matter of histor. It had
eonous abitions, but its abitions were all fone
about the year 1975 which was ens bfore anyone
visualized the hoe coputer a bing possible, s
Prestel visualize and suffers from it. Peple accesing
cputers via their television sets. Which is why you
got a 40 by 24 character display, these rather curious
graphics which was a function of the blief that
" ... this idea that the hacker
can somehow fight back,
that s the reason why non­
hackers admire them so
much. "
meor was going to be unbelievably expensive and
that 1 k of display meory was really as far as you
culd go.
Also that the ordinary untrained person could never
b expected to actually type words into a machine, you
had to have all your commands being sole numbers. So
you got this curious eletronic card file type of
structure and everthing is available via page or very
simple numeric routing commands. Beause Prestel is
stuck with all of this sort of thing and if you like human
knowledge about computers moved on fast, Pretel has
to beome more sophisticated, reain compatible with
its 1975 fonat and a lot of the things you would want
to be doing on a public acces database, unbelievably
clumsy. For example, you can order things, all the
shopping and what have you, but you have to do it via a
syste calle a gateay which is esentially, the way
It wors is that the gateay opens to reeive a
cmmand string from you and it closes, the command
string is processed in the reote computer, the
gateay opens to give you the answer and closes again
so on and so forth. Any more slightly more complicated
interaction is unblievably slow.
You could run an online serice with view data as
the front ed processor, but it looks ridiculous, it
behaves in a ridiculous fonat, so for cerain types of
srices I suppose it's not too bad, it's like retaining a
horse and buggy type of syste when everyone is
going around in gas driven internal combustion
egine.
Ca you se Pr tel evolving fro what it is now?
I don't think it will do, they're tring to make it evolve
but I think it is going to reain as a historic curiosity.
It's fairly [acceptable 1 in one or two industries,
particularly the travel trade; it's quite useful for fast
moving financial data. It will make ver, ver small
moveents but it will be relying on its installed user
base. The way peple are using it now is via eulators
on personal computers. On my personal computer I
obviously got vide text, Pretel in other words type
sftware and it's no effor to call into Pretel or any of
the other online sice.
I just can't se any eletronic publisher saying,
"Christ Almighty, we're really going to have to use this
thing, this is wonderfuL" In fact, most eletronic
publishers nowadays publish in a variety of fonats,
they publish in an online fonat, they publish in a
videotext fonat, and of course if their material is
sitable they would also b thinking about publishing
in a CD ROM type fonnat and anything else that
bcomes available. It's merely a fonat and the
decision to publish in it is "well, are there going to be
eough people out there to make it worth my while?"
Eletrnic publishing in the for that you mentIOne,
how do it wor over her, everthing is online?
Well, you have a variety of systes, eletronic
publishing for the financial community, which is
obviously the most lucrative area, is still ver hardare
bund in that if you want to get the serice then the
way the supplier wants to let you have it is that you
have to buy his hardware and feed it down the leased
line as well as getting the serice.
That's the case with Reters, they are under a lot of
pressure to get rid of that and that is applied to most
other serice. You can hack into the beaus there is
always exhibition/deonstration line, dial-up line
available and then if you can fiddle with a personal
cmputer syste cleverly, you can get the serices.
Other fons are basically available online and you get
it via PSS which is the British Teleom euivalent to
Teleet or Tymnet.
(cont inued on paKe 15)
260 February, 1987 Page II
Some Suggestions
Dear 2600:
I would like to thank you for your
superb magazine. It would be a big plus
this year if you could: 1) Show people
what to do with a blue box now, before
its death; 2) Teach how to hack a code
with or without a computer like in your
May 1986 issue; 3) Put out a list of
exchanges like 950-1 088 or 950-1 033
et c. wi t h t he equi val ent i n 800
numbers and also tell us how many
digits for their access code since it
appears that some of them have more
digits than originally.
I observed in Manhattan some
fellows dial 950-1088, enter a valid
access code plus a number (with the
517,219,601,or 505 area code and
trunk it with 260 hertz then KP 809
XX-XX ST and reach their party in
Santo Domingo. I wonder whether you
could explain how they avoid CCIS.
In your May 1986 issue, page 3-38
there is an algorithm by Nynex Phreak
which was one of the best. It was good
for one month as described, but
apparently some executive at MCI read
that article and in June the message
was changed to confuse people but
with a little ingenuity you could still
hack numbers according to the same
explained principle. I had kept a list of
codes which I used until December 24,
1986 on which day their computer
invalidated all my codes. I would
greatly like to know how many digits
they use in their access code. Enclosed
is a self addressed envelope so that you
could provide me with a reply.
The Perpetrator
Here's your reply in a different
envelope. We wish we had the time to
reply personaly to al of the letters we
get but we simply do not.
We've published lists in the past of
950 numbers and 800 numbers as
wel We'l be doing this again shortly.
As far as how many digits are in a
Page 12 February, 1987 2600
particular company's codes, it would
be a ful time job to keep track. Almost
every day some long distance company
somewhere changes t hei r code
patter. Some even have more than
one patter. And quite a few have
codes of varying lengths. If it's any
help, our Mel codes are al five digits
and our Sprint codes are nine. Beyond
that it starts getting complicated
We've printed ful isntructions in the
past as to how blue boxes are used
They do stil work perfectly from a few
locations to a few locations, but they
become fewer every day.
Some Numbers
Dear 2600:
Here are some phun numbers to call
in the 716 area code:
688-300 to 688-3040-University of
Buffalo (VAX/CYBER)
878-5533 and 878-4611-Buffalo
State Computing Service
874-3751-Computer Science
681 -870BOCES
856-072OTicketron Buffalo
836-00,837-000,850-00,854-
0000, 855-0000, 856-0000-weird
tone.
I don't understand these numbers
with weird tones and suffixes of
OOis there any explanation to this?
And does this happen in other area
codes? Thanks.
Silver Bandit
Yes, it happens everywhere. Those
are probably test numbers from the
phone company. Why don't you cal
one and have it show up on your local
bil? Then cal the phone company and
demand to know who that number
belongs to and why it's on your bil
That's the easiest way.
On Celular Phones
Dear 2600:
Congratulations for begi nning to
publish articles on cellular telephones!
The only thing wrong with the article
letters
was the title-"a look at the future
phreaking world". Cellular telephone
phreaking is not in the future. To my
k nowl edge, cel l ul ar t el ephone
phreaking has been going on for about
four years in at least one major
metropolitan area. The lack of detailed
information on cellular telephone
phreaking in this publication has thus
far placed 2600 in the dark ages.
Computer assisted blue boxing is still
essentially the same as blue boxing in
the dark ages of 1961. The same MF
tones were used in 1961 and the
phreakers were very successful. The
a dv a nt a g e s of us i ng c el l ul ar
telephones for phreaking and hacking
i nst ead of usi ng l and l i nes i s
outstanding. Cellular phones are the
most immune to tracing even if used
from a fixed location and it is virtually
impossible to be nailed if you use one
from a different location every time and
for short duration or while you are
travelling on a highway.
You mentioned in the article that for
detailed info you should consult ElA
StandardCIS-3-A. This publication has
been outdated and has been replaced
with I S3-C. Everyone interested in
using cellular phones to their full
p o t e nt i a l s ho ul d or der al l t he
publications on the subject from EIA,
2001 I Street NW, Washington, DC
20006, or you can call them at
202 -457 -490.
The New Age Phreaker
We have yet to hear from a group of
celular phreakers, though we don't
doubt they exist. By the way, have the
Newspeakers among us begun saying
celtels yet?
ANI Trouble
Dear 2600:
The man who asked the question in
the "Letter You Wrote" page, in the
November issue, signed "Frustrated in
Miami" regarding his ANI, evidently
didn't read the Miami newspapers.
Some time ago, a school adminis­
trator named Johnny Jones was
accused of stealing school funds.
Unknown to him his telephone had
been tapped.
This is an excerpt from the Miami
Herald newspaper:
'Why, you may have wondered, did
Johnny Jones continue to call his
f ri end i n Maryl and despi te t he
suspicion that his phone was tapped?
Bec a us e, t r ans c r i pt s of tho s e
conversations disclose, Jones believed
he had a secret number that told him
whether his phone was tapped. Jones
mentioned the number in almost every
conversation with his friend and
explained that if you call the number,
your phone is clean. If you call and get a
busy signal, your phone is tapped.
"Wrong, 'That's a test number for
telephone installers: says a Southern
Bell spokesman. 'When they go out,
installers have to hook up a lot of wires,
and that number is a final checkpoint to
see if they've got the right ones
connected.' The spokesman says the
phone company has l ot s of t est
numbers and a rumor for almost every
one. 'As for the number Jones called, if
you call it and get a busy signal, it
simply means the line is busy, not that
your phone is tapped.' "
The number, incidentally, isn't
located in some supersecret vault in
Langley, VA. It's in an electronic
switching station off Red Road in South
Dade. OK, OK. Call 1-20-666-6763.
If you have a letter to send to us, feel
free to write. Don't ramble on for too
long or we'l have to chop bits out.
The address to write to is 2600
Letters Editor, PO Box 99, Middle
Island, NY 11953,
2600 February, 1987 Page 13
cosmos
(continued/rom page 7)
Error Hlnling
Serice order transactions interact with the
user frequently. Each time the transaction is
ready for new input, it will respond with an
underscore at the beginning of the ne line. This
indicates that the preceding line is correct. If an
error does occur, the transaction will respond
with an error message and prompt for correction.
When an error occurs, you have 4 choices: 1 .
Re-enter the entire field correctly; 2. Enter line­
feed to ignore (checks rest of line) ; 3. Enter a ";"
to disregard the present circuit; 4. Enter a ¬
the transaction will disreard all input and exit.
H-LiNE Inpts
H-LiNE input for the service order trio
SOE/CSA/TSA is being rigidly defined according
to thre categories. These categories contain
fundamentally different types of order/facility
inforation for the order.
Category 1 : ORO, OT, �O, FOO, �C, OT, SG,
EO, LC.
Categor 2: US, FEA, CCF, CAT, BTN, SS, AD,
RZ, FA, GP/CG, CTX/CG/MGINNX, LON, RTI.
Categor 3: F, RW.
Category 1 items are primar-once defined they
cannot b changed by conflicting category 2 and
3 lines.
Tranction
SOE
TDZ
LDZ
SOH
SOM
SOC
SOW
SCM
SCP
SCA
SCF
SCI
COD
BAI
LI
NAI
TAl
EDZ
Seric Order Transctions
Definition
Seric Order Input
Telephone Numbr Asignmnt l iss
Line Equipment Asignmnt lis
Seric Order withheld
Seric Order Moifiction
Seric Order Cancllation
Seric Order Withra
Seric Order Completion by MDF
Seric Order Completion b PAD
Seric Order Completion Automatic
Seric Order Completion for
MDF automtic
Spare Cable pir inquir
Change Due Date
Bridge Lifer Asignmnt Inquir
Line Equipment Asignmnt Inquir
Telephone Numbrs Asignment Inquir
Tie pair asignmnt Inuir
Facility Emergenc Asignment list
for backup
Page 14 February, 1987 260
MAP Manual Asignmnt Parameters
MAL Manual Asignment list
TSW Totl Seric Order Withdra
Trnsctions Defined
SOE-Seric Order Establisnt:
Establishes a pending serice order. The types of
orders are: NC, CD, CH, F, T, SS, RS, A, RF.
Reassociations are treated as change orders.
• H-LiNES must contain ORO, �O, and OT.
Optional facilities: FW, RW, FOO, AD, FR, SG,
and either OT or �C.
• I and 0 LINES may contain US, FEA, CP, DE,
TN, RZ, NNX, PL, TP, TK, BL, SE, CON, MR,
BTN, RC, RE, RT, STC, STN, STO,CCF, LCC,
and RTI.
• ESS orders requiring coordination by the
recent change input center may be flagged with
an input of "RW C".
Example of an NC (Ne Connec):
Mel SOE
H ORO NClmlliOD 01-01-8./OT NC/FOO 02-05-8./OT A"
1 CP llllHlllll/OE '!TN 'IUS 2FR/FEA RNNL
Eample of a CD (Complete Discnnect):
1I SOE
H ORO CDlmlliDD 01-01-85/0T CD
o TN 5n-lB22
Eample of a CH (Change):
NCI SOE
H ORD CHmU/OT CH/DD 01-01-8./TN 53�-1822
o TN 53H8221STN CO
I TN ,
Eample of SS (Suspension):
MCI sO[
H ORD SSIllIllUT SSIDD 01-01-8.
o TN 531-1822155 58
TDZ-Telephone Number Asignments List:
List the indicated number of spare director
numbers for a NNX code, and director number
type.
• Up to 25 director numbers can be specified,
using the prefix LC.
Example:
Nel TOZ
H NNI 53�/TT 6/lC 7 IlC can be uo to 251
(cntinued un page 20)
CORNWALL
There are al so data-nets that use a Prestel l i ke
format but are not Prestel and you can get a number 01
seri ces that way as wel l for exampl e the equi val ent to
TRW for credi t checki ng data i s cal l ed CNN, that' s
avai l abl e i n the vi de text forat . That doesn' t come
out vi a post al , it comes out vi a its own data network
and t here are other data networks wi t h other servi ces
on the as wel l . So that' s basi cal l y how it wors.
Have you planned any future books on computer
crme?
Wel l , I a wri ti ng a much more seri ous book at the
moment cal l ed "Data Theft" whi ch i s i ntede for the
chi ef exeut i ve offi cer of the COO maret and that i s
encouragi ng those pepl e to the bel i ef t hat they can' t
leave data securi ty to a mere tehni cal funct i onary.
Though it i s much more preccupi e wi th i ndustri al
epi onage and fraud. I t i s not goi ng to be i n any way a
tongue and cheek book . "Out of the I nner Ci rcl e" was
al l eged to be a book on computer seuri ty, but IS
mani fested for hackers. Thi s i s a book on computer
seuri ty and i t i s i ntended for chi ef exeuti ve offi cers
and I don' t thi nk hackers woul d f i nd it of any di ret
i nteret t hough I hope t hey are goi ng to read i t .
One of t he t hi ngs I do want to get over i s t hi s noti on
that most computer cri me i s commi tted by i nsi ders,
computer cri mi nal s are noral l y epl oyed by thei r
vi ct i ms. I want to tal k al ot about pol ice trai ni ng or
rather the l ack of I t and l ack of responsi ve Cri mi nal
code to cope wi th i t. I st i l l se that there i s a l ot of room
for f rol i cki ng wi t h tehnol ogy and I real l y l i ke to
promote hacki ng to what I bel i eve i s its ri ghtful
pl ace-somethi ng for a ti ny, t i ny mi nori ty to ause
theselve wi t h, Wi thout actual l y causi ng any seri ous
har to anybdy.
In the book "The Rise of the Computer State" the
author put forard the premise that there is no defense
agamst computer bureaucracy and having fifes built up
on pretty well everbody, everthing, and ever move.
Could you se hacker as a possible defense?
I have been asked thi s quest i on i n a sl i ghtl y di fferet
for before. Not real l y, I t hi nk the mode of defense is
that al t hough t hese f i l es can be bui l t up, the f i les
thesel ves are not neessari l y terri bl y rel i abl e.
One of the great probles wi t h i nterpret i ve data i s
that they col l ect together so much i nforati on and so
much gossi p that al though they can have i t al l on the
sren i n f ront of the t hey don' t know whether i t' s
terri bl y rel i abl e. The val ue of the hacker I thi nk i s [ a ]
somewhat dubi ous one i n al l o f t hi s. One of the reasons
why I thi nk t here i s so much room in peopl e' s hearts for
the hacker i s that they bel i eve the hacker i s goi ng to
provi de that sort of defense whi ch you were descri bi ng.
I actual l y wrote a pi ece for one of the papers about i t
[ about ] fol k heroes ari si ng, f or exampl e Ki ng Arthur i s
a ver potent fi gure, Robi n Hood i s a very potent
f i gure, and the potency of these t hi ngs i s that Ki ng
Art hur is gOi ng to be I t he l one and future ki ng. Robi n
(evllIinuedjOIll page I I )
Hood, you know not a great deal i s known about Robi n
Hood, but the great thi ng was that he stol e from the
ri ch to gi ve to the poor and that probabl y i s why he i s
. reebered
I t hi nk i t i s thi s idea that the hacker can somehow
fi ght back, that's the reason why non-hackers admi re
the so much. I am afrai d I don' t bel i eve that hackers
are suf f i ci ent l y good or suf f i c i e n t l y powerf u l or
suffi ci entl y abl e t o combat that . I do thi nk that every
now and t hen though what a hacker can do i s if he is
ver l ucky, expose the stupi di ty [ of ] some of the power
that i s held on computers and maybe Just enough that
there i s that el eent of defense that you' re l ooki ng for.
But on the whol e I woul d say the outl ook for
peopl e/i ndi vi dual s i n the computer age i s not terri bl y
good.
The Hacker's Handbook
b Hugo Cornal l
E Arhur Brown Compan, Alexandri a, MN
1 69 pges
$1 2. 95
Revie by Roland DuHon
Strangel y enough, thi s book actual l y l i ves up
to i t s t i t l e. The author's stated purpose i s to hel p
the reader "grasp the methodol ogy" and "devel op
the appropri ate atti tudes and ski l l s, provi de
essen t i al backgr ound and some ref erence
materi al , and poi nt you i n the ri ght di recti ons for
more knowl edge. " In thi s he succeeds, and in the
meanti me he gi ves us a l i vel y and entertai ni ng
vi ew of the worl d of Bri t i sh hacki ng.
The early chapters of the Handbook di scuss
t h e t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s o f c o m p u t e r
communi cat i ons, the typi cal hacker's equi pment ,
and t he types of services or "targets" that a
hacker mi ght be i nterested i n. The techni cal
expl anati ons are cl ear and accurate, and are
nei ther too di ffi cul t for the begi nner nor so si mpl e
that the seasoned system cruncher mi ght not
l earn a few detai l s from them. I n general , the
ent i re book appears to be an excel l ent begi nner's
manual , a very good i nteredi ate manual , and
enjoyabl e though certai nl y not i ndi spensi bl e
read i ng for those who st yl e t hemsel ves
"advanced" .
Two more chapt ers d i scuss "hacker' s
i ntel l i gence" and "hacker's techni ques" . Then
computer networs and vi dtex are di scussed. The
vi dtex ( al so known as vi ewdata or vi deotext )
chapter is i nterest i ng for Ameri can readers si nce
none of those types of seri ces are avai l abl e
here, and i t's al ways i nterest i ng to know what' s
(evllIinued un page 21)
260 February. 1987 Page 15
telecom informer
RHOC, PacTel , in San Diego.
800 nuber allocation
I t used to be that you could tel l the
geographical l ocation of an 80-NXX
number by the NXX part . XX2's were
intrastate. XX7's were i n Canada. and
every prefix represented an area code.
However, about five years ago AT&T
introduced "Advanced 80 Service"
which permitted any I NW ATS ( I nward
Wide Area Telephone Service) cal l to be
routed anywhere in the US. and even to
di fferent destinations depending on both
the time of day and where the caller
placed t he cal l . Thus 80-DI ALIT
would reach the nearest IT bi l l ing
complaint center during the day, and at
night the cal l could instead reach a main
office lef open. The company has to pay
for the normal 800 I NW ATS l ines and
then an extra couple of hundred a
month for the "vanity" number and a
fw cents for each t ranslation of end
phone line by time or location.
U ntil Fal l 1986 if your CO was
switched over to equal access your 800
cal l was routed to AT &1 no matter
what your defaul t carrier. But now your
CO must route all 80 cal l s to MCI
which have any of these "exchanges":
234, 283, 284, 288, 289. 274, 333, 365,
44, 456, 627, 666, 678, 727, 759, 777,
825, 876. 888, 937, 950, 955, and 999. US
Sprint gets 728 and WUD Metrophone
gets those to 988. The i ndividual HOC's
get the XX2 exchanges (as these are
fi lled with intrastate W A TS lines) . More
exchanges wi l l undoubtedly be grabbed
by other carriers as they begin to ofer
800 service. I don't know what happens
if your company's 800 number's
exchange gets taken over by Bargin
Bob's Telefone Kompany. Hopefully
you get to keep the ol d provider, but this
would real l y make it tough to route.
Don 't know what happens either if your
clever l ittl e phone number "word"
belongs to Hargin Bob. guess you gotta
sufer. If your CO isn't equal accessabl e
yet, it j ust kicks the cal l onto the nearest
Page 16 February, 1987 2600
(continued/rom page 8)
intra-LATA tandem site for the proper
routing.
However. don't bother to remember
this. When Hel lcore final ly finishes the
new Advanced 800 serice the I NW ATS
buyer can route his or her incoming cal l
through a different carrier depending nn
the originati ng point or the time of cal l ,
as wel l as sending i t to a diferent
company office. When this happens, al l
800 cal l s wi l l have to be sent to the
nearest tandem switch and get routed
based on all t his info. The local teleo
will get the money for providing the
routing service.
As far as I know onl y AT&T gets
your 90 cal l s. whi ch were never
grouped according to geography. Trivia
fact number I : I NW ATS numbers in
England (to the US. I nterati onal
INW A TS furt her confuse� the
geographical determi nation) are of the
form 08O-XX-XX-XX. Only AT&T
provides thi s. Trivia fact 2: I NW A TS
was not int roduced in 1967 as stated in
the December 2600, page 3-95. The frst
interstate I NWATS l ines were in 1967,
but intrastate I NW ATS started in 1 966.
Airfone Update
The future of Ai rfone, the pay
telephone for use on ai rline fl ights i s in
limbo. Ai rfone's experimental l icense
expires at the end of 1 987, and the FCC
wi l l not reconsider its January 1 985
decision refusing permanent frequenci es.
Ai rfone expects to continue with over
300 plane phones and the 65 ground
stations even though there is no
provision for frequency al l ocati on.
Ai rfone hopes to be al lowed to use
cellular frequencies.
Remembr
the Greiestl
More Nat� Business
10UTl NE
UUUQUUUUUUUUUU U UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU U U
U U N C L A . • 1 F 1 , D U
3UUUUUUUU U UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU U U U U
� 07 1 7 1 9Z
'
S EP .. ZYI
'M CNo UAIN I NCTON DC
TO .AYOp
If
UICLAI " "/N01"00l � .. , , ,
NAYOp aUII .
S U8J I TE LE PHONE caED I T CARD fRAUD
1 . TELEPHO N E CREDI T CARD FRAUD CONT I HUES TO O C CU R D ES P I T E
AGCR ES S I V E I Nt TI A T I YES BY C OINANDS A N D T H E HELP O F THE N A YA L
I N VEST I CA T I V E . IERVI CE .
2 . CONTIAR' T O 'O'�LAI IEL I EF. THERE I I H O FREE LO He D I S TAHC E
T ELEPHOHE ' E RY I C E FO. OUR 'EO' LE T O CALL AHY Y H ER E I N THE
CONT I N E NT AL UN I T E D IT A T E I O R OYERSEA I . NAYY 'EOP LE US I N G
U N AU THO R I ZE D CRED I T C A R D HUN8 ERI A R E BTEAL I NG F R O " C OI "U H I C A T I ON S
C O NP AN I ES . N D l. t NC I N ' D I I C RE D I T T O THENBEL�ES AND T H E H A Y Y .
I I IUCE OF T E LEPHONE CRED I T C •• D - NUNIE.I O. FRAUDULE N T U S E O F
AU THOR l ZA T l O H CODE 10"".1 ULI M O T IE TOLERAT E D . Y I O L A T O R S
. RE S U B J EC T TO CI I II NAL PIOIECU T I O N U MD E R T H E U C M J A H D C I Y I L
S T ArurEI� A ' YELL . 1 ADM I I I STRA T I Y E ACT I ON .
3 . AN Ace. E SI I V E '.001." OF IDUCATi oN. A .. IENEHa l oH AHD
' UN I SNIENT I S NEEDED T O ITEI TNI T I DE .
It
"71/29a
Oal9
ft D 3 1 1
290/ 1 9 . 97 Z 07 1 7 1 9% S E P ..
UUUUUUUUUU UUUUUUUUUUUU UUUUUUUUUUUU U U
U
U I C L A I I J F I E D U
,u,auu,uuQU' •••• I.UIUUIUUUUUUUUUUIUU
26(
eNO WASH I NGT O N DC
February. 1987 Page 17
NEW DEVELOPMENTS
They've done it agai n. Our phone
company has figured out a way to make
a profit out of absolutely nothing. Whil e
we must commend them for their ever­
present ingenuity, we must also point
out that this is i ndeed the very last
straw.
We al l know how unjustified the
charge for touch-tone service is. Touch
tones make phone company equipment
operate a lot faster, yet people can be
fooled into thinking they're getting
"access" to some kind of premium
service. But the fact is that we all have
access i n the frst place and the only way
the phone company can change this is to
invent a machine that makes your touch
tones useless i f you haven't paid. That 's
why touch tones work regardless of
whether or not you pay for them on
older phone systems. They're not
sophisticated enough to operate that
horrible machine. Remember�you're
not actual l y paying for the service�
you're paying for not being disconnected
from the service.
The newest ripoff is a feature called
"gold numbers". Do you remember the
days when you could get a phone
installed and ask i f you could get a
particular number? If the number was
avai lable, you'd be able to get it i n most
cases. Just l i ke that . Wel l , you can kiss
those days goodbye.
"For less than a quarter a day, " the
cheery l i ttle New Y ork Telephone
pamphlet says, "you could have a
number that is easy to remember
because of repeat ing or sequential digits.
Or you might select any avai lable 7-digit
combination of numbers to suit your
needs, perhaps trying for a number that
translates into a word or phrase. "
I sn't this bri l l iant? As i f nobody had
ever thought of selecting their own
phone number before! And, since they
were smart enough to come up with the
idea, they've naturally earned the right
to charge us $3 a month for one of these
numbers or $6 a month for busi ness
customers. Mai ntenance charges, no
Page 18 February, 1987 260
doubt .
That 's not enough? OK, here's some
more. If the tirst three numbers you ask
for aren't avai l abl e ( which doesn't
necessarily mean they're being used) ,
guess what happens? "A fee of $20 wi l l
appl y for each 3-number search beyond
the i ni ti al one. " Twenty dol lars Just to
apply for a number! And there's no
guarantee you'll even get it ! It could go
on forever!
Obviously, the phone company is
going to clean up on this if people are
foolish enough to fal l for it . One right
afer the other, we're seeing services that
have always been free develop charges.
Whi l e some changes i n serice are
necessary because of the divestiture, thi s
is certainly not one of them. I t 's time
some nasty letters were written to our
elected officials who have the power to
do somethi ng about it.
Gold numbers indeed. Would anyone
care to speculate on what they're going
to t ry next'!
Meanwhile there's an entirely new
serice that has sprng into bing
overnight. I t 's called PRS and it 's bing
used by Mountain Bel l and Pacifc Bell.
PRS stnds for Personal Response
System and means exactly the opposite.
It seems that when you cll up a
di rectory assistance operator in those
regions, the voice you hear saying, "Can
I help you?" or "What city, please?" is
actually a recording! Each operator
records their own "greeting" and it plays
when they pick up. This, according to
the company, gives the operator some
time to rest between calls. In fact, they
like to refer to it as "the Pause that
Refreshes and Satisfes. " They sy the
customers just love it becuse the
recording sounds so friendly and upbeat.
Give us a break! I t 's just another way of
turing those poor operators into
machines. There's al ready a recording
that gives the number, now there's one
that picks up the phone! What's lef
260marketplace
DOCUMENTATI ON on el ectroni c & di gi t al
PBX' s and swi tchi ng systems. Wi l l i ng t o
t r ade/pur chase. Al so l ook i ng f or Be l l
S y s t e m P r a c t i c e s a n d o t h e r s u c h
paraphernal i a. Wri te to Bi l l , c/o 260, PO
Box 752B, Middl e I sl and, NY 1 1 953.
CE LLULAR TELEPHONE I N FORMATI ON
WANTED. I wi l l pay a modest fee for i nfo
whi ch has not yet been publ i shed in 260.
Pl ease descr i be the type of i nfo that you
have and name your pri ce. Mr . B. , P. O. Box
2895, Brookl yn, NY 1 1 202.
MANUALS OR I NSTRUCTI ONS NEEDED for
two modems l abel ed Dataphone Channel
I nterface. One has l abel on the outsi de that
says: 44A2 Seri es 1 , Data Mounti ng, SD-
1 D247-01 -J23 and the other says: 44A2
DATA MTG, SD- 1 D247-01 -J23, SERI ES 1
83 MG 1 2. The boards on the i nsi de are
l abel ed: DAS 829B-L l A, SERI ES 4, 81 MG3
and DAS 829BL1 A, SERI ES 5, 84 MG 04.
Send i nfo to: P. O. Box 50346, Ral ei gh, NC
27650.
PRI VATE I NVESTI GATOR wants to hear
from 260 readers who have el ectroni c
eu i pment he can buy cheap! Gasl amp
Pr i vat e Eye i s i nt o E l ect r oni c Count er -
measures/TSCM i n t he trade parl ance. 425
"F" Street, San Di ego, CA 92 1 01 . ( 61 9)
239-6991 .
TAP BACK I SSUES-compl ete col l ect i on,
vol . 1 - 83 pl us suppl emental reports and
schemati cs. Approx. 40 pages of qual i ty
copi es sent vi a UPS or US Mai l . $ 1 0
i ncl udes del i very. Send cash, check o r MO
( payabl e to PEl ) . Cash sent same day, others
al l ow 4 weeks, to: Pete G. , Post Offi ce Box
463, Mt. Laurel , NJ 08054
HEY YOU! Thi s i s the chance you' ve been
wa i t i ng f or ! A new ser vi ce of 2600
Magazi ne. Got somet hi ng to sel l ? Looki ng
for somet hi ng to buy? Or trade? Thi s i s the
pl ace! And i t' s free to subscri bers! Just
send us whatever you want to say ( wi thout
maki ng i t too l ong) and we' l l pri nt i t ! And, i f
you send i n the onl y ad we get, you' l l get the
enti re page to yoursel f ! Onl y peopl e pl ease,
no busi nesses!
Deadl i ne for March i ssue: 3/1 /87.
260 February, 1 987 Page 1 9
cosmos
(continued/rom page 14)
Output example would look similar to this:
"E�ER6ENCY fAC I L I T Y ASSI GN"ENT L I ST 0 1 -0 1 -8.
RESERVED LI NE EQUI P"ENI
. . NO SPARE LINE EQUI P"ENT fOUND
AVAI LABLE D I RECTORY NUMBERS ! 71
53Hm
534-mX. etc •
.. IRANSACI I ON COMPLETED
SOW-Serice Order Withdrawal :
Wi thdraws most recent versi on of a service order.
• Order number must refer to the latest versi on.
The H- Li NE ci rcui t I D
i dent i f i es the order. Val i d ci rcui t i denti f iers are:
TN , XN, PL, CP, DE. and TK.
Example:
�Cl SD�
H ORD NC- l X X I X /TN 534-1 822
SCP-Seric Order Completion b PAD:
Record i n the Seri ce Order Fi l e the compl eti on
of an order by PAO.
• Standard SXX H l i ne i nput.
Example:
VCl H ord CDX l X X l X ITN 53' - I B22
SCA-Seric Order Completion Automatic:
Enters fi nal compl eti on on al l servi ce orders
whi ch have been or are not requi red to be
compl eted by the MDF, are not i n a held or
j eopardy status, and are due pri or to or on the
current date.
• Two due dates may be entered on the H- Ll NE;
SCA wi l l compl ete orders due on or between the
dates. Addi t i onal opti ons are OT (order type) ,
ORO, and SG.
Example:
m SCA
(complete all orders on or before this due date)
Eampl e2:
NCISCA
H nn O I -OI -B./OI NC
(complete all NC (ne connect orders)
Page 20 February, 1987 2600
COO-Change Due Date:
Change due date of a seri ce or frame order
Example:
m CnD
H ORO CH-X X Xm/lM m- I B22
I DO 01 -01 -8.
Output Example:
.. ORO CH- l X l l l DUE DATE 01 -01 -8.
NAI-Telephone Number Asignment Inquir:
Provi des from 1 to 25 spare telephone numbers
compati bl e wi th the i nput speci ficati ons.
• I nput i s an H- Li NE wi th the TN type and NNX
or RZ entri es. The status of the TN suppl i ed wi l l
be modi f i ed t o reserved i f ST i s speci f i ed on the
H- Li NE.
Example:
vex MAl
H II X I NNI 534/S1 RS
(This shows first avai lable spare in prelix 534.)
MAP-Manual Asignment Parameter:
Permi ts the PAO to establ i sh the parameters that
wi l l const i tute the PAD Open-of- Day repor.
vex "AP
I NNI 5341ECS I R IEQf TNNLl LC 50 • • tc .
( for l i ne equi pment)
( for tel ephone numbers of type B. 1 0)
I NNI 534111 BILC 1 0
( Thanks to Loki, Evel Eye, and Sir Galahad for
their contributions. )
I n the future w wi l l b dvtin
more ti me to just what COSMOS
mns to the avrage prsn an
ho it can efet and disrupt teir
l ivs. There are many oter coputr
stes tat are cpble of doin al l
kinds of other ti ngs to your prsnl
l ivs. We wlcome infortion an
comnts on t al l .
Write to 260, P Bx 9, Middle
Island, NY 1 1 9530. Or cal l the
ofice at (516) 751 -260.

reviews
goi ng on elsewhere. As one might expet from a
British author, the di scussi on of computer
networks centers around the British public data
networks, whi ch are si mi li ar to Telenet or
Tymnet.
And for those hackers who have too many
surity officers chasing after the, one chapter
di scusses "radio computer data", also known as
radi o teletype or RTTY. This i s not really hacki ng,
but j ust an interesti ng way to us your computer
when you're not moving satelli tes wi th tank parts
ordered from TRW. You need a short wave
reeiver and an interace (which starts at $40) ,
and you wi ll be able to tune in various stations
that use the i ntemational short-wave bands for
transferri ng computer data. Sample li sti ngs i n
the book show a news bulleti n about the Enver
Hoxha Automobi le and Tractor Combi ne i n
Albani a, and some typi cal amateur radi o
conversations.
Every chapter always has one or two i deas or
tehniques that the capable hacker can use to
expand hi s or her horizons. Here's one fun i dea
that rarely gets di scussed, under the heading of
"Hardware Tricks":
"For the hacker wi th some knowledge of
computer hardware and general eletroni cs, and
who is prepared to mess about with circui t
di ag rams, a solderi ng i ron and perhaps a
voltmeter, logi c probe, or oscilloscope, still
further possi bi li ti es open up.
"One of the most useful bi ts of ki t consists of a
sall, cheap radio receiver (MW/AM band) , a
mi crophone, and a tape recorder. Radios i n the
vi ci nity of computers, modes, and telephone
lines can readily pi ck up the chirp chirp of di gi tal
communi cations wi thout the need of carryi ng out
a physical phone tap. Altematively, an i nducti ve
loop wi th a small low-gai n amplifier i n the
vi ci ni ty of a telephone or li ne will gi ve you a
recording you can analyze later at your lei sure. "
[ An i nducti ve loop i s a long piee of wi re wrapped
m
MCCAT&T
(cant inued from page J 5 )
around i n ci rcles placed next to the l i ne that you
want to li sten to. A typical i nductive loop i s the
sucti on cup microphone that sti cks to a
telephone handset and records the conversation
without being physically attached to the line. ]
Overall, The Hacker's Handbook is a good
book for those hackers who want to broaden their
horizons, or who j ust need some new i deas.
Hackers on both si des of the pond will get a
better understandi ng of the magi cal machinery
t hat pl aces al l t hi s t i nt i l l at i ng t el e­
communicati ons withi n our grasp.
Automtic Teller Machine I I I
b John J. Will iams, MSEE
Conmerronic Co.
P. O. Drr 537
Alamordo, NM 883 1 0
$25.00
Reie b Lord Phreker
Automati c Teller Machines (ATM' s) are the
wave of the future in banki ng. Proj ections aim at
500, 000 ATM' s and Poi nt of Sale terinals
(POS) i n place by the year 2000. By 1 990 there
wi ll be $550 bi lli on worth of ATM transacti ons
per year. ATM' s are beoming a maj or force in the
banking i ndustry, wi th more than 58 million
Americans usi ng them. But along with the added
convenience and lower costs to banks of using
ATM's, crimes i nvolving these machines have
grown enorously as ATM use expands.
Reported ATM crime i n 1 983 was between
$70 and $1 00 million, and estimates run as hi gh
as $1 bi ll i on. These fi g ures don' t i nclude
muggi ngs and other crimes diretly agai nst ATM
users. Wi th $50, 000 i n a newly refilled ATM, "a
veri table cooki e j ar, " these machi nes are
becomi ng the focus of crimi nals. ATM fraud soon
will beome a maj or criminal activity.
J ohn Wi lli ams begi ns hi s pamphlet wi th a
seri es of apocalypti c warni ng s about the
repercussi ons of thi s boom i n ATM f raud.
According to hi s "Background Inforation", J ohn
Willi ams i s very convinced of the danger thi s
growi ng area of fraud poses to the American
publi c. Hi s apocalyptic vi si ons get carri ed to
extremes, as he states that "I strongly feel that
all forms of EFT [ Electroni c Funds Transfers,
whi ch i nclude ATM's] are i nstruments of Satan
260 February, 1987 Page 21

revIews
and must be destroyed to prevent ensl aveent
by the Ant i chri st . " These di re forebodi ngs are
i nterspersed throughout the text , compl ete wi th
references to Bi g Brother. Wi l l i ams al so di sl i kes
the banks and other capi tal i sti c enterri ses. He
cl ai ms i t i s i n the banks' best i nterests to
suppress stori es of ATM fraud losses. ATM
transacti on costs are much less than those
deal i ng wi th l i ve human tel l ers. In addi ti on,
Wi l l i ams cl ai ms that once banks have gotten the
publ i c to prefer usi ng ATM' s, they wi l l rai se
charges to the customer for ATM transacti ons.
He al so wams agai nst the "omi nous ri sks to our
freedoms and pri vacy" as the A TM i nvades the
home. Al though these cl ai ms certai nl y make
entertai ni ng readi ng , they detract from the
seri ousness of the work and make i t too easy to
di smi ss. However , once one gets beyond these
ravi ngs one real izes that there actual l y i s some
useful i nformati on tere.
One area where [ he book excel s i s t he secti on
deal i ng wi th protect i ng onesel f from fraud. Many
of the suggesti ons are common sense, but many
peopl e don' t even thi nk of usi ng them. Wi l l iams i s
espec i a l l y concemed about v i ol ent cr i mes
agai nst ATM users by muggers. For exampl e, he
suggests that one never wi thdraw funds between
1 0 and mi dni ght , as cri mi nal s can then make two
days of maxi mum wi thdrawal s wi th your card.
Wi l l i ams al so addresses your l egal ri ghts. If a
vi ol ent cri me occurs wi thi n the ATM l obby, you
can probabl y successf ul l y sue the bank for
i mproper safety measures. The secti on on how
many ATM scams work i s hel pful , as most of
them i nvol ve somehow tri cki ng the vi cti m i nto
reveal i ng hi s PI N . He al so l i sts several wami ng
si gns of ATM fraud i n progress or about to
happen so one can avoi d becomi ng another
vi ct i m. The secti on on protect i ng oneself from
fraud perpetrated by bank empl oyees as wel l as
more common cri mi nal s is i ndeed val uabl e, as is
the di scussi on on EFT l aws.
The techni cal secti on is i nterest i ng, but not
very useful . Wi l l i ams focuses on the Di ebol d
A TM, wh i ch accounts for about 45% of i nstal l ed
ATM' s, but one wonders if the i nformati on i s out
of date or onl y appl ies to one model . There i s a
di scussi on of several other model s as wel l . He
does ent er i n t o a usef u l and i nt erest i ng
expl anati on of ATM card magnet i c stri p formats,
Page 22 February, 1987 2600
as wel l as encrypti on schemes. Thi s real l y is the
most i nterest i ng and i nforat i ve part of the
ent i re bookl et , as he i n depth di scusses PI N
encrypti on and data forats. The tehni cal
set i ons on how ATM' s and ATM networks
operate i s al so i nterest i ng, al though not speci f i c
eough .
If you bought the book wi th the hope of fi ndi ng
out an easy way to break i nto an ATM machi ne,
forget i t. Most of the methods are suff i ci entl y
vague that you woul d have to do much more
i nvesti gati on on the topi c anyway ( l ucki l y for the
rest of us) . Many of the physi cal attack methods
are j ust the same as for pay phones ( or any other
armored object , though surpri si ngl y many ATM' s
are onl y f i re resi stant , not burgl ar or tool
resi stant ) , and are real l y i nnatel y obvi ous. Many
of the successful methods used i n the past are
due to programmi ng mi stakes whi ch probabl y
have been repai red. ATM securi ty seems to be a
rapi dl y evol vi ng fi el d, and maj or holes are
patched as soon as they become apparent . The
secti on on computer rel ated break-i n methods
was especi al l y vague, and much of the materi al
was too general ized, and coul d be appl i ed to any
computer cri me.
When one comes to the end of the bookl et one
wonders i f i t was worth the cost . Twenty-fi ve
dol l ars i s a l ot for fi fteen pages ( pl us a three page
f eedback quest i onna i re) of badl y 1eroxed
ravi ngs. Each page, however , i s two col umns of
very smal l pri nt , contai ni ng some i nformat i on of
wort h, much of whi ch i s i mpossi bl e to f i nd from
any other source. The di agrams aren' t extremel y
hel pful , mai nl y bei ng caroons and publ i ci ty
shots. Wi l l i ams often pl ugs hi s other books in the
work , as wel l as Ameri ca' s Promi se Radi o, whi ch
i s di stracti ng ( admi ttedl y, he al so pl ugs 2600 as
"the best source on phone and comput er
phreaki ng" ) . Thi s coul d be a better i nvestment i f
the ravi ngs were removed al ong wi th a l ot of the
extemporaneous mat er i al . I t i sn' t espec i al l y
usef ul t o scan through col umns o f cl i ppi ngs
t el l i ng t hat so- and- so st ol e such- and- such
amount somewhere. Many of the cl i ppi ngs real l y
have nothi ng to do wi th ATM fraud, and are
merel y cute f i l l er. My suggesti on to the author for
Automatic Teller Machines I Vi s to cut out much
of t he d i at r i bes whi ch det ract f r om t he
seri ousness of the topi c.
Þ1LN1| LN
These are t he new pr i ces now i n effect . You can st i l l save money
and hassl es by r enewi ng for two or three year s.
$ 1 5 . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 year subscr i pt i on or renewa l
$28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 year subscr i pt i on or renewa l
$45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 year subscr i pt i on or renewa l
$40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 year corporate subscr i pt i on or renewa l
$75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 year corporate subscr i pt i on or renewa l
$ 1 1 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 year corporate subscr i pt i on or renewa l
$25 . . . . . . . . ø . . . . overseas subscr i pt i on or renewal ( 1 year on l y)
$55 . . overseas corporate subscr i pti on or renewa l ( 1 year onl y)
$260 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l i fet i me subscr i pt i on
Back i ssues have new pr i ces too. They ar e:
$25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 984, 1 985, or 1 986 i ssues ( 1 2 per year)
$50 . . . . . ø . . e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Any two years
$75 ø ø . ø . . ø . . ø . . . . . . . ø . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o . AI I t hree years ( 36 i ssues)
( Overseas orders add $5 for each year ordered)
Send a l l orders to:
2600
PO Box 752
Mi ddl e I sl and, NY 1 1 953 U. S. A.
( 51 6) 75 1 - 2600
2600 Februar). 1987 Pa2e 23
LÕWÂÑWÃÔ
HUG CORNWALL I NTERI E ø ø ø ø 4
COSMOS GUI DE ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø e ø ø ø ø ø ø 6
TELECOM I NFRMER ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø 8
NAT BUSI NES ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø 1 0
LETERS ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø 1 2
NE DEELOPENTS ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø 1 8
2600 MAKETPLCE ø e ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø 1 9
PHONE NES ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø e ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø ø 20
2600 Magazi ne
PO Box 752
Middl e I sl and, NY 1 1 953 U. S. A.
SAVE YOUR ADDRESS LABEL FOR LOGI N
TO THE NEW PRI VATE SECTOR BULLETI N BOARD!
(201 ) 366-431