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University of Louisville

ThinkIR: The University of Louisville's Institutional Repository


Electronic Theses and Dissertations

8-1980

Fluidized bed drying.


James Gerard Gerstle 1957-
University of Louisville

Follow this and additional works at: http://ir.library.louisville.edu/etd

Recommended Citation
Gerstle, James Gerard 1957-, "Fluidized bed drying." (1980). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Paper 491.
http://dx.doi.org/10.18297/etd/491

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FLUIDIZED BED DRYING

By

James Gerard Gerstle


B.S., University of Louisville, 1980

A Thesis
Submitted to the Faculty of the
University of Louisville
Speed Scientific School
as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Professional Degree

MASTER OF ENGINEERING

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

August 1980
FLUIDIZED BED DRYING

Submitted by:
James Gerard Gerstle

A Thesis Approved on

Date

by the Following Reading and Examination Committee:

Thesis Director, H. L. 3. Laukhuf

Melvin J. t1aron

Jame\S c. Watters

ii
ACKNmVLEDGEMENTS

I would like to thank Dr. W. L. S. Laukhuf for his


time and guidance which made the completion of this thesis
easier. Appreciation is also extended to the students
and the faculty of the Chemical and Environmental
Engineering Department, all of whom made my time at the
University of Louisville an enjoyable learning experience.
Thanks go also to my parents and friends whose
support and encouragement made the completion of this
thesis possible. A very special thanks is due to my
mother for typing the thesis.
Finally, I wish to acknowledge the grant-in-aid
provided by the Monsanto Company, and for their assistance
in completing this work.

iii
ABSTRACT

The use of a fluidized bed dryer to dry acrylo-

nitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer was studied. Data for

fluidtzed bed drying were obtained from the Monsanto

Company's fluid bed dryer. Fluid bed theory, drying

phenomena, and fluid bed drying limitations were investi-

gated.

With the theory of fluidization and drying, a

mathematical model of the system was derived and a computer

program to perform the simulation was written. The program

varied temperature of inlet air, humidity of the inlet air,

and inlet air flow rate. The program was run for eight

different operating conditions involving changes in inlet

solid moisture content, outlet solid moisture content, and

inlet solid flow rates.

The model suggests that the Monsanto dryer may have

too short a residence time. The possibility of increasing

the solid flow rate to the dryer was also investigated.

Increasing solid flow rate to the dryer would cause a

significant amount of particle entrainment.

iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

APPROVAL PAGE.................................................................. ii

ACKNOWLEDGEblENTS.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... iii

ABSTRACT.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS.......................................................................... v

NOMENCLATURE- .................................................................................... vii

LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................... xiii

LIST OF FIGURE-S ............................................................................. xiv

I. INTRODUCT ION .................................................................... .. 1

II. FLUIDIZATION ..... 4


A. Fluidization Phenomena ..... 4
B. Properties of the Fluidized Bed .......... . .. . .. . . .. 8

III. DRYING .......................... .. 17


A. Drying Periods. 17
B. Psychrometric Considerations 18
IV. FLUIDIZED BED DRyING ... 24
A. Physical Characteristics. 24
B. Particle Motion ........ 27
C. Heat and Mass Transfer. 28
D. Material and Enthalpy Balance. 39
E. Sunrrnary .. 42

V. MODEL DEVELOP~NT .......................................................... .. 43

VI. DISCUSSION OF RE-SULTS ................... 51


VII. CONCLUSIONS ......................................................... . 67

VIII. RE-CO~NDATIONS ............................... 68

RE-FERE-NCES C I T E D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

BIBLIOGRA.PHY. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

v
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)

Page

APPENDIX A. SAMPLE CALCULATION 74


APPENDIX B. PROGRAM HEAT LISTING 81
APPENDIX C. PROGRA...1I1 HEAT RUN " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
APPENDIX D. PROGRAt1 FLUID LISTING..................... . 87
APPENDIX E. PROGRAM FLUID RUNS........................ 91

VITA. 149

vi
NOMENCLATURE

2
A area of particle available for drying, m

2
A bed surface area, m
s

Ar Archimedes nunilier, dimensionless

b empirical constant, unitless

c empirical constant, unitless

empirical drag coefficient, dimensionless

Cpg specific heat of the gas, cal/gm-OC

-/
C specific heat of dry gas, cal/gm- o C
pL

specific heat of dry solid, cal/gm-OC

C specific heat of the walls, cal/gm-OC


pw

d
n
particle diameter on screen n, m

particle diameter on screen n+l, m

dn average diameter between screen nand n+l, m

harmonic mean diameter, m

d
p
particle diameter, m or ft

d weight mean diameter, m


w

vii
2
diffusivity, cm /sec

exit age distribution

2
g acceleration of gravity, 980 cm/(sec)

conversion factor, 980 gm-cm/(gm-f) (sec)2

minimum fluidization gas mass velocity, Ib/hr-ft .


2

air flow rate, kg air/sec

G air flow rate, kg dry air/sec


s

h expanded bed height, m

2 o
heat transfer coefficient, cal/cm -sec- c

ho packed bed height, m

HGI enthalpy of inlet gas at T , cal/kg dry gas


GI

HG2 enthalpy of outlet gas at T , cal/kg dry gas


G2

HLI enthalpy of inlet solid at T , cal/kg dry solid


LI

HL2 enthalpy of outlet solid at T , cal/kg dry solid


L2

t.HA integral heat of wetting at To' cal/kg dry solid

K gas thermal conductivity, cal/cm-sec-oC

bed height at minimum fluidization, cm

solid flow rate kg dry/sec

viii
m empirical constant, unit1ess

rate of evaporation of liquid from the solid surface,


kg/sec

molecular weight of liquid, kg/kg mole

molecular weight of gas, kg/kg mole

n empirical constant, unit1ess

Nu Nusse1t number, dimensionless

partial pressure of liquid vapor at a given


temperature, Pa

total pressure, Pa

pressure drop, gm/cm2


Pr Prandt1 number, dimensionless

Q heat, ca1/sec

Q heat to evaporate H2 0, ca1/sec


1

Q heat to raise temperature of H20, ca1/sec


2

Q heat to raise temperature of solid, ca1/sec


3

Q total heat required for drying, ca1/sec


4

Q heat loss, ca1/sec


s
Q per cent heat loss, unit1ess
6

r radius of particle, m

ix
Re particle Reynolds number, dimensionless

SA cross-sectional area of the equipment, m2

Sc Schmidt number, dimensionless

Sh Sherwood number, dimensionless

t time, sec

tc time at the critical moisture content, sec

TAIR ambient air temperature, K

Ti interfacial temperature, K

To reference temperature, K

TG gas temperature, K

TG log-mean temperature of the gas, K

TGI ,T inlet gas temperature, K


3

TG2 ,T 4 outlet gas temperature, K

TLI,T I inlet solids temperature, K

TL2 ,T 2 exit solids temperature, K

u superficial gas velocity, cm/sec

umf minimum fluidization velocity, cm/sec

ut terminal velocity of a falling particle, cm/sec

x
Vg volume of gas, cm 3

3
vs volume of particles I m

Vv total volume of bed, m3

Wg mass weight of bed, kg

Ww mass weight of the walls, kg

x moisture content, kg moisture/kg dry solid

-x average moisture content, kg moisture/kg dry


solid

Xc critical moisture content, kg moisture/kg dry solid

Xl initial moisture content, kg moisture/kg dry solid

x2 final moisture content, kg moisture/kg dry solid

X(t) drying rate curve

YI inlet humidity (air) I kg H20/kg dry air

Y2 outlet humidity (air) I kg H20/kg dry air

Y absolute humidity, kg/kg

z direction of diffusivity, cm

Z hold-up of material in the dryer, kg

xi
GREEK LETTERS

bed V01Od age, m3/m3

bed voidage at minimum fluidization, m3/m 3

e gas temperature, c

Ao heat of vaporization at Ti' cal/kg H 0


1 2

Ao heat of vaporization at To' cal/kg H 2 0

viscosity of the gas, gm/cm-sec

density of gas, grn/cm 3

density of solid particles, grn/cm 3

T mean residence time in the dryer, sec

sphericity of the particle, dimensionless

weight fraction of diameter an

xii
LIST OF TABLES

TABLE Page

I. SUM..MARY OF CONDITIONS FOR PROGPAH RUNS 52


II. SUMMARY OF MONSANTO OPERATING CONDITIONS . 53

III. VARIATIONS OF EXPANDED BED HEIGHT (in


meters) BETWEEN RUNS AND DATA SETS .......... 64
IV. INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR DATA SET 1 ............. 92

V. INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR DATA SET 2 . . . . . . . 93


VI. INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR DATA SET 3 94
VII. INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR DATA SET 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

VIII. INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR DATA SET 5 96

IX. INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR DATA SET 6 97

X. INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR DATA SET 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

XI. INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR DATA SET 8 99


XII. THE UNITS FOR THE PROGRAM FLUID RUNS . 100

xiii
LIST OF FIGURES

Page

1. TYPES OF FLUIDIZED BEDS............................ 5

2. GRID RESISTANCE ~ 13

3. THE DETERMINATION OF THE INCIPIEUT FLUIDIZATION


VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF GRID RESISTANCE 14

4. STEADY STATE DRyING................................ 19

5. TYPICAL RATE-OF-DRYING CURVE 20

6. ABBREVIATED PSYCHOMETRIC CHART 21

7. TYPICAL FLUIDIZED BED DRYER CONFIGUPATION 25

8. HEAT AND MASS MOVEMENT WITHIN AN INDIVIDUAL


FLUIDIZED PARTICLE................................. 29

9. MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCE DIAGRAM 40

10. PSYCHOMETRIC CHART AS USED FOR DETERMINING


OPERATING TEMPERATURES............................. 45

11. COMPARISON OF DATA SETS WITH


Y1 = .001 kg/kg AND TG1 = 377.4 K 56

12. COMPARISON OF DATA SETS WITH


Y1 = a a 1 kg/k g AND T G1 = 38 8 6 K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

13. COMPARISON OF DATA SETS WITH


Y1 = . a 01 kg/kg AND T G1 = 399. 7 K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

14. Cor1PARISON OF DATA SETS WITH


Y1 = a 214 kg /k g AND T G1 = 377. 4 K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

15. Cm1PARISON OF DATA SETS WITH


Y1 = .0214 kg/kg AND TG1 = 388.6 K. . 60

16. COMPARISON OF DATA SETS HITH


Y1 = .0214 kg/kg AND TG1 = 399.7 K 61

xiv
I. INTRODUCTION

The fluidized bed has become widely used in drying

systems in recent years. Fluidized bed dryers have been

used for drying granular materials, pastes, solutions,

suspensions, and molten materials in both a batch and a


l
continuous dryer

In a fluidized bed dryer the bed is composed

of the moist material to be dried with the fluidizing

medium being hot gas. High heat and mass transfer rates

are encountered due to the intimate contact between the

hot gas and the solids. When unbound moisture is present,

Jthe high heat transfer rates result in an instantaneous


2
evaporation , causing a rapid fall in the gas temperature

above the grid of the dryer as well as a decrease in

particle temperature. The rapid heat transfer allows for

higher inlet gas temperatures when drying temperature

sensitive materials 3

The mixing of the solids within the bed approaches

ideality4. The solid particles are in a state of unin-

hibited motion. All particles have access to any part of

the dryer at any point in time, limited only by the flow

of gas. The efficient mixing of the solid particles gives

a high degree of uniformity in the moisture content of the

eX1' t 'lng so I'd


1 s5 The air velocity is extremely important

since it determines the degree of fluidization. The

I
2

velocity must be greater than that required for incipient

fluidization and below the point that would promote major

entrainment. The velocity must also be low enough so as

not to promote bubbling or slugging within the bed. The

air velocity used is a function of particle size and


particle density. The particle size distribution of the

outlet stream is almost identical to that of the inlet due


to "air cushioning" between the particles.
While fluidized bed dryers have many advantages
6
when used in continuous operation, there are special , 7

problems that may make the dryer difficult to operate.

The particles must be able to be fluidized at realistic

air flow rates. The particles must have a relatively small

range of particle sizes to minimize entrainment and maxi-

mize moisture content uniformity. The drying of particles

with long falling-rate curves is extremely difficult in

fluidized bed dryers. Due to large pressure drops across

the distributor, bed, and cyclones, a large power require-

ment for the blower is encountered. Finally there has

been to date no proven method for scale-up from pilot plant

size.

The Monsanto Company produces acrylonitrile-

butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS) at their Port Plastics

Plant in Addyston, Ohio. It is dried in a fluidized bed

dryer. The performance of the dryer has not been adequate

in that the desired product moisture content has not been

reached. This may be due to the characteristics of the


3

particle, inadequate design, or improper operation condi-

tions. The objective of this study is to examine fluidized

bed drying and to present a preliminary mathematical model

of a continuous fluid bed dryer to substantiate the opera-

tion of Monsanto's dryer.


II. FLUIDIZATION

A fluidized bed is a process which contains solid

particles through which a fluid is passed and the bed is in

a state which attains properties similar to those of fluids.

The velocity of the fluid, when a gaseous fluidizing media

is used, must be slightly higher than the minimum fluidizing

velocity (in all further discussion the fluid will be a gas).

A. Fluidization Phenomena

The velocity of the air passing through the bed of

solids will determine the state of the bed as shown in

Figure 1. At low gas flow rates, the gas passes through

the void areas of the bed without disturbing any of the

particles; this is a fixed bed (Figure lA) .

With an increase in the gas flow rate the particles

within the bed begin to move; this is an expanded bed. By

continuing to increase the flow rate of the gas, the

pressure drop across the bed increases; when the frictional

drag between the particle and gas becomes equal, the

pressure drop will level off


a. At this point the bed is

said to be at minimum fluidization with the velocity of the

fluid being the incipient fluidization velocity or minimum

fluidization velocity (Figure lB). If the air flow rate is

increased above the minimum fluidization velocity, the bed

will continue to expand in a smooth manner. The particles

within the bed begin to intermix and freely traverse the

4
5

~
1
I
I
I

___~~~~v 1

,',
. .. '.' .... : .' -'f'..
_. ... .. ..... 1

... ....
I

.' ,
.... :'.::<
; '.
.,
':1
I

.
.' , "
.. '. '.,
. .... :.1
,. ... . "., -.
... ': )1/
. ..... . ..... ..:::
: . . . . . . . . .' #

, , '

'.~
'1
1
1

____~~~~~~~Jv
I
I

...
,
.. ...
' . : 0.
..... I
. i "-
.. . "
I

..... 1
I

.. . .. .. .... ......
.'
'
'
'.' .' I
' ~
~
/
6

area within the bed. When the bed has a clearly defined

upper limit, the fluidized bed is said to be a dense-phase


9
fluidized bed (Figure Ie).

As the gas flow rate increases so does the height

of the bed. When the height of the bed is greater than the

container, the particles are carried over by the gas and

the particles are said to be entrained.

A fluidized bed is usually operated between the

incipient fluidization velocity and the entrainment

velocity. Optimal conditions exist when the concentration

of solid particles is uniform throughout the bed and


lO
constant with time . If there is a major difference in

the densities of the solid and gas, there may be a minimum

number of conditions at which adequate fluidization may be

attained. In using gas as the fluidizing medium for

fluidization, the gas velocity is not much greater than

that of the incipient fluidizing velocity, and only


ll
certain materials will be able to be properly fluidized

due to size distribution, shape factor, density,

suitability, etc.

As the flow rate is increased beyond the minimum

fluidization point, large instabilities within the bed

are often encountered. The system is then said to be an

aggregative fluidized bed and will have such instabilities

as bubbling and channeling of the gas. If the flow rate

is increased even higher, the rates of agitation will

become very violent and the movement of the solid will


7

be vigorous.

Aggregative fluidized beds are only of theoretical

interest, and for the purpose of drying of solids, these

conditions should be avoided since the quality of fluidiza-


.
t10n f a 11 s d ur1ng
. .
aggregat1ve f lU1
' d 1zat1on
. . 12 As the

quality of fluidization declines, gas bubbles begin to

form within the fluidized bed. When the bubbles reach a

size much larger than the suspended particles, but smaller

than the dimensions of the vessel, the bed is said to be

bubbling (Figure lD). Factors that cause a bubbling bed

are air velocity, bed geometry, gas distributor, and the

vessel internals 13 . If the size of the bubbles equals

the whole cross-section of the containing vessel, the bed

is then considered a slugging bed (Figure 15). The

phenomenon of slugging is usually enhanced by vessel

geometry. Slugging is particularly undesirable since

entrainment of the particle becomes a major problem and

the performance potential has been lowered.

Theoretically, by increasing the flow rate of the

gas a fluidized bed would exhibit each of the phenomena

shown in Figure 1. At increasing flow rates the amount of

solids entrained would increase and would lower the particle

concentration within the bed (assuming batch or constant

inlet solid flow rate for a continuous bed). As the con-

centration is lowered the bed is no longer a dense phase

fluidized bed, but instead it is now considered a dilute

phase fluidized bed (Figure IF) .


8

B. Properties of the Fluidized Bed

A fluidizable material may have particles of the

same size or with a distribution of sizes. If a material

has a large size distribution, fluidization in the dense

phase becomes difficult since entrainment of the smaller

particles will occur at operating conditions. In analyzing

the characteristics of the diameters of the particles, a

screen analysis is often used. An arithmetic average is

used to determine the diameter of the particle between two

screens:

dn ( 1)

where d is the average diameter between screen nand n+l,

d n is the particle diameter on screen n, and d + is the


n l
particle diameter on screen n+l. When considering non-

spherical particles, usually the second largest dimension

of the particle is used.

For calculation purposes a single quantity must be

determined as the characteristic diameter of the particle.

In fluidization engineering two characteristic diameters


14
have been used for different calculations . These are:

the weight mean diameter

r!let> n d n
dw = ( 2)
9

and the harmonic mean diameter

~= ( 3)

where ~~n is the weight fraction of diameter dn. For some

calculations, ranges of particle diameters are used whe~.

more detailed considerations must be employed.

Another fundamental property of the fluidized bed

is the minimum fluidization velocity. The onset of

fluidization occurs when:

drag force of )
( fluidizing gas
=( weight of
particle
) (4 )

since

drag force of ) = (pressure drOP)\ (cross-sectional ) (5)


( fluidizing gas across bed area of container

and

Substitute equations (5) and (6) into equation (4) and

express in symbolic logic yields:

( 7)

where

W = weight of bed in kg
10

2
llP = pressure drop gm/cm
2
= cross-sectional area of container in cm

= bed height at minimum fluidization in cm

e: mf = bed voidage at minimum fluidization,

dimensionless

Ps = density of solid particles in gm/cm3


3
Pg = density of gas in gm/cm
2
g = acceleration of gravity, 980 crn/(sec)

gc = conversion factor, 980 gm cm/gm


(sec)2

Several correlations have been derived with equation

(7) as the basis. Kunii and Levenspiel lS proposed for


small Reynolds numbers:

(8)

where

u = minimum fluidization velocity in cm/sec


mf
~
s
= sphericity of the particle, dimensionless

~ = viscosity of the gas in gm/cm sec

Re = particle Reynolds number, dimensionless

and for large Reynolds numbers:

2 ~s d Ps - P g 3
u
mf = 1. 75p Pg
ge:
mf
Re > 1000
I
(9 )
11

Wen and Yu 16 further simplified equations (8) and (9)


through the following correlations:

1 - E
1
---""'"3 ~ 14 and -""'"2-...:;m;,:.;f~3 ,;; 11 (10)
CPs Emf CPs Emf

equations (8) and (9) now become:


for small Reynolds numbers:

( 11)

and for large Reynolds numbers:

dp(ps - Pg}g.
=
24.SPg- , Re > 1000 (12)

Equations (11) and (12) have been found accurate over a wide
range of Reynolds numbers with a standard deviation of
34%17. Leva 18 proposed the following correlation based
on gas mass velocity:

)}0.94
= 688 d 1.82 Pg Ps - P g ,
( 13)
p 0.88
11

where

Gmf = minimum fluidization gas mass velocity in


lb/hr-ft 2
dp = particle diameter in ft
12

3
p
s = particle density in lb/ft
~ = gas viscosity in centipoises

The most accurate estimation of the minimum fluidiza-

tion velocity is through empirical methods. As stated

before, at fluidization the pressure drop across the bed

remains constant (Figure 2, line a). However, the grid -.


resistance continues to increase with gas velocity (line b).

Combining the effects of lines a and b, the total effect is

line c and the minimum fluidization velocity may be deter-

mined. When plotted on log-log coordinates (Figure 3), the

minimum fluidization velocity may be extrapolated with

greater accuracy. Other less accepted methods involve bed

voidage and/or bed height.

The minimum fluidization velocity determines the

lowest gas flow possible, and the velocity of gas which

causes entrainment of the solids is the upper gas velocity

limit. The upper limit to gas flow rate may be approximated

by the terminal velocity of the particle. From fluid

mechanics the terminal velocity is given by:

4g d (p - p ) ~
p s g (14)

where u is the terminal velocity of a falling particle in


t
cm/sec and Cd is an experimentally determined drag coeffici-

ent (dimensionless). Various correlations may be made

between the ratio of the terminal velocity and the minimum


13

/
b

ilP

o
u

FIGURE 2. GRID RESISTANCE


--- - - ~.;;;;----------------------

Log liP

U
mf Log U

FIGURE 3. THE DETERMINATION OF THE INCIPIENT FLUIDIZA'rION ~


VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF GRID RESISTANCE
15

fluidization velocity2l, but adequate substantiation of

these ratios has yet to be proven.

By changing the operating velocity, the porosity or

bed voidage will also be changed. The bed voidage is the

ratio of the volume of free space in the bed to the total

volume of the bed. Thus porosity may be described by the

following equation:

(IS)

where

E = bed voidage
Vv = total volume of bed in m3
3
V = volume of particles in m
s
Z = hold-up of material in the dryer ,in kg

For a cylindrical bed

(16)

where

SA = cross-sec t '
~ona 1 area 0f th e .
equ~pmen t ;n m2

h = exoanded bed height in m

If ho = Z/SAPs for a given operation condition, with ho


- ,
the packed bed height at this condition, equation (15)

becomes
h
o
E = 1 -
h (17)
16

If numerous run conditions are not available, then the bed

voidage may be calculated from the Todes, Goroshko, and


22
Rozenbaum correlation :

= Ar- 2l (18 Re + .36 Re 2 ) 0.21 (18)

where Ar is the dimensionless Archimedes number:

(18a)

The main value of the porosity calculation is for

the calculation of the height of the bed. It should be

noted that under run conditions the bed voidage will vary

with bed location and time.


III. DRYING

The purpose of drying a solid is to remove a liquid

by converting the liquid to a vapor which may easily be

separated from the solid. The energy for the conversion of

liquid to vapor is, in a majority of cases, thermal energy.

Heat is transferred predominately by conduction and con-

vection with a minor degree of radiation.

During the thermal drying process two types of

transport phenomena are occurring simultaneously: (l) heat

is transferred to the solid to raise the solid temperature

and evaporate moisture; (2) mass is transferred from inside

the particle to the particle surface and then evaporated.

The drying rate is determined by how fast these two

processes occur. The specifics of heat and mass transfer


will be discussed in the Fluidized Bed Drying section.

The actual drying rate of a material must be determined

empirically; it cannot be predicted theoretically23.

A. Drying Periods

The rate of drying is usually determined from a


24
drying test . A number of drying runs are to be made in a

piece of equipment similar to the type of dryer proposed.

Several variables are used to determine the optimum

conditions for the drying of the solid, namely: temperature,

air flow, material characteristics, and air humidity. For

a given set of conditions a curve of moisture content as a

17
18

function of time is plotted (Figure 4).

The data obtained from an experimental run are

usually converted into rates of drying for better clarifi-

cation of the drying characteristics of the particles

involved. Rates of drying (N) are expressed in kg moisture

evaporated/(sec) (m 2 ), and plotted against moisture content

(Figure 5). A majority of materials are surface-set and

will show three distinct regions in the drying-rate-curve.

The initial region is section AB where the material is

warming up; section BC where the rate of drying is constant;

and section CD where the rate of drying decreases. Section

BC of the curve is referred to as the period of constant

drying where the unbound surface moisture is evaporated.


Section CD is referred to as the' falling drying rate

vlhere bound moisture, internal and unsaturated surface

moisture, is removed. Point C, where the constant rate

ends and the falling rate begins, is termed the critical


moisture content.

B. Psychrometric Considerations

As previously stated, heat and mass transfer occur

simultaneously during the thermal process of drying. The

actual quantities of air required to remove the evaporated

moisture may be determined from psychrometric charts.

Psychrometric charts for a variety of gas liquid combina-

tions are available. The most common psychrometric chart is

that for the air-water system (Figure 6). Psychrometric

charts for other components are similar with only the


19

'0
.-j
..-l
0
Ul

>t
I-l
'0
tJl
~ C
.........
(])
I-l
::s
+J
Ul
.-j

~
tJl
~

o Time

FIGURE 4. STEADY STATE DRYING


20

~
s
. 0
~

".
00

~
m C B
~
~

~
~
A
~
~
.~
~
~
0
~
0
~
~
m
~

o D
kg moisture/kg dry solid

FIGURE 5. TYPICAL RATE-OF-DRYING CURVE


21

0 (.:r 1"l? l~p 6~/~Odl?A ~o+l?M D~)


N
~
r--l l+1"P1"WTIH o+nTosqv
0

0
s:: 0
0 ~
-r-!
+J
/1j
1-1
::s
+J
/1j OJ
en :>
1-1
o ::s
-r-! 0
+J
/1j
..0
/1j
-r-!
'0
< ~
<
::z::
C,)

C,)
H
OT ~
8
'~
0
::z::
C,)
:.t:: ~
CIl
'Ill
OJ
1-1 0
::s r.:I
+J 8
/1j
1-1
<
H
OJ :>
~ ~
OJ III
8
~

~
:::>
t!)
H
1%.1

.:ql? po+l?~n+l?s ;0 ldTl?tpU:3:


22

values changing. The following are definitions important

in psychrometry.
Absolute humidity is the ratio of the mass of vapor

to mass of vapor free gas.

(19)

where

Y = absolute humidity in (Kg/Kg)

p
A
= partial pressure 'of water vapor at a given

temperature in pascals

P
t
= total pressure in pascals

M = molecular
A
weight of liquid in Kg/Kg mole

Ms = molecular weight of gas in Kg/Kg mole

In psychrometric charts absolute humidity is plotted against

dry-bulb temperature.

Dew point is the temperature to which a vapor-gas


mixture must be cooled (at constant humidity) to become

saturated. Adiabatic-saturation curves are essentially

linear curves on the psychrometric chart which start at the

saturation curve and continue to the right. These lines

correlate the fact that when air of a given humidity cools

adiabatically in contact with water at the adiabatic satura-

tion temperature of the air, its humidity increases; the

fall in temperature and the rise in humidity follows the

path of the adiabatic cooling lines. The adiabatic cooling

curves assume that the system is 100% adiabatic and that the
23

latent heat of evaporation may be accounted for completely

by the temperature drop of the air stream with the

adiabatic saturation temperature of the air stream being

constant. However, heat losses are incurred in drying

operationsi therefore, the adiabatic cooling lines simply

give a rough approximation of actual operating conditions.


IV. FLUIDIZED BED DRYING

Fluidized bed dryers are designed such that a hot

gas enters at the base of the bed, passes through a distribu-

tor plate, and then into the bed of solids. Each particle

is completely surrounded by the gas and has free

movement throughout the bed - causing instantaneous mixing.

Due to the complete mixing the temperature of the bed


26
becomes uniform . Fluidized bed dryers may be either batch

or continuous; for the purposes of this paper, only the

continuous process will be discussed.

A. Physical Characteristics

The design of a fluidized bed dryer for a continuous

process is similar to the design encountered in fluid

systems. The structure of the bed (Figure 7) is usually a

cylindrical column with an overflow discharge pipe for a

dried solids outlet, a perforated grid for gas distribution,

and cyclones at the gas exit to reclaim the entrained

solids.

The system described above has some unique charac-

teristics which both enhance and deter the use of fluidized

bed drying. One such characteristic is the uniformity of

temperature throughout the fluidized bed dryer, except for


27
a small region immediately above the grid . In the case of

heat-sensitive material the uniform bed temperature is an

advantage since the temperature may easily be held below a

24
25

to cyclones to remove fines

entrained fines

wet material feeder


"

.' ....: .'


,
.. ,t '
..... \ t'
. r---------J
,

"
.
, .......

. ,
>' . .,' .
... ~ ,
----
" - ----------------

outlet dry material

inlet drying gas

FIGURE 7. TYPICAL FLUIDIZED BED DRYER CONFIGURATION


26

certain value. But in all other cases the uniform

temperature reduces any desirable counter-current thermal


28
interchange effect . Thus, a single fluidized bed dryer

exhibits an almost ideal co-current arrangement with the

temperature of the outlet gas approaching the temperature

of the outlet particle stream.

Due to the thorough intermixing of solid particles

within the bed the drying times of individual particles


are not equal, resulting in both underdried and

overdried particles in the discharge. The moisture content

of the product stream must be expressed as an average

moisture content. In the case of heat-sensitive materials,

it may be difficult to obtain a uniform low moisture content

of the outlet solids. For accurate control of product

moisture content, multi-stage counter-current fluidized beds


29
should be employed . Attrition of the solid and erosion

of the containing surfaces may also be caused through inter-


. . 30
mlX1ng

A fluidized bed unit is commonly selected when floor

space is limited. The possibility of mUltiple units in a

staged or stacked arrangement can offer significant savings

in terms of floor area and can minimize external conveying

equipment requirements.

If the drying system must be isolated from the

atmosphere, the lack of rotating seals or moving parts can

be quite advantageous. The lack of moving parts in a

fluidized bed dryer is beneficial in troublesome maintenance


27

areas. The fluidized bed dryer has a noticeable lack of

trunnion rolls, tires, open gearing, chain drives, and

moving internal and external parts of all kinds. It should

also be noted that due to its compact size and relatively

light weight, it is a unit which can be fabricated in alloy

materials without burdensome costs 31

B. Particle Motion

Once the bed has been sufficiently expanded, the

particles tend to move as individual elements rather than

in bulk. Since each particle moves independently the time

of drying may vary from particle to particle. Some

particles may travel directly to the exit and leave undried

or may be retained for a time much longer than is required

for adequate drying.

within the dryer some of the gas moves through

rapidly in the form of bubbles 32 , with the conditions for

heat and mass transfer unfavorable. The gas has a

uniform moisture content, while the particles have

different moisture contents throughout the bed.

Profiles for residence time distributions and flow

characteristics have been developed and confirmed for

fluidized bed operations. weekman 33 modeled a continuous

fluid bed reactor in which complete backmixing of the solids

in the reactor and plug flow of the gas phase were assumed.

The assumption of complete backmixing of solids has been

verified for large scale commercial equipment. Plug flow

of the gas phase has not been proven; in fact, this concept
28

has been the subject of investigation. Kunii and Leven-


34
spia1 proposed the bubbling bed model of gas flow through

a fluidized bed. In their model, the gas flow is seen as

uniformly sized bubbles rising through an emulsion of

downward moving solids. This model has been confirmed with

experimental data in batch fluidization. However, in a

fluidized bed dryer the solids are fed into the bed continu-

ously, but the assumption of plug flow of the gas phase (at

high velocity) is also reasonable. The average moisture

content of the reactor in the exit stream is predicted by35

00

x = Jo X(t) E(t) dt ( 20)

where
-
x = average moisture content in Kg moisture/Kg dry
material

X(t) = drying rate curve

E(t) = exit age distribution

36
For backmix flow of the sOlids :

E(t) = .!e-
T
t/T
( 21)

where T is the mean residence time is the dryer in sec.

C. Heat and Mass Transfer

As previously stated, drying is an operation involv-

ing simultaneous heat and mass transfer for evaporation of


29

\

A C

Drying Gas

FIGURE 8. HEAT AND MASS MOVEHENT HITHIN AN

INDIVIDUAL FLUIDIZED PARTICLE


30

moisture. In the fluidized bed a hot gas is used to enhance

heat and mass transfer. Since the total surface area of the

particle is available for heat and mass transfer, the

maximum amount of transfer may take place at a given

temperature and gas flow rate. The heat required for

evaporation is supplied to the particle (Figure 8) by

convection from the gas (point C) to the particle surface

(point B) and then by conduction to the inside of the

particle (point A). Mass in the form of moisture is trans-

ported in the opposite direction. Hoisture moves from

the inside of the particle (point A) to the surface of the

particle (point B) as either a liquid or vapor; at the

surface (point B) the moisture is evaporated, if still


liquid, and then passed by convection to the drying gas

(point C). The driving force for heat transfer is

temperature differences. The driving force for mass

transfer is given by partial pressure or concentration

di fferences .

Extensive studies on heat and mass transfer in

fluidized beds have been documented experimentally. Host

studies report models for heat and mass transfer as correla-

tions of dimensionless numbers of the form:

Nu = b Rem (22)

and
n
Sh = c Re (23)
31

where

Nu = Nusselt number, dimensionless

Sh = Sherwood number, dimensionless

b, c, m, n = experimentally determined constants

The heat transfer model is based on a heat balance


37
around the bed and includes the heat entering and
exiting the expanded bed, the heat given up to the bed

solids, the heat given up in heating the reactor walls,

and the heat exchanged in mixing the fluid in the expanded

bed. For the heat transfer model the following assumptions


38
are made :

1. The temperature change of the bed with time is

essentially a first-order response.

2. Wall effects are neglected.

3. There is thorough intermixing of the solids.


4. The model does not account for a difference in

aggregative or particulate fluidization.

5. The bed particles are in thermal equilibrium with

the surrounding fluid.

6. The bed temperature is constant with time.

7. The exit gas temperature is equal to the temperature

of the exiting particles. The solids are discharged

at the upper limit of the expanded bed.

8. The gas inlet temperature is constant and the

initial bed temperature is referenced to zero.


32

The heat balance is of the form:

(Heat into')\ _ Heat in)' (Heat to \ + ( H7a~ in)\ + (Heat to \


: bed ( effluent = bed SOlidS! ml.xl.ng walls J
\

(24)

where
SA - cross-sectional area of the equipment in m2

u = superficial gas velocity in cm/sec

C
pg
= specific heat of the gas in cal/gm - c
TGI = inlet gas temperature in c
8 = gas temperature in c

t = time in seconds
2
h = heat transfer coefficient in cal/cm - sec - c
g
IV
g = mass weight of gas in gm

Cpw = the heat capacity of the wall in cal/gm - c


Ww = mass weight of the walls in gm
A = area of particle available for drying in m2

Utilizing equation (24) Pfafflin has derived the

following correlation:

cps ws
h (25 )
g
33

The amount of heat given up by the walls has been found to

be negligible and is therefore neglected. To simplify

equation (23) both sides are multiplied by (dp~/kg) and

after rearrangement produces:

{.26 )

where

dp = particle diameter in cm
~ = gas viscosity in grn/cm-sec
K = gas thermal conductivity in cal/cm - sec c

In dimensionless forms equation (26) is

Nu Pr (c W
Cps Ws
ps s + C pg Wg
) (27)

where

Nu = Nusselt number, dimensionless

Re = Reynolds number, dimensionless

Pr = Prandtl number, dimensionless

In air fluidized systems the term C W may be


pg g
neglected since it is much smaller than C W (for air
ps s
sys t ems P r = 0 72 1S
' aI t
so a cornmon '10n 39) , wh'1Ch
assump

further simplifies equation (27) to:

SA
Nu = A
Re Pr (28)
34

Numerous correlations have been reported from experimental

data. The following are some of the better documented

correlations:

40 0.054 ReI. 28 (29)


Richardson and Ayers Nu =
4l
Kettering, Manderfield, Smith Nu = 0.0125 ReI. 30 (30)
. 142 0.3 ReI. 30
Kunii and Levensp1a Nu = E31)
43
Lemlich and Caldas Nu = 0.055 Re (32)
44 I.17
Juvenland, Deinken, Dougherty Nu = 0.063 Re ( 33)

The results varied from investigator to investigator, partly

because of the difficulty in measuring gas and solid

temperatures. The use of thermocouples was often employed

and it was often difficult to determine whether the

temperature measured was the gas temperature, the solids

temperature, or some intermediate temperature. Juvenland,


45
et al ,attempted to avoid the confusion in temperature

reading by installing an optical pyrometer for the solids

temperature and a high-speed thermocouple probe placed

downstream from the bed to measure gas temperature.

A mass transfer model may be developed using a

similar approach as that of the heat transfer model. Again

some initial assumptions must be made in addition to the

assumptions made for the heat transfer model. These


46
assumptions are :

1. The diffusion rate within the particle is not high.

2. The materials are nonreactive.

3. The concentration of particles within the gas is


35

constant throughout the bed.

4. The change in concentration with time in the exit

solid is a first-order response.

5. The moisture content of the exit stream is the

same as the majority of the bed with the exit

stream at the top of the bed.

6. The moisture content of the incoming solids is

constant with time.

The mass balance will be of the form:

Mass into)_(Mass out )' =('Mass transferred\+(Mass transferred)


( system of system from bed ) in fluid mixing

(34)

where
3
= initial moisture content in g/cm
3
x2 = final moisture content in g/cm

x = moisture content
V = volume of gas in cm 3
g

Equation (34) may be modified by taking into account the

change in the bed solid volume:

V dx + V dx (35)
s g

3
where Vs is the solid volume in cm . Using equations (34)

and (35) Kettering has derived the following correlation:


36

SA Vs
Sh = lr Re Sc V + V (36)
S g

where Sh is the Sherwood number and Sc is the Schmidt

number. Correlations similar to those developed for heat

transfer (equations (29-33 have also been developed for

mass transfer:

47
Romankov and Lepilkin

Sh = 46.25 x 10- 6 Re 1.67 (37)

Richardson and szekely48

Sh = 0.374 Re l 18 for .1 < Re < 15 ( 38)

Richardson and Szekely:

5
Sh = 2.01 Re for 15 < Re < 250 (39)

As discussed in the drying section there are two

distinct regions of drying rates: the constant rate and the

falling rate. During the constant rate period, surface

moisture is being evaporated. Here the rate of drying is

independent of the moisture level and is defined by the


49
heat transfer equation as

dm
m = dt = -h A(T - T.)I)'.
g G 1. 1.
(40)
-----------

37

where
.
m = rate of evaporation of liquid from the solid
surface, k g/hr
2
A = area available for drying, m
T.1. = interfacial temperature, K

TG = gas temperature, K
A.1. = heat of vaporization at T i' kca1;kg

If the particles are of constant size (spheres with radius


r in m), the area available for heat transfer for a single
particle is:

( 41)

then the mass of liquid in the particle is defined by:

xp (42)
s

3
where Ps is the dry density of the particles in kg/m
In differential terms, with respect to time, equa-
tion (42) becomes:

dm 4 3 dx ( 43)
dt = 3 fT r Ps dt

Substitution of equation (43) into the heat transfer equa-


dx
tion (40) solving for dt and integrating yields for the
constant rate period:
38

3 (44)
x = xl - r h (T G - T.)t
P Ai g:7 ].
s

where xl is the initial moisture content in kg moisture/kg

dry solid.

During the falling rate period diffusion of moisture

to the particle surface controls the rate of evaporation.


of liquid is described bySO

(45)

2
where Vv is diffusivity in cm /sec and z is the direction of

diffusivity in cm. For mass transfer through a sphere


SI
Cars low and Jaeger suggest

6x I 2 2
x = ---
~2
exp(-~ Vvt/r) (46)

The point at which the drying rate changes from the

constant rate to falling rate is known as the critical

moisture content, x . From equation (44) the drying time


c
necessary to reach the critical moisture content may be

determined:

(47)

where

t is the time at the critical moisture content, sec.


c
39

TG = the log-mean temperature of the gas in K

TL2 = the exit solids temperature in K

An overall equation for calculation of exit moisture

content may be written by substituting equations (44),

(46) and (47) into (20) and integrating:

-t IT
x
2 = x (l - e c )
1

3T
t -t IT
r p >..0
hg{T G - TL2 ) {l - (-E.
T
+ 1) e c )
P 1.

+
'IT
2
6x
2l
TC r2VV + ~ )
ex{ (-~:2 Vv - ~) c] t ( 48)

D. Material and Energy Balance

The envelope around which the material and energy

balance is performed is shown in Figure 9. For this

discussion several assumptions are.made: the drying gas

will be air, the moisture~~~~be removed is water, and

there are no entrained particles. A water balance on


the system yields:

(49)

where

G
s
= the air flow rate, Kg dry airlhr
------------------- -

40

TG2
HG2

Solids in
Ls
xl
TLI
HLI

Solids out
L
s
x2
TL2
HL2

Air in

FIGURE 9. MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCE DIAGRAM


41

Y1 = inlet moisture content (air), kg H 0/kg dry air


2
Y2 = outlet moisture content (air) , kg H 0/kg dry air
2
L
s
= solid flow rate ~g dry/hr

xl = inlet solid moisture content kg H 0/kg dry solid


2
x2 = outlet solid moisture content k.g H 0/kg dry solid
2

The energy (enthalpy) balance yields

(50)

where

HLI = the enthalpy of inlet solid at TLl ,' cal/kg dry


solid

HL2 = the enthalpy of outlet solid at T


L2
, cal/kg dry

solid

HG2 = the enthalpy of outlet gas at T


G2
, cal/kg dry

gas

HGI = the enthalpy of inlet gas at T , cal;k g dry gas


Gl
Q= heat loss from dryer, cal/hr

With the enthalpy of a wet solid described by52:

( 51)

where

Cps = heat capacity of dry solid, cal/kg K

CpL = heat capacity of dry gas, cal/kg K


42

T
o = reference temperature, K

~HA = integral heat of wetting at To' cal/kg dry solid

and for a wet gas 53

(52)

where

CpG = heat ~apacity of dry gas, caljkg K

Ao = latent heat of vaporization at T , cal/kg H 0


0 2

In the system considered the heat of wetting will be assumed

to be negligible 54

E. Summary

The fundamental concepts of fluidized bed drying

have been presented. From the equations derived for

fluidized bed drying a mathematical model is presented

in the next section. The important factors which make

fluid bed drying attractive include the highest possible

degree of contact between the solids and drying gases, very

high heat and mass transfer rates, and the extremely good

solids mixing within the bed.


V. MODEL DEVELOPMENT

From the previous discussion a mathematical model

is developed to simulate drying in a fluidized bed dryer.

This section also outlines the procedure to be used for

further investigation of fluidized bed dryers. The

computer model developed is in English units due to the

availability of supportive data in this unit system.

A. First, several physical properties for drying must

be determined from literature or experimental calculations:

1) of the material to be dried:

Diameter of the particle (d p ' ft)


../
Particle surface area (SA' ft)

Heat capacity (C , BTU/lb-oF)


ps
Density (p , lb/ft 3)
P
Incipient fluidization velocity (u ' ft/sec)
mf
2) of the gas:

Thermal conductivity (K, BTU/ft-sec of)

Heat capacity (C , BTU/lb-oF)


pg
Density (p , lb/ft 3)
g
Viscosity (~, lb/ft-sec)

3) of the moisture to be evaporated:


o
Heat capacity as a liquid (C ' BTU/lb- F)
pLl
Heat capacity as a vapor (C L BTU/lb-oF)
p g,

43
44

4) from the drying rate curve determine:


3
critical moisture content (x , g/cm )
c
2
Diffusivity (0 , cm /sec)
v

B. Determine the initial operating conditions for the

dryer:

1) given data:
3
Solid inlet moisture content (xl' g/cm )
Solid inlet temperature (T , of)
L1
2) assumed data~

o
Inlet air temperature (TG1 , F)

Absolute humidity (Yl' lb H2 0/lb BDA)

Mass velocity of inlet air (G, lb/sec)

Solid (dry) flow rate (Ls, lb dry/sec)


3
Solid outlet moisture content (x 2' g/cm )

c. with the aid of the material balance (Equation (49 I

determine the outlet air humidity (in lb H 0/lb BDA):


2
L
s
Y2 = G (xl - x 2 ) + Yl (53)
s

where

G
G
s = 1 + Yl
(54)

Using the psychometric chart (Figure 10), the outlet air

and outlet solid temperatures are determined. The adiabatic

saturation curve enables one to calculate the temperatures.

The adiabatic saturation curve used is located at the


.1420
!>i
+J
OM
'0
o
..c:

~
OM
It!
!>i !>i
+J ~
oM '0
'0
0g tyl
,.!(
~ ..........
::r: ~
0
OJ Pl
+J It!
~ ~
r-I
0 ~
Ul OJ
+J
~ It!
~
01

~ Adiabatic saturation curve -


,.!(

. ------.-y 2

............
---+W1!
1 -------~i----------TII---->.~------i;l-O-O
l,:-'2=7-=--3--------I-
T
L2 G2 0 G1 ~
Temperature ( K) I.Jl
FIGURE 10. THE PSYCHOMETRIC CHART AS USED FOR DETERMINING OPERATING TEMPERATURES
46

intersection of Yl and TGI . The outlet gas temperature is


located from the intersection of Y2 and the adiabatic
saturation curve. Finally, the outlet solid temperature
is found from the intersection of the 100 per cent humidity
curve and the adiabatic saturation curve.

D. Since the reading of the psychometric chart with


any accuracy is difficult, the outlet air temperature
estimated from the psychometric chart was verified based
on the heat requirements to the system. The heat balance
of the system was made for the heat given up by the air
and available for heat transfer, the heat required to
evaporate the moisture, and the heat lost to the surround-
ings.
Due to the lack of adequate information concerning
heat loss from the system, the heat loss was estimated as
a percentage of heat produced based on the air flow rate
and the bed configuration 55 . A computer program HEAT
(Appendix C) was developed to calculate the heat balance
for five outlet temperatures (two below and two above the
temperature estimated from the psychometric chart) and
generate the per cent heat loss. A least-squares of per
cent heat loss versus air outlet temperature was used to
determine the air outlet temperature for a given heat loss
percentage.
The following equation sequence is used in the
program HEAT:
47

a) Determine heat available for moisture evaporation

(with Q in BTU/sec) :

( 55)

where HGl in BTU/lb BDA, the inlet air stream enthalpy, is

determined from:

and HG2 in BTU/lb BDA, the pseudo outlet air enthalpy or

the enthalpy if no moisture was picked up:

b) Determine the heat required for drying:

for evaporation of water (BTU/hr):

Q
l
= Ls (x 1 - x )
2
A
0
(58 )

for heating of water (BTU/hr):

(59)

for heating of the solid (BTU/hr):

Q
3
= L s (C ps ) (T L2 - T )
0
(60)

Thus the total heat required by the dryer for evaporation

is (in BTU/hr) :

(61)
48

c) The amount of heat loss may then be determined

from (with Q in BTU/hr)


S

QS =Q - Q4 (62)

d) The per cent heat loss is then:

(63)

E. Next a heat and mass transfer model must be

selected. Unfortunately, no data were available for an

accurate estimation of diffusivity of water in ABS, which

therefore made the selection of a mass transfer model

impossible. The heat transfer model was selected based

on given operating conditions of the Monsanto dryer. The

model developed by Juvenland, Deinken, and Dougherty

(Equation (33 gave the best results. The method

Juvenland, et al employed, as explained earlier, supports

the selection of this model. The model was slightly

modified (see Appendix A) to fit the data.

F. Finally, all of the previbus findings are incorpor-

ated into one final program, FLUID (Appendix D). This

program incorporates the heat balance, the heat transfer

model, as well as calculations for fluidization velocity,

bed voidage, and expanded bed height.

The following equation sequence is used in the

program FLUID:
49

a) A heat balance similar to that described in the

HEAT program section.

b) Calculation of physical constants from theoretical

equations:

1) Density of air (with P in lb/ft 3)


G

Pg = 1/((.703 TG + 336) (1/29 +' (Yl + Y2)/36 (64 )

0
2) Thermal conductivity in BTU/ft-sec- P:

K = ~(C
pg
+ 2.48/28.8) (65)

where ~ (viscosity) is obtained from charts.

c) Calculate fluidization velocity in ft/sec:

(66)

d) Determine the Reynolds number:

Re = (d u P ) /ll (67)
P s

e) Calculate the heat transfer coefficient in


2
BTU/ft -sec- o p:

h = O.0114(K/d ) (Re)l.17 (68)


g p

f) Calculate the Archimedes number:

Ar (69)
50

g) Determine the bed voidage:

(70)

h) Determine the bed height in ft:

h = h /(1 - e:) ( 71)


o

i) Finally, all units are converted into S.I. and

printed.

G. Program modification for simulation at different

operating parameters may be easily accomplished by changing

a few lines within the computer programs. For the program

HEAT, lines 60, 70, 80, 520 and 530 should be considered

for modification. In the program FLUID, lines 120, 130,

140, 1030, 1380, 1390 and 1400 may require change. The

function of the data in these lines should be easily

recognized. If a different system or particle is used,

more lines may require modification.


VI. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

The programs developed in the previous sections were

run for eight different data sets as summarized in Table I.

Before the programs were run, several initial assumptions

about the Monsanto system and ABS particles had to be

made.

The preliminary assumptions that were made were

based on data provided by the Monsanto Company (Table II).

The data provided were for a steady-state operation; thus

the computer program written is for a steady-state operation.

Areas of concern were the particle characteristics, the

dryer structure, operating limitations and possible

operating points.

For the particles a diameter had to be estimated.

The harmonic mean diameter was used for the diameter (see

Appendix A for calculation). As mentioned previously, no

data were available for diffusivity and therefore no mass

transfer calculations can be made. From the data on density

and packed bed height, the grid surface area was estimated

(Appendix A) since the specifications for the dryer's


internal design were not available.

The temperature limitations are a result of the

fact that if these temperatures are exceeded, the polymer

begins to char. Recall that the inlet temperature may

be slightly higher than the limiting temperature due to

51
52

TABLE I
SUMMARY OF CONDITIONS FOR PROGRAM RUNS

Solid
Data Sol ids Flow ~Ioi stureContent Conments
Set Rate kg/sec Inlet - Outiet
kg H20/kg dry solid
1 1.27 0.5624 0.0446 3 Gas Flow Rates
2 Air Humidities
3 Air Temperatures
2 1.27 0.5624 0.02041 3 Gas Flow Rates
2 Air Humidities
3 Air Temperatures
3 1. 27 0.4705 0.0446 3 Gas Flow Rates
2 Air Humidities
3 Air Temperatures
4 1.27 0.6667 0.0446 3 Gas Flow Rates
2 Air Humidities
3 Air Temperatures
5 1.58 0.5625 0.0446 3 Gas Flow Rates
2 Air Humidities
3 Air Temperatures
6 1.89 0.5625 0.0446 3 Gas Flow Ra tes
2 Air Humidities
3 Air Temperatures
7 1. 58 0.5625 0.0446 6 Gas Flow Rates
based on 6. T of
Data Set 1
2 Air Humidities
3 Air Temperatures
, 8 1.89 0.5625 0.0446 6 Gas Flow Rates
based on 6.T of
Data Set 1
2 Air Humidities
3 Air Temperatures
53

TABLE II

SUMr,1ARY OF HONSANTO OPERATING CONDITIONS

ABS DATA: SIEVE ANALYSIS Mesh % Retained

10 40

20 82

30 92 ..

60 97

80 99+

SPECIFIC HEAT = 0.50 BTU/1b- o F (504 ca1/kg- K)

DENSITY = 21.3 1b/ft 3 (.341 gm/cm 3 )

STREAM TO FLUID BED DRYER: 6453 1b (2927 kg) polymer solid


(per hour)
3557 1b (1613 kg) H 0
2
72 1b (33 kg) hydrocarbons

@ 100 0 F (37.8 C)

PRIMARY STREAM FROM FLUID 6006 1b (2724 kg) polymer solid


BED: (per hour)
180 1b (81.6 kg) H 0
2
60 1b (27 kg) hydrocarbons

AIR STREAM AFTER CYCLONES: 447 1b (203 kg) polymer solid


(per hour)
44 1b (20 kg) H 0
2
4 1b (2 kg) hydrocarbons

@ 92 of (33 C)
54

TABLE II (continued)

MISCELLANEOUS DRYER INFORMATION:

INLET FLOW RATE = 44000 SCFM (20.76 m3 /sec)

MINIMUM FLUIDIZATION VELOCITY = 250-300 ft/min

(1.27-1.52 m/sec)

MAXIMUM AIR INLET TEMPERATURE = 257 of (398 K)

MAXIMUM AIR OUTLET TEMPERATURE = 176 of (353 K)

FOR CURRENT FLOW RATES DRYER HAS

A PACKED HEIGHT = 1.5 ft (.46 m)


55

ideal mixing. Limitations on air flow rates must be con-

sidered to insure fluidization at lower flow rates and to

keep the particles entrained by the gas to a minimum at

higher flow rates. For calculation purposes the bed height

was estimated from equation (18), since experimental data

over a range of gas flow rates were not available. The

overhead gas stream was assumed to have no particles

entrained since no method of estimation is available.

The program was run for two sets of inlet air

humidities: one (.001 kg/kg~ for winter operation with the

other (.0214 kg/kg) for summer operation. Both estimations

are based on average weather data for the Cincinnati area

provided by the National Weather Bureau.

Heat loss estimations were based on per cent of heat

input. The estimations were based on recommendations made


56
by Carslaw For the three air flow rates (19.8, 20.8,

and 21.7 m3 /sec) used, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 per cent heat loss

estimations were used.

In summary some fundamental assumptions had to be

made to test the developed model. The effect that the

assumptions will have on the accuracy of the model cannot

be determined.

The computer runs of the program FLUID yielded

ample data for changes in operating parameters and the

effect on the final product and fluidization quality. The

data were compiled in six graphs to demonstrate the effect

of air flow rate on bed height (Figures 11-16) with inlet


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o 1.0 2.0 3.0
Bed ,Height (m)

FIGURE 11. COMPARISON OF DATA SETS ~vITH


U1
0'1
Yl = .001 kg/kg AND TGI = 377.4 OK
UlIlIIDlJn.1-- -[T - - - rIHili
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Data Set 8 '
10 .. . .. ..' .. f
o 1.0 Bed Height (rn)
2.0 3.0

FIGURE 12. COr-1PARISON OF DATA SETS ~VITH .


o 11l
'-l
Y1 = .001 kg/kg AND TG1 = 388.6 K
rtlf 1 - -- - - -~ )1 n ~: -- - _:I--r'il. ! 1l.111'lr r ... IILnrl ! iJ:1111ill
~ n . . .. I I. ... .111. i.llir n . .m I ~ 1111 1 i~1
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FIGURE 13. COMPARISON OF DATA SETS WITH


VI
co
Y1 = .001 kg/kg AND TG1 = 399.7
JlIIII11Il l I U . IJ ~ '. I ~fr
'1+ tH rmII '!f ' - - l' It . .f
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3.0
lJ
Bed Height (rn)
FIGURE 14. COHPARISON OF DATA SETS HITH
Ul ,
Y1 = .0214 kg/kg AND TG1 = 377.4 \.0
"Illf - - - ~ __ -- - H,'U, li_ - :--- ~ _: il llf-~ 11111 - - 1t' llf'lrn!:I :il'
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FIGURE 15. COMPARISON OF DATA SETS WITH


0\
o o
Y1 = .0214 kg/kg AND TG1 = 388.6 K
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T..
1
.1:1- +1 ' 1 1 , '
., .. dl'l II .... I
.lrlitW
iii

IGll! " i .
1. 6 .I'r
1

7 j11
I . _ " 0 Data
Data
Data
Set
Set
Set
,
- ~ _ -- 11 i 4iJ . -. -i! lln:~. $ _ 8 Ij I Data Set

. 1'[ M ,~I ~T~f ,~. mtJlliffiJWU1]lUil1JMllllli


. ~

0
--
10 - -

o 1.0 2.0 3.0


Bed Height (m)

FIGURE 16. COMPARISON OF DATA SETS ~"1ITH


0)
o ......
Yl = .0214 kg/kg AND TGI = 399.7 K
62

humidity and temperature constant.

The upper limit for bed height is 5 ft (1.52 m)

which was selected since the dryer is 10 ft (3.04 m) tall.

This was chosen since, in general, fluidized beds are

designed with 50 per cent disengaging space-only experi-


,
mentatlon Wl'11'Jus t1' f Y th'lS assump t'10n 57

The first data set represents the current efficiency

of Monsanto's dryer. Run 11 most nearly matches Monsanto's

dryer. The other data sets represent possible load upsets

and increasing loads to the dryer.

As expected, an increase in temperature increases

the fluid velocity which also increases the bed height.

An increase in the humidity increases the fluid

velocity since, as humidity increases, the humid volume

increases - thus the density of the air decreases. The

effect of the humidity change on bed height is not sub-

stantial whereas temperature change and gas velocity do

have a substantial effect on the bed height. With bed

height a definite limitation, and temperature of inlet air

the major driving force of drying, the airflow rate

should be adjusted for maximum bed height at the maximum

temperature of inlet air possible.

The change of height in the bed increases at a

higher rate when the gas velocity changes occur at higher

air flow rates with smaller increases in bed heights at

lower flow rates. The curve that forms at high air flow

rates may be seen on Figure 11. Data sets 5 and 7 and


63

data sets 6 and 8 both curve at high flow rates while

being linear at lower flow rates. Data set combination 5

and 7 and 6 and 8 are continuous lines because all operating

conditions are the same except for the increase in air

flow rates.

At the current operating conditions the dryer does

not meet design specifications for exit moisture content.

The desired exit moisture content of the solid is 2 per

cent with current operating conditions yielding a 4 per cent

moisture content. Data set 2 represents a 2 per cent exit

moisture content. The difference between data set 2 (2 per

cent) and data set 1 (4 per cent) is very slight (see

Table III - for this reason data set 2 was not included in

Figures 11 to 16~ TherefQre, tha Monsanto dryer can

reach the desired moisture content with an increase in

residence time of the particle, since the change in the

other parameters is negligible.

Data set 5 is identical to data set 1 except that

the solids input rate was increased to 12500 Ib/hr

(1.58 kg/sec). The bed height increased as expected since

the packed bed height is increased. The air flow rate with

an increase in solid flow rate is no longer adequate for

fluidization, since the bed voidage is less than .65 in


all cases 58. In data set 7 the gas flow was increased such

that the change in air temperature would be the same as

data sets 5 and 7, the expanded bed height is over the

operation bed height; thus entrainment of the polymer


64

TABLE I II
VARIATIONS OF EXPANDED BED HEIGHT (in meters)
BE~AEEN RUNS AND DATA SETS

Data Set
Run 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 1.19 1.19 1.27 1.11 1.47 1. 75 1.71 2.39


2 1. 21 1. 21 1.29 1.13 1.49 1. 78 1. 74 2.44

3 1.22 1.22 1. 30 1.14 1.51 1.80 1. 76 2.48


4 1.20 1. 20 1.28 1.12 1.47 1. 75 1.71 2.40

5 1.22 1.21 1. 30 1.14 1.50 1. 78 1. 74 2.46

6 1.23 1. 23 1.31 1.15 1.52 1.81 1. 77 2.50


7 1.22 1.23 1. 31 1.15 1.51 1.80 1.77 2.50
8 1.24 1.24 1. 33 1.16 1.53 1.83 1.80 2.56
9 1.26 1. 26 1.34 1.18 1.55 1.85 1. 83 2.60
10 1.23 1.23 1. 31 1.15 1. 52 1.80 1. 78 2.53
11 1.25 1.25 1.33 1.17 1.54 1.84 1.82 2.59
12 1.27 1.27 1. 35 1.18 1. 56 1.86 1.85 2.64
13 1.26 1.26 1. 35 1.18 1. 56 1. 86 1.84 2.63
14 1.28 1.28 1. 37 1. 20 1.58 1.88 1.87 2.69
15 1. 30 1. 30 1. 38 1.21 1.60 1. 91 1.90 2.74
16 1.27 1.27 1. 35 1.19 1.56 1.86 1.85 2.66
17 1.29 1.29 1. 38 1.21 1.59 1.90 1.89 2.72
18 1. 31 1.31 1. 39 1.22 1.61 1.92 1.92 2.78
65

particles is likely.

For data set 6 the solid flow rate was further

increased to 15000 lb/hr (1.89 kg/sec). Data set 6 was

developed similar to data set 5, and data set 8 was

developed similar to data set 7. Again at the increased

solid input, the expanded bed height was greater than the

operational limit. The higher flow rates of solids show

that Monsanto's dryer, as is, will not be able to

adequately dry the ABS polymer at increased solid input

without substantial entrainment since the bed height is

greater than 1.52 m.

A change in the inlet solid moisture content will

result in a change in the bed height. Data set 3

represents a decrease in inlet moisture content to 32 per


cent. ~he expanded bed height is greater than that of the

higher moisture content since the incoming particle is now

lighter. Also since less heat is required for evaporation,

the outlet air will be hotter; thus the density of the air

will be smaller and result in a higher superficial fluid

velocity. Data set 4 represents an increase in the inlet

moisture content of 40 per cent. As expected, the expanded

bed height decreases due to the increased weight of the

particle and the lower superficial fluid velocity resulting

from air with a higher density.

The possibility of lowering the inlet moisture

content may enable the Monsanto dryer to meet specifications.

The most economical manner to obtain the decrease would be


66

to utilize a flash dryer. In a flash dryer, the material

becomes entrained within an air stream. The flash dryer

is extremely successful at drying unbound moisture from

solids. The flash dryer could supply the fluid bed dryer

with particles slightly drier; thus the particles could

be dried to within specifications.

In summary, to ensure a workable mathematical model

of a fluidized bed dryer, an experimental study must be

performed. Drying rate curves must be generated for all

run conditions for a model of diffusivity. A mass transfer

model may be selected with the experimental data supported

or rewitten. The heat transfer model may also be proved

or disproved. Problems of entrainment can only be solved

through the
../
experimental trials.
.
To date, an adequate

study such as this has not been published, and the design

of fluid bed dryers continues to be a series of trial-

and-error calculations.
VII. CONCLUSIONS

The following is a list of conclusions from this

study:

1. The main variable parameters


are the expanded bed height
and inlet gas temperature.

2. An accurate mathematical model


of a fluid bed dryer will be
difficult due to the nature of
fluidization and the phenomenon
of drying.

3. An increased residence time or


the lowering of the inlet
particle moisture content may
enable the ABS to be dried to
within specifications.

4. The Monsanto dryer will not be


able to handle increased solid
flow rates without a significant
amount of particle entrainment.

67
VIII. RECOMHENDATIONS

The following is a list of recommendations regarding

future investigations of fluidized bed dryers:

1. Perform an experimental study


involving fluidized bed drying
to supply needed data on mass
transfer, heat transfer, heat
losses, expanded bed height,
entrainment, and the effects
of changing operating conditions.

2. Investigate the possibility of


a dynamic mathematical model
of fluidized bed drying.

68
REFERENCES CITED

1. Nonhebel, G., Moss, A. A., Drying of Solids in the


Chemical Industry, 1st ed., Chemlca1 Rubber Co.
Press, CleveIana, 1971, p. 210.

2. Williams-.Gardner, A., Industrial Drying, 1st ed.,


Chemical Rubber Co. Press, cleveland, 1971, p. 180..

3. Vanecek, V., Markvart, M., and Drbohlav, R., Fluidized


Bed Drying, 1st ed., Leonard Hill Books, London, 1966,
p. 35.

4. Vanecek, p. 35.

5. Williams-Gardner, p. 181.

6. Nonhebel, p. 212.

7. Quinn, Martin F., "Fluidized Bed Dryers", Industrial


and Engineering Chemistry, Volume 55, Number 7,
July 196~~.~. 20.
8. Kunii, D., and Levenspiel, 0., Fluidization Engineer-
ing, 1 st ed ....; John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York,
r9b9, p. 1.

9. Kunii, p. 3.

10. Kunii, p. 9.

11. Leva, Max, Fluidization, 1st ed., McGraw-Hill Book


Co., New York, 1959, p. 55-67.

12. Kunii, p. 3.

13. Kunii, p. 3.

14. Vanecek, p. 20.

15. Kunii, p. 73.

16. Kunii, p. 73.

17. Kunii, p. 73.

18. Leva, p. 64.

19. Vanecek, p. 22.

69
70

20. Vanecek, p. 23.

21. Zenz, F. A. and Othmer, D. F., Fluidization and


Fluid-Particle Systems, Reinhold Publishing Co.,
New York, 1960, p. 106.

22. Vanecek, p. 27.

23. Treybal, Robert E., Mass-Transfer Operations, 2nd ed.,


HcGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1968, p. 581.

24. Treybal, p. 581.

25. Treybal, p. 187.

26. Vanecek, p. 35.

27. Vanecek, p. 35.

28. Leva, p. 195.

29. Quinn, p. 18.

30. Vanecek, p. 36.

31. Quinn, p. 19-20.

32. Kunii, p. 140.

33. Weekman, V. W., "A Model of Catalytic Cracking


Conversion in Fixed, Moving, and Fluid-Bed Reactors",
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Process Design
and Development, Volume 7, Number 1, 1968, p. 90-95.

34. Kunii, p. 151.

35. Vanecek, p. 77.

36. Levenspiel, Octave, Chemical Reaction Engineering,


2nd ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York,
1972, p. 308.

37. Pfafflin, J. R., Shrider, M. and Jullien, G. A.,


"Heat and Mass Transfer in Fluidized Beds", AIChE
Symposium Series, Number 141, Volume 70, 1974, p. 69.

38. Pfafflin, p. 69.

39. Davidson, J. F. and Harrison, D., ed., Fluidization,


1st ed., Academic Press, New York, 1971, p. 521.
71

40. Richardson, J. F., and Ayers, P., "Heat Transfer


Between Particles and a Gas in a Fluidized Bed",
Transactions of the Institution of Chemical
Engineers, Volume 37, 1959, p. 314.

41. Kettering, K. N., Manderfield, E. C., Smith, J. M.,


Chern. Eng. Progr., Volume 46, Number 3, 1950, p. 3.

42. Kunii, p. 217.

43. Lemlich, R. and Caldas, I., "Heat Transfer to a


Liquid Fluidized Bed", AIChE Journal, Volume 4,
Number 3, 1958, p. 376.

44. Juveland, A. C., Deinken, H. P., and Dougherty,


J. E., "Particle-to-Gas Heat Transfer in Fluidized
Beds", Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals,
Volume 3, Number 4, November 1964, p. 329.

45. Juveland, p. 329.

46. Pfafflin, p. 71.

47. Kunii, p. 198.

48. Kunii, p. 200.

49. HcCabe, W. L., and Smith, J. C., Unit Operations of


Chemical Engineering, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
New York, 1976, p. 788.

50. McCabe, p. 790.

51. Carslaw, H. S., and Jaeger, J. C., Conduction of Heat


in Solids, Oxford University Press, 1959, p. 234.

52. Treybal, p. 611.

53. Treybal, p. 188.

54. Treybal, p. 612.

55. Carslaw, p. 46.

56. Carslaw, p. 102.

57. Quinn, p. 20.


58. Kunii, p. 15.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bennett, C. 0., and Meyers, J. E., Homentum, Heat, and


Mass Transfer, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New
York, 1974.

Carslaw, H. S., and Jaeger, J. C., Conduction of Heat in


Solids, Oxford University Press, 1959.

Davidson, J. F. and Harrison, D., ed., Fluidization, 1st


ed., Academic Press, New York, 1971.

Juveland, A. C., Deinken, H. P., and Dougherty, J. E.,


"Particle-to-Gas Heat Transfer in Fluidized Beds",
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals,
Volume 3, NUIDber 4, November 1964, p. 329-333.

Keairns, Dale L., ed., Fluidization Technology, Volume 2,


1st ed., Hemisphere Publishing Corporation,
Washington, 1976.

Keey, Roger B., Introduction to Industrial Drying


Operatio~ps, 1st ed., Pergaman Press, New York, 1978.

Kettering, K. N., Manderfield, E. C., Smith, J. M.,


Chern. Eng. Progr., volume 46, Number 3, 1950,
p. 139-145.

Kunii, D., and Levenspiel, 0., Fluidization Engineering,


1st ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1969.

Lemlich, R. and Caldas, I., "Heat Transfer to a Liquid


Fluidized Bed", AIChE Journal, Volume 4, Number 3,
1958, p. 376-380.

Leva, Max, Fluidization, 1st ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co.,


New York, 1959.

Levenspiel, Octave, Chemical Reaction Engineering, 2nd


ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1972.

McCabe, ~V. L., and Smith, J. C., Unit Operations of


Chemical Engineering, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
New York, 1976.

Nalimov, S. P. and V. E. Babenko, "Optimization of Granula-


tion Processes During Drying of Solutions in Fluidized
Beds", Journal of Applied Chemistry of the USSR,
Volume 51, Number 9, Part 1, September 1978, p. 1870.

72
73

Nonhebel, G., Moss, A. A., Drying of Solids in the Chemical


Industry, 1st ed., Chemical Rubber Co. Press,
Cleveland, 1971.

Pfafflin, J. R., Shrider, M. and Jullien, G. A., "Heat


and Mass Transfer in Fluidized Beds", AIChE
Symposium Series, Number 141, Volume 70, 1974,
p. 68-74.

Quinn, Martin F., "Fluidized Bed Dryers", Industrial and


Engineering Chemistry, volume 55, Number 7, July
1953, p. 18-24.

Richardson, J. F., and Ayers, P., "Heat Transfer Between


Particles and a Gas in a Fluidized Bed", Transactions
of the Institution of Chemical Engineers, Volume 37,
1959, p. 314-322.

Treybal, Robert E., Mass-Transfer Operations, 2nd ed.,


McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1968.

Vanecek, V., t1arkvart, H., and Drbohlav, R., Fluidized


Bed Drying, 1st ed., Leonard Hill Books, London,
1966.

Vanecek, V., Markvart, M., Drbohlav, R., and Hummel, R.,


"Experimental Evidence on Operation of Continuous
Fluidized-Bed Driers", AIChE Symposium Series,
Volume 66, Number 105, 1970, p. 243-252.

Weekman, v. W., "A Model of Catalytic Cracking Conversion


in Fixed, Moving, and Fluid-Bed Reactors", Industrial
and Engineering Chemistry Process Design and
Development, Volume 7, Number 1, 1968, p. 90-95.

Williams-Gardner, A., Industrial Drying, 1st ed., Chemical


Rubber Co. Press, Cleveland, 1971.

Zenz, F. A. and Othmer, D. F., Fluidization and Fluid-


Particle Systems, Reinhold PUblishing Co., New York,
1960.
APPENDIX A

SAl~LE CALCULATION

74
75

SAMPLE CALCULATION

1. TYLER SCREEN ANALYSIS FOR THE DETERMINATION


OF THE WEIGHT HEAN DIAMETER

Screen d
p
(in) dn (in) L\<Pn L\<Pndh
Meshes

3/6 .265-.132 .1985 .26 .05161

6/10 .132-.0661 .09905 .22 .02179

10/20 .0661-.0331 .0496 .23 .01141

20/35 .0331-.0165 .0248 .11 .002728

35/60 .0165-.0098 .01315 .1 .001315

60/100 .0098-.0059 .00785 .066 .000518

TOTALS 0.986 0.098937

From equation (3)

.08937
dw =
.986
= 0.09064 in = 0.0075532 ft
(0.0023 m)

_ _6_ = 37.29 f t 2 /1b (7.63 m2 /kg)


Ps dw
76

2. DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER EQUATION

Assume the equation is similar to equation (3):

Nu = a ( Re) 1. 1 7

a. Determine the required heat transfer coefficient for

Data Set 1, Run 11:

h
= Q SA
g
TG A

= (3669461.589 BTU/hr)( 113.1 ft2 )


95.83 of 240657.5 ft2

= 18.00 BTU/hr of (9.50J/s - K)

b. Calculate the Nusse1t Number:

(18.00 BTU/hr of) (0.00755 ft)


Re =
(0.0172 BTU/hr ft of)

= 7.90

c. Calculate the Reynolds Number:

Re = (0.00755 ft) (551.2 ft/min) (60 min/hr) (0.0566 1b/ft 3)


(0.0527 IE/ft fir)

= 268.2

d. Determine the constant a:

7.90
a =
(268.2)1.17

= 0.0114
77

3. The following is a demonstration of the program FLUID

using Data set 1, Run 11. The calculations are done in

the order discussed in Section V, Model Development.

A. 1) d
p
= 0.007553 ft

SA = 240658 ft2

Cps = .5 BTU/lb

3
Ps = 21.3 lb/ft

u
mf
= 200 ft/sec

2) K = 0.0173 BTU/ft - sec of

C = 0.242 BTU/lb _ of
pg

Pg = 0.0686 lb/ft 3

)J = 0.0527 lb/ft - hr

3) CpLl = 1.0 BTU/lb - of

CpLg = 0.45 BTU/lb - of

B~ 1) x 1 -- 0.5624 lb H O/lb BDS


2

TLI = 100 of

2) TGI = 240 of

Yl = 0.0214 lb H2 O/lb BDA

G = 44000 scfm
78

L = 6453 1b dry/hr
s

x 2 = 0.0446 1b H 0/1b BDS


2

211765 1b/hr
c. Gs = (1 + .0214) = 207328 1b BDA/hr (54)

6453 1b BDS 1b H O
2
Y2 = 207328 .0446)
Ib BDA (.5624 - 1b BDS
(53)

+ 0.0214 1b H2 0/1b BDA

= 0.0375 1b H2 0/1b BDA

D. a) Q = 207328 1b BDA/hr(74.94 - 57.24) ( 55)

BTU/1b BDA

Q = 3669500 BTU/hr (1075 kJ/sec)

b) Q = 6453 1b BDS(.5624 - .0446) ( 58)


1
. 1b H
2
0/lb BDS (1037.1 BTU/1b H O)
2

= 3465000 BTU/hr

1b H2 O
Q = (6453 1b hr
BDS) ( 5624 _ .0446)
(59)
2 1b BDS

BTU 0
(.45 Ib H 0) (169.1 - 100) F
2
= 103900 BTU/hr

= 22580 BTU/hr
79

Q
4 = (346500 + 103900 + 22580) BTUjhr ( 61)

= 3591500 BTU/hr (1052 kJ/sec)

c) Q = (3669500 - 3591500) BTU/hr ( 62)


5

= 78000 BTU/hr (23 kJ/sec)

d) Q = (78000 BTU/hr)/(3669500 BTU/hr)


6

= 0.0212

F. b) 1. p
g
= 1/( (.703(95.83) + 336)

. (1/29 + .02946/18) )

3
= 0.0686 1b/ft

BTU
2. K = 0.0527 1b/ft-hr ( .24 + 2.48)
28:8 1b OF

= 0.0172 BTU/hr-ft- F
(211765 1b/hr) (1 hr/60 min)
c) u = (66)
3
( 20 1 9 7 f t) (0. 0 6 8 6 1b / f t )

= 254_.6 ft/min (1.3 m/sec)

d) Re = (.00755 ft) (254.6 ft/min) (60 min/hr) (67)


3
(.0686 1b/ft )/(O.05274 lb/ft-hr)

= 150.2
e) h =0
g'
0114 (.0172 BTU/hr-ft- F)
(0.00755 ft)
(150.2) 1.17

( 68)
= 9.14 BTU/hr-oF (4.85 J/sec-K)
80

f) Ar = (3 2 . 1 7 1b - f t ) ( 0 0 7 5 5 f t) 3 (69)
Ib-sec

(21.3 - 0.0686) 1b/ft 3 (3600 sec/hr)2

/('0.0527 1b/ft-hr)2 (.0686 1b/ ft 3)


3
0.0686 1b/ft

= 94100
g) e: = (94100)-21 (18(150.2) + .35(150.2)2)0.21

= 0.63

h) h = 1.5 ft/(l - .63)

= 4.1 ft (1.25 m)
APPENDIX B

PROGRM1 HEAT LISTING

81
82

LI:;
r:EAT
10 DIM AC181,BC18],CC18],DC18J
20 REM****~****JIM GERSTLE********21 FEB'80
30 REt1 25 FEB
40 MAT READ A,B,C
50 N=l
60 L1 =645:3
70 Xl=.5/;..Z4
80 .-X2=. '~44{~
90 T1=100
100 FOR G2=42000. TO 46000. STEP 2000
110 G=(GZ*60)/({1/Z8.8)*491.7*.730Z1
120 FOR Y1=.~Vl TO .0214 STEP .0204
130 FOR 0=1 TO 3
141'9 Gl=G/(Y1+lI
150 Y2=(Ll/Gll*(Xl-Xl)+Yl
1613 PRINT
170 PRINT
1:30 PlUtH" G2=",G2
Yl=/I,Yl," Y2=",Y2
Z'~0 T3=",ACNJ," Tl=",F;[N]
210 PRINT
2Zizj PRINT "T4","GI IN","GI REGI","Q LOSS","i~ LOSS"
230 CCNJ::CCNj-Z
2~0 F:::R ~1 = ~ 70 5
250 H3=(.24~.45*Yl)*(ACN]-321+1Z75.8*Yl
260 H5=(.24+.45*Yl)*(CCNJ-32)+1075.8iYl
270 REM HEAT FROM AIR
290 ~EM Q TO EVA? H20
300 Q:=Ll"X~-XZ)*1037.1
310 ~EM Q TO HEAT H20
320 QZ=Ll*(Xl-XZ)I.45*(C[N]-lJ3)
330 RE~ Q Te HEAT SOLID
340 J3=L1*(.51.:srNl-100)
:;;50 REt1 TOTAL I)
:;;60 1)4=1)1+GZ+,)3
370 REM HEAT LOSS
380 DCNJ=Q-24
390 REM PER CENT HEAT LOSS
400 Q6=DCNJ/Q*100
410 PRINT C:NJ,Q,Q4,DCN1,Qb
420 CCN1=CCN]+1
430 N:xr t1
441 N=N+~
450 NEX7 I)
460 NEXT Y 1
471 NEXi GZ
4:::0 DATA 220,Z40,2b3,Z2J,240,260, ~j, 2,S,;
4'ia DATA Z20IZ~01:60,2ZJ,Z40,260, 1 t ::;;"0
500 I;r=1T:t G9,9St9~.S,104,lJ711C9,8 I !:':'"
i j . _,

~) ~ yj DAT:~ lZ4,107,10~,8'it13,?S.5 t109 .


''::::::0 ~ 1li 1
t::"" .-, .~,

.)ji!l ~;. L. 1 152. '7' , 172.1 t 191


54'21 ":"'1,(1.'
APPENDIX C

PROGRAM HEAT RUN

83
84

RUN
HEAT

CZ= 4Z000.
Yl= .001 YZ" 1.7S4~SE-02
T3= ZZ0 T2= 89

14 a IN a REa a LOSS 7- Ln':-


145 3.~41e-9E+06 3.49750E+06 144189. 3.9'594
146 3.S9:313E+06 3.49900E+06 94129.5 Z.~1971
147 3.S44SSE+0b '3.50051E+06 44070. 1.24331
149 3.49602E+06 3.SeJ201E+"~ -5989.S -.171322
149 3.44746E+0~ 3.50351E+06 -56048.5 -1.62579

CZ- 4Z000.
U= .001 YZ 1.754e-5E-02
T3,. 240 TZ- 93

T4 a IN Q REO Q LOSS 7- LOSS


1M 3.S9313E+0e- 3.5419SE+06 51152. 1.4Z%
167
1e-S
3.54458E+06
3.49602E+06
3.S4348E+06
3.~4499E+06
1093
-48967.5
3 .. 08358E-0Z
-1.40066

1~9 3.4474bE+06 3.54IA9E+06 -99();:7. -2.87246
170 3.::9891E+0b 3.54800E+06 -149086. -4.38629

GZ= 42009.1.
Y1= .001 Y2= 1.75465E-02
T3= Zb0 T2= 96.S

T4 a IN Q REa Q LOSS :4 LOSS


le6 3.5?313E+06 :3.513335E+0b 9788 Z12408
187 3. 54458E+0.~ :;.58485E+.o6 -4()2n.5 -1.1:,617
188 '3.49602E+IiJ.; :~.. 58b35E+06 -90331.5 -Z.58384
le9 3.44747E+06 3.537SeE+0,:' -140390. - 4 .. fiJ7Z::S
190 3.39891E+0~ 3.58936E+06 -1%1449. -S.693ZS

C2= 42000.
Yl= .0Z14 Y2= 3.82837E-02
T3= 229.1 TZ= HJ4

T4 Q IN a REQ a LOSS :4 LO:;S


145 3.7052IE+0~ 3.54590E+06 159316. 4.2'N78
146 3.b5581E+06 3.54~40E+06 108409. 2.96539
147 3.~"'64IE+06 3.54890E+!n 575"3. 1.59447
148 3.557""EHlb :3.55oiJ41E+0e- b596 .185437
149 3.50760E+0b 3.5519!E+"e- -443019.5 -1. 26344

C2= 42000.
Yl= .0214 YZ= 3.82837E-02
T'3= 249.1 T2= 107

T4 a IN Q REQ Q LOSS :4 LOSS


168 3.557"0E+06 :3.59@16E+11I6 -'33155.5 -.932119
169 3.507b0E+0b 3.59166E"06 -84eJ61.5 -2.3%55
179.1 3.45820E+06 3.59:317E+0b -134968. -3.902:36
171 -~ :3 .. 408:::~JE:+06 3.59467E+0b -185874. -5.45279
172 3. :359:3'/E+06 3.S'l617E+06 -236781. -7.04834

C4= 42000.
Yl: .0214 Y2= 3.82837E-02
T3= Z6kJ T2= 109

T4 Q IN Q REQ Q LOSS i. LO':.S


186 .655:31E+06 .6'- 3t.t:E .196- 34t31.5 .878916
187 .6064:E+CJ6 .62.51 ::'E+(:.i6 -18774 -.5Z~::74
188 . 5571H'!:: + ,,6 6L.~,62E ... 06 -69681. - 1 95:~98
189 .50760E+06 ,:'~8 t ':;E+06 -lZJ58':. -3.4:::'2,
19eJ . 458<:1');:: ~06 .6<'.969E+1<1 6 -171493. -4.959,,"j~
85

C2" 441i11i11i1.
Yl- iii iii 1 Y2- 1.67944E-02
T3= 220 T2= 89

T4 Q IN Q REa Q lOSS X LOSS


149 3.6625IOE+06 3.50Z01E+106 161i1488. 4.38193
149 3.61163E+106 3.5@351E+06 108117. 2.99358
150 3. 561il76E+106 :3. 512151212E +136 55745. 1.56554
151
152
3.513989E+12I6
3. 45903E+12I6
3.5065:E+06
3.512180ZE+12I6
3373
-48998.5
9.610998E-I2IZ
-1.41654

CZ" 440010.
yt- .001 Y2- 1.67944E-0Z
T3= Z40 TZ- 93

T4 Q IN Q REa Q lOSS % LOSS


169 3.61163E+1iI6 3.54649E+06 65139.5 1.810358
170 3.561376E+96 3. 5480121E+12I6 lZ767 .35:3547
171 3.5121989E+12I6 :3.54950E+12I6 -3961214. -1.12835
172 3.45'193E+12I6 3.55100E+06 -91976.5 -2.65903
173 3.4121816E+12I6 3.55Z51E+12I6 -144348. -4.Z3538

GZ= 44000.
Yl" o iii 1 yz= 1.67944E-02
T3" Z6121 TZ" 96.5
14 a IN a REO a lOSS % llns
18'1 3.61163E+06 3.58786E+06 23775 .65:::Z9
19~J 3.56076E+06 :3.58936E+06 -28596 -.812131086
191 3. 5Wi'i89E +06 3.59086E+06 -810969.5 -2 .. 3(3689
192 3.459133E+@6 3.59237E+@6 -133340. -3.85486
193 3.40816E+Wi6 3.59387E+w6 -185711. -5.44903

GZ= 44(11)(11
Yl= 10214 Y2- 3.75163E-0Z
T3" ZZ0 TZ" 104
14 Q IN a REO a lOSS % lOSS
149 - - 3 ."7463E+@6 3.5'5191E+06 122719. 3 .. 33-:;:',~4
150 3.~... ::B7E+06 :3.55341+06 694'39.5 1.'Y17Z5
151 3.5711<:E+06 3.55492E+06 16;:~il .45.3667
152 3 .. 51'y:36E .0~, :.3 .. 5S,~42E+06 -3705B.5 -1.05299
153 3.46761E+06 3.55793E+06 -9@316.5 -Z.,~045S

C2= 44O"'O.
Yl= .121214 YZ= 3.75163E-02
T3= Z4i3 TZ= 1"7
14 Q IN a REa a lOSS % LOSS
172.- 3.5193,~E+Wi6 3.59617E+"6 -761310. -Z.U;)25
173 3.4~J761E+06 :3 .. 5't 7.';,8[+136 -13@"68. -3.75096
174 3.41585E+06 3.59918E+06 -1833~:3. -5.36~.98
175 3.36410E+iil6 :3 .. 60fJ68E +06 - Z3c.5;~.~ .. -7.10:3267
176 3.31Z34E+106 3.6121219E+",~ -289846. -8.75<148

GZ= 44000.
Yl: .0Z14 YZ= 3. 7516:~E-0Z
T3= ZU) TZ= 11219
T4 a IN I) REQ Gl LOSS % lOS':;
190 3.62Z87E+@6 :3.6.Z969E+06 -6817.5 - .18:::179
191 3.5711:::E+06 '3.:'31:'JE 4 Io6 -60076 -1.,~8Z::7
192 :3. 519:3~E.13b '3. 6'::270E+0,~ -11'3335. -3.:ZC~4
193 ... --"--' :3.467!jlE+06 :3. 634Zi-'JE+06 - 16659'3. -4. 8i~':Z.8
194 3. 41~i85E+e16 3.,~3571E+06 -219853. -6.4:3625
86

CZ- 46000.
Y1= .001 YZ 1.61077E-0Z
T3- ZZ0 TZ- 89

T4 Q IN Q REQ Q LOSS 7(LOSS


151 3.66943E+06 3.50652E+06 162914. 4.43970
15Z 3.61625E+06 3.508I1JZE+06 108229. 2.99286
153 3.56307E+06 3.50953E+06 53546.5 1.50282
154 3.50989E+06 3.5111il3E+06 -11 :38 -3.242Z6E-0Z
155 3.45671E+06 3.51254E+0b -55821.5 -1.61487

CZ- 46000.
U- .011Jl fZ- 1.61077E-IilZ
T3" Z4tiJ TZ- 93

T4 Q IN Q REQ Q LOSS 7( LO~;S


171 3.66944E+06 3.54950E+0b 119936. 3.Z6853
172 3.61625E+06 3.55100E+06 b5251.5 1.80439
173 3.S6307E+06 3.55Z5IE+06 1~56e .Z90598
174 3.50989E+06 3.55401E+06 -44115.5 -l.Z5689
175 3.45671E+0b 3.55551E+06 -98798.5 -Z.S581b

C2= 4b000.
U= .001 Y2= 1.b1077E-0Z
T3" Zb0 T2= 96.5

T4 Q IN Q REa Q LOSS 'l. LOSS


192 3.61621~E+@6 3.59Z37E+06 ,3888 .660573
193 3.56:308E+06 3.59387E+'~6 -30795.5 - :36429 5
194 3.50~90E+1lI6 3.59537E+06 -85478.5 -2.4353,~
195 3.45b7IE+06 3.59688E+06 -140164. - 4.0548:3
196 3.4"3S3E+06 3.59838E+06 -194847. -5.72486

CZ= 4b000.
Vl= .0214 f2= 3.681S6E-02
T3= ZZ0 TZs 104

T4 a IN a REa a LOSS 7( LOSS


153 3.bZ5Z3EHJ6 :3.55793E+06 67302. 1.:::5649
154 3.5711~E+06 :3.S594.3E+06 11689.S .3273.::4
ISS 3.5170IE+06 '3.56093E+!36 -4:3921.5 .. t Z48~:'3
156 3.46290E+06 :3.56244E+06 .. 995.33.5 -2.:374:8
157 3.40:380E+06 :3.56394E+06 -155144. -4.55128

CZ= 4M'00.
H= .0Z14 fZ= 3.681S6E-02
T3= Z40 TZ= U7

T4 Q IN a REO Q LOSS 'l. LO~3S


175 3.51701E+06 3.600~SE+06 -83673. -2.37909
170 :3.46Z90E+06 3. 6021'?E"'0,~ -1:3'1'285. -4.022:
177 3.40880E+06 :3. 6:~369E+,36 -194895. -5.71743
178 - :3.35469E+0,!' 3. 605L.liiE+06 - 251<1508. -7.46742
179 :3.:30058E+06 :3.60670E+06 -%16119. -9.Z747

GZ= 46000.
YI= .0214 Y2= 3.681S6E-02
T3= Z60 TZ= 109

T4 Q IN Q RE~ a LOSS 'l. LOSS


193- 3.62523E+0b "3.6.3420E+06 -8975 -.247571
194 3.S71l2E+~J6 3.63571E+,J6 -64587.5 -1.80861
195 3.5170!E+06 3.6:3721E+06 -12QI198. -3.41763
196 3.46290E+IiJ6 3.63871E+{~6 -175810. -5.ln697
197 3.40879E+06 3.640Z2E+y)6 -'2.:31422. -6.78898

DONE
APPENDIX D

PROGRAM FLUID LISTING

87
88

LIS
FLUID
10 DIM AC18],B[18],CCI8],D(18J
20 DIM C6]
30 REM*********JIM GERSTLE********Zl FEB'80
40 REM
50 REM 25 FEB,l MAR
60 REi1 1:3 t1AR
70 REM
80 MAT READ A,B,C
90 t1AT RE1~D E
100 W=l
1 H! N= 1
120 L1 =645:3
130 Xl=.S'24
140 X2=.0446
150 T0= U~0
160 L0::1037.1
170 D=7.55325[-03
1:30 A=Z40,~5:3.
190 Al=Z01.97
200 Cl=(G.9+2.084E-04*A[N]+Z.429E-07*A[~]IA~N~)/Z8.8
2:0 C2=1
ZZ0 C:;=. 5
230 T1=10f;
240 FOR P=1 TO 3
250 FOR Y1=.001 TO .0214 STEP .0204
260 FO~ 0=1 TO 3
270 C2=E(W]
280 C=(C2*60)/I/Z8.81*491.7*.73021
290 REM CONVERT TO S. I. UNITS
300 G6~C2*4.71?47E-04
310 . T8=5/9*(A[~J-3Z)+273
320 T7=5/9*(B[NJ-8Z)+Z73
330 REM CALC BO~E DRY AIR IN
340 Gl=G/(Y1+1)
350 REM MOISTURE CONTE~T OF AIR OUT
360 YZ=(LI/Gl'*(Xl-XZ)+Yl
370 PRINT
3;30 PRINT II RUN",N
390 P:\INT
400 PF; :NT II G2="iC2
410 PRINT" (" iG6 i ") II

4Zv.l PRINT II Yl="iYl," Y2="iY2


430 PR:NT
4L:0 PR INT "
45;~ PR:NT
46~j ;"::::INT II T3=" ii;(~n t "
470 P r:: =iH " ( II; T8 ; ") I I , II

500 I-{::: == ( :: 4- + ~.:~ f Y 1 ) * (Pt [ ~'~ J .~ 32 ) t 1 ~v 7 5 ;:: * 'f 1


510 R:~ P3[ULJ-ENTHALPY Al~ OUTLET

5Q0 (j==Gl*(H:3-i-!S)
550 R:~ Q TO EVAP HZO
560 Ql=Ll*(Xl-XZ'*1037.1
570 REM Q TO HEAT H20
58J Q2=L11(XI-XZ)*.45*(C(~J-100)
5 'J ~j F,:::1
ClTO 1: EAT L: D
~; I)
600 Q3=Ll*(.51*(S(N]-100)
89

6119 REM TOTAL I)


620 1)4 =I) 1 +1)2+ 1)3 ."
630 REM HEAT LOSS
640 D(Nl=I)-GI4
6519 REM PER CENT HEAT LOSS
660 Q6=D[NJ/Ql100
670 REM LOG-MEAN TEMPERATURE
680 T5 = ( (C [N J -IH r!] ) - (A (N J - T1 ) ) / (LOG ( (c un - 13 CN] l / (A (N] - T1l l l
&90._REM DENSITY OF AIR
700 Y3=(Y1+YZ)/Z
710. Dl=1/.703*T5+336l*(1/29+Y3/18ll
720 IF ACNJ )= 2Z1 THEN 750
730 IJ=.021
740 COTO 840
750 IF A(NJ )= 241 THEN 780
760 U=.021:3
770 GOTO 840
780 IF A[NJ )= Zbl THEN 810
7919 U=.022
800 Gorl) 840
810 PRINT
820 PRINT" INLET AIR TE:'lPERTUr(E TOO HIGH"
:;::30 GOTO 1410
840 U=U*Z.4191
8519 REM THERMAL CONDUCTiVITY
860 K=U*(Cl+Z.48/28.8)
870 REM CALC. FLUIDIZATiON VELOCITY
880 U1=(G/601/(Al*Dl)
890 REM CALC REYNOLDS NUM~ER
900 Rl=(D*Ul*Dl*601/U
910 REM HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT CALC
920 H=.0114*(K/DI*(Rl)~1.17
S' 30 RCi1 1;~10u~'rr i ::A T Tr~A.N;;F EF~E:D
940 Q7=HI(A/Al)*T5
950 REM ?ER CENT OF HEAT TRANSFERED
9.~0 ;):>1)7/1)
970 REM CALC ARCHIMEDES NUMSER
980 D2=21.3
990 A2 =( {3 2 1 7lf ( 3 C. 0 0,'" 2) "* ( Dt.:;; ) * CD 2 - D1 ) j 1 ( {!J 1 D1 l t Z"* D1 l
1000 REM BED VOICACE
1010 E = (A 2 t ( - 21 ) ) "* ( 1 ::: .. R 1 + :3.~"* (R 1-t Z) l -t 21
1020 REM EXP~NDED BED HEIGHT
1030 BiIj:l.!375
1040 Bl=B0/(1-E)
1050 REM CONVERT TO S. I. UNITS
1060 T7=5/9*(C[~]-32)+273
1070 Zl=Q*2.93Z6E-04
1080 ZZ=Q4~Z.9306E-04
1090 Z3=DCNJ*2.9306E-04
1100 Z4=U1*.C0~J8
90

111 iJ Z5=H-3f .5275


1120 Z6=1~7.2. 9:::0,:'[-04
11:30 Z7: Brc,l 3048
1140 Z G :: E. 1 k :3 0 4 8
1150 Pi,IN7
1160 PRINT "T4","1) IN","() RE1)","Q LOSS"."7. LO!;;S"
1170
11::;0 PR I NT II ( I , ; T9 ; 11 ) II , II ( " ; Z 1; 11) 't , .e ( It ; ZZ; I I ) ,t , ,t ( 11; Z3 ; I' i II

1190 PRINT
1200 PRINT "FLUID VEL","REYNOLDS ~JO","H T COEFF","HEAT TRANS",
12.10 PRINT Ul,Rl,H,Q7,Q8
1220 PR rr"T 11 (U ; Z4; II) I, , II I I , II (It; Z5; ") " , 11 (U ; Z6; II) &I
1230 PRINT
1240 PRINT "ARCHIMEDES NO","E:ED VOIDAGE","PACKED HEIGHT","EXPAN.DED
1250 prnNT A2.,E,BI,B1
12.60 PRINT" ",tI 11,1I(";Z7;")II,II{"iZ8;tI)11
1270 PRINT
12:30 PRINT "******************************************************
12.90 N=i":+l
130~.! NEXT 0
1:3H;1 W=W+l
13~~::j NEXT Yl
1 :3:::G i~CXT I"
1340 DA7~ 220,240,260,22.0,240,26C,22.0,240,2&0
1:350 GATA 2.20,240,Z60,220,240,2~0,~2Z,240,Z60
13,:.;;; DATA 89,93,9b.5,lJ4,:C7,109,89,93,96.5
1370 DATA 104,107,109,89,93,96.5,104,107,109
1:3:30 DATA 146.4,165.3,1:3~.Z,146.7,165.8,184.6,1~9.7,168.6,187.5
1390 DATA 149.9,169.1,188,15Z.6,171.5,190.6,15Z.9,17Z.1,1~:
14(:;;0 DATA 52Z0V.,5Z000.,54500.,54600.,57000.,57100.
1410 END
APPENDIX E

PROGRAH FLUID RUNS

91
92

TABLE IV
INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR DATA SET 1

L = 1.27 Kg/sec xl = 0.5624 Kg/Kg


T1 = 310.8oK
L1 = 0.813 Kg/sec x2 = 0.0446 Kg/Kg

Gas Flow Inlet Air Temperatures (oK)


Rate Humidity T' IH .
T2 T3 T4
m2/sec Kg/Kg 4 alr

19.82 0.001 304.7 377.4 337.0 336.6 40.8


306.9 388.6 348.0 347.0 41.6
308.8 399.7 360.0 357.6 42.1
0.0214 313.0 377 .4 337.0 336.7 40.7
314.7 388.6 350.0 347.3 41.3
315.8 399.7 360.0 357.8 41.9
20.76 0.001 304.7 377.4 338.0 338.4 39.0
306.9 388.6 350.0 348.9 39.7
308.8 399.7 361.0 359.4 40.3
0.0214 313.0 377.4 339.0 388.5 38.9
314.7 388.6 352.0 349.2 39.4
315.8 399.7 362.0 359.7 40.0
21. 71 0.001 304.7 377.4 340.0 340.0 37.4
306.9 388.6 351.0 350.5 38.1
308.8 399.6 363.0 361.1 38.6
0.0214 313.0 377.4 341.0 340.2 37.2
314.7 388.6 354.0 350.8 37.8
315.8 399.6 363.0 361.3 38.4
93

TABLE V
INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR DATA SET 2

L = 1.27 Kg/sec 0
xl = 0.5624 Kg/Kg
T1 = 310.8 K
L1 = 0.813 Kg/sec x2 = 0.02041 Kg/Kg

Gas Flow Inlet Air Temperatures (oK)


Rate Humi di ty T' llT .
2 T2 T3 4 T4 alr
m /sec Kg/Kg

19.82 0.001 304.7 377.4 335.0 334.7 42.7


306.9 388.6 347.0 345.2 43.4
308.8 399.7 357.0 355.6 44.1
0.0214 313.0 377 .4 334.0 334.9 42.9
314.7 388.6 349.0 345.7 42.9
315.8 399.7 359.0 356.0 43.7
20.76 0.001 304.7 377.4 337.0 336.6 40.8
306.9 388.6 349.0 347.0 41.6
308.8 399.7 360.0 357.6 42.1
0.0214 313.0 377.4 337.0 336.8 40.6
314.7 388.6 350.0 347.4 41.2
315.8 399.7 360.0 357.8 41.9
21. 71 0.001 304.7 377.4 339.0 338.3 39.1
306.9 388.6 350.0 348.8 39.8
308.8 399.7 361.0 359.3 40.4
0.0214 313.0 377 .4 339.0 338.5 38.9
314.7 388.6 352.0 349.3 39.3
315.8 399.7 362.0 359.6 40.1
94

TABLE VI
INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR DATA SET 3

L = 1. 27 Kg/sec Xl = 0.4705 Kg/Kg


L1 = 0.864 Kg/sec x2 = 0.0446 Kg/Kg

Gas Flow Inlet Air Temperatures (oK)


Rate Humidity
T3 T'4 T4
m2/sec Kg/Kg

19.82 0.001 304.7 377.4 340.0 341.7 35.7


306.9 388.6 353.0 352.2 36.4
308.8 399.7 365.0 362.7 37.0
0.0214 313.0 377.4 343.0 341.8 35.6
314.7 388.6 356.0 352.6 36.0
315.8 399.7 366.0 363.0 36.7
20.76 0.001 304.7 377.4 342.0 343.3 34.1
306.9 388.6 355.0 353.8 34.8
308.8 399.7 367.0 364.4 35.3
0.0214 313.0 377 .4 345.0 343.3 34.1
314.7 388.6 357.0 354.2 34.4
315.8 399.7 367.0 364.6 35.1
21. 71 0.001 304.7 377 .4 344.0 344.7 32.7
306.9 388.6 356.0 355.3 33.3
308.8 399.7 368.0 365.9 33.8
0.0214 313.0 377 .4 347.0 344.8 32.6
314.7 388.6 356.0 355.3 33.3
315.8 399.7 369.0 366.1 33.6
95

TABLE VII
INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR DATA SET 4

L = 1.27 Kg/sec xl = 0.667 Kg/Kg


T1 = 310.8 oK
L1 = 0.762 Kg/s~c x = 0.0446 Kg/Kg
2

Gas Flow Inlet Air Temperatures (oK)


Rate Humidity T' ~T .
T2 T3 T4
m2/sec Kg/Kg 4 alr

19.82 0.001 304.7 337.4 332.0 331.5 45.9


306.9 388.6 344.0 341.9 46.7
308.8 399.7 355.0 352.4 47.3
0.0214 313.0 377 .4 334.0 331.9 45.5
314.7 388.6 347.0 342.7 45.9
315.8 399.7 356.0 352.8 46.9
20.76 0.001 304.7 377 .4 334.0 333.6 43.8
306.9 388.6 346.0 344.0 44.6
308.8 399.7 357.0 354.6 45.1
0.214 313.0 377 .4 336.0 333.9 43.5
314.7 388.6 349.0 344.7 43.9
315.8 399.7 358.0 354.9 44.8
21. 71 0.001 304.7 377 .4 336.0 335.4 42.0
306.9 388.6 347.0 345.9 42.7
308.8 399.6 359.0 356.3 43.4
0.0214 313. a 377 .4 338.0 335.8 41.6
314.7 388.6 351.0 346.6 42.0
315.8 399.6 360.0 356.9 42.8
96

TABLE VI II
INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR DATA SET 5

L = 1. 58 Kg/sec xl = 0.5625 Kg/Kg


T1 = 310.8 oK
L1 = 1.01 Kg/sec x2 = 0.04493 Kg/Kg

Gas Flow Inlet Air Temperature (OK)


Rate Humidity T' llT a1r
.
T2 T3 4 T4
m2/sec Kg/Kg

19.82 0.001 304.7 377.4 327.0 327.2 50.2


306.9 388.6 339.0 337.4 51.2
308.8 399.7 350.0 347.8 51.9
0.0214 313.0 377 .4 328.0 327.3 50.1
314.7 388.6 342.0 338.0 50.6
.
315.8 399.7 352.0 348.3 51.4
20.76 0.001 304.7 377 .4 330.0 329.4 48.0
306.9 388.6 341.0 339.7 48.9
308.8 399.7 352.0 350.0 49.7
0.0214 313.0 377.4 332.0 329.7 47.7
314.7 388.6 344.0 340.2 48.4
315.8 399.7 354.0 350.5 49.2
21. 71 0.001 304.7 377 .4 332.0 331.4 46.0
306.9 388.6 343.0 341.8 46.8
308.8 399.6 354.0 352.2 47.5
0.0214 313.0 377.4 335.0 331.8 45.6
314.7 388.6 346.0 342.2 46.4
315.8 399.6 356.0 352.6 47.1
97

TABLE IX
INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR DATA SET 6

L = 1. 89 Kg/sec xl = 0.5625 Kg/Kg


T1 = 310.8 oK
L1 = 1.21 Kg/sec x2 = 0.04493 Kg/Kg

Gas Flow Inlet Air Temperature (oK)


Rate Humidity T' boT air
2 . T2 T3 4 T4
m /sec Kg/Kg

19.82 0.001 304.7 377 .4 317.0 317 .6 59.8


306.9 388.6 329.0 327.7 60.9
308.8 399.7 338.0 337.8 61.9
0.0214 313.0 377.4 319.0 317.8 59.6
314.7 388.6 333.0 328.3 60.3
315.8 399.7 343.0 338.5 61.2
20.76 0.001 304.7 377.4 319.0 320.2 57.2
306.9 388.6 331.0 330.4 58.2
308.8 399.7 343.0 340.6 59.1
0.0214 313.0 377.4 322.0 320.4 57.0
314.7 388.6 335.0 330.9 57.7
315.8 399.7 345.0 341.1 58.6
21. 71 0.001 304.7 377.4 322.0 322.6 54.8
306.9 388.6 334.0 332.8 55.8
308.8 399.6 346.0 343.1 56.6
0.0214 313.0 377 .4 324.0 322.8 54.6
314.7 388.6 338.0 333.4 55.2
315.8 399.6 348.0 343.7 56.0
98

TABLE X
INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR DATA SET 7

L = 1. 58 Kg/sec Xl = 0.5625 Kg/Kg


T1 = 310.8 OK
L1 = 1.01 Kg/sec x2 = 0.04493 Kg/Kg

Gas Flow Inlet Air Temperatures (oK)


Rate Humidity T'
2 T2 T3 4 T4 ~Tair
m /sec Kg/Kg

24.64 0.001 304.7 377.4 337.0 336.6 40.8


306.9 388.6 348.0 347.0 41. 6
308.8 399.7 360.0 357.6 42.1
24.54 0.0214 313.0 377.4 337.0 336.7 40.7
314.7 388.6 350.0 347.3 41. 3
315.8 399.7 360.0 357.8 41.9
25.72 0.001 304.7 377.4 338.0 338.4 39.0
306.9 388.6 350.0 348.9 39.7
308.8 399.7 361.0 359.4 40.3
25.77 0.0214 313.0 377.4 339.0 338.5 38.9
314.7 388.6 352.0 349.2 39.4
315.8 399.7 362.0 359.7 40.0
26.90 0.001 304.7 377 .4 340.0 340.0 37.4
306.9 388.6 351.0 350.5 38.1
308.8 399.6 363.0 361.1 38.6
26.95 0.0214 313.0 377.4 341.0 340.2 37.2
314.7 388.6 354.0 350.8 37.8
315.8 399.6 363.0 361.3 38.4
99

TABLE XI
INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR DATA SET 8

L = 1. 89 Kg/sec xl = 0.5625
T1 = 310.8 OK
L1 = 1.21 Kg/sec x2 = 0.4493

Gas Flow Inlet Air Temperatures (oK)


Rate Humi di ty T' ilT .
T2 T3 T4
m2/sec Kg/Kg 4 al r

29.54 0.001 304.7 377 .4 337.0 336.6 40.8


306.9 388.6 348.0 347.0 41.6
308.8 399.7 360.0 357.6 42.1
29.45 0.0214 313.0 377 .4 337.0 336.7 40.7
314.7 388.6 350.0 347.3 41.3
315.8 399.7 360.0 357.8 41.9
30.86 0.001 304.7 377.4 338.0 338.4 39.0
306.9 388.6 350.0 348.9 39.7
308.8 399.7 361.0 359.4 40.3
30.91 0.0214 313.0 377.4 339.0 338.5 38.9
314.7 388.6 352.0 349.2 39.4
315.8 399.7 362.0 359.7 40.0
32.28 0.001 304.7 377 .4 340.0 340.0 37.4
306.9 388.6 351.0 350.5 38.1
308.8 399.6 363.0 361.1 38.6
32.32 0.0214 313.0 377.4 341.0 340.2 37.2
314.7 388.6 354.0 350.8 37.8
315.8 399.6 363.0 361.3 38.4
100

TABLE XII
THE UNITS FOR THE PROGRAM FLUID RUNS

G2 = sefm V2 = lb H20/lb BDA


(sems )
X2 = lb H20/lb dry solid
VI = lb H20/lb BDA
T2 = of
Xl = lb H20/lb BDA ( K)

T3 = of T4 = of
( K) ( K)

Q IN = BTU/hr Q REQ = BTU/hr


(kJ/see) (kJ/see)

Q LOSS = BTU/hr FLUID VEL = ft/min


(kJ/see) (m/see)

H T COEFF = BTU/hr-oF HEAT TRANS = BTU/hr


( J/see-K) (kJ/see)

PACKED HEIGHT = ft EXPANDED HEIGHT = ft


(m) (m)
101

RUN
FLUID;:

RUN
GZ= 4200".
! 19.8210
Yl= .,HH Y2= 1.7546SE-02
Xl: .56':4 X2= .0446
-'T3= 220 T2: 89
( 377.44.4 ( 304.667

T4 Q H~ Q REQ a LOSS ;: LO$S


146.4 ~.57371E+~6 3. 49'7~0E+Q6 74H)I...;; ".J7Zb6
( 336.556 ( 1047.31 ( lInS.'59 ( 21.7176

FLIJ!D VEL REmOLDS NO H T COEFF HE':\T TRANS ,. mAN


230.911 14B.;~07 :3.76787 886851 .. -. " .... 1
.... "1'(.1 ........
'

( ... 17343 ( 4.62SQ5 ( ZC;9.9:Jl

ARCH I tiED;:::; NO CEO VOIOAc"E PAC~;ED HEICHT E Xr;;fJ:C::C ~1C:: CHT


1;;67~7. ...:, 1 60:3.35 1.5 '3 .. '"'I'::'i,~ ~
( .4572 ( 1.1S.,_~

RUN
GZ= 4:0~:0.
( 19.821:3
Yi= .,;;01 Y2= 1.7~465~-0~

XZ= .1446

( 3;),;'.889

74 Q IN Q R
..... .... -, .-.
Ie" ''"1
... ::.t.J.';"

7.7 .
\
-.
'- j
-:.." -..,
.....
-
.0"_
....
. . . . . .~ I
~ .-
'." ..I

rLIJ:C 1::~ H T C,)EFF I:!:;',r Tr~;.'~: Z 7~';~J


:3:::;.li.~
f ~
... '"t..l"
- .-, '"
~ ... (
~
:3 . 71Z'; 1 1.Z635~: '"v:' . .:. i"~2. ~ :.
( 1.Z1ZCS ( 4.59573 ( 3 ~! .. I~;~:

ARCf~T~:D:S NO EEC VQrCAGE PACKED HE I GHT EX, A~J:lE: HE; :;HT


{ ..... 1 ":"'::' ~
'11.,041.9 .'.I~ '" .,Jo.,J"" 1.5
( .457Z

RU:II

GZ= 42;:J~i.
, 19.:321G
'i'l= .J~l

Xl.:
T2= 'n.::

, ~--
'::.7141.::
l~ ~
'"
::. ~. '.1 ...... ..1 . ' _ .'/'.1
! ~
; ::'7.35'-' {
I "..-"",\
.. t.J' '.I .. '.

... .
,
\
......

....
'--

..... .., ..
0-
'-..~

~ ". '.1 .'

'T, . . .~
.
;3. ,~'~';~
~
7\'
.,,-.,
- ".";';'-',1.
,
"~.:,:.:.,!,.'.

"~,,....
!
',- ..........,r- -
11'... , ... , ,'- 1. ...:..:. :
-,
~ 0,.1 [:Ei:, 1,,'.: r :,:,~.C r v:- (, , .......
... 1\,
-
... _ ...
~

'~~.:.;,J,~ ...~ '.I~ ':;..... ).,:;


( !.'::: s:
102

RUN 4
---C2= 42000.
( 19.8218
Yl: .0214

Xl= .5624 X2= .0446

T3= 220 T2 = 104


( 377.444 ( 313

T4 -0 IN a REGI Q LOSS ;~ ~OS:~


146.7 3.6Z123E+0b :3. 5~S45E+~Jb 72773.5 2.0ij'U,4
("~:6. 7Z~ ( ~.(j61.24 ( 10::9.91 { Zl.~:7

FLUID VEL r,EYNOLD::; NI) H T COEFF HEAT TRAi'J:;; 7. TR~N


234.262 1413.807 8.7c7:J7 781562.
( 1.11:35 ( 4.6250~ C zz:?g4-4- .

A~C;i~:1C~r;:::; ND oeD V:J: (:AGE p,~cr;ED HE! CHT


105L:":': .,;"181~1 1.5 I
..
....J . ,... _'4 __
,-.~:'
'~

{ .457: ( 1.19738

.5

n= .0:'1'; Y2=

x~ =
T:= Z~~ T2' lC7
, :::::;:J. ::Sl.. { .'J 14. :"67

.H Q LG':;S
16tj.C ::.6,S~,:"7CtG~ 7S,3~0.
( Jt;7 .:~:J3 ( 1::74.27 t ,'"! t"'. 4 ~
.. &;.I . . . . . . . ".,

FL~.J ~ C \:EL ,1 T CCIEFF !!E~T 7R:';-;:-


Z.~Z.:2,~ 97::" ~iZ..
( 1 .~305! ( 4.59575 ( 2i~ ~ ".~"7

ARCHIMEDES NO tED VJIDAGE


94450. .6Z3i4
( .4:'7Z ( 1.: 1 S 1::

( 1'1 .8~U;;
Yl= Y::= :. CZ:~:7~-~:

Xl= X2=
1 (1 '1
( -:15.778

T4 :~ LC~;:;
~ ': ~ "~ :;.... :':, -
...
~...,'='
I"..J
....
/
1
...

( :::7. 77:?' , '


J,I.' ..... ..J.,.

;-'_~::: '",ILL REY~;~~D': t.:: T c::;[r:=


c- -..,
_~'V
~~

.. _.'.' I 1';''::'. ,J.j. 4 .1..J)::'81


.~
( ';.5':..:'.:,:

.-,- ... ..., .


-,
... 1 ' 11:.' ....
, - .... -,""<
'..J_'~'-''''''
( .. 4572 { t . :':': ~ ~
103

RUN 7

CZ;" 44000.
( 20.7657
Yl= .001

T3= ZZO T:= 89


, ( 371.44 r, ( 304.007

T4 a IN' C R~tJ CLOSS f. LOS';


1 .. '1.7 :'3.576;J:E+lZ1c ::.~0~57E+C6 71';55.5 1. 99:~:~
( 1047.7'1 1(J:7.:J5

r-LUIE VEL REyr'JCLDS ~~:) H T eeE;:-!'" ilC,.~ r Tr.;tN'; ;: TRArJ


L.t.Z.7:7 155.894 9. :5:~ :;z ?5?8':;Z;. Z,~C4 ~ ~,
( 1.Z38Z1 ( 4.88376 C ZSl. ::'14

AR~H: ;~EtES NO tCD 'JC r DACE

, :";).7657
'(1= .,301

.J~46

T3= :.~~
( :Jr;C.~5b ~ 32J.~.889

Q REI) Q LOSS i: LO:~S


~.545:;:9E+:~6 2.37G::
, : ~3=]. !,~

;'_U!D \,'[L
.'='''''! """'.""11
_.J ... a J
~ c: '=1 1"' -.'
.. ; . . , . " ' / . J ;.19~'~.:,
-.. ;:- .-
.J ... .J "t: J
~
"

( 1.::7142 ( ;.8:': -,: { 335.75

Ar\CHI~1:D~:~
'1575','.5
NO BEE VO:EACE
..., .
J .-,~,

..,~~.:J,
.... .., .
..J
~
EXC'MlDE:' H:::rCHT
( ,.1572

RUN 9

~ ZG.76'S7
Yl= .i~Gl

T~= Z:1~0
.,.,.-
--
( 3''i?/;,/'''7

T4 I) I Q RSa Q LOSS
:.:.7. :3 ::.7747,:
( .:~ -;" :":'7 :CS0.~: : Z.? '78'74

H:"r;r TR;"~J'~
~.
I.
~,.., -
..... .:"
,,"v _"-"..1 , .j:S:':.":~ C6
I
\
~
.. "
-,
~
4 "'.
..... ' L;.J
,..,
( 4, S~S.:';' , :: 1:: . I. _ ~

- -r" ....
.. 10. ... ..., -' J ... ~ "" '-I I .." ....
104

R1JN 10

cz= 44000.
( Z0.7657
Y1= .0il::14 Y2= 3.7516.3E-02

Xl= .!St.2" XZ= .0H6

T3= ZZ@ T2= 104


( 377 .444 ( 31:~

T4 Q IN Q REa a lOSS y. LOSS


149.9 :::./:rZ805E+0b 3.S53~6E:+06 74785.5 2.21,;'1":;:
{ 33~.5 ( U~;;.24 1(:41.34 ( 21.7166

FLUID VEL REYNOLDS NO H T COEFF HEAT TRrit;; i. 7r\l~:'~


Z46.;:'?1 eo"',
85~b05.
.~.-; 11 "
.~-.J.,.~.,J ..
( 1.25116 ( 4.8$:376 ( Z49.Z7J
A~CHIM[t:S NO 2~~ VC::~C~ PA.::<ED HElCHT EXP':':lCi::D HEr':'i:,
10486i. .6~9~~5 1.5 4.Z~~;S
( .4572' ( 1.;:.3.:;3~

RUN 11

Y1 = .;);:14 YZ= 3.7S1l,3E-0(::

T3= :4.:1 rz= 187


( :~8e. s!S~ ( 31';."~7

T4 ._-- .- a IN GI REG) 7. L::;'~:;


169.1 3.66945E,06 :.~158i'
( 349.167 ( 1075.37

r~~iD VEL REYNOLDS NO

ARCHrM~tES
9413?7
NO BED VCln~GE
.63~907
.
PACKED
J

( 4 ':in
~
HErCHT t:XP;t~~:;E0
4.10854
( 1.4:5::8
i-iErGi:r

RUN 12
C2= 440<:0.
( 20.7/./57
--Yl= .;)214

T.3 = T:= 1 <:9


{ 315.77'3

T4 Q IN I) t;:::,) Q LOSS
~. ,::':.:':.i::'[+:Jb 9:'7J<1.5
1;: 'S.::. f.; .. ( :',. ~ 1 :::.::

ti-UID VEL RE YNOLD.; :W


, r ....
'TV. ...
..,
1.. _
,'"
"
...
......,,'
~
..
"",,~

( 1 .:::,.,,:;7

;'~\':
,:.~
r1: ,.~;:,:: ~~.
.; ~ 0:,1 .:, 'J ~ " _ ~ I
. . - ..
.... . - --
( l.':' c.., ..
105

RIJN 13
C2= 46000.
( 21.7096
Y1= .001

Xl= .5624 X2= .0446

T3= 2Zg T2= 89


( 377.444 ( 304.667

T4 Q Iel Q REO Q LOSS i. LO~::S


152.6 3.SS4.35E+06 :3.~,J893E"'06 75419. z. U~41Z
( 340 ( 105'L4::; ( 10ZS.3:'3 ( Z2.10Z3

FLIJID VEL REWOLDS NO H T COEFF HEAT TRA~~~;; i. TRAN


:54.474 16:.9:3 9.75256 1. :;;J~Z'J';: p(j,~ .::880::
( 1.;:9273 ( 5.1H48 ( '3gZ.S3IJ

ARCH[MED~S NO BED VOIDAGE PACI-:ED HE I CHT


1~6097. .63e153 .....

( .4572
<:
EX?Ai';DED HEIGHT
4. ! 454

RIJN 14

GZ= 4~000.
( t:.!. 7;;'16
v:= .'~01

Xl= .5624 XZ= .0446

r.z;= :~;) T~= 93


::~::;:::. 55~ ( :'0,;',80':;'

Q IN I~ REG) I~ LO'~S ~: :"'Cr:S


171. 5 3.64::'~4E+06 9Z593. :.5417;;
( 1067.51 ( 1;;)41.44

H T C,:;EFF ;: Tn;; . :
.... --. i e
. . ..:..'- . ~ .l.J 9.6'7'J7:: .:: :)6'7::';'
{ 1.:;:;;: :;,~ , :;;.1! 189

ARCH:~EDES NO BED VOIDACE PA,:,<ED HE~GHT EXFANDE;) 1:c:tGHT


9SS~9.4 .~~:42: 1.5 ~.~Jl~S
( .4S7Z

"UN 15

( '21. U.l96
Yl= .001

Xl = It:'
"Jv4,'"
- . .-

T3= T2:= 96.'3

T4 Gi I ~J % LC s~;
i.. 7':: 1 : ..:

l'lU~D VE~
.. ., .' ... ,..,.. ..... . .
. .-._-.- ::. .
"":'" ''''~_., - - , - , i .-.
.z. 7 J ...:.:.: ' (:," ,'I.J _ J J '.' ~ ~
,
\ . . . . . , _'t-.

ARCH ::1:D::: r~o xrrt:~::~1 J.jt:I ~HT


<;:.;: : :'. : ........ -.-.
. ,. ' i / , :"' .... , .J of.: ':::7S'
( i . .:..;.:.. 0:'8
106

RUN 16

C2= 46000.
( 21.79/,
U= .0214 Y2= 3.68156E-liZ

Xl= .'5624 X2= .0446

T~:; ZZ0 T2= HJ4


( 377.444 ( 313

T4 Q IN Q REO Q LOSS i: LOS:;;


152.9 3.63064EH16 :3.SS777E+16 7~B63. z. J068'~'
( 340.167 ( 1063.99 10~Z.64 { 21.353Z:

FLUID VeL REYNOLDS NO H T COEFF i: TRAN


458.~1? 162.9:~
( 1.3~ZZ~ ( 5.14448

ARCHIMEDES NO CEO VOIDACE PACt<ED HEICHT EXF'A~JDED :-lEICi;T


1045~3. .640159 1.S 4.168~:
( .4572

RUN 17

C2= 46000.
( 21.7a9!"
Y2= 3.68156E-02

Xl= X2= . "44.~


T3= ::40 T2 = 107
( :3B8.55,~ ( 31~.6.67

T4 a IN a LOSS 7. LO';:;;
In.l 3.~739ZE+06 77S9~.
5 2.1121 ;"
( 1076.68 ( 1()5~.94 { Zi:.741:

;:-LurD VEL REY;WLDS NO H T COEFF i: TRt~i~


lSt.'7'1~i' 9.69078 . :.J74::'
( 5.11189

ARC1iit1EDE; NO CEO VOID';CE PACi<E:n H~:CHT EXP~:'~::~ i-:C:ICHT


?3866.4 .6~S785 1.5 4.::47:
( .4572

~UN lS

C2= 4.,.000.
( 21.7;]96
n= .;9214 Y2= J.681%E-0::

Xl= .56Z4

T'}= ':I~O ,,,= un


-:/79 .,~6 7 ( .J: '3.778

T4 i. LOSS
3.72344[+;).:' ,.... -"-.{ ....
10::47. . . . { ';"..I'J

( 10':;4.1:::

FLU:O vel HEAT iRAtE ~: TR~N


.- -c-
,""
(,-,,-,
. I . '..J , ..
1~t"'"
J,.
"'"-1
J...I. "J' ...
,. , '--"'f.
,...11 _"'" 1.:: ~ :.::,:, ,)6 ::6~L::39
{ 5. 1 :J3~',;,

~RCH:~C:~S ~o SED VOID~GE PAC~ED hEICHi EXPANt:2 HEIGHT


8'7~5:.~ .6~~461
107

RUt,
FLU!D::

RUN
--- GZ" 42000.
( 19.:3U:~
Yl: .01il1 YZ= 1.83195E-02

Xl= .5024 XZ= .0Z~41

--- --T3 .. ZZ0 TZ- 89


( 377.444 ( 304.007

T4 Q IN Q REO I) LOSS 7- LOSS


143.1 3.73394E-t0b :3 . 1:'!5'lS.~E" 16 74'JC3.e: ~ ':;'9~J'~
( 3:34.722 ( l1iJ94.27 11372.47 ( Z 1.7'')88

FLUID VEL REHWLDS NO H T CI)EFF IIEAT TRANS 7- TRA:,


~30.L:43 148. :3,n S .. 767S7 C,:'4Z,::; .. .. =:314"1:':'
( 1.10%3 ( 4.6Z505 ( ~:;3 . Z66

ARCH I f1EDES NO BED VOIDAG~ PAC~<=:!) HEIGHT EXPM!t'E: HEICHT


10700:3. .61'S'Ho 1.5 :3 .. j'r.:;~
( .. 4572 ( 1. 1 '~037

RUN Z

C;2= 42~0~.
( l'7.i~ZlB
Yl= .0.,1

Xl = .56;;4 X2- .0~Z41

r::;= ;:4~ TZ= 93


( 38:).556 , :06.889

-....., ..... Q IN t) LOS /. LOS';


(
.. 'J
::~.5
4 .. ,

. 1 L.7 ~ 1~11.::5 ( ZOo -,-


~.I

FLU r 0 ',CL H T C:J~FF


T' ...... ~ I

..-.-." I. 1'\1-1,,,

.
\.
~ - .... , -....
..... . . ."J'"
14: .::;~ 7 ."'\
'";J. I
( ';.5i575
"",
.~ .......

A~CHiMCG~S NO BED VOID~CE PACKED HEIGHT EXPANCES HEIGHT


9634~ .. 4 .6Z!1~3 1.5 J.9~7~:
( .4572 ( 1.:J~S

RUN
GZ= 4:.;00.

Hz .001

I:z.= 96.5

Gt I i-J
-,< -,.-,
;, ,';',tj .. 'J :. ..: :;.5.:'3E+~i,~ .:....: .. I"!' I

( ~ i ':'7 ... ~ ~

N T ,:'::;C:rr f. -r,;';'J
;~ , f., 'i :~,: 1 .:: 17:::':--

';;,:ii ~ :~Lr,,::, ~~G l.:~:, ',/0 1 ~'M~E


r- .', - ,
1179:.: ._~~~77 1. ...)
~
-. . , .....
~
'T

( .4.57:z.
108

RUN 4

GZ .. 42~01i1.
( 19.8218
Vi" .@214 YZ: 3.907Z5E-0Z

Xl: .5624 XZ: .~ZiJ41

,3- 220
( :377.444
T2" Hl4
( 313

T4 I) IN I) REQ I) LO~: 7. LOSS


148.4 3.7:34Z6E~0,~ 7582 .. 5
( -33"'.6:&iI -- } ( 1 Hi9.liH ( Zz. Z2

FLUID VEL REYNOLDS NO H T COC:FF HEAT TRAN3 i: TRAN


Z:~~ .. 3j~9 148.:::IH 8.7/:;7.~7 75t..!i73. . . . . . "1. ("f

( 1.1G~5~ ( 4.b<:505 ( Z2i.575

ARCllll1D:~ NI) ;:;ED 'JOIDAGE P~CKC:D HC:IGHT EXP~~GC:G ~C:IGHT


1056:::3. .617657
( .4572 { 1.195;7

RUN
CZ= 4':0JC.
, 1? .. :~: 1:')

Xl= .%2 .. XL.: ."4:041

T3: L."Q TZ- HJ7


( :;8:;.55~ ( :14.':'67

1'4- .~ IN Q LOSS y. LOSS


16:' .. 'J ~.;:::!:3?"E+0c. 65=.57. 1.7110:;
( 1117.7 1698.58 ( 19.1242

FLUiD VEl.. REY~(ILDS NO H T COEFF


. ":"''' .. r. TRAN
14: .~H _" r:.I '-
~

-T " . . .

( 4.59575 ( 278.47:'

ARCHIMEGES NO ~ED VOIDAGE , ~ -. _ .......


.... .J .,;.. 1 .. _""f'.J

( .4572

i\IJN

yz= 3. 90125E-fJ2

X2: .~2041

&,,'jij T2: 109


( :15.77:~

14 I. LOSS
'. IN '" REQ
!::; 1 . 5 :.H3~4
( ::;6.0:5,~ , 11 ~6 .54 ( 11",').09 ( L..7.4-Z.9~

F.EfNOLu6 N0 H i (GEFF HEAT TR~NS .X TRAN


-
--:
-
, .- . -
.... e:''= -.
'J
,,~

<.;
..... ,- ,
'_' '.' ..

( ~.:'677~

, . "'-c:-r
. "_ _ , 1-..".
109

RIJN 7

C2~ 44000.
( 20.1657
Yl" .001 YZ~ 1.75:323E-02

Xlm .5624 XZ" .02041


T3" 22~ T2" 89
( 377.444 ( 304.667

T4 Q IN Q REI) Q LOSS % LIJS:~


146.4 3. 74':::;'7E+0,~ 3.b,~~7SE+@b 79:34. :.1136<:'/
( 33~.55~ ( 1097.18 ( lli.17'3.99 ( 23.191

FLUID VEL RE Y;WLD:; NO H T CO[FF HE'; T TRAi.'; i. TRAIII


Z.41.';;:~:: 155.:394 9.Z~832
( 1.;::93 ( 4.:30::;7b

ARCHIMEDES NO JEJ VOICAGE PACKED HEICHT EXrA~DED HEIGHT


106718. .6:6778 1.S -~.0:1:1
( .4572 ( 1 .~Z56b

CZ= 440);)".
yt= .001

Xl" .:;;.:. .. 4

13= Z4<: T2= 93


, 38S.556 ( :;;;6.889

14 Q IN a REQ Q LOSS 1- LOSS


H'5.3 i.79984E>06 3.7;741::"06 ;'Z4.j~ i,,4326S
( 347.05~ ( 1113.58 ( hi~:6. 49 ( 27.0899
FLUID VEL REYNOLDS NO H T COEFF HEAT TRMJS i. TRAN
247.5-;;.; 1'5;;1.173 9.17':'66 ! . lZ":;Z'?;:;. JI... ::'~"55': 7
( 1.21:.765 I 4.85282 ( 329.115

ARCHI:'lECES NO BED VOlDACE PACKED HEIGHT E~F'ANCED HEIGHT


n>":43. .6:~Z44 1.5 4.oI;7S77
( .4572 ( 1 Z4.32~

RUN 9

C:= 440(;0.
( 20.76'57
Y1" ,J01 VZ= 1.75323E-02
Xl" 5624. X2= .02041
TZ= 91,. '5
C :~::;.833

Q IN .:. REQ Q L':,SS


1;)7:;5"*. '"' -,,-. .........
"". "-~"'-
( 8=:7.556 l 31.4612
"-T
r-- , .~.

HEAT TRI\~!-: 'l. TRAN


! I... ~J .. '""

....- .J,.
~- '-, .
't L:. "-
J.

{ 1.':;;;65,:; ( 4.345~9

, - ' ..- "-' ~ - r e { i' -


.......
......
__ J
. . . _'I.J I ..J ,_, ..I';""""~ J

( 1.~5798
110

RIJN

CZ'" 44g.:~.
( 20.76'57
Y1= .0214 Y2= 3.8;:6nE-02

T.3= Z;:S TZ= 104


377.4+4 ( 313

T4 Q IN Q REO Q LOSS i. LOSS


g6.8 :3. 7S~4'~E06 :3.7 t ~7~~E+ !!if.., 7471;:. 1.974"';
, 331;,.77& ( 1110.2~ ( HJolO;. :36 ( 21.8951

rLIJ1D VEL REYNOLDS NO H T COE HEAT TRAiE 7. TRAN


245.447 1:;5.8"4 9.Z583Z .218051
( 1.44687 ( 4.B8376 ( ,44::.09;:

ARCHiMEDES NO BEO varDACE PACKED HEISHT EXFAN:ED HEIGHl


lS~Z19. .6Z884: 1.5 4.04l4~
( .4S7Z ( 1.23182

RIJN I i

'( 1 = ;!lZ 1'; Y:> 3.82692E-02


Xl: .56Z4

T3= :240 T2' 11<)7


( 31L61..7

T4 IJ IN I) nE') Q LI)~S i. LOS'~


,) c' ~ eo r"'!'.... e-
~b5. 3.C3~@7E.fO~ ~. 75352EHi& .~, .J.")", .. ..J 2.1Z6~'~
( 347.889 ( 1123.91 ( 111IG.Lll ( 23.8998

FLUIe VEL RE YNOLD:; NO H i COEFF HEAi TRMl:, i~ TRAN


25:3 .. 7::;;~ 15J.17~ 9.19'iCb ! .. C6..'- :-"t ";J~. . :'6'774
( 1.t..89'4 ( 4.85Z82 ( 3(1:3.915
ARCH ~ ~1EDt:; :-';0
'74439.C
BED vO)IDACE
.. 6:344:33
PACI<EO HEICHi
(
1.5
.4572 (
...
EXPAN[E~
l0J7~
1.l:5\J33
hEIGHT

12

C2= 44000.
C :0. 7,~57
Y1" .@<:14 YZ= 3.8269:::-0<:
Xl = .5&24 X2= .0<:1iJ41

T3: ~G~~ TZ" 109


( :J99.6~7 C 3~5.778

"14 I~ REI) Q L'_'SS


:84.7 3. 7:~';'5,SE "06 ~ [17614.
( .3:;7. ,:".J:'~; I ( 114:.11 ( 11!~J.:'7 ( .:; 1.5':; 7S

... .... ..
......- ' ' - . - .....
(.

.) ( 4.845:'9 { :: ~: ':~' ~>


III

RIJN 13

G<:: 4.:'0VlVl.
( Z~.7096
Y1:: .!a~1 yz: l.oS13~E-0;::

Xl: .5624 Xl: ."2:2141

--"- - T3~ ZZ0 T2: 39


( 377.444 ( 304.007

T4 Q IN ) REQ Q LOSS h LOSS


149 .~ 3.74%'7E+06 J .,:'I;''i79E+06 740%.5 1.9791:
( :;:;:3.333 ( 1097.1<3 ( 1075.47 ( 21.7147

FLU10 VEL RE YNOLD:; NO i1 r COO:FF 4 TRAN


16Z. ')~:; 9.75:% 1.01035E t,J.~
( 1.ZC'714 ( 5.14448

~RCHIMEOES NO SED ~OIDAGE PACKED HEIGHT EXPANDED HEIGHT


1.5 4 .. 14~1'5
( .4572 ( 1.26222

RUN 14

;.".. ~ 46~G0.
C Z1.7096
yz.. 1.681::35E-02

XZa .fiZ0H .

T3= 441;) T2= 'i.~


'-.,-:-. f!":~'
-..J'~'J. '.J~ 'J ( ,:Z,~.C8'?

T4 Q III Q REQ Q LOSS 1. LGSS


168.5 3.;~0:-::::E+0~ 3.71~4';E"C;& :. :,~'3~':
( 11~37.97 ( Zb.::5~i

rL;;~O veL RE Y:';:)LL':' 1':0 H T COlC"F


;261.6:: 15~.');7
( 1. ';<:',07 ( 5.11189 ( 153.4603
AnCH:r~t:DE.~ NO BED _':=;:D~CE
?~7~~.: .6~:~7

RUN 15

( :1.7096
'f 1::; .OJl

~;:: .02iHl

T:> 20G) TZ: 96.5


( ~9,).I:,67 < 308.8.~3

14 Q IN I) REI) I) LOSS ~~ LOS~;


,.: 7.4 :.7::: 1 So
( ! 131.47 ( 3!.~7~

FLUID VEL
~.'..i . ~ .
REYNOU'~
l::S. :,71
NO H T COEFF
?,U";i'4
HEAT cR,VE
i.4~: ~-r:'Gf.l
I.

TI~rlN
.
"'"... '.1'1' ,-,,. "
-
.

( 1 .. 3~9bC: ( 5.103'i6 ( q:.~:

A~CHI~E[ES NQ BED ~OIC~~E PA(~ED HEiCHT EXPA~~E~ ~EIGHT


.
L
-:-
0
. .. "
-+ ....- "- ., .,...:..'
, .457(: { 1.:"'1675
112

--.- (;4-,,-4019l:JIiJ.
, 21.7096
Y1: .0214 YZ: 3.7535BE-0Z
Xl: .5624 XL" .IiJZ~41

T3.. ZZ0 TZ- 104


( :377 .444 ( 313

14 Q IN Q REQ Q LOSS 7. LOSS


14'1.9 3. 7n96E+0~ 3. 7186,f~E+g6 7430t .'5 1.9'58'7'1
( 33!-).S ) ( 1111.56 ( 11369.79 ( 21. 7749

FLUID VEL REYNOLDS NO H T COEFF HEAT TRArl~:: 7. TRAN


Z57.49 1~2.9:3 9.7'5256 8960t4. :3~.Z;3 ~
( 1.:30813'5 ( 5.14448 ( Z6Z.58b

ARCHIMEDES NO BED VOIDACe: PACKED HEICHT EXPA~~tIED :1E I CHT


104;~.5;~ 6:3'~7::'9 1.5 4.1.':;,]:;':
( .4572 ( 1.26904

.... RUN 17

CZ: 46iQO}O).
( ':1.70"76
Yl- .0214 YZ= 3.7S.35.;C:-iil:

T3: 2411 TZ: 1137


( :3;~S. 5S'!'

14 I~ I;~ ;, lO.SS i: LOSS


1~'1. ::: 66556. ...1-.1.'.
"T,"". - -
_
( 11::'1 .I:;S 110L.57 ( 19.5~~9

FLUl(; VEL "EYN;)LD.; i;.j H T COEFF HEAT T"ANS :: ;RAN


:66. :.~::; 156. 'i'~'9
( 1 .35249 ( 5.11189 ( 3'-4.74

ARCHiMEDES iW CEO V0IDAGE PA~KED HErG~ir EXPA~~ED ~ErGHT


f4~16.S .64S~Z4 1.5 ~.~~~~
( .4S7Z ( 1.Z~943

RUN ,'
1'J

c;z: 4.~1"00.
{ ':1.70n
n: .13214 Y2= 3.75';:58E-e:=

i,= Z6I:J T2= 10':1


(399 '.,'.:' 7 315.778

T4 Q IN Q LOS:.
1'~7.
9
, 3~'i . /;, 1 ~

rL:);;:' '.'EL ;-\[Yr~')LDS N;J :.: T COEFF


4:7 ... '1::5 ~55.':;71 1.':':::'::-C,s :,. J Ii!.' ....'

( 1.:' :',~,~"7 ( 5.1J3i5 I


\
- -.-.
.J.~. (
~- ...
_' I v

( .457~
113

RUB+N
FLUID2

RIJN
C2= 4<:000.
( 19.8218
Yl= .001 Y2= 1.54598E-02
Xl= .4705 xz: .0446
T3= 220 12: 89
, 377.444 ( 31114.667

14 a IN a REQ a LO';:S :4 LOS~~


155.7 3.12214E+00. 3.06378E"06 58357.5 1 ,:36915
( 341.7Z2 ( 914.974 ( 897.S72 ( 17.1022

FLIJID VEL REYNOLDS NO H T COEFi'" HEAT TRAN:; 7- TnAr'~


Z33.013 148.8'~7 8.76787 948166. .3'~3b9i.
.... .., .... ,.......
( 1.18371 ( 4.Q:5~5 ( ... 11.t..JJ

ARCH I MEDE~3 W) BED VOIDAC;E PACKED HEIGHT EXPMHIED l,e!GHT


lIil5794. .61746 1.594 4 .. 11:,/:.,:::\J
( .485851 ( 1
j,
"".., -:~-r
.. _ , ..,,4'i

RUN

( 19.8218
Yl= .lii,ol yz.= 1.54598C:-0Z

Xl= .4705
T:= 24:; TZ: 9~
:3;;8.5'560 ( 3>:16.889
.
14
174.5
I. IN
3.18f14tE+0.~
i~
3 ..
REO
l!~1.L:0E+06
Q LO,,:;
78211. 2.4591'5
( 93': .. ~)5 { :4:.:''::~J5

FLU:C VEL REnw,-DS ;~O H T COEFF 11[~T T/\AN5


~~C.l~9 14:3.347 S.712.31 1.1:::'47E'06
( 1.:1'i:~6 < 4.5~i575 ( 3~;: .'j.5

nRCH~M[DES NO rED VOI~~CE PACr:C::: HEICHT EXF'i;N2ED i--:IGHT


9SL:7Z.
( .4S5:~5t

3
CZ= 4<:;;;00.
Y1= .i~0'

XI= .4705 XZ= .Z~46

~,.., ,.." t':'


! .J - ,,;, .J

T4 i: Le'::;
Z.'-2.8'i'7ET01-.1 z.. 78 i::

r-[ '( ;~OlD:~ :~c H T ~:;)[Fr "'


I.
T' ..... , . . ,
I {"\r1,1j
.... -. ,-.-
~

L'1'/. -\:,_, 14'-. .. ~'';' <t 8. c'1,:.~.l .404"'9


{ 1.':' 5~,::' 2 ( '!.. ~ .:"~.,.,,,:, ( :. :.Z . .: s

.; .. :. 7: ;'1
( 1.:': 1'-7:
114

RUN 4

C2= 4<:000.
__ 0 ( 19.8:'1;3
Yl= .0214 Y2= :3.61545E-02

Xl= .4705 X2= .0446

T3= 2;::0 T2= 114


( 377.444 , 313

T4 Q IN o REO I)LOSS 'l. LO:;;S


i5S.S 3. 17166E+0t!. :3.11533E+gb 56n9. 1.77601
( :341.778 ( ~<:9. 487 912.98 ( 16.5vn

FLUID VEL REYNOLDS N:) H T COEFF HEAT TRM,S 'l. TRAN


43~.574 148.8in 8.76787 848125. .267407
( 1. ;:018 ( 4.62505 ( 248.551

ARCH:MEDE: ~O 'BED VOIDAGE PACKE:, HEIU:T EXP;:'I~::':D ;,c. rCl-i7


.619423 1.5~4 4.16'3:.~'

RUN 5

CZ= 4'::00~.
( 19 .:,~ ~$
'flO .J;::';
Xl= .4705 Xl= .0440

T:3= 240 T2= H'7


, 388.'556 , 314.6o!,7

T4 .) IN o [;EI) Q LOSS i. LO:3S


175.4 :3.L~;139E+06 3.1511IE+06 1.56792
, 3'5z'.S56. ( 93:~. 174 ( n3.464 ( 14.7099

FLUIO VEL RE:'t~:::LDS rJ) H T C:)EFF !. TRA~~


<:44.466 14,:; .347 S.71Z:;i. .32:374
( 1.4:41:39 ( 4.59575 ( 30.3.724

ARCHIMEDES NO DEO VOIDAGZ PACKED HEIGHT EXPANDED HEIGHT


93SS7.3 .6Z494~ 1.594 4.25001
( .485851 ( 1.2954

RUN
CZ= :~2)~0;].
( 1?8218
Yl= .i~214 y~:: ::.b1545E-04:
Xl= .4705

T3= :::.:,:J TZ= 10'7


( 399.667 ( 315.778

T4 Q DI l~ REG: J LOSS 'l. LOS:::


194 77;18.5 L38971
,-.
l ;. r;: ~. ( 9'5'5.547
-,.~

''''~. I .-.J
~.,-,

FL1): J \.'E'- r::~'nJ~::"'cs ~J.j r c ~ ::" r:- I: . T


TRAN:;
~5i. . .;'~5 14.(: ., ..... 8. (j"",~>"",,: 1 1. ZL.~'~iL.E ... ~~6 . ,:7693~
{ l.':';;;:: 1 7 ( 4.5:: :c';: ( >SO.I76

ARCH:~ELE3 NO :EC VJ:~~~E F~CKED H=:!Gt1i EXP~iNDED .:-'~:GH7


~7;~~.b .6~~~~S 1.5~~ 4.3016~
i 1.:: ~ : : :
115

RUN 7

G2= 440~0.
( Z0.7057
Vl= .@01

Xl= .4705 X2= .0446

T3= 22@ T2= 139


( :377.444 ; 304.667

14 C IN Q REa c LOSS 7- LI):;S


158.5 3. 12838E .. l2ib 3.06746E"iH 6i;92Z.5 1.94741
( 343.273 ( 916.804 ( 8'=iS.9S ( 17.853'7-

FLUID VEL REYNOLDS NO H T COEF"F HEAr iR.~~~S i. TRMJ


Z';'4.713 155.894 9 .. 25832 1 .. 0:'0~~3E+06 .:3260S~
( 1."24314 ( 4.88376 ( 298 .. '13

ARCHIMEDES NO ::;:::0 VOIDAGE FACI<ED HEICHT EXF'AlJt;ED c': I Cft;


10~5:{~. .. ~:.;449 l.S'i~ 4.L:9utJ
( .485851 ( 1.3J763

RU:-.I

G~= 44Z.~i.'.
, 20.iI~S7
Y 1: iJ01

Xl= .4705 XZ= .0446

T3= ;:;0 TZ= 93


( 383.556 ( 306.89

T4
177.4
a IN
3. 1843-".E.06.
I) REI) a LOSS
78.331.5
. i:..
., LOSS
~'59?
'.1060IE06
( 353.778 ( 933.ZI~: ( .~ llJ.;:4 7 ( ""'.,.
i..~ ..
,-'c='C'.'""I
I>J J';'

FLUID VEL REYNOLDS NO H T C:)EFF HEAT TRt;;-,JS i. iRAN


252.1 n 1'50.173 ~.! 99.!:.6 1 .. 204 33E4>~16 :;;7:~",0"
( 1 .. :.'::; 107 ( 4.$5282 ( :35': . 94

A~CHIMEDES NO n~D VOIDAGE PACKED HEIGHT EXPA;'J:E:J ;~ErGHT


95040.4 .6336:39 1.594 4.3~a9
( .4;5851 ( !.:;;~61'5

RUN 9

c;:= 44CZ".
( <:0.71,57
y~; .C~';l y~= 1.48i~L.~E-0~

Xl= .~'t705

T3= ~I~" TZ= ":;6.~


( .;99.667 ( 30::;.8.;~:3

Q REl 1. L.ess
196.6, ;;. 14 ;~:.3E+;,}b 8179:;.5 l:. 5.:;6.~':;
.... 1 -. .....
'j.2 1 15,~
~ ~
( t'1'.Jo 4"--' ,

FLUID '.'EL REY;WLD:; NO H T .~iJEFF rT.';T TRA~JS ~: ... r\A~J


Z59.83:; 141>.';.<17 9.1C5Jt. 1.39785E+~b 4:;:;;4~:' 7
( 1.31:;~;: ( 4.:::45~9 ( 4;)). i.54

ARC~~I~~[:; ~o BED VOrD~GE P~C~ED ~iEiC~~- ~A~~~~ED r[IG~~~


1.59~ 4.~t:Z~~
, .4~:8S1 ( 1.~!18~
116

RUN 10

C2= 440i~0.
(20.71;.57 - ~
Y1= .O~14

XI= .4705 X2= ."446

T::>= 220' T2 1134


( :377.-+44 ( :;13

...158.6
T,
Q IN
3.17778+06
I) REI)
:3.11901+'~'J!,
( 343.33":; ( ')::;1.28 ( '1l4.0~8 ( 17.:: 17

FLUID VEL REYNOLD'; NO H T COFF i~ TRAN


248.'541 155.:394 9. ZSS3Z 916Z1z'. ZE~9:31.:
( 1.26<:59 ( 4 .:::8::7~

n~C~I:~:D:S NO t:: VQIDACE P,K';C:: f-!E:GHT EXPA~.::(! ;i:IGHT


1~3~i4. .~3~4i4 1.594 4.31;87
( .45::851

11

GZ= 440021.
, "!J.n-57
Y1= .0214

Xl ~ .4705

T3; Z4~ TZ= 107


( 3SS.SSb { JL~.667

Tt, a IN ': LC::S


17<;.1

FLurn VEL. REYNO~LJ':; r~l:, H T ,:':l:Fr ti:'~T l~ :,,:

Z56.i97 15i.1 ;-, ,-].1~966 1. I! ~ 7ZOE"06 ,:479.17


( 1. :3;)45'~ ( :,:':..s ..:"75
AF\,:ll I ~c::[::.:., it) CED VO I CAC: "'- -'~:Er, r-;~ICH7 ~: '.-.... ~.i~:D ~~:rGH;
~3336.7 .63605 1.394 4.37973

RIJN 1Z
C2= 44000.
( <: ... 7057
n= . .,214 YZ= 3.54839E-02
Xl= .47:iJ5 XZ= .0446

TZ= 26" TZ= 1109


( ::'99.667 (.315.778

T4 ~ IN Q LOSS Yo LO-::S
1%.B 1.270'74+1b 8~58?5 Z .. 5 8/:.fj:'j
( :64.5::1: ~ Z4.7~98

FLUID vel. RE,(~CL:S t'JQ H T C:JErF HEAT 7G,;:'~'~ .~ TRI~N

265. ~;4 7 14'::.%;7 9.185.38 1.31b7'iE+06 .4~V.2.~7!


( 1.346';'4 ( 4.84.5~9 (38"':.8'17

ARCHlMEDES NO BED vaID~CE PAC~ED HEIGhT EXPA~DED HEICHr


::1:38,,)3.6 ./;,..:.;:::::::;:
{ 1.3.5177
117

RIJN 13

C2= 46000.
- , 21.7fJ%
Y 1= .001

Xl- .4705 XZ= .fJ446

T3= ZZ0 T2= 89


-- .-~ - ( .)77. 4~4- , 3ii4.b67

14 Q IN a REO Q LOSS 7. LOSS


Ibl.1 1. 132:31E+01. :::. r37~;8:::E:+"6 b143b. 1.9bl",6
( 344.7:::: ( 917.~56 899.~'51 ( lC.CJH

FLU:D VEL REYNOt..CS N~) H r CCCFF" HEAT TRA:1~:;


..
"'!or:' ,
_~."Y
"~e
.J It..Z.9S 1.0:;':'b4C"~o
( 1. 3i-JZ:59 ( 5.14-+48 ( :~;;.Ui9

ARCHI:1:~ZS NO CE~ VOIOACE


1~5~?6. .639169

14

XI= .47CS XZ=

T:=;= -'0
",.,.". 93
( 3;S.55b ( 3;j6. 889

14 a IN a ;:EO CLOSS ~~ ~o~:~


189.1 3.18549EH)6 3.1EJ9'56E+@6 759;:8. <:. 3tn'~7
{ 93:.;-1-i 'Ill.:;:'!" { ~2.~::;~';

FLUID 'v':L H T C8E?"F :.: TR;"


Zb4.L:;; 156. -, ',9 9.69C:7S,' .4~4(':1
( 1.3';:31 ( 5.111 (.') , 37,'. 1 ~,:'

t'\~C;1::1E(iE:3 ~40 B:: V)iO';CE F';'C.:E:' ;i::~li; EXF'~~~~E(: l.:rCH7"


?43~8.3 .b44~0.; 1.59~ ~.4~ibl

l.S

Xl= .47Z,S x: = J4';6

T:;= T:'= 96.5


( .:;~. s,:;.:;

: : t~ ~: LOSS
.,:;. L:::;;3:}~E-i-0b 86 i 0 .5 :.0,:'1.=-5
'j':':. ::.;' { :s. ~C~3

" '; ::o:~( .,


I.
T~"
I ,',;;. ~

9.67':;73 1.49002.1:::+06

1.594 ~~S~/75
( .... :.,:;~ 1.
118

RUN 1~

CZ= 4':'000.
( 21.7096
n= .;~:14 Y2= 3.4S715E"esZ
XI= .471':0;;

T3:: .::Z~! T~:: 1i'J4-


. ( 377 .444 ( 313

T4 I) IN Q lOSS 7. lOS:;;
1~1.3 ;;.17bI3E+0~ :.357;: . 5 1.6867Z:
( 'Z44.33 ( '13::': .. 798 { 15.7

FLU:=: VEL ReYNOlDS :'JO H T c:;.~= ,- HEAT Tr:::'NS ~~ TR;'N


Z{'0.5:J5 1;';: .. ?:3 9. 7:5~5,!, ~'S~&9:: .. .:1>;::;44
( 1.::'::5: ( :; .. ~~44C c ~c~ . ,:,~.:;

1 .. 514 4.44~;?
( .4S::;S5l ( 1.3::;~5

( ':'1. -:;;-)1,
Y 1;; ...:.t",-.L ~

, '- ~' XZ=

107
( 388.556

14 I) IN (l RE:" Q lOS: :: LO:;;S,


180.2 3.2356'5E+;36 :3. 15768E+I<i6 77971. 2..4,,975
, ?:':~.:8'i ( :'::'.8~f1Z

REY~~':'LD~:' r~.) '1 -;- ;:~'C:;:-f


1 '3c. 9''19 <; .1:.,';78
, ~. l! 1 2~1 I
\
~,.'
W "'T,-, .. ' . ' " '..-

r,~,::::~'i!:[::; :~;j ::: ...':Jr~;,G: EX;' ;;~~:~:::; "i:': Cr: 7


?31~e.i .~'b798 1 .. 5'i~ 4.::,;
( .. ';::'5::'~ 1

RIJN

CZ= 4,:.[I(~::'I.
l :'::1. 70?~
r-.--
Yl= .I~: 14 YZ= ....
.J
I'
~1 '. /
4 f"'-
........ i:.. -
,.-.: ....
I!,I ""

Xl = .470::

... -'-
.~- :::Ul
( :;;-;-:'.a,7 ( ::13.778

T4 Q ~ N Q R[ Q :"'::::S ~: lO:~S
1 ':; 'i ~ (., 3.':::'SllE+06 ~. i .. } :;[.,.06 760:9.5 L. . ~:;"'14
,'"'\, ,-,
( 366 .. 111 ( \:7.754 ...J.J<I

H T ._~ __ "c H'E:ri"7 T~~;~:.


'i..77.7S
1. 411~:
155.~7~ :;.(7574
-~
_'
-
~ ,~. oJ
- .-, 1
i '..J
.. -
1. 40t.
... ..1. _ . _ ... _
..:::~:~ t-2~
119

RUN
FLUID:

RIJN
GZ- 4Z000.
( 19.8218
YI- .001 YZ= 1.96349E-02

XI= .6667 XZ: .0446

T3" Z20 - T2- 69


( 377.444 ( 304.607

T4 Q IN Q REO Q LOSS 7. LIjS~'>


1~7.3 4.1I)1557+I'J6 :3. 93::S9E+G,'I.~ ZZ96Z.5 2.006 .. 7
( 3:;\1. '5 ( 1116.8 ( 1152.48 ( 24.:318:3

FLlJID VEL REYNOLDS r~o H T COEFF HEAT TRANS 7.'TRMl


2Z8.866 148.:307 8.767:?'7 82:::: 1;J7. .204979
( 1.16264 ( 4.025,)5 ( 241.24.

ARCHIMEDES NO BED VOIDAGE PACKED HEIGHT EXPANDED ~EICHT


107705. .615143
( .428549 ( 1.11353

RUN 2

G2= 4:000.
( 19.5Z18
n. _,)01 Y2= 1.96349E-02

.6607 X2= <1446

T2= 93
( :J6.8;;~

I) IN Q REI) ~ LO~S 7. LOS~:.


,-:0'
... ~ '..I n:::.s .... .;,{,J
.... ""'~, .,-
.:,./ _~
( SO; 1 94~ { 1165.":6

ri...;jID 'v'EL Rt: Y N!)LIJ"3 ('J':! H T COEFF i: TRA:'~


Z:::~. l';~ 143. :~4 7 8. 7t~:: 1 ~';S::;';'8
( I.!';; 6~ ( 4 .5957~

A~CHiMEDE; NO 5~D VOIOA~E PACK~D HEIGHT EXPANDED HEIGHT


9~87:.8 .6Z84j
( .42'~549 ( 1.12904

,
RUN 'J

C2= 4:~01i.J.

Xl = .61.-67 X~= ~1':;'~ .;,

TZ= Z,6;J r:::= fjb.S


;;99.667 ( 308.:::

,., (~ R:::;
,
\
,-
4 '-r.I i
,
....,...,
..
.: . J: 7': ~ :
..... ,
-~
I
-...
.'..J"T
4 ,~' .: . . . . 1.. _"- \;".J

7. TRAN
.:~ ~. ~.-,~.:: _:..' t .. '4'

{ 1.':' :,71~ ( 347.666

. ,
... t ... '
-" ~
=:XPANDED Hi::!GHT
\ ( 1.14204
120

f***************************************************************.
RUN 4

- - C2= 4200".
( 19.8218
yt; .0214 Y2= 4.04147E-02

Xl: .6067 xz: .13446

T3- ZZ0 T2: 104


( 377.444 ( 313

T4 Q IN Q REO Q LOSS i: LOS:;


13S 4.0SH'3E+G~ 3. 'i'l'i'l4E+G)6 71891.
( 1187.<: ( 11Q~.1.3 ( 21.';68 ..

FLU!:' .,,.CL REYNOLDS NO H T COErr ;: TRAIl


:'.nn7
( 1.17773 ( 4.oZ5~5 ( Z'-lG.78b

PACKED HEIGHT EXP~~~EO


,.. , -,. I
H~iGHT
,.;.. \"t'.- (J. ,:,
{ 1. ~ ~ 8.:'6

c.:; ~':';J~;.
, 1? 8::1::;;
Y1:..,,;':14 Y2= 4.0414710-0<:

T2= 107
, ~c~. 556 ( 314.6S7

i4 Q IN aRE ... a LO~S 1 LOSS


~57.4 4.;:8CJ~7E+0I... 4.0':'107E+0':'
( 342.667 ( li95.:~c ( 117t3.41 ( 17.4687

f"LUID VEl..
:~0.118
H T ':OEFF
,- .. .. -
-'
, .. , .,.-ta-o
i: iRAN

( 1. 21 '1>3 ( 4.5~575 ( Z6~.814

1 ~ :,~
( .;~:~.549 ( 1.1':;55~

RUN

Y2= 4.04l47E-62

T::~ ,-,~~
, >i~i. ,S,~ 7 I
\
., t IC:'
oJ l~.
-~r.
( "J

,) IN :~ LO~
..,.t: .../
L I .~

';/.27

FLUID VEL H T ':OEFF % T RAN


t "...... ," ,. ~
'- 'r 'J .. _ ~ /0 ""'o.(,'t.,.
( 1. LC \~'".:.,:, { 4 .. 58S~2

.... .........
-. -~
'.;
-..., f
_ ... I ... .6. '-J
....,.:..
~
";
'""'
121

RUN 7

G2'" 44VJ00.
( 20.7657
Y1: .001 Y2= 1.97878E-02

Xl= .I2iH6

T3= 220 T2= 89


( 377.444 ( 3<14.667

14 Q IN o REQ Q LOSS 7. LOSS


141 4.~1857E~O~ 797,,1. 1 .. 9C::;:~ ~
( 33::;.556 ( 1177 .6>3 1154.32 ( 23.36:3 , ~

FLuro VEL REYNOLDS NO H T COEFF HEAT TRANS I. TRAN


......., . -
;
240. ,~9Z 1~5.894 9.~~8:;Z 8970:;5. _L.L.';'':''
~

, 1.z:a:Z71 ( 4.88376 ( ~6~.291

ARCHIMEDES NO BED VOIDACE PACKED HEIGHT EXPANDED HEIGHT


:~7~?1. , .:":.~'::74 1.406 :.7&::1
( .428549 ( 1.14669

RIJN e

Yi:.= 1.87878-13<'

Xla ,1,1,67 X,;a .0441,


1'3= Z40 T;:= 93
:33~ .. SSt, ( 3"6.Cn

T4 Q IN Q REO Q LOSS I. LOSS


l59.3 4.;)79.;':E.,.Z,!,. J.9S:79[+06 : .. 37.~~ 8
, 3.;.; , 119:3.57 116.7,2 I

FLUID VEL ~E yj.~I)LDS NO H ! COEFF HEAT 7R .. ",:;


2.48 .. 271 ~5J.17:;; ,] .. 19'=):.S 1.0a~';~E~J6
( 1 .2bl ~L: , 4.S5Z~Z ( 317.B;;:'

ARCHIMEDE~ N0 ~ED 110IOAG PACKED HEIGHT EXPANDED HEIGHT


1 .. 1 ~'6
, .. 4L.':;:;~~

RlJN 9

, 2,).76'57
Yl= .0'H Yl= 1.137878-02

Xl= .b,~b7

T3::: ;:,;'0 T,,;: 9~,. 5


{ ':'~'ij .. ~~ 7 ( JiJ.3.8~3

T4 i~ IN I) "EQ Ij LOSS .~ LOSS


17:;. :;
( 354.556 ( 1210.48 1179.73 ( 30.7533
rLurL '.,,'EL REYN,)LC'S rw H 'j C0EFF i: TRAi'
-.~~
a...~..J.
,-,,":
I 1'-' ~ 48 . ;;,) 7 .:; J'i:' : _
\ ~ .:';)~J~6

{ 1.1771';'
122

RUN 113
CZ= 4411";:<1.
( 20.7657
'/1:: .0214 Y2= 3.95504E-02.

-Xl= .6/;,67 XZ= ~446

T3= ZZ~ TZ2 111)4


( 377.444 ( 313

14 Q IN ,) REQ Q LOSS % LOSS


4.<15244E+06 .':.,7t;:7.5 1.6~l2S
, 333.944 ( 1187.61 1167.96 ( 19.646

FLUID VEL REYNOLDS NO H T COEFF HEAT TRANS % TRArJ


243.999 155.8'14 9.~58::: 7841:;!. .193501
( 1.23952 ( 4.88376 ( ZZ9 .. 80:3

ARCHIMEDis NO EED VOIDACE PACKED HEIGHT EXPAH~ED HEIGHT


1.406 3.7BZZ3
( .4<:8549 ( 1.15:21

RUN
GZ= 44"00.
r 20.7657
n= .;;)214 Y2.: 3.955il';E-~Z:

Xl" 1:.6b7 X2.= .0446

T3= L:40 T2" 107


( ~14.6o!,7

1'4 Q IN Q LO~S % L.OS~~


161 615~1. 1.'30~4~
) , 118u.~ ( 113.0<:64

FLUID l,'EL REYlWLDS NO H T 1:i)ci='F Ht:,n iRAN'; i~ iRAN


!:::0 .. 173 9.1 S'9:'c,
( 1.28<:84 ( 4.85,8.2: ( 290.60.3

ARCHI~EDES NO BED ~OIDA~E PACKED HEiCHT EXPANDED HEIChT


94'lJ9.3 .b338~~
{ .4,,3549 ( 1.17"33

RUN 12
Ct:" 440001.
( ~i3 .. 7657
Yl: 3214 YZ= 3.95504E-I'12

Xl: .1:.667 X2: .GH6

T3 = 26\~ T2= 109


( 3'1'[ .. ;',S-;" ( 3tS.778

T.. Q IN ) RE) I. I...C'::S


: 77.5 .; .. 16:'::; 1 +IJt Z. ';4':,5,::
C .:54.944 ( 1;::;:0.98 ( Z9.a~';7

.
,
..-, - c:- ... -,
~,~,;"
~
'I of .::
...:,,~:.:;.:, ,
" .I. .... .) _ .:,..

4.8~5~\.i
. ~'-
"

-' - '-'.

ri;-\::i;Ii"1:::.:':::/;~C ~.[~ \..'Clr,;'L~E r'A.:;-~C:D HE I ~H7


9J:~~.4 .G:~~~~ 1 ,;:-,~ -
., -. ... -
.I.': ,-' ,_,
~

, 1.18:;';5
123

RIJr~ 13

C<:= 461Cl1i!0.
( 21.71Cl9C
Y1= .0131 Y2= 1.8"145E-02
Xl= .6667 X2= .,446
T3: 220 TZ= 89
( 377.444 ( 3.,4.667

14 Q IN Q REO Q LOSS % LO,:::>


144.3 4.1Cl<:574E+06 :3. '74444[+.16 ,: .ij195.;:
( 335.389 ( 1179.78 ( 1155.%' ( 23.8261
FLUID VEL RE YN(iLDS NO H T CGEFF !. TRAN
ZSZ.467 16Z. (j;J 9.75:56 97CJ~:~. .Z4U!i7:'
( 1.28253 ( 5.14448 { 2.8(.412

ARCHIMEDE; NO BED VOIDAGE PACKED HEIGHT EXPANDED HEIGHT


106938. .b370'77 ;.4~6 3.S;~:1
( .4~8~49 ( 1.180S';

14

( 21.7096
Y2= 1.801ll~E-"<:

T~= 24~
( ;::;S. :5~

Q IN I) RE') :,~ LOSS


l~::;.~ 4.08424E+06 :::. 7~~S;S"E+()6 ,... C' I
I..J'J'
.~ C'
J ':.34:04
( ~';'3. :;;3'~ , 11'76.93 I1b::.~3 ( z.s. ';4r.:i

r:"UID Vel t\CYNCLD:; r~o i: TRAN


t:",-,....,.-,
~60. :.:~ 1 15c.. "/')'/ '-.' 6'~ .,' ~''J r .....
"-.J ......,;., I I

( 1 .::'Z74 ( 342::. 17b

~~CHr~EOES NO EED VOIGACE P;CKEO HEIGHT HEIGHl


"~
4
...
'tU t;..
EXPA~~[C
--,
.;;.
,-, -...... -.~
~'':'' "- ,~.' ..J

15

Y2= 1. ";014'.iE-'"<:
x;:: = .044b

TZ= 96.::
( ~::-S.C.3:

,II Q IN ~~ :...o~;s
i:. i:JZ::':;: 1

I
:. ~,,:,
~
~ 71
. , . - .., ":-
~EYNCLr,:;
~':5.S71
i\I,:'
.-I
.-- ....
'J . '
~
'"t
i: iRAN
.::;;14:
, A ..".4..J-..I.,J

..-.,..,..-,;).:, '?- . . . .
-.
.,.t.
,-..-. ...,
h_''::'
...
124

RUN
- G2=- 46';<li9.
( 21.7J96
Y1: .ln14 Y2 s 3.87612E-0'

X 1 = .1:.1:.1;,7 x,: .0446

T3= 220 T2= 104


( 377.444 ( 313

14 I) IN Q REt) Q LOSS % LOSS


145 4.:2I5:309E+06 '5. ';'o:;g'?9E-+ 0,~ 07;1'5.5
( 335.778 ( 1189.26 1169.6 ( 19.663

RE '( N0LDS NO H T GOEFF MEAT TRANS 7. :n,'\~~


~St,. 0:;'3 16~. 9:3 S".7~:36 cs;::~:;. Z L1i65:
{ 1.::~iJ:i~ ( 5.144';8 ( ~5~.:;Zl

AROHNEDi:.S NO E.ED VljI DACE EXPA'iDED HEICHT


1 z~.;~ 1. .- .-, . ...,-..
......I.'.Io'''t,
( .4<:8549 ( 1. 18i 11

RUN I

c,:;; 4.~:'.~,.).
\ .:. ... -: .~':'.,-,
YZ= 3.87612E-';<:

XZ= .';446
~.... -
1";'-
~ .
~.,.
'"I
.... TZ = 1(:7
( 3:j:~.~S,~ ( 314.6o',i

T4 Q IN .) RE' Q LOSS 7. LOSS


1(,4.5 4. c:;:31o;E:+0b 4.C::':~~E+86 5:0:~.5
( 3:'1;,.611 ( 1197.19 1181.94 ( 15.:554
RE YN,jLDS Nt)
t5t,.;;'~' .
1. ...
,..- -.---
I J:'"
' " ~
,'"

..... , ~

~ _'':'''':''.' J
r- -

( 1.3461'1 ( 5.11189 ( 313.734

ARCH!~EL~S NO SED VOIDACE


"'''f':''/- ..... ,. ,. 7,"'''
1.,.~lj," .j
!
'."'t '"t, ,:,..., 1 .:: ~ ,:.
( .4'-8549 ( 1.206 .. 4

RUN
C~:: ~:'IJ~l;~l.
( ::1.709/J
Y1: .. ,Z,l;:: i 4 Y2=

Xl = .lj4~6 7 X-'- .. -
T3; ;:.~0
C :;;"i' 7. ,~67 { 315.7 7 :::;

Q LOSS i~ LOS:;
.L'.J.J ~. ~ '::..':':.: [t-C,:, _ .. ,;,.~ t ... "" ,

{ :'~b.,::;7 , ~::':":;.~' t:

1 ...... 0_
I
. . . . ....,
'7',.,'-'
IIC,I~.J { . . ~ s . ,~..:.
1'"" - ....... -':"" -,..... ..... . . . , , . - - . 1,- ... - - _
r"'!'\_.!I"'~L!L....J ',,"'..I L!c:..~ "otu.l.LM ....c.,

.;.,; oJ I .... 1 .. ':;.:,


\ ...... -_:..< '"
125

RUN
FLUIDZ

RUN
cz- 42:"1i10.
( 19.8Z1S
U- .001 YZ" Z.lSIi142E-0Z
Xl- .56Z5 XZz .04493

13- ZZ~ TZ= 89


( 377.444 ( 304.667

14 1;1 IN Q REi) Q LOSS i. LOSS


129.5 4.3943i)E+0~ 4.:H;514E+I1)~ 991~2. 2.02904
( 327.167 ( 1287.79 ( 1261.66 ( ZO. 1 Z9:~

FLUID VEL REYNOLDS NO H T COEFF HEAT TRANS 7. TRAN


226.901 148.807 8.76787 n4~61. .~74"12
( 1.15266 ( 4.62505 ( 2 .. 4.1;91

ARCHIMeDES NO BED VOIDACE PACKED HEIGHT EXPANDED HEIGHT


1~8634. .614035 1.86 4.81909
( .566928 ( 1.4~986

RUN
G2= 42000.
( 19.8218
Yl= .001 YZ= Z.15g4ZE-~t:

Xl= .SbZS XZ" 04493


T3= 240 T2: 93
( ::38. :;5.~ ( :;~~. :309

I) I jj i) REO Q LOSS
co ,.
, l'Ii"'l
.. "To::' 4.4':'714E-+06 .; .355,:1 E .. ~~ 6
t ~ l'
. . . . . "'" ~
C"
..J

( 3,7.444 ( 13,Yi.14 ( !.:.n.46 { 32.t,8S5

Ill).' VEL "EY r;.J:..D:3 rw H T COEFF H2AT TRA~~S


14:.'::47 :3. 7~::1 94~44".
( 1.18985 ( 4.'59'575 ( Z16.77:~

ARCHI~E~ES NO C:C VO~CAC[ r~cr~ED HEIGHT cxp;..r~:[D rICICi-{T


77~b~.3 .61?:~9 1.8~ 4.S86~~

RUN 3

( 1'/. :;:: 1:~


Y1" _001

Xl:: SbZS

T3= Z:,~0 TZ= ';0.3


, :::99.667 ( ::08.833

T4 (;1 IN :) REO
( '::47.778

FLU:::; VEL ~: TRAN


,-. I - .-. -
.J ~ I '.J'~ ..

( 1.t:Z:74Z { ::.~ ~. -i"iJS

rIK::H: ~1EDE'; NI) t:::D V;:. I DAC.E EXPA~4CED HEIC.~~;


-:;'L~'73.4
........ ..,. . . .I..
.<...t~ .... I ... 1 ... ~~
.126

RIJN 4
.... - CZ- 42000.
( 19.8:1:~
- -U- .0214 yz ... 042322

-Xl" .51.>25 X2- .04493

- T3" 220 TZ- 1134


( 377.444 ( 313

T4 Q IN Q REO Q LOSS X LOSS


1,9.8 4.451.> 14E+0b 4. :36S70E+06 904.~5 2.:)Z945
( 3Z7.333 ( 1305.12 ( 127"1.41 i 2':'.5029
FLUID VEL REYillOLD:~ r,j:J H T COEFF HEAT iRAi"; X TRAN
ZZ?Z39 148.807 :3.7C787 1:.40:~Z .14367';'
( !.1i,';53 ( 4.6':50)5 ( 1<37.':'32

ARCHIMEtES NO BED VOIDACE F'ACJ<ED riE: GHT EXPA:~r;CD HE r CHi


107530. .61S3~4 1.8j~ 4.S:~61

RU~1 5

Yl = .021 ..

X2: .1:)4493

T3= Z40 T=:= 10f


( 3B:~. SS6 ( 314.6o!.7

T4 Q IN I)REO a.........
LOSS
,
~
"
LOSS
o ......,-.C'
149 4. 495o!.o!.E+0o!. 4.41347E+06 ("'.-
':J '- .. ,;.. -' V'-J~'.J
( 3j8 ( 1317.5 ( 1293.41 ( 24.0845

FLUID VEL REYNOLDS NO H T C!JEFF HEAT TRM,j': 'l. TRA'~


14::. ~.f 7 :~. 71::~ 1 .187'1'5)
( 1.<'0797 ( 4.59575 ( 2 .. 7.636

ARCHiME~ES N0 ~ED VOIDAGE PACKED HEIGHT EXPA~DED HEIGHi


96Z06.4 .6~13:1
( %6928 ( 1.4'?71e.

RUiII

( 1'7.::.:18
Y 1= .13214

Xl: .56<:'5. xz- .04493


T3: ~6~J
( .:,~,":t .~6 7 ( J15.778

T4 I~ REQ
4. ~:::::~SE+O/;,
i' LOSS !. LOSS
2.49:~1,~:
( 34&.L:78 ( l':;i:S. 86 (;3.3549

FLUID VEL Yo TRAN


"",.' c'~,. c:-
"'~'.J~ "'..;

( 1. .5 .. 0'5 ( 4.58862

HEIGHT
,-'
I
-.-'~
.. 4. -, ~
.....
. ,
E"::!) V>JIDA~E
~Z,;,: 1:
PAU-:"D
1 . :~ ~
-,,",
~ - . ..,.
...
"
'+
{ !. 5! ~3
127

... 7

G2= 44000.
( 20.7657
Ua .1301 YZ Z.i57ZZE-EiZ
Xl= .5625 X2= ..,4493

T3= ZZ0 T2= 89


( 377.444 ( 304.667

14 Q IN Q REO Q LOSS 1. LOSS


1:3.5 4. 40Z~J8E+"6 4.31Z.~<;'E+06 8749C. 1.98:c)7
( 3L:'i.3S9 ( 1289.49 lZb3.85 ( ~5.b398

FLUID va REYNI:'LDS NCI H


,..,
T COEFF
-, ..,.
HEAT TRM~S !. TRA~
4:30.7::::::: 155.::;94 ~e.",

"' .4'41'4"",4- 839614. 19~~::: '::


( 1.~!::;~J4 ( 4.88376 ( Z46.ii57

AReJ-; ~ ;~EDE'; NJ teD I,.,';::IDAGE PACf:ED HEIGHT EXP .. r;t,ED HEIGHT


l"~~~:'. .6ZS2::4 1.86 4.9631
( .566'7Z8 ( 1.51275

RUN 8

G2= 44130.1.
( :";::.7~'57
Yl= .@@1 YZ- Z.0'572lE-02

Xl: .5625 Xl- .94493

;3= 240 Tl- 93


( 388.550. ( 306.889

14 Q IN Q REO o LOSS 7. LOSS


15{ 4.476?9E+06 4. 3e3i~E+06 113321. Z..531~'3
( 339.60'>7 ( 1311.8'5 { 1,78.6'; ( 33.2.;198
FLIJI(; vEL RE'(NOU;S NO H T COLFF HcAT 7'~AN'; i~ TRAN
Z46.?f6 15~.173 9. 19\'1....~ 1.f.Z77:5Ei-Z6 ':Z:'t:S~ 7
{ 1. ~5164 ( 4.85282 ( 3<;1 014

ARCHIMEDES NO EED YOIDAGE PACKED HEICI1T


... ~ .......... eo
~
I , '-'J I ..J t .81J : (t3" 71
( .5bb'i'2S ( 1.5:~~58

RUN
GZ= ';4:hJ0.,

Y2= 2.0'5722E-"2
Xl = .3,,25

T 3= Z.6i~ TZ= 96.5


(,;'79.667 ( :;gS.8:3

,4 Q IN I) REO Q LOSS 'l. LOSS


170.7 ';.~:;'':3:':E+06 o1..411'~lE+0"J
( 1231.23 ( 12"'-;2.95 ( 3E:.276

-,e r
'-oJ'" ....
1
~
. '" . ,--.
_ _"'J,
H T COEFF H:;:l\T TRil
l.: __ .... \.'
~,
.. \)~
\ 1 .. Z'; \'}':'3 ~. c:,::? l"
128

CZ= 44000.
( 2~. 7657
- U" .,Z14 YZ= .041371

T3= 2,0 TZ& 104


( 377 .444 ( 313

14 Q IN Q REQ Q LOSS 4 LI)SS


134.1 4.44578E+06 4.37371E+06 72tHl. 1.62111
( 3Z9.722 ( 1302.68 ( 1 ZSl. 70 ( 21.1211

FLUIDVEL -- - REYNOLDS NO H T COEFF .. HEAT TRANS Yo. TRAN


241.~36 155.894 9.25832 7171Z3. .161304
4

( 1. 22751 ( 4.68370 ( 210.16

ARCHIMEDES NG GED VOIDAGE PACKED HEIGHT EXPANDED HEIGHT


106873. .626787 l.Sf.., 4.98375
( .566928 ( 1.51905

RUN 11
CZa 44006.
( 20.1657
Yl" .0Z14 f2: .041371
Xl= .5645 X2= .04493

T3= Z4;;) T2 a 107


( :38:;.556 ( 314.667

T4 Q IN Q REQ Q LO<'& % LOSS


4. S;J7:~'7t: +06 4.";:';)74E06 87149.
{ 341ii.167 , 13Z1.riS ( lZ0;5.54 ( Z5.S~99

FLUID 'v'EL RE Y1J(,LD; ;W H T COEFF HEA" TRA~:; Yo TiiAN


:50.259 15(1. t 7::, 9. 19';'I;,,~ 9Z,';976. ~J51 '~'
( 1. ~713': ( 4.85L:8Z ( 271.iH4

ARCHIMEDES N0 BED VOIDHGE PACKED HEIGHT EXPANDED HEIGHT


75767.1 .G3:~:6 1.86 5.0~:97
( .566928 ( 1.54319

RUN 12

CZ= 44"'00.
( 210.1657
Yl= .0214 Y2 .041371

X2: .@449:3

T3= Zby} TZ = 1109


{ :399.667 ( 315.778

T4 i~ IN Q LOSS
'"' c::"~ ""- .,
171. '5 1169';9. '- ...J.,J J~:;"

( :350.5 ( 1.344..3i.. 13;8. fJ'+ ( 34.;:731

FLUID VEL RE,(NOLD~. NO HEAT iRAN.', 'f: TRAI-.i


1':';:;. :::.~7 .:47848
( 1.315~4 \ 4.84529 ( 33<..691
F~C~E~ HElGHT EXP~~OED hEIGHT
, .5';"6948 ( 1.56362
129

RUN 13
GZ= 46Wl00.
( 21.7fJ9b
-H" .001 YZ" 1.9721ZE-0Z
Xl= .56Z5 XZ: .134493
T3" ZZii.I TZ: 89
( 377.444 ( 304.667

T4 Q IN Q REQ Q LOSS Yo LOS:;


137.1 4.40S64E+06 4.319:3Il1E+06 B9~3b. 2.0ZI;.39
( 331.389 ( lZ'14 ( 1Zb!;;.81 ( Zb.1808
FLUID VEL REYNOLDS NO H T COEFF HEAT TRANS Yo TRAN
Z50.b17 H,2."8 9.752S6 913~3S. .Z07:GS
( 1.Z7313 ( 5.14448 ( 267.838

ARCH r r1EDi::S NO BED VOrDAGE F"CKED H::IGHT EXPANDED I-iEIGHT


107i<:4. .6:<.117 1. 8f.. "::.111 "::"
( .5b6928 ( 1.:55799

RUN 14

( :'~.7G;'6
'(2: 1.'i7<:IZE-0Z

T3; 441i TZ;a 93


( ::;SS. :;5/.., ( :'0/~. Z89

T4 ~ IN ;;j RE .. o lOSS X LOSS


IS.S" ::;; 4.47777E+0f.. 4.:7014E+06 1076:9. :.4g:63
( 341.778 ( 1::'12.Zb ( 1280.71 (31.5418 )
flUID VEL REYNOLDS NO H T COEFF HE~T TRANS ~ TRAN
2'5:~ .564- 1.111~3E+;6 .:48~:~
( 1" ::'l :;51 ( 5.11189 ( .3iS.867

ARCHIME~ES NO SED V0IDAGE PACKED HEIGHT EXPA~2::D HEIGHT


( .566928 ( 1.581:::

RUN 15

, 21. 7i~:;b
Yl: .flliJl Y2- 1.97212E-tl2
Xl: .56<:5 XZ= .v4493
T3= 2/':'0 T2- 9b.5

T4 I) REtj :; LOS:,
174.'5 4.41G':";'E+j:ib Z.:J 1 ~ 4
( 35'-.167 ( t ~'i5. J:~ ( ':;7 .;~; 'i 1

FlIJ:D '.!E'- REYN;):_DS ~'JO H T COEFF i. TF,Mlli


;;'b/~ .5'=75 135 . .,I I 1 .::::'7+
( : .:'543 ( 5.lfJ39b
Af(CHIMEDE:;;.o ;::ELi V(,;D';;::E P,:\,:i,ED HErCH,
c-
?~~7J. .L~5~1)5
-'r;::'"'':''''
1. C.S ........ _' ... '-1'-

( . s~,,:";::::
130

RIJN 16

C2= 46000.
( 21.7@9b
11= .13214 Y2= 4."51~27E-02

Xl= .5625 XZ= .04493

T3- ZZ0 TZ- 104


( 317.444 ( 313

T4 Q IN Q REO Q LOSS 4 LOSS


137.8 4.44767E+136o 4.::::0~lE+0b 67Q~1. 1.5~778
( 331.178 ( 131:3.43 ( 1.28:3.78 ( 19.65Z9

FLUID VEL REYNOLD5 NO H T COEFF HEAT TRANS 4 TRMJ


253.:;:59 16Z.98 9 .. 75:5,~ 790591. .1777":.4
( I.Z8% ( 5.14" .. : ; ( 231.691

ARCH I ;1EDES NO SED VOIDACE PAO:ED HEIGH":" EXPANr.ED ;,E I CHT


lC:~3~J.
' --7,... .."
J"" .:J.J 1 -". -".~
_ ...3:'71
( .566928 ~ 1.5&S3~

RIJN 17

VI= .;);:14

"73= ,,:o1-U TZ= 1iJ7


, :.:.:. .,~:, 7

, IN ;;
T.
~

~ c:..,:... ':"
Q
~.Sl~3-:"/E.+Z6,
.~

".
C;
,... ...., -
,.. .,.t.,
. "::IF.,.
.~
"
LOS
~ " : <"
.....
, 34L:.i..22 ( 13'-".46 'i7 .56 ( ~.;. 981

FLU H' VEL REYN(IL[<; N~' H T C0EFF ..,. -.... ,.., -


1'5.:.. " ,.-. .. _ ... 1_
~

( S.11189 ( 294.':1'<:

ARCHIME~ES NO BED VOIDACE PACK.D HEI~f:r EXPA,',:'ED I!E!GHT


1.~J S.:l?:?
( .56069Z8 ( 1.~9087

RL'N

C;::= 46fJJJ.
VI= .0;::14 Y2= 4.0'5@27E-02
Xl- .51.~5 XZ= .044'13

T3= ':'::'0 T2 = 10-:;


( .-:;~7.':.:' 7 ( 3t~.77C

Q IN Gl Il[G! ~ L:JS:::
" C'.- ,-
-+.58:'1-+[+0,:'" .;.. ~ 7::: ~::;:: -+ 0c 1o..i."-'1 (.
~
'- .,. oJ_'._
( 134':: .. 08 ( 1:J ~ ,) 12 , : : . 566

REYr~C:"'D::; NO H T COCFF
~-.
9.j~7~574 ........ ..:./
I -
~ i": . ':. 7'; :5~.::71 .. ) ' -
I ! ... .., ... , ....
~ ... "_ 0:'.:.. 4. ..., ( 5.103"),~

PAC:<C::::; HE ~ vi IT
.... _..
~ .-. I
131

tiUN
FLIJID2

RUN 1 '

C2.= 420k!0.
( 19.132.18
Y1 = .001 Y2.= .025605

Xl" .562.5 X2= .1i!4493


T3= ZZ@ T2= S?
- - ( 377 .444 I 304.60.7

T4 I) IN aRE:) Q LO:~C ~~ LOS:~


112.2. S. Z:3';3ZE ... 0b 5. 12749EHJ6 196832. Z. 0409'~
( 317.556 ( 1533.'17 ( 150Z.66 ( 31.31~8Z

FLUID VEL REYNOLDS rlij H T CQEFF H:;:;' r rr1A;'~:~ :: TRAI~


1:21.737 1413.:307 S.707:::7 615397. .11757
( 1.12642 ( 4.6;<;505 ( 180.:48

ARCH:~ELES ~o BED VarDAGE PACKED HEIGHT EXPANDED rlEICHT


111155. .611084 Z.Z3Z 5.73902
( .680313 1 1.74?~5

z
C~= 4Z00~.
( 19.5::t8
Y1= .1301

T'J= Z,lZl TZ: 9.:;


( :383.556 ( 3H.9

T
,~
'
;~ IN Q RE~ ',: LOS::;
, 4 c:' e-~. I ~ ..... r"~ ..... ,-,
L:9~59 . 2.43111
\ LJ""v .. .\.\j .. 'J,-I:'/ .. ",.j

~:Y~J':::"D': N!) H T CCEFF ,.... ,


:: 7RAN
143 . ~';'7 :; . 71'::' 1 ,~."

'';'''!';."' i '-".'. .151925


( 4.5;'575 ( ':36.72';

Ar;Cf1! :1EDES: r;o CEO 'J'} 1 DACE PACKED HEICHT EX~A~DED HEIGHT
99649.8 .616759 4.L~4 5 . 8~4g1
C .. 6.031:3 { 1 .. 77516.

C2= 42000.
( 1?S':18
)"1= .001 '(:=

Xl:: e,~C'
. .JI~~._, X2=
-~-
Ij - T;:=
( 399.667 ( 308.8~3

G LI)~oS 'l. ~GSS


148./;. 1" 12 ~t. 3.~:;:6~,~,

( ::'7.778 ( lse~ . .:: ( 1537.:J~ ( ';8.: 3:;9

REYNo:...r'; ~JO H T C':'[FF t:::':' 7' TRANS


i.. ;7.127 142.044 e. 6cn:'~'1 778.
C:I";',~ .184277
( 1. ::C:4b! ( 4. r:::C:::t.L: ( :~':. 1: 6

ARCHIMCtES :~J tE~ VJlDACE f'AC:<ED HEIGHT EXFA~;:,ED liEIGHT


947~~.Z .6Z1277
- , - , . 0""'1"
, to , ...... J -
132

RUN 4

C2= 42000.
-- .. ( 19.8418
n= .0214 Y2= 4.65cH.4E-0Z

Xl= .5625 X2 0449:3

T3~ ZZ0 T2 = 104


( 377 .444 ( 313

T4 Q IN I) REQ Q LOSS i.. L.OS:;


l1Z.6 5.305:36E+06 5. H;;)ZeE"'0~ 1.90:303
( Z17.778 ( 1554.94 ( 15<:: ... 02

FLUIe VE:" REnJOLDS t~:) H "' COEFF HEAT TRMJ:;; i. 7RAN


..,..-. ,""II
4",,&.O'J:f 148. ~:,~J7 8.7678; '44.1 '562. 8.3:21:'E-02
( 1 .lZ;0~ C 1:9. 4;~~

ARCHIMECES NO EEt VOlLACE PACKCD HEIGHT EXF.;;;CL:C f;;:::GH7


111g9~. .h11156 l.234 5.;401

RUN '5

c-,::: 4':;;.:;fj.
{ ~1.;::~1~3
Yl= .O"l'; y:= 4.6r;;~64E-0Z

T3= ;:4c~ T2= 107


( 388.556 ( 314.607

a IN I) REO Q LOS ~~ LOS:;


131 .i;, 1.8:3"'v1

FLU,D VEL

(
.., -, -, 1" ~
.......... 110. . . . . . . . . .

~.179::.7
. ........
F;'fr'~::~lD::
~
..,.
'I ~
..,.,
-.~'"
~~iJ

(
,-,
'J. I
~
- .......
1. L.,..j",

.5'i'575
i: 7R~r'J
.1~86';'1

;\RCHI~::'i:'C:'; i'~c'; ~C::; \',:iiDAGE P;'O:ED HEIGHT EXF'A:JuED i'C:IGH1


9~~~9.~ .b~~~l~ ~.Z3Z 5.6~o~,
( .66~313 { 1.7Zt91

RUN
GZ=
( is.GZ18
Y 1 = .0214- y,,= ".6SZ,!.4E 0"
Xl = X;:= .:} 4:;'7J
-"'!oJ -,
T:J= ... 'j).O' TZ= HJ'i
( 399.667 ( 315.778

U I ~ Q LOSS
i .. :j. :; 5, i 3141:.9. <::.<1170 ..
I ~, - -, c
~. ~'J _' (

rLU:~ VL - - v .. ,~.,
,_ I
.... : ....
.. l..l..I_ H tc-:::rr
L.4~.07.5 .s. to'I,:;.'; t ,'::5017.
{ 1. ':'~';6:
I
\
" -:-,
"'1 ...... -' ....
....
.;..4. ( ,:,.:..:: .:..:.;
~ -.-
,.,., ',.
...'" -- ... -
"_,,, _ _
~
l.o,J E~i:':.::v
.- ~ -, .......
11t. ....:'1;

'~':' ,,'-' ~ :; . ,
C'
01 "

-. ~

7 ...... _'
-.'
_-

I
\ 4. I::....... '.... \.J

. f l i . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C . . . 4 . . . . . . . "'\~t . . . t l t . . . . . . . --4; . . . . . . .f.i.* * .. 1 t t .... 4 ' ... ~.t ..


133

RUN 7

GZ= 441~00.
- ( ZIJ.7657
Yl= .0101 Y2= 2.44:366E-@2

Xl= .!::625 X2= .044''/3

T3= 2210 T2= g'y


-~ ( 377 .444 ~( 304.667

T4 Q IN I) RE,) 'J LOS.~ i. LOS:;;


116.9 5.24449E+06 '5.1 :j81i'0E+lii6 106498. Z. 03'1L~,,::'
( ::)':0.167 ( 1536.95 ( 15:;)5.74 ( ~ 1.: 1 0:;;
FLUID VEL REYNI)LDS N;J ~! T CO~FF HZAT TRA~~S
Z33.918 l5'5.894 6')6452i
( 1.1::83 ( 204.1102

r.~,CH:i'E(,t;:;; NO r:ED ';,OID':'CE


11JJC7. .~::~4~

:~

( ':v}.7I-J37
Y 1 = .<'0l

Xl= x;:= .0H93

T3= ':40 r:: 93


( ~S;:;.S56 ( 306.889

T4 a IN a REO a LOSS ~ ~oss


133.4 5.19[;56E+06 122235. ;:: .29731
( ::;).444 ( 1550:'/.31 ( 1~L:~.49 ( 3~.8Z:'Z

FLI;.t VEL REY~~:)LDS r~(l H T ceCFF t:EAT Tr.MJ:; ~~ T;\~r~


Z4l.?~''i lSi. 173 9.19<;'66 89567:'. .16:33:;,:~
( 1. '::'::'11 ( :LZ. 4C:7

ARCHIMEr~~ NO rED VOIDACE PACKED HEIGfil EXF'ANGE(: :~=:rCHT


99045.3 .62817 2.232 6.00:74

RUN 9

GZ= 4';0G~~.
( 2@. 1657
Yl= .001
Xl=
T::. Cj',~ 5
( 30:::.8:33

T4 :) l~. C I..;JSS
5. "12:3bE+tol~. 1 ~6.:~1b.
( 1586.15 , :. '5 .: ~- 7

H T (;jUT ~: TI,,"1N
9.185-38 .i:.il1951

{ .... :'::.:-1 ~
134

*********************************.*******************************
RUN 113

C2= 44001:J.
-( 20.nS7
n= .0;214 YZz 4.536'3<:E-lii2 .
Xl= .5625
T:i= Z221 TZ = 1IiJ4
( 377.444 ( 313

T4 Q IN Q REGI Q LCJSS r. LOSS


117.3 5;31527E+Iii,~ 5.211389E+06 104384. 1.96:3::;::
( 3Z0.8S9 ( 1~S7.j~9 ( 1527.1 ( 3~.59~8

FLUID VEL REYNOLDS NO H


.,., COEFF HEAT TRAN~: ;. I r\no!'>_
235.011 155.S94 9.25832 '535107. .. 10:67';
( 1.ln'~" ( 4.88376 ( 156.819
ARCHI~Er;E'3 NO E:ED VQIDACE PACKED HEIGHT EXPAND~D HEIGHT
1'-;9875. .62.3152 .... ..,..-,"'"
,".,-~~ 5.9Z:S
( .6;~0::::t3 ( , ,-..
...
... ..,
.1_,
"'I'~
~r.I

RRIJN 11

C:= 4400Z I
..

( Z"J. 76':57
Yl= .8214 Y'Z.= 4.5:36S:=:-ZZ

XZ= .C44'13

i3'= :4:J TZ= 1"'7


( :3Se .. 5::~ ( 314.667

Q ITJ G: RE~ Q LOSS I. LOSS


136 .3 5.367",3E+I6 5.26777+06 9'lZ5E: 1.8494
( ':::J.?44 ( 154:.77

F~urD VE~ RE: YNJL.OS N.) H T eCEFF' :~ TRA~J


4.~4 .. 95:3 15'.173 9.19~66 775855. .1445::
, 1. ~';4:;.~ ( 4 .. ;35Z~J~ ( :":"7 --.::

ARCHIM:D:~ NO BED VOID~~E


97834.7 .6L:9795
,
\
........... . . .
.. 'J'oIlo-'J" J

RUN 12
(;2= 440,);).
( 20.7657
'fl= .JZ14

Xl = '562'5 XZ= .044~.:

T3-= ;:,:'0 T::= 10'?


, ,3'; I. J:,/:,7 ( 31'5.778

GLOSS
15~.6
( 1:S ~ :~ 6 ':

II T C:.t:FF fiE':'T T,,;;:;~


',-,e.--,,-,
"- J"T ....... "" J.
,"'I
1 J. V _~..,:' .:' ';=;7 4 7:.,
( ~ .: ~ .:~ 1":-'' :;

r::o
t\~c~:,::".[r,c.:.
7~~~~.S
:~O
.6:~?~
V,)!r~CE

J ~ .. - "*\
,
c,.
.. - --
J. ....'t-.J

~ - _' ... ~ .I. ~


135

RUN
Cl= 46000.
( Zl.709~
H= .i~01

Xl= .'5025 Xl= .044'?3

T3= ZZ0 TZ= 89


( 377.444 ( 304.067

T4 I) IN' o LOSS
121.2 '5.25420E+00 5.1';761E+0b lJ.!:,St7'4. Z.iZ874
( 1 :;3'7.8 15C8.56- ( .31.Z3:~4

FLU 10 '..'~L R:;:Y~JOLDS UO H T COEFT ~~ TRAt'J


=:4-5.9:34 16.Z.9!3 ') .. 7~:'~!;' ..,~e :.:,~"
, I ..;~,~ ..... .147.::..1 :.
( 1.:':4'16 ( 5.14448 ( :Z7.:?:
ARCHI~[C:S NO BEL VO:DACE F~C~ED HEIGHT EXPAN~EO H::CHl
lJ97'~. .b~~~37
( 1.8:;,:,94

RUN 14
G~= ':',;'0i:~0 ..
( 41. -; ;,=,..'.,
Yl= .wi01

.
X -

r:= :40 TZ= 93


( :388.55~ ( 3fio.889

T4 Q IN o Ri!O 7. LCS~;
139.0 5. 2~iH5E+06 131341. ~ .. ~ ~:''-7 8 '7'
( :;::;:C:. 77~: ( 1564.7:' { lS~6.:':~

FLUID I);:::" RC::Yr\C:~D'; rJ::': H T CGE,;:' :.: T~;jr'~


2.~4.187 15b.'Yl9 '7.6'707S ':';'::041.5 .. .. 1 (!.:S :.::;
( 1.':91':7 ( 5.11::: 7 ( ~:=';7 .. :;2

{"R':H:r-1COES i~Jj ~ED \.'OrD~GE:


'i';~56:3 .. 6 .. 6.;91'?7
( 1.88555

R~)N 15

.r::,
.J''';' .....
Y
--
~-

XI = __ e"'

T:> -."",
_'.11/ T:= 96 ".5

- - -....
T4
s . ..t ~ 37~::[+\~:6 .... ..,, -_._
-:

( : -t :; 1 11 { 1 ':. :~: ,:, :. s

c .... ,
1 e:-.J C"..J ~'I , '7'.67S73
{ S.: ... .:: 5

. . ... -.........
\ 4o'"
oJ ... " _
I
\

... "
- -: ~ - I
I .... ..... ,!.
136

RUN 16
CZ= 46j1J~Zi.
( 21.7(;96
Yl= .0214 YZ= 4.43ZJ:E-"~

Xl= .%23 XZ= .04493


T3= ZZC? T2 = 104
- ( 377.444 ( 313

T4 Q rN Q REI) Q L.OS~~ 7. LOSS


IZ1.6 5.3<:4Z1E"'06 3.22051E+06 113370>3. 1. 94 7:3f
( 3:~.77S ( 1560.:1 ( 1529. 'il

FLUID VEL REnlOLDS ,~O H T COEFF ,iErl T TiUHJ'~ :~ 7F1AN


247.754 1,:'". 'is 9.75250 619902. .11/j43:
( 1. Z-r.5jS'1 ( '5.1H!;8 { 1;~ 1. '::'-':':3

ARCHIMEDES NO SED VOIDACE PACKE: HEICHT EXP~N~~D tfEICHT


108965. .6345a9 Z.2S2 6.1@S~9
( .680313 ( 1.8617::;

17

C~= 460~0.
( 21.7:7>96
YI= .1~Z14

Xl= .5cZ;; X2= .04493

T3= Z4~ TZ= 1 .. 7


( .:',;S.S56. ( 314.667

RE:) .,,.
T4 Q IN .) Q LOSS LOS:~
140.6 5.3b7'50E+06 S.Z77E:?E+0b 8,,666. 1.67ij54
( J3:;.444 ( ~57.;; ( 15~l...7Z ( 4:L..4:77S

.,,. TRAN
FLUIe VEL REYNOLDS NO H T CCEFr 'lE.:IT TR.:I~~:;
2:57.7Z5 156.999 9.69078 86:'873. .160759
( !.309~4 ( 5.11!89 ( :S~.C74

ARCHIMEDES NO CED VOIOACE f'ACf<ED HE


-. ,......... -.
IGiH EXP;'ND:;n HEICHT
97~15.1 .641;;;49 ,-,.t...Jt.. ~.:.18~1
( .o!,C0:31: ( ~ !~'7S':8

RUN 1 ~
'J

C2= 4,~Oit0.
( :~ .. 7~;96
Yl= .'::;:14

Xl;: .51,:~

oJ ~.~0 TZ= 1:09


( 399 .~~7_ ( ~;15 .. 773

T4 :~ ~,:C:) :) LO'::: i: LO~:;'::


C',~ ~
.1. --,', .. '- 5 .. -~' :85 7E+(l6 1 .... 'C:"
.. - -
~ -:) {.
~', '.I .. :.:'0;:t96

,\EY~~v~D: . ~O Ii T COE::-F i~ i~;',~


155.571 7.67'37: .20023:
( :; .:.~' ~l~ 7

~~C}lrt~:c:s NQ EeL ~GIDAGE


~~:3-~.1 .-:',,6;,25
\
, ,
~ ..
-,, _
...... c--.
_ ..J,-.J
137

RUN
FLUIDZ

RUN
GZ2 ~ZZ0".
( 24.6350
Y1- .001 YZ= 1.74976E-02
XZ= .04493

T3= ZZ0 TZ= 89


( ~77.444 ( 304.6H

T4 Q IN Q REO a LOSS 7. LOSS


146.4 4.44161E+06 4.3:':'63E+0~ le4?8S.
( 336.556 ( 1301.66 ( 1270.e9 ( 30.7654
FLIJID VEL REYNOLDS NO H T COEFF HEAT TRAN., i: TRAN
ZS7.07>: 1:34.946 11.307~ 1.1437JEJ.;J6 .:'5750::
( 1.45G3~ ( 5.90471 ( 335.181:

ARCHIMEtE3 NO SED VOIDACE PACKED HEIGHT EXPANDED HEIGHT


1~~7~1. .66815 1.86 ::.604S5
( .566928 ( 1.70839

RUN

Y1= .~Ji91 YZ= 1.74976-02

T3= TZ= 93


-, .. I) IN ~.~
-
LI)S'~
.' ~ C" -
~. J.....J.J_.,.
J { .~5 .... _ .. ~

fLU: D './CL 2:Y;;C:"::l~ N:J fI T CC:FF


:'1 ~. '::- 178 .. 15'7 1
'"
f
'"
"'-.r--'
~ .J_' :
- .-.......
.. _t "''--' ,
~-.

( 1.5~386 ( 41111.'n

ARCH:~EDES NO rED VOIDACE PACKE~ HEIGHT EXP;~~ED HEIGHT


960~~.6 .~7J~3~
( .5669<:8 ( 1.7369<:

CZ= S(:~00.
( :'; .. ':':56
Yl = C;"lI Y2= 1.749nE-02

Xl= .%25 x~= .04493

T3= Z,~0 T2= 96.5


( ;'~i9.~: 7

-,.., Q IN
, -..... -.
. ~ " .;; .. '~' .
i ::7.556 { 40.2418

~EYNC~DS NO ., -rr . . ~.
i. "".,'1
., -
-
............. '"t
'!
176.~';'
~.

. . . . . _ . " _ "t
~

..:;51:; :'.;
( 1.5 .. '198 ( 5.9177:
EED 'JOIDAGE E X PA~J('[D ~!!: r GHT
.-,'
1
~. ,"
.I .. 0:., ..

( 1.76152
138

- - - - RUN 4

-CZ'" 52000.
( 24.5412
-----Y1'" .0214 Y2= 3.8291)6E-02
---Xl=- .SbZS- -- --- ---- - - - - XZ 044~3
T3: 220 TZ- 104
( 377.444 ( 31~

f4 ... - -Q IN G REQ Q LOSS --- X LOS:,


140.7 4.4S34ZE+0b 4.39719E+0i> 86234. l.n:~4
( 33o.7ZZ ( 1313.91 ( lZS;.04 ( 25.2717

FLUID VEL REYNOLDS NO H T COEFF HEAT TