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Chapter 1


Background of the Study

Night markets have existed for long enough to blend-in with the community

activity, popular for their variety of food, convenient to access and offering affordable

price. The night market business operated at a specific place or lots which are near to the

residential area. They are often set-up by rows of stalls selling various types of products.

For the food and the beverage stalls the products are mainly produced by the seller

themselves. Khalilah(2010) stated that the business typology of the suburban night

market consists of food and beverages, house-hold product, grocery needs like

vegetables, fruits, fish and meat, clothes, and other range of everyday merchandise sold at

affordable price.

Here in Asia, the moderate climate, especially during evening hours, stimulates

booming of street snacks, which functions to provide leisure activities when people are

attracted to wandering, social interaction, trading, and enjoying local food after work or

dinner. Based on theories of the Cultural Geography (Sauer, 1962), landscape is a space

progressed over time, and the space is an accumulation of unique spaces developed

during each special period. Night market has collected memories of people during

different time periods and demonstrates the contexts of consumption types and local

space. In general, all night markets have tourism prerequisites, such as locating in
downtown areas and the scale; and purposes on booming local business an economic

development, providing a space for evening activities, and legitimate management of

street vendors (Wang, 2004; Hsieh and Chang, 2006). The values of night markets are

highly related with local people, demonstrating the reality of life style and local culture

(Chang and Hsieh, 2006). In addition, (Hsieh and Chang, 2006) concluded the main

reasons that night markets attracted tourists were novelty-seeking, exercising and

experiencing local culture and custom. Eating out overwhelmingly dominated the leisure

activities, followed by shopping and novelty-seeking. Those confirm values of night

market services on entertainment, recreation, and shopping.

Well known night markets near Dagupan are in Agoo, La Union which opens

during summer and near Christmas vacation and Baguio City during the months of

October and during the month of their flower festival. There are also other night markets

in Asia listed by tourism agencies as the five most visit: the largest and most popular

market of its kind in Taiwan, the Shilin Night Market is divided into two sections with

more than 500 stalls for you to visit.; Thailands most famous attractions, the Chiang Mai

Night Bazaar is open every night from dusk until midnight.;Dongdaemun Market,

Seoul, South Korea which is considered a special tourism zone within the city, and is

divided into five zones over 10 blocks, with more than 30,000 shops. Donghuamen Night

Market, Beijing, China-best known for its unusual foods (such as fried crickets and

centipedes, or lizards on a stick); Hanoi Night market which operates only on weekends,

but has quickly become a popular tourist destination.

Hsieh and Chang (2006) indicated that the night markets reflected the reality of

the local community lifestyle and therefore they were valued as cultural heritage. They

added that the main reasons that attracted visitors or tourist to night markets where the

novelty and new knowledge that could be acquired on local culture and custom.

Apparently the night market and stall layout could also influence the consumers

preference of specific night market. The night market image reflected the way the

consumers perceived it (Farhangmehr et. al. 2000).

Some night markets did offer local delicacies, and Dagupan City as the center of

this study is well known for its Pigar-pigar.

Pigar-pigar is one of the most exciting trends of Dagupan City where it could be

found easily in almost every small street offering thin slice cooked carabeef (carabao

meat) with liver and vegetables like broccoli or cabbage and onions depending on the

customers preference.

Pigar-Pigar trip at the night market could be an educational experience for the city

folks as well as tourists. Pigar-pigar industries were targeted as a way of integrating as a

possible driver destination could contribute on the citys economy and it also provide a

glimpse into the citys culture and way of life that could contribute in Dagupan Citys

image. Pigar-pigar industry was valued in the night market as highly related with local

people and tourists, demonstrating the reality of life style and local culture (Chang and

Hsieh, 2006).

Dagupan City has a lot of seasonal tourism attraction; however, these events are

only temporary drivers. This study aimed to describe pigar-pigar as a tourism driver of

the night market in Dagupan City where its outcome becomes an opportunity for

individuals to engage themselves in this business; and a potential source of income to the

city of Dagupan as a permanent tourism driver with or without this seasonal event. Thus,

if pigar-pigar would be a tourism driver, Dagupan City shall not just be known for its

bangus product but also of its pigar-pigar industry.

Theoretical Framework

The researchers used theories based on Consumer Behavior. Through this, the

researchers were able to determine indicators of social and environmental impact

connected to physical setting analysis, environmental assessment analysis, product, and

consumer and performance analysis.

Consumer culture theory is the study of consumption choices and behaviours

from a social and cultural point of view, as opposed to an economic or psychological one.

It does not offer a grand unifying theory but "refers to a family of theoretical perspectives

that address the dynamic relationships between consumer actions, the marketplace, and

cultural meanings" (Arnould & Thompson, 2005). Reflective of a post-modernist society,

it views cultural meanings as being numerous and fragmented (Firat & Venkatesh

1995) and hence view culture as an amalgamation of different groups and shared

meanings, rather than a homogenous construct (such as the American culture). Consumer

culture is viewed as "social arrangement in which the relations between lived culture and

social resources, between meaningful ways of life and the symbolic and material

resources on which they depend, are mediated through markets (Arnould, 2006) and

consumers as part of an interconnected system of commercially produced products and

images which they use to construct their identity and orient their relationships with others


The above two mentioned theories are the bases of this study to analyze both the

business (and things that are involved) and the environment.

Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework is illustrated by a research paradigm following the IPO

(input, process, and output). The input is consist of three sub-problems profile of the

pigar-pigar industry in Dagupan City (piga-pigar owners and pigar-pigar businesses),

Socio-demographic and geographic profile of the pigar-pigar market (age, gender,

employment status, socioeconomic class and residence) and pigar-pigar market behavior:

buying behavior, reasons in going to pigar-pigar restaurant, acceptability of pigar-pigar

and satisfaction level on pigar-pigar industry. To describe the pigar-pigar industry and

market as a tourism driver to the night market in Dagupan City. The researchers observed

and conducted interviews to understand both industry and market, and also used

descriptive research method in the form of questionnaire.

Input Process Output

I.Profile of the pigar-pigar

industry in Dagupan City:
a. Piga-pigar Owners
b. Pigar-pigar Businesses

II. Socio-demographic and

geographic profile of the
1. Descriptive Method
pigar-pigar market
of Research using
a. Age
b. Gender
a. Question
c. Employment status
d. Socioeconomic Class
b. Floating
e. Residence The Pigar-Pigar
c. Retrieving
d. Interpretation Industry and
III. Pigar-pigar market Market as a
2. Descriptive
behavior: Tourism Driver to
a. Buying Behavior the Night Market
a. Observation
b .Reasons in going to in Dagupan City
b .Interview
pigar-pigar restaurant
c. Acceptability of pigar-
d. Satisfaction level on
pigar-pigar industry

Figure 1.1 Research Paradigm

Statement of the Problem

The researcher aimed to know that Pigar-pigar industry and Market as a Tourism

driver to the night market in Dagupan City.

The following are the sub-problems:

1. What is the profile of the pigar-pigar industry in Dagupan City as to the:

a. Pigar-pigar Owners

b. Pigar-pigar Business

2. What is the socio-demographic and geographic profile of the pigar-pigar market

as to:

a. Age

b. Gender

c. Employment status

d. Socioeconomic Class

e. Residence

3. What is the behavior of the pigar-pigar market as to the:

a. Buying behavior
b. Reasons of going to pigar-pigar restaurants
c. Acceptability of pigar-pigar
d. Satisfaction level on pigar-pigar industry

Significance of the Study

To the City of Dagupan. This study could help the city of Dagupan to increase

its tourism by improving the Industry of pigar-pigar by implementing systems and

standards. Through improvising pigar-pigar industry, it would be a potential source of

income of the city and also a permanent tourist attraction even there are no seasonal

events like the Bangus Festival.

The pigar-pigar owners. The study could help the owners to determine how

customers perceive the quality of their product in terms of its physical environment and

improve their performance in line with the satisfaction of customers in both the product

and the night market experience.

To Colegio de Dagupan. Through this research the school (in line with the

School of Business and Accountancy) could make a partnership with the city to organize

events and strategies that could improve the experience of customers in the pigar-pigar

Industry and the night market.

To the Future Researchers. This study would encourage them to pursue further

study of pigar-pigar industry and night market. And it would serve as an overview or

reference for their upcoming research that will be tackled that is closely related to this


Customers. The study is significant to them, they can give their sentiments and

suggestions because their patronage is important therefore it is vital that their impressions

regarding service and quality satisfaction is measured and determined.

To individuals as potential businessperson. The result of this study could

benefit individuals who are willing to take opportunity to open up a business and willing

to operate at night.

Scope and Limitations

This study aimed to describe that the pigar-pigar industry and market as a

tourism driver to the night market in Dagupan City. This study focused on the customers

image of pigar-pigar through the night market. The observation started from June to

September 2014.

The study involved respondents who were chosen because they met the

qualification or the criteria as customers who eat at pigar-pigar restaurants in Galvan

Street on the night that the researchers surveyed. They were grouped according to their

socio-demographic information.

The research was limited to respondents intention and perception through

understanding the pigar-pigar Industry and pigar-pigar market at night in Galvan Street.

Definition of Terms

Buying Behavior. This refers to the decision processes and acts of people involved in

buying and using products.

Employment Status. This refers to the legal status and classification of someone in

employment as either an employee or working on their own (self-employed).

Night market. This refers to the Night Bazaar are street markets which operates at

night and are generally dedicated to more leisurely strolling, shopping, and eating

than more business likes day markets. They are typically open-air markets.

Pigar-Pigar. This refers to a dish made of thin sliced cooked carabeef (carabao meat)

with liver and vegetables such as broccoli or cabbage and onions depending on

the customers preference. The term was derived from the Pangasinan word

pigar which means turning over, referring to the cooking process which

requires constant turning over of the meat while deep-frying.

Pigar-pigar Restaurants. These are food-service establishments offering pigar-pigar

to customers for dine-in or take-out.

Pigar-pigar Industry. A group of businesses offering pigar-pigar.

Pigar-pigar Market. These are the set of actual and potential buyers of pigar-pigar


Tourists. This refers to the individuals or a group of individuals, which leads to a motion

from a place to another; for performing a specific task or it is a visit to a place or

several places in the purpose of entertaining which leads to an awareness of other

civilizations and cultures, also increasing the knowledge of countries, cultures,

and history (Central Department of Tourism & Summer Resorts 2006).

Tourism Driver. Tourism is an activity done by an individual or a group of individuals,

which leads to a motion from a place to another; for performing a specific task or

it is a visit to a place or several places in the purpose of entertaining which leads

to an awareness of other civilizations and cultures, also increasing the knowledge

of countries, cultures, and history. (Central Department of Tourism & Summer

Resorts 2006) while driver is a medium that attracts one thing on to the other.

Thus, tourism driver is a medium that attracts individual or a group to engage in

activity or visit a place for entertainment knowledge and awareness of its culture

and civilization.

Chapter 2



On research by Marreiros, Lucas, & Rhrich (2010) entitled Explaining organic

food choice on the basis of socio-demographics, they stated the importance of Socio-

demographic characteristics of consumers for marketers in two basic reasons: their

appropriateness to segment markets and their influence on consumer behaviour.

Consumers from different places, with different ages or genders may require

different product features and show varying preferences and behaviours. From their study

they concluded that there are good reasons for preserving socio-demographic or

economic variables in food consumer research.

With regards to its influence on consumer behavior that would be needed in this

study, According to Callingham and Baker (2002), there are many ways of classifying

people in order to attempt to understand them and predict their behaviour. The simplest of

these is to take very obvious demographic characteristics, such as age, gender and place

of residence, and assume that there are important unifying principles with these groups,

which common sense and experience suggest there are. In the description of his model of

consumer food choice, Steenkamp (1997) argued that the influence of sociodemographic

factors (e.g., age, education, size of household and employment status) is pervasive,

affecting various stages of the consumer decision process. Also, Callingham

and Baker (2002) and Kearney et al (2000) argued that there is a shared assumption that

some form of unifying principle is associated with demographics, which allows them to

be used as surrogates for a series of needs associated either with values or with

circumstances and which are useful in prediction.

Huang, Liou, & Tzeng (2009) study on night market in socio-demographic

perspective showed that educational level, occupation, and marriage status have no

significant differences in experience, the other variables such as gender, age, type

(foreign resident or foreign tourist), and country of origin, has relativity differences to

their night market experiences. Females have stronger values in think dimension than

males do. The age has effects on think, act, and related experiences. The 31-40 years

group has stronger experience of think than groups with other age values. The younger

groups (under 20 and 21-30 years) put more importance on experience of act and related

than older groups. There is interaction between type and country of origin on sense

experience. Comparing those who are visiting with those residing in Taiwan, we find the

foreign visitors have higher value on think experience than foreign residents. The country

of origin has main effect on the feel, act and related experiences. Europe and America

subjects put less importance on the feel, act and related dimensions than Japanese and

Southeast Asian. Japanese put more importance on feel dimension. Southeast Asian has

stronger value on act and related experiences, which might because there is more

Southeast Asians working as foreign laborers in Taiwan and they have stronger act and

related experience along with staying time.

Tourists marriage status, education level, age, occupation, staying type, and

country of origin also have relativity differences to their night market image. The finding

supports the notion that cultural background and familiarity with a host culture will affect

foreigners experience (Pizam and Jeong, 1996; Arnold and Reynolds, 2003; Yuksel,

2004) and image (Embacher and Buttle, 1989; Baloglu and McCleary, 1999; Bonn et al.,

2005; OLeary and Deegan, 2005) of night market. Think experience has greater

difference than other four experiences in socio-demographics. That shows that

psychological difference is the main difference between foreigners of different age

groups, genders, and staying type. According to Schmitt (1999) the think experience

stimulates curiosity and appeal to the customers creative thinking. Female, and middle

age and visitors would have stronger thinking experience than other experiences such as

sense and feel. The results also show that the younger subjects have stronger values in act

and related experience than elders did. Based on Schmitts (1999) act and related

experiences reflect that younger persons have stronger unique bodily experience and

relationship experience with others. Regarding to visiting or residing in Taiwan, we find

the foreign visitors have higher value on think experience than foreign residents. Perhaps,

the longer foreign residents have stayed in Taiwan, the less special or exciting night

markets are for them, and hence they have less thinking experience than foreign visitors.

For foreign visitors who have little experience in visiting night markets, the experience

will trigger their thinking mechanism, and increasing information intakes. The feel, act,

and related experiences are important variables regarding to country of origin

(nationality). European and American have lowered these three experiences than

Japanese and Southeast Asian, which might be due to their cultural backgrounds (Pizam

and Jeong, 1996; Bonn et al., 2005). Japanese and Southeast Asian have similar oriental

background with Taiwanese; they might more familiar with night market. This result also

supports with individuals participation experience of Pine and Gilmore (1999) and Joy

and Sherry (2003). Results show that temporary foreign residents have stronger image

values in atmosphere than foreign tourists, while foreign visitors have stronger numbers

in local food and specialty, public facility, environment, and reputation image than

temporary residents. This may be the effect of the length of residence time in Taiwan.

Yuksels (2004) study shows that domestic visitors are more critical and having less

tolerant to rotten facility and service than foreign visitors do. In this study, foreign

residents have stayed in Taiwan for a longer period and adopt similar values to those of

the locals, and hence being more critical on qualities such as local food, specialty, public

facility, environment, and reputation. To compare the nationality, Europeans and

Americans with little experience of night markets picture visiting night markets as a

unique experience, and hence they have stronger image on local food, specialty,

atmosphere, price, bargain, and reputation. But Europeans and Americans who have more

broad space and cleaner living environment in their country and hence being more critical

on qualities such as public facility and environment.


Age is largely defined by social and cultural factors but has unique meaning and

value for each person. Yet, despite diverse and changing definitions, many individuals are

proud of their age and use it to define themselves and identify with others (Datamonitor,

September 2009).

As individuals age and gain life experience, their needs and interests evolve. In

addition, each generation experiences unique regional and global events which

simultaneously shape them in ways different from previous generations. This means that

what defines an age group changes with each generation. Characteristics of particular age

groups are always shifting and evolving. What it means to be a child or a senior, and the

behaviours associated with it, are different today than in previous years. At the consumer

group level, characteristics typically associated with children, adults, and seniors are

being contested and new behaviours identified. (International Markets Bureau, 2012)

According to Euromonitor, foods and beverages that appeal to young consumers

will find short- to medium-term growth in African, Latin American, Middle Eastern, and

Asian-Pacific markets where there is still a large youth population (Euromonitor

International, December 2009). Over the long term, this is expected to change in some

regions, as incoming generations become unable to replace their predecessors. For

instance, the Asia-Pacific region currently has a traditional demographic proportion,

where younger consumers outnumber older consumers. However, the child population in

this region is decreasing as less children are being born in countries such as China, South

Korea, Thailand, New Zealand, and Australia, among others. Notably, this is somewhat

deliberate in Chinas case, as its national one-child policy aims to curb overall population

growth (Datamonitor, April 2009). As the proportion of adults to children in these

countries increases over the long term, consumer demand will change to reflect this. The

aging global population has consequences for all age demographics in all food and

beverage sectors, as its effects greatly influence consumer behaviour and preferences.


Bakshi on his abstract study stated that, men and women due to their different

upbringing and socialization along with various other social, biological and psychological

factors depict different types of behaviour at various situations. Whether it is decision

making in personal life or professional life, whether it is about shopping or eating, both

the genders are completely different at every stage of decision making. Right from need

recognition through the evaluation of alternatives to the post purchase behaviour, men

and women work differently with different types of stimuli and different parameters of

evaluations. Women seem to have satisfaction and find pleasure while they shop whereas

men appear to be more disdain towards shopping.

Consumer researchers have been examining the impact of gender identitythe

degree to which an individual identifies with masculine and feminine personality traits

on various consumer variables for nearly four decades. However, significant gender

identity findings in consumer research have been rare, perhaps because of (1)

operationalization problems (Palan, Kiecker, and Areni 1999), (2) inappropriate

interpretation and application of gender identity to consumer variables (Gould 1996), or

(3) blurring gender categories (Firat 1993).

The process of consumption has long been associated with sex and gender, thus, it

comes as no surprise that consumer researchers often examine the effects of these

variables on consumer behaviors. It also comes as no surprise that much is known about

sex and gender and how they impact buying and consuming activities. (Palan, 2001)

Men and women due to their different upbringing and socialization along with

various other social, biological and psychological factors depict different types of

behaviour at various situations. Whether it is decision making in personal life or

professional life, whether it is about shopping or eating, both the genders are completely

different at every stage of decision making. Right from need recognition through the

evaluation of alternatives to the post purchase behaviour, men and women work

differently with different types of stimuli and different parameters of evaluations. Women

seem to have satisfaction and find pleasure while they shop whereas men appear to be

more disdain towards shopping. In this paper an attempt is to study these differences at

various levels of purchase decision (Bakshi, 2013).

Gender has an important role in consumer behaviour. Because, the differences

between men and women about expectation, want, need, life-style etc. reflect to their

consumption behavior (Akturan, 2009).

A study last 2008 by Eddleston and Powell examines how gender identity

explains what male and female business owners look for from their careers. Results

suggest that gender identity, represented by the dimensions of masculinity and femininity,

serves as a cognitive mechanism that contributes to sex differences in business owners'

career satisfier preferences. Masculinity mediates the relationship between sex and

preferences for status-based satisfiers. Femininity mediates the relationships between sex

and preferences for employee relationship satisfiers and contribution to society satisfiers.

In the Edleston and Powells study, they proposed that a person's gender identity,

or the extent to which he or she possesses traits associated with traditional gender

stereotypes (Deaux and LaFrance, 1998; Eagly et al., 2000), may explain the importance

he or she places on status-based and socioemotional career satisfiers.

Added by Edleston and Powell, women-owned businesses tend to be smaller,

slower growing, and less profitable than those owned by men (Greene et al., 2003),

research suggests that women business owners are as satisfied with their entrepreneurial

careers as men (Parasuraman et al., 1996). Women business owners may be satisfied with

their entrepreneurial careers, despite achieving relatively less business success in

objective terms, because they value different sources of career satisfaction than men.

While men are often depicted as prizing status-based career satisfiers derived from

financial success and business growth (DeMartino and Barbato, 2003), women are

depicted as placing greater emphasis on socioemotional career satisfiers derived from

interpersonal relations with employees and customers and the pursuit of social goals

(Bird and Brush, 2002; Brush, 1992). Accordingly, researchers have called for studies

that investigate a feminine perspective of business ownership (Bird and Brush, 2002;

Marlow and Patton, 2005).

However, simply examining differences between what men and women are

looking for from their careers as business owners is insufficient; some female business

owners may place high importance on status-based satisfiers whereas some male business

owners may place high importance on socioemotional career satisfiers (Brush et al.,

2004; Gundry and Welsch, 2001; Walker and Brown, 2004).

Educational Attainment

Educational Attainment plays a role in this study through business owners

profiling to determine which group of people in terms of Educational Attainment engage

in business in pigar-pigar industry. Educational attainment reflects the highest level of

education completed. A study in Canada last 2012 where five categories of educational

attainment, as classified in the Labour Force Survey, are presented namely: 1)Less than

high school graduation-Did not receive a high school diploma; 2)High school graduation-

Received a high school diploma; 3)Some postsecondary education-Worked toward, but

did not complete, a degree, certificate (including a trade certificate) or diploma from an

educational institution, including a university, beyond the secondary level; 4)

Trades/college/university certificate or diploma-Completed a certificate (including a trade

certificate) or diploma from an educational institution beyond the secondary level. This

includes certificates from vocational schools, apprenticeship training, community college;

5)Bachelors degree or above-Bachelors degree obtained at a university or other

university degree or certificate above bachelors degree. Also, this study found that, in

2009, higher levels of education were typically associated with higher employment rates

in Canada and across the member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-

operation and Development (OECD).The period between 2008 and 2011 was a volatile

time in terms of global economic performance, marked in Canada by an economic

downturn that began in the fourth quarter of 2008 and was followed by a time of apparent

recovery in employment after the third quarter of 2009.

This fact sheet continues to shed some light on the relationship between education

and labour market outcomes by providing a brief overview of the impact of economic

changes on individuals with different levels of educational attainment to identify which

groups have been most affected by the economic downturn and which have benefitted

most from the recovery (Canada Statistics, 2012).

Business/Working Hours

The measure of business hours is significant in both pgar-pigar industry and the

nigh market to determine if the industry qualifies as driver destination on the night

market that has an average opening time of 5:00 pm 6:00 pm.

On the summer night market at Queen Victoria Market in Melbourne, hours of

operation are 5:00pm - 12:00pm each night. Applicants (other than those applying to

trade as a casual stallholder) are required to attend each and every market day. There are

no refunds/credits for failing to attend for any reason whatsoever. In addition to the loss

of stall fees, a cancellation fee equivalent to one full nights fee will be claimed as

damages, if you fail to attend on any one night of the Market for any reason (and whether

or not prior notification is given) (Summer Night Market, 2012).

As a requirement on its opening and closing time, under the night market approval

at Rotorua Night Market: normal hours are deemed to be 5pm to 9pm set up of market

stalls must be completed by designated market opening time and stall holders must be

ready to commence trading until the designated closing time. NO stall is to be closed OR

look like they are packing up, prior to the designated closing time. The opening time for

each market will be advertised in the weekly stallholders newsletter via email. The

closing time will be announced during the market on the night by the Market Manager.

All stalls must be clear of product within 30 minutes of the market closing time.

On an observation done by Aziz and Yeng on their 2011 study on Dynamism of

night market in Taman Sri Muda Shah Alam, Traders usually come early to unload their

product in order to avoid traffic, some of them started to arrive as early as around 3.30

pm until 5.30 pm, however, 4.30 pm is the peak hour for the traders to set up their stall

with 43 traders who set up their stalls at the same time. During loading, the trader will

parked his or her vehicle (car, van or lorry) behind the trader lot, followed by unloading

the items from the vehicle. Next, they will open the big colorful umbrella which fit the

size of their trader lot, and then they will set up the booths and lighting up the stoves

(cooked foods traders). Then, they lay out all the items and wares on the booths. It took

around 30 minutes to complete the whole working cycle. It is very difficult for those late

traders to unload since the space left between traders facing each other varied from 2.50m

to 3m therefore they have to pass squeezing their track among traders who already made

the set up. As early at 2.30 pm, the place was bustling with traders activities. The traders

will start turning down their business from 10.30 pm - 11.30 pm, where the last trader

selling house goods was the last stall closed at 12.00 am. This result could be the basis of

observation of the researcher on this study about business hours observation in pigar-

pigar businesses.

Customer Density

The Chartered Institute of Marketing 2010 states that, The lifetime value of a

customer includes everything they will ever buy from you today, tomorrow and in the

years ahead-and the cost of acquiring a new customer is estimated to be twenty times

greater than keeping an existing customer happy.

Research shows that it can costs up to thirty times to get a new customer as it does

to keep an existing one. It pays to stay very close to customers, to know their exact need

today and tomorrow. Business aims to be irreplaceable as customers supplier (Johnston,


Thus, as connection to our study, it is important to determine the no. of customers

per day to analyze if the pigar-pigar business is acquiring new and existing customer that

could be a factor that relates on customer satisfaction and proof of this business as

tourism driver.

Pigar-Pigar Food and Industry

There are no relevant studies about pigar-pigar. However, as a brief desciptionn,

Pigar-pigar is one of the most exciting trends of Dagupan City where it could be found

easily in almost every small street particularly at Galvan St. offering thin slice cooked

carabeef (carabao meat) with liver and vegetables like broccoli or cabbage and onions

depending on the customers preference. Its name is derived from the Pangasinan term

which means turning over a process of turn-over cooking which requires constant

turning over of meat while deep-frying.

Observing pigar-pigar stalls, its time of preparation to be around 3:00 pm-5:00 pm

onwards depending on the size of the business. Those who are operating as eatery during

morning to noontime are preparing early whereas to stalls, their time of preparation is

5:00 pm onwards.

With regards on characteristics, pigar-pigar could also be described through

literatures about street food. On an article by Winarno and Allain (1986), the term "street

foods" describes a wide range of ready-to-eat foods and beverages sold and sometimes

prepared in public places, notably streets. Street foods are low in cost compared with

restaurant meals and offer an attractive alternative to home-cooked food.

Winarno (1986) further described that street foods often reflect traditional local

cultures and exist in an endless variety. There is much diversity in the raw materials as

well as in the preparation of street food beverages, snacks and meals. Vendors' stalls are

usually located outdoors or under a roof which is easily accessible from the street. They

have low-cost seating facilities which are sometimes rudimentary. Their marketing

success depends exclusively on location and word-of-mouth promotion. Street food

businesses are usually owned and operated by individuals or families but benefits from

their trade extend throughout the local economy. For instance, vendors buy their fresh

food locally, thus linking their enterprises directly with small-scale farms and market


Night Market in general

The night markets had been recognized as a reputable business platform capable

of helping the local economy to grow. They (Hsieh and Chang, 2006; Chang, 2002) have

their cultural uniqueness especially in oriental societies. It reflects local heritages,

functions to meet demands of people on consumption and leisure, and provides local

residents and outside visitors with special services for their evening shopping. In a sum,

collecting cuisine, various cheaper products, time flexibility, convenience, casualness,

and local culture representation are characteristics of night markets.

Huang, Liou, & Tzeng (2009) defined night market as a trading place during

evening and includes small business for a variety of cheaper products, cooked food, and

game playing. It was an extension of ordinary market in early days and was usually

located in old urban centers. Developed from street snacks, scattered vendors are

collected to form a night market.

On the other hand about night market study Ishak,Aziz, Latif (2009), they defined and

describe night market as a a trading place during the evening offering a variety of

products and cooked food at cheaper prices.Night markets were also known as street

markets since the most frequent sites where they were to be found were along main roads

and other popular locations lots and residential areas. The study focused on the night

markets enviroment, traders performance and customer behavior where most of the data

collection are clustered to determine typologies.

Khalilah (2010) defined night market as a temporary weekly event that usually

took place at available open spaces and on roads or parking lots that would be

temporarily closed to allow for its operation.

Matching the definition of pigar-pigar industry in terms of time, the time of

preparation are almost the same. As a street food, they both offer ready to eat food at low

cost and also, both operate on streets.

As a pre-interview to some customers of pigar-pigar many stated that: Pigar-

pigar is for night. Thus with this matches, we could determine that pigar-pigar qualifies

as a possible tourism driver in the night market.

Night Market image

Huang, Liou, & Tzeng (2009) on their study Development Strategies for

Improving the Services of Tourist Night Markets through Hybrid MCDM Technique

defines five systematical dimensions, i.e., shopping entertainment, food tasting, tourism

experiences, public facilities, and image promotion, and 25 criteria for tourist evaluation

of night markets, through literature review and target group interviews. These five

dimensions established by this study are the major factors affecting the night-market

service systems, among which the public-service dimension is recognized by consumers

as the one that needs more improvements in areas, such as advisory service function,

disaster prevention function, parking planning function, leisure facilities, and public

facilities. It concluded that in order to meet the public demand for recreational

improvements, the competent authority needs to find out and correct the disadvantages

that exist in the night markets. It is the only way to make the night markets valuable and

appealing to the tourists.

Latif (2012), an author also of a 2009 study mentioned earlier, together with his

co-author on this study Barua, aims on their study to provide an overall assessment of the

environment features in terms of development opportunities and constrains to be

promoted as tourism attraction. The night markets environment was measured on four

factors: physical market setting, market atmosphere, traders and products; in an effort to

better understand of factors leading to the performance of Night Markets.

First is Physical market setting where they illustrate and compared two existing

night markets in Malaysia and stated how physical settings like vehicle parking affect the

impression on the night market.

Second is market atmosphere. Their appropriations are results of where their stalls

are located, their ways of preparing and displaying their products, climatic needs such as

shade to shelter from sun and rain, as well as spatial improvisation based their own

cultural or everyday practices. The both two night market stalls become the traders

extended private space made into a public space, where visitors are allowed inside. This

personal space is improvised according to personal taste and needs, similar to how people

renovate or decorate their rooms, homes, shops and offices. The way the traders take

advantage of the lamp post as a place to tie their tent extensions and their techniques of

using the frames of the tent as armatures to hang signage, their products, hooks for plastic

bags and light are temporary interventions that reflect a complex spatial practice.

They also observed that, the interaction between traders to traders happened

during they set up the stall or after close up the stall with trader beside or around of their

stall. However, the interaction could happen when trader cross over to buy food or

something with other traders. From the observation done, the trader was buying cakoi

(local pastry) with her son at other stall after she set up her stall. During buying, the

traders would chat and joke around between each other. It took around five minutes for

the interaction. Basically, discount will be given to the local trader on the transaction.

This is the way to bond rapport between each other. All the traders are friendly and kind

here. They are also helpful to help out each other to keep an eye in absence of the trader.

At the end of the day few of food traders generously distribute the unfinished food items

sold to other traders.

Lastly, is traders and products. The Traders Level was measured by the number of

traders selling at the night market, at Section 7 Shah Alam night market; there were 182

stall lots of which occupied by 88 licensed traders .

A majority of traders sell cooked food and drinks. There was high product

turnover and high customer volume, each trader tend to occupy a single stall space and

most of the traders were Malays and they worked at the stall with their family members

or close relatives or friends.

For both night markets the traders are friendly. Traders provide good services to

customers. The responsiveness is also good. Customer came to the stalls were well taken

care as this would result into customers buying their products.

The purpose of Latif and Baruas study was to examine the environment variables

of the night markets as measured by the physical market setting, market atmosphere and

traders and products. The factors indicated that night market has the potential to be

offered as tourism attraction whereby it offers cultural uniqueness in terms of food sold,

local craft and product display, various cheaper products, time flexibility, local shopping

experience and local culture representation are characteristics of night markets. As a

tourist attraction, substantial improvements need to make on the public facilities, the

cleanliness, signage and general comfort for the tourists. As it is now, the town or district

council has allocated a large sum for the salary of the manpower involved in the

administration and maintenance of the night market. The town/district council looked at

the night market as a social responsibility and public service. The organic growth of the

night market and the supporting role of the local authorities will ensure the sustainability

of the night market. As tourism attraction, the night market need to be provided with

services of accommodation, food facilities and public facilities which include public

facilities such as toilets, telephone booths, parking lots, security, roads, ATM, sewerage,

drainage, Tourists feel more comfortable to tourism experiences, if there is more visitor

information could be provided, risk-prevention mechanisms, parking spaces and more

recreation facilities in surrounding areas and more. Hence the night markets that possess

the above services have the potential to be promoted as tourist attraction.

Night Market and Food Experience in tourists and attraction

According to Schmitt (1999), act experience relates to personal lifestyle, actions

and behaviors. Related experience connects to specific culture or significant others. The

foreign visitors have certain motivation to visit other countries may cause stronger

feelings or experiences. This may be affected by more complex images than organic and

induced image (Gunn, 1988; Fakeye and Crompton, 1991; Echtner and Ritchie, 1991,

1993). However, the level of cultural adaptation of foreign residents adapting to

Taiwanese night markets is hard to measure. Night markets are also more popular in

Southeast Asian countries, than in Japan, hence Southeast Asians might accept and adapt

to night market culture faster or easier than Japanese, and even Japanese might adapt

more than Europeans and Americans. Their valuations of night markets and shopping

preferences will be more similar to local Taiwanese valuations. The differences among

different countries or geographical regions need further study. Therefore, future efforts to

understand cross-cultural behavior should consider the multidimensionality of place

experience and image as well as their varying levels of importance to residents and

visitors. The results of this research may help Taiwan government and entrepreneurs to

develop an international promotion strategy targeted at target markets (Assael, 1984). For

example, the most important images are local food and specialty, products, and price

which means night markets that can offer characteristically local products, fashionable

products, diverse food and drink, low-price products, and distinctively flavored

international foods will attract international visitors. Taiwan Tourism Bureau may

promote Taiwanese foods and beverages to overseas tourists by using think, sense, and

feel experiential marketing method, or may segment visitors by socio-demographics and

geographic variables. Some benefits may accrue from promotion of factors such as

Taiwans reputation, special local experience, and public facility, but the primary benefit

will arise from strengthening the image of night markets as representative of Taiwans


In recent years, the role of food in tourism has increased markedly. Images of

cuisine in tourists minds and in advertising are closely associated with particular

destinations and retain tourists interest. More people are now travelling specifically in

order to experience cuisines (Hall, Sharples, & Macionis, 2003; Long, 2004).

Like other groups of attractors including accommodation, transportation,

attractions, and activities, food is a basic and crucial element of the tourism product

(Boniface, 2003; Cohen & Avieli, 2004; Hall & Mitchell, 2002; 2 Henderson, 2009;

Hjalager & Richards, 2002; Long, 2004). Foods role has generally been considered as

functional because it is required to satisfy physical hunger. However, depending on the

culinary context, food can be experienced as entertainment (Finkelstein, 1989; Hjalager

& Richards, 2002; Warde & Martens, 2000), esthetics (Bourdieu, 1984; Krautkramer,

2007), education (Hegarty & OMahoney, 2001; Hjalager & Richards, 2002; Williams,

1997), memory (Boniface, 2003; Swislocki, 2009; Yan, 2008), and culture (Fields, 2002;

Rye & Jang, 2006; Sparks, 2007). In addition, tourist experiences of local food at a

destination have been examined by applying the modified theory of reasoned action

(TRA) (Ryu & Jang, 2006); and more recently, a grounded theory was employed to build

a model of local food consumption (Kim, Eves, & Scarles, 2009). However, research on

the role of food in tourists experience itself is still evolving and developing.

Food is an essential part of tourism.(Chen, 2013) Experiencing local cuisine can

help tourists understand differences between their own culture and the cultures that they

have come into contact with (Hegarty & OMahoney, 2001; Hjalager & Richards, 2002;

Williams, 1997).

Consumer Behavior

Consumer behavior is the study of when, why, how, and where people do or do

not buy a product. It attempts to understand the buyer decision making process and

studies characteristics of individual consumers as well as groups in an attempt to

understand peoples wants and needs (Bakshi, 2013).

Consumer behaviour research is the scientific study of the processes consumers

use to select,secure, use and dispose of products and services that satisfy their needs.

Knowledge of consumer behaviour directly affects marketing strategy (Anderson et al,


According to Bakshi (2013), there are various factors that influence the way

people behave in a particular situation. Consumers vary tremendously in age, income,

education, tastes, and other factors. The behaviour of consumer while engaging in a

purchase decision is influenced by these characteristics. Consumer characteristics include

four major factors and these factors are majorly responsible for the different types of

behaviors depicted by the consumers. Though it, does not mean that people of same, age

or gender or social background are similar, because there is a lot of influence of the

psychological factors that vary from individual to individual. Following factors can

influence the Buying decision of the buyer:

First is Cultural, culture is the fundamental determinant of a persons wants and

behaviors acquired through socialization processes with family and other key institutions.

Second is social, consumer Behaviour is also influenced by social factors like

referenceGroups, family, social Role and status

Third is Personal, where a buyers decisions are majorly influenced by personal

characteristics like gender, age, stage in lifecycle, occupation, income, and lifestyle.

Lastly, is Psychological, psychological factors like motivation, perception, beliefs

& attitudes of consumers also have a deep impact on the buyer decision.

Understanding consumers purchase decision-making process allows marketers to

gain more knowledge about their consumers. Moreover, it can be a foundation for them

to create more suitable marketing strategies for their target consumers. If marketers

understand this process of their consumers, they will know how their consumers search

for information before buying, which criteria can encourage them to buy, and what

factors influence their purchase decision-making (Solomon et al., 2010).

In many consumer behaviour studies, the classic view of consumer behaviour

principle is the five stage of decision-making model, which is based on the idea that

considers consumers as an information-processing machine. The classical five stages of

consumer decision-making process are (1) problem recognition, (2) information search,

(3) alternatives evaluation, (4) product choice, and (5) post-purchase evaluation

(Solomon et al., 2010).

First is, problem recognition. Problem recognition is the first stage of consumer

decision-making process. It happens when consumer realizes that there are some

differences between their actual state and ideal or desired state.

Second is, Information search. It is the stage when consumers are searching for

more knowledge in order to solve the recognized problem. To help themselves to make a

decision, consumers will look for information from their environment (Solomon et al.,

2010). Information search process can be classified into two types. Firstly, the pre-

purchase search process is the process when consumers seek for the information to satisfy

their needs or solve their problems, which begin after consumers realize their needs or

problems. Secondly, an ongoing search is the process when consumers browse the

information for their pleasure and to keep them up-to-date with new products or current

situations of the products market (Bloch et al., 1986).

Third is, Alternative Evaluation. In this stage, consumers have to evaluate their

available alternatives that they have received from the previous stage, information search

(Solomon et al., 2010). Since there are a great number of brands in the marketplace,

consumers will create their own evoke set which consists of brands which are already in

their minds (Jobber, 2007). The brands that are included in the consumers evoke sets will

have more opportunities to be selected by the consumers.

Next is, Product choice. Consumers have to choose one brand among after

evaluating their brand choices from the previous stage. Choosing product choice can be

either a simply and quick or a complex stage (Solomon et al., 2010). Consumers product

choices can be affected by various source of information during the process of decision-


Lastly, is Post Purchase behavior and disposal.Even though the buying decision

has finished, consumers often still evaluate their decisions. This is because they want to

feel confident about their choices and to ensure that the product can solve their problems

or satisfy their needs. Jobber (2007) stated in his study that the quality of product and

service is a main determinant in post-purchase evaluation.

Customer Satisfaction

Academics and managers know relatively little about how the combined effects

of quality (food, service, and physical environment) elicit customer satisfaction which, in

turn, affects behavioral intention. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis with

interactions showed that quality of food, service, and physical environment were all

significant determinants of customer satisfaction. In addition, perceived price acted as a

moderator in the satisfaction formation process. Finally, customer satisfaction is indeed a

significant predictor of behavioral intention (Ryu & Han).

Customer satisfaction is the result of the correlation between a customers

assumption and a customers feelings. By way of explanation, customer satisfaction is

identified as the distinction between assumed quality of service and the customers

involvement or feelings after having perceived the service. Customer satisfaction depends

on such dimensions as assurance, responsiveness, reliability, empathy and tangibles, and

further components such as personal, price and situational factors that may arise as the

service quality (Bateson & Hoffman 2000).

Customer satisfaction helps customers to communicate their needs straight to the

sellers. Customer satisfaction is very important because it helps to learn about the

businesss strengths and weaknesses. Business holders can just know their strengths and

weaknesses and make the progression. Not only this, also customer satisfaction also helps

to appropriate resources for eventual strike or satisfaction. Furthermore, it supports to

show calmness about making better quality of products and services to both the

employees and the customers. It does not help to learn about strengths and weaknesses

but helps it also to persuade competitive strengths and weaknesses. Similarly, it helps to

benefit more vision into the sources of frustration and areas desiring progression. At last,

customer satisfaction helps to accommodate a system for informing management of

problems or situations requiring actual promotion (ICR 2011).

While talking about business, it is not easy to establish this thinking but

everything needs to be set up everything from top to bottom and management also exists

there. Nature of business depends upon the size that was established, either in the form of

big-scale or small-scale. No business has been established without thinking about the

profit, and customers are the pillars of the business. So every businesss stake holders

always think about the satisfaction of the customers by trying to meet the needs of the

customer, which is the main responsibilities of the business investor. As the task of the

research is concerned with the importance of customer satisfaction, some points have

already explained this in the above section, and some points are going to be explained

here. Actually, customer satisfaction helps to increase the profit for business investors so

every such investor thinks that to earn profit is not as easy. If the business is successful,

and able to satisfy the customers then customers will be happy, they buy more goods and

the company will be able to sell more goods and it helps to increase the profit. Similarly,

it helps to increase the sales, to reduce the production costs, and to enhance marketing

and advertising if the customers are fully satisfied with the goods and services provided

by the business company, they refer it to their friends and relatives telling them that they

are satisfied, and this helps to promote marketing and advertising of the business.

Similarly, it helps to improve the goodwill (Ghimire, 2008).

Service quality has stood an importance for the hospitality industry. It has been

identified as one of the most effective means of building a competitive position and

improving organizational performance. Service quality is a focused evaluation that

reflects the customers perception of specific dimensions of service, reliability,

responsiveness, assurance, Empathy, tangibles, satisfaction on other hand, is more

inclusive: it is influenced by perceptions of service quality, product quality, and price as

well as situational factors and personal factors. Service quality affects customer

satisfaction by providing performance For example if we take an example of Mac Donald

restaurants, then the consumers will get food service here, high quality everywhere the

same they like to be in Mac Donalds restaurants. It happens because of the high quality

services. Customers today apprehend a very high general level of service in hospitality,

tourism, and leisure. The accomplishment of competitors in these fields will thus be

actuated by strategies concentrating on quality of services to add value, as argued to

product or price differentiation. Service Quality Management in Hospitality, Tourism and

Leisure focuses approaches and strategies that will augment the distribution of services,

and supplies fair and understandable annotation of theoretical ideas and their practical

operations (Kandampully, Mok & Sparks 2001).

Service quality and customer satisfaction are inarguably the two core concepts in

marketing theory and practice (Spreng & Mackoy, 1996). In todays world of intense

competition, the key to sustainable competitive advantage lies in delivering high-quality

service that will in turn lead to satisfied customers (Shemwell et al., 1998). Customer

satisfaction has become one of the most critical marketing priorities because it is

generally assumed to be a significant determinant of repeat sales, positive word-of-

mouth, and customer loyalty. Total foodservice in the restaurant industry encompasses

both tangible (food and physical facilities) and intangible (employee-customer

interaction) components. A proper combination of the tangible and intangible aspects

should result in a customers perception of high restaurant service quality, which in turn

should lead to attaining customer satisfaction and positive behavioral intention in the

restaurant industry.

There have been mixed findings about the causal direction between service

quality and customer satisfaction. The most common explanation for the difference is that

perceived service quality is described as a form of attitude, a long-run overall evaluation

of a product or service, whereas satisfaction is a transaction-specific evaluation (Bitner,

1990; Cronin & Taylor, 1992; Oliver, 1981; Parasuraman et al., 1988). Based on these

conceptualizations, incidents of satisfaction over time lead to perceptions of service

quality. In contrast, many other researchers empirically supported the influence of

perceived service quality on customer satisfaction (Cronin & Taylor, 1992; Spreg &

MacKoy, 1996; Ting, 2004). For instance, Cronin and Taylor (1992) examined the

conceptualization and measurement of service quality and the relationships among

service quality, consumer satisfaction, and purchase intentions. The findings suggested

that service quality was an antecedent of consumer satisfaction while consumer

satisfaction was not a significant predictor of service quality. Spreg and MacKoy (1996)

also discussed the conceptual arguments behind the distinction, and investigated the

relationship between service quality and satisfaction by testing a modified Oliver's (1993)

satisfaction/service quality model. The results indicated that their modified model fit the

data well when perceived service quality was an antecedent of satisfaction. Moreover,

Lee et al. (2000) examined the direction of causality between service quality and

satisfaction. The findings showed that perceived service quality was an antecedent of

satisfaction, rather than vice versa. Consistent with these findings, Ting (2004) suggested

that service quality better explains customer satisfaction, and the coefficient of the path

from service quality to CS is greater than the coefficient of the path from customer

satisfaction to service quality in the service industry.

The importance of physical surroundings to create an image and to influence

customer behavior is particularly pertinent in the restaurant industry (Hui et al., 1997;

Millman, 1986; Raajpoot, 2002; Robson, 1999; Ryu & Jang, 2008). Since service is

generally produced and consumed simultaneously, the consumer is in the factory, often

experiencing the total service within the propertys physical facility (Bitner, 1992). While

the food and the service should be of acceptable quality, pleasing physical surroundings

(e.g., music) may determine to a large extent the degree of overall satisfaction and

subsequent behavior in the restaurant industry. Since services are mainly intangible and

often require the customer to be present during the process, the physical environment can

have a significant impact on perceptions of the overall quality of the service encounter,

which in turn affects customer satisfaction in the restaurant industry (Bitner, 1990, 1992,

Brady & Cronin, 2001; Kotler, 1973; Parasuraman et al., 1988; Ryu & Jang, 2008).

Bitner (1990) proposed that the physical environment may significantly affect customer's

ultimate satisfaction. Furthermore, Bitner (1992) discussed the effect of tangible physical

environment on overall development of service quality image. She coined the term

SERVICESCAPE to describe the combined effect of all physical factors that can be

controlled by service organizations to enhance customer and employee behaviors.

SERVICESCAPE refers to the built environment or, more specifically, the man-made,

physical surroundings as opposed to the natural or social environment (Bitner, 1992, p.

58). She identified three primary dimensions of the SERVICESCAPE that influence

consumers holistic perceptions of the SERVICESCAPE (i.e., perceived quality) and

their subsequent internal (i.e., satisfaction with the SERVICESCAPE) and external

responses (e.g., approach/avoidance, staying, repatronage). The three dimensions are: (1)

ambient conditions (elements related to aesthetic appeal); (2) spatial layout and

functionality; and (3) signs, symbols, and artifacts. Research suggests a direct link

between physical environment and outcomes such as customer satisfaction (Chang, 2000;

Chebat & Michon, 2003). For instance, Wakefield and Blodgett (1996) examined the

effects of layout accessibility, facility aesthetics, electronic equipment, seating comfort,

and cleanliness on the perceived quality of the SERVICESCAPE. The findings revealed

that perceived quality of physical environment significantly affected a customers

satisfaction in the leisure service setting. In addition, Chang (2000) suggested that

perceived physical environment was a direct indicator of a customers satisfaction,

thereby suggesting that customer satisfaction was directly and positively associated with

aspects of positive approach behaviors. Thus, restaurateurs could potentially have another

tool through which to manage customer satisfaction and positive approach behavior.

Next to be a factor of Customer satisfaction is price where customers perceived a product

greater than what they paid for. Price has been considered a significant component in

explaining consumer behaviors. Perceived price can be described as the customers

judgment about a services average price in comparison to its competitors (Chen, Gupta,

& Rom, 1994, p. 25). The concept of perceived price is based on the nature of the

competitive-oriented pricing approach. This approach focuses on customers concerns

about whether they are being charged more than or about the same as charged by

competitors. Although many researchers have agreed that perceived price is an important

determinant of customers post-purchase behaviors and emphasized the importance of

perceived value, which is highly related to perceived price, in explaining customer

behaviors, little empirical research has investigated the influence of perceived price on

consumer behaviors in the service industry. Deruyter et al. (1997) found that increases in

service quality levels lead to an increase in satisfaction level, and pointed out that low

perceived quality may also result in high service satisfaction. They insisted that

customers may not necessarily buy the highest level of quality service. That is, price,

convenience, and availability may increase customer satisfaction without actually

influencing customer perceptions of service quality. Similarly, in examining the

moderating effect of perceived value in forming customer satisfaction in the service

sector, Caruana, Money, and Berthon (2000) found that perceived value has a significant

moderating role between service quality and satisfaction. Also, additionally, the

interaction between service quality and perceived value explained more of the variance in

satisfaction than the direct influence of either service quality or perceived value on

satisfaction. Many researchers agree that value is highly related to pricecustomers

assess and pay for quality, while the utility of a product/service is based on customer

perceptions of what is received (e.g., service/product) and what is given (e.g., money)

(Caruana et al., 2000; Zeithaml, 1988). Indeed, in the marketing literature, measurement

of perceived value includes price perception. Thus, while no empirical research supports

the influence of customer-perceived price on the relationship between quality and

customer satisfaction in the restaurant industry, since value has a moderating effect in

forming satisfaction, it can be inferred that perceived price also has a significant role in

the relationship between quality and satisfaction. Specifically, when customers perceive

the price to be reasonable, their satisfaction with food quality will increase. In other

words, customers perception of reasonable price intervenes as a moderator variable to

increase the impact of food quality on satisfaction. In addition, customers perception of

reasonable prices in the fast-casual restaurant industry may enhance the effect of quality

of service on customer satisfaction.

Findings on the study of Ryu and Han revealed that customers perceived quality

of food, such as delicious, nutritious, and visually attractive, is a significant predictor of

customer satisfaction, and perceived price moderates the relationship between quality of

food and customer satisfaction. When customers perceive that the price is reasonable,

their satisfaction with food quality can be enhanced. In addition, quality of service

increases customers satisfaction level, and customers perception of the reasonable price

enhances the effect of quality of service on customer satisfaction. Further, when

customers feel that the physical environment reflects quality, such as attractive interior

design/dcor and pleasant music/color/lighting, their satisfaction level increases.

Customers perception of reasonable price also increases the effect of quality of physical

environment on their satisfaction in quick-casual restaurants. Knowledge of the impact of

perceived quality experienced by customers during their service encounter on

retrospective satisfaction can help restaurateurs maximize satisfaction with the

foodservice delivery process. Our results also provide strong support for the causal

relationship from customer satisfaction to behavioral intention.

Customer satisfaction is one of the important determinants on pigar-pigar industry

as tourism driver in night market in Dagupan City. Concluding the above studies, a

satisfied customer would be a possible loyal customer and also a medium of promotion

through word of mouth. Being a local food industry that opens at night, as pigar-pigar

industry could attract customers, those who want to experience pigar-pigar will also

experience the night market, its environment, ambiance, for leisure and entertainment.

Chapter 3


Research Design

The researchers used descriptive research in understanding the pigar-pigar

industry as tourism driver and change the customers satisfaction of pigar-pigar in

Dagupan City. Descriptive research method provides accurate portrayal or account of

characteristics of particular individuals, situations, or groups.

Descriptive research describes and investigates the relationship between variables,

to developmental studies which seek to determine changes over time (James P. Key,

1997). In concept testing, consumer is provided either with a written or a prototype for a

new product or services.

Source of Data

This study involved the Pigar-pigar restaurants in Galvan Street, Dagupan City.

These restaurants were classified as Pigar-pigar restaurants. Particularly, the study

included the customers intention and perception in going in a night market to experience

the Pigar-pigar. There were eleven (11) pigar-pigar restaurants and three hundred fifty-

one (351) customers who participated in the interview. These are the MPC Pigar-pigar,

Auntie Aneth Pigar-pigar, Golden Pigar-pigar Haus, JCV Pigar-pigar, DYLANS Pigar-

pigar, Ty-Ans Pigar-pigar, EB Pigar-pigar, RIZMAR Pigar-pigar, Mylene Pigar-pigar,5

As Pigar-pigar,Sirmot Pigar-pigar. Primary data were collected from an original source as

own experiments, surveys, interviews or observation.

The researchers used a purposive sampling a non-probability sampling in which

decisions concerning the individuals that has the criteria or the qualification to be include

in the sample are taken by the researchers. It also based upon the capacity and the

willingness of the respondents to participate in the research.

The study utilized the purposive sampling method as a tool in determining the

sample size of the respondents from a given population. The sampling method is based on

the probability and non-probability method to be used due to some reasons. Non-

probability method doesn't need for call-back and sampling frame and it is substantially

less cost and time consuming. It also allows the researcher to select samples from a given

population as it is judgmental or purposive type of sampling.

The criteria used in selecting the respondents are:

Must be willing to be interviewed

Must be eating pigar-pigar in Galvan Street on the day of survey

Methods used in collecting data during the study period are mainly using the

observation method, interview method and survey questionnaire. Data on the physical

market setting, market atmosphere and owners are collected by using the observation and

interview method. The researchers gathered respondents who are available during the

time of survey. This study started from July 2014 to September 2014.

Instrumentation and Data Collection

To gather the information that needed the researcher constructed a list of

questions relevant to the study which is called the questionnaire. There are two

questionnaires one is for the pigar-pigar industrys owners profile and businesss profile;

and the other is for pigar-pigar market both its profile and market behavior. After the

questionnaire was validated by the adviser, thesis professor and the dean, the researchers

started to conduct the survey in Galvan Street, Dagupan City. The business owners were

interviewed first. After which, the researchers asked their permission to conduct the

survey among their customers who were willing to be interviewed. They conducted the

survey for five (5) days and after class from 6:00pm 11:00pm.

Tool for Data Analysis

The researchers used the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program

to analyze and interpret data from the survey questionnaires. This program makes it

possible for easier and more convenient review of the vast amount of data present.

Tabular information and graphs were also acquired using SPSS.

Frequency, percentage and weighted mean were the statistical tools used in

analyzing the gathered information. Frequency counts the business owners profile and

the customers profile. The weighted mean was used to measure the level of acceptability

and the level of satisfaction.

This study used the Likert scale which is a psychometric scale commonly used in

questionnaires. A numerical value is assigned to each potential choice. The scale used is

shown below.

Table 3.1 Likert Scale (Level of Acceptability)

Numerical Ranges Description

4.20 - 5.00 Very High Acceptability
3.40 4.19 High Acceptability
2.60 3.39 Moderate Acceptability
1.80 2.59 Low Acceptability
1.00 1.79 Very Low Acceptability

Table 3.2 Likert Scale (Level of satisfaction)

Numerical Ranges Description

4.20 - 5.00 Very High Satisfaction
3.40 4.19 High Satisfaction
2.60 3.39 Moderate Satisfaction
1.80 2.59 Low Satisfaction
1.00 1.79 Very Low Satisfaction

Chapter 4


Profile of Business Owners

Table 4.1 Profile of the Pigar-pigar Owners

Age Frequency Percent
20-30 3 27.3
31-40 3 27.3
41-50 3 27.3
51-60 1 9.1
Unspecified 1 9.1
Male 3 27.3
Female 8 72.7
Educational Attainment
Elementary Level 0 0
Elementary Graduate 0 0
High School Level 0 0
High School Graduate 0 0
College Level 4 36.4
College Graduate 4 36.4
Unspecified 3 27.3

Age. Many (27.3%) business owners are in the age of 20 to 50 and in the age 31

to 40 age bracket.

Gender. The data shows that 72.7% or most of the pigar-pigar restaurants owners

are female and 27.3% or some are male which means females have more desire in putting

up a pigar-pigar restaurants than male.

Educational Attainment. The data shows that 36.4% or many of the business

owners have attained College level and College graduates.

Table 4.2 Profile of the pigar-pigar restaurants

Year of Opening and No. of days Average Average of
Existen Closing Time in a week Customers per Daily Sales
ce open Night In Php
MPC 2 Open 24 7 80 2000
Pigar-Pigar hours

Auntie 4 Open 24 7 37 10000

Aneth Pigar- hours

Golden 6 Open 24 7 40 3000

Pigar-Pigar hours

JCV 4 Open 24 7 80 5000

Pigar-pigar months hours

DYLAN'S 2 Open 24 7 100 5000

Food Haus hours

Ty-An's 10 Open 24 7 70 10000

Pigar-pigar hours

EB 5 3:00:00 pm- 7 40 unspecified

Pigar-pigar 1:00 am
Rizmar 15 4:30:00 pm 7 unspecified 5000
Piga-pigar -6:00 am

Mylene 1 year 5:00:00 pm 7 50 3000

Pigar-pigar and 2 -5:00 am
5 A's 1 5:00:00 pm 7 40 500
Pigar-pigar -5:00 am

Sirmot 11 5:00:00 pm 7 100 5000

Pigar-pigar -5:00 am

Years of Existence. The data shows that many (27.27%) have been in the industry

for ten years already and very few (9%) have been operating for less than a year.

Opening and Closing Time. The data shows that majority (55.55%) of the

respondents are open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Almost half of the other businesses

start as early as 3:00 pm and close at 5:00 am the following day which coincides with the

usual opening and closing time of the night market.

Number of days opened in a week. All the pigar-pigar restaurants are open all

week long.

Average Customers per Night. The average customer per night is 63 customers.

The data shows that the length of the business existence in the industry may not be a

factor in the number of customers each pigar-pigar store usually has.

Average daily sales. The average daily sales range from Php 500 to 10,000.

Overall, a pigar-pgar business average daily sales is Php 5,250.

Profile of the Customers

Table 4.3 Age of the Customers

Age Frequency Percent
15-24 183 52.1
25-34 89 25.4
35-44 52 14.8
45-54 18 5.1
55-64 9 2.6
Total 351 100.0

The majority (52.1%) of the customers of pigar-pigar are 15-24 years old and

many (25.4%) are 25-34 years old. This means that those customers who go and eat

pigar-pigar mostly belong to the young market. This may be attributed to the fact that

these age groups are more active with their night life than the other age groups.

Table 4.4 Gender of the Customers

Gender Frequency Percent
Male 179 51.0
Female 172 49.0
Total 351 100.0

Of the customers surveyed, there was an almost equal number of males and

females. Fifty one percent or half are males and almost half (49%) are females. This

means that both males and females comprise the market for pigar-pigar.

Table 4.5 Employment Status of the Customers

Social Status Frequency Percent
Student 127 36.2
Employee 135 38.5
Business 63 17.9
Unemployed 23 6.8
Retired 2 .6
Total 351 100.0
Most of the customers (38.5%) are employees, while many (36.2 %) are students.

Employees and students eat pigar-pigar after their work or classes.

Table 4.6 Residence of Customers

Frequency Percent

Other Places 214 60.97

Dagupan City 137 39.03

Total 351 100.00

The data shows the percentage of customers who are residents of Dagupan City

and those who reside in other places. A great majority (60.97%) of the customers are

from other places while many (39.03%) are residents of Dagupan City. These non-

resident customers are important to create awareness about the pigar-pigar industry and

which may draw local tourists to Dagupan Citys night market.

Table 4.7 Customers Socio Economic Status

Socio-economic Status Frequency Percent
Upper class 3 .9
Middle Class 117 33.3
Lower Class 231 65.8
Total 351 100.0

Customers who belong to the lower class comprise a great majority (65.8%) while

many (33.33%) belong to the middle class. This shows that pigar-pigar is a food that is

affordable to all socio-economic classes.

Consumer Buying Behavior

Table 4.8 Frequency of buying pigar-pigar in a week

Many times Frequency Percent
Once a week 148 46.7
Twice a week 106 33.4
Thrice a week 4 1.3
Occasionally 34 10.7
Twice a month 24 7.6
Thrice a month 1 .3
Total 317 100.0

The data shows 46.7 % or almost half of the customers buy pigar-pigar once a

week while many (33.4) of the customers buy pigar-pigar twice a week.

Table 4.9 Amount of pigar-pigar usually ordered by the customers

Kilo Frequency Percent
3/4 kilo 13 3.7
1/4 kilo 117 33.3
1/2 kilo 137 39.0
1 kilo 84 23.9
Total 351 100.0

Pigar-pigar is served by , , and 1 kilogram servings. Many of the customers

prefer to order either kilogram or kilogram servings, comprising 33.3% and 39%,

respectively. Some customers or 23.9% order the 1 kilogram serving. These indicate that

customers dine at the pigar-pigar restaurants in groups, as these amounts of servings are

usually good for a group of 2- 8 persons.

Table 4.10 Pigar-pigar Customers Budget

Budget Frequency Percent
P 100 50 14.2
P 200 84 23.9
P 300 56 16.0
P 400 33 9.4
P 500 42 12.0
P 1,000 14 4.0
Unspecified 72 20.5
Total 351 100.0

The data shows that some (23.9 %) of the respondents brought a Php 200 budget

when they go and eat at pigar-pigar restaurants. This is considering that the most ordered

serving of pigar-pigar is and kilogram, which cost around Php100 to 200. This cost

does not include other expenses such as rice and drinks. Customers divide the expenses

among themselves to cover up the cost of pigar-pigar and other expenses. Also, the 20.5%

or few of the respondents who answered unspecified are those who go and eat with a

companion who treat or foot the bill for the group. Others do not know what to answer

or are unwilling to answer.

Table 4.11 The time customers usually go and eat pigar-pigar

Time Frequency Percent
6:00-7:00pm 23 6.6
7:00-8:00pm 61 17.4
8:00-9:00pm 97 27.6
9:00-10:00pm 107 30.5
10:00-11:00pm 60 17.1
11:00 onwards 3 .9
Total 351 100.0
Many (30.5%) of the customers eat at the pigar-pigar restaurants between 9:00-

10:00 pm. This is also about the same time when night markets are at its peak.

Table 4.12 Reasons in going to pigar-pigar restaurant

Reasons Frequency Percent
Local Food 108 30.8
Shopping 30 8.5
Leisure 49 14.0
Social interaction 75 21.4
Local Food & Shopping 11 3.1
Local Food, Shopping and
Leisure 9 2.6
Local Food and Leisure 7 2.0
Shopping and Leisure 1 .3
Local Food and Social 60 17.1
All of the above 1 .3
Total 351 100.0

The data shows 30.8% or many of the customers go and eat pigar-pigar because of

its being a local food. Foods role has generally been considered as functional because it

is required to satisfy physical hunger. However, food is an essential part of tourism.

(Chen, 2013) Experiencing local cuisine like pigar-pigar could help tourists understand

differences between their own culture and the cultures that they have come into contact

with (Hegarty & OMahoney, 2001; Hjalager & Richards, 2002; Williams, 1997). Some

of the customers or 21.4% cite social interaction as their reason for eating at the pigar-

pigar restaurants. Customers are influenced by social factors like reference groups,

family, social role and status (Bakshi 2013). A few or 17.1% considered the food and

social interaction as their reasons. Customers behaviors can also be influenced by their

desire to satisfy both their hunger while having a sense of belongingness and experience

through social interaction while dining. These factors are what the pigar-pigar industry

has to offer as tourism driver of the night market whereby it offers cultural uniqueness in

terms of an affordable food, shopping, leisure and social interaction which is also the

night markets characteristics.

Table 4.13 Level of Acceptability of pigar-pigar in the market

Mean Description
Taste 4.60 VH
Aroma 4.27 VH
Texture 4.19 H
Color 4.16 H
Grand Mean 4.30 VH
Legend: 4.20-5.00 Very High Acceptability; 3.40- 4.19 High Acceptability; 2.60- 3.39
Moderate Acceptability; 1.80- 2.59 Low Acceptability; 1.00- 1.79 Very Low Acceptability

Pigar-pigar has a very high acceptability in terms of taste and aroma and high

acceptability in texture and color. Over all, pigar-pigar has a very high acceptability with

a grand mean of 4.30.

Table 4.14 Level of Satisfaction in pigar-pigar industry

Mean Description
Food 4.60 VH
Location 3.71 H
Time 4.01 H
Ambiance 3.62 H
Facilities 3.20 M
Grand Mean 3.83 H
Legend: 4.20-5.00 Very High Satisfaction; 3.40- 4.19 High Satisfaction; 2.60- 3.39
Moderate Satisfaction; 1.80- 2.59 Low Satisfaction; 1.00- 1.79 Very Low Satisfaction

Food. The level of satisfaction for food served in the pigar-pigar restaurants is

very high with a mean of 4.60. The very high satisfaction in food could be linked to the

acceptability of pigar-pigar among the customers.

Location. As to the location, the customers have a high level of satisfaction with

a mean of 3.71. The way the traders take advantage of the lamp post as a place to tie their

tent extensions and their techniques of using the frames of the tent as armatures to hang

signage, their products, hooks for plastic bags and light are temporary interventions that

reflect a complex spatial practice (Latif, 2012) is the determinant of customers high

satisfaction adding also the cleanliness of the surrounding and it is easily found because

of its popularity and it is near the public market.

Time. The level of satisfaction as to the time when the customers eat at the pigar-

pigar restaurants is very high with a mean of 4.01. This shows that costumers are highly

satisfied with the ability of the businesses to serve them when their need arises.

Ambiance. A mean of 3.62 in ambiance shows that customers are highly satisfied

in the experience of eating pigar-pigar in a lively night environment, where many people

interact while eating in the street.

Facilities. The mean of 3.20 for the pigar-pigar store facilities shows a moderate

satisfaction of the customers. During the interview with the customers for suggestions,

they mentioned that as tourism driver of the night market, the pigar-pigar industry needs

to be provided with better facilities for the comfort and security of the customers.

Overall, pigar-pigar industry has a high satisfaction with a grand mean of 3.83.

Chapter 5



This study aimed to describe the pigar-pigar industry and market as a tourism

driver of the night market in Dagupan City. To achieve this aim, the researchers

conducted survey, interview and observation on both the pigar-pigar industry and its

market. The questionnaire for the pigar-pigar industry shows the profile of both the pigar-

pigar owners and the pigar-pigar businesses; while the questionnaire for the pigar-pigar

market shows pigar-pigar markets socio-demographic and geographic profile (age,

gender, employment status, socioeconomic class, residence), and its behavior (buying

behavior, reasons in going to pigar-pigar restaurant, acceptability of pigar-pigar,

satisfaction level on pigar-pigar industry).

There were eleven pigar-pigar restaurants and three hundred fifty-one customers

who participated in the survey. The researchers used a purposive sampling a non-

probability sampling in which decisions concerning the individuals that has the criteria or

the qualification to be include in the sample (must be willing to be interviewed and must

be eating pigar-pigar in Galvan Street on the day of survey).

Profile of the pigar-pigar industry in Dagupan City

Most of the pigar-pigar restaurants owners are females and many of them are

males which means females have more desire in putting up a pigar-pigar restaurants than

male. Of these business owners, many of the pigar-pigar owners attained college level.

Another many of them are college graduates. Most of them start their business on the age

ranged from 20-30, 31-40, and 41-50.

For the pigar-pigar business, many have been in the industry for ten years already

and very few have been operating for less than a year where majority open 24 hours a

day as early as 3:00 pm and 7 days a week.

As to average daily sales, many of the business owners had an average daily sales

of Php 5,000 while many of the businesses has an average customer of 40, few are and

very few are where this customers go and eat pigar-pigar in groups determined.

Profile of the pigar-pigar market

Majority of the customers of pigar-pigar are 15-24 years old and many are 25-34

years old. However as to gender, there is just one percent difference between the

surveyed female and male. While on employment status. As to their socio-economic

class, a great majority of the customers belong to the lower class and many are in the

middle class. There are a great majority of the respondents are from the other places.

Pigar-pigar Market Behavior

As to buying behavior, almost of the customers eat pigar-pigar once a week and

many of them ordered kilogram servings that is good for 2 to 4 persons with a budget

of Php 200. The pigar-pigar customers also prefer to go and eat pigar-pigar between 9:00-

10:00 at night where the night market is also in its most lively hour where a great

majority of the customers is from other places while many are residents of Dagupan City.

As to the reasons why people go and eat pigar-pigar. The study showed that, many

of the respondents go and eat pigar-pigar for the local food itself. Some go and eat for

social interaction, few for leisure and very few both for local food and social interaction.

These factors are what pigar-pigar industry has to be offered as tourism driver of the

night market whereby it offers cultural uniqueness in terms of an affordable food,

shopping, leisure and social interaction which is also the night markets characteristics.

For the level of acceptability of pigar-pigar in the market, the result shows a very

high acceptability in taste and aroma and high acceptability in texture and color.

As for the satisfaction of the customers on the pigar-pigar industry, the level of

satisfaction on food was very high, while the level of satisfaction for location, time and

ambience was high. On the facilities, the customers level of satisfaction was moderate.


Based on the findings derived from this study, the following conclusions were


A great majority of the pigar-pigar business owned by individuals who attained

college level and those who graduated in college with the majority of them are female,

and a great majority open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Average daily sales is Php 5,250

and the average customer is 63 customers per night.

The majority of the customers are 15 to 24 years old, either male or female. Most

of the customers are employees and many of them are students. A great majority of the

customers are from the other places. Customers who belong to the lower class comprise a

great majority while many belong to the middle class.

Almost half of the customers buy pigar-pigar once a week. Many of the customers

prefer to order either kilogram or kilogram servings. Some of the respondents

brought a Php 200 budget when they go and eat at pigar-pigar restaurants. Many of the

customers eat at the pigar-pigar restaurants between 9:00-10:00 pm. The study shows that

many of the customers go and eat pigar-pigar because of the food itself.

The customers has a very high level of acceptability for pigar-pigar and high

satisfaction in the pigar-pigar industry.


Based on the findings and conclusion, the researchers recommend that:

1. The future researchers should conducted further studies about the pigar-pigar

industry to understand more the nature of the business and its impact to tourism in

Dagupan City.

2. The pigar-pigar industry should upgrade their utilities and think of other

marketing strategies or promotions that would attract more customers and it

would benefit both of the other businesses in the night market and the pigar-pigar


3. The local government of the Dagupan City and the owners of the pigar-pigar

businesses should collaborate to improve the facilities in the industry to increase

the satisfaction of the customers.

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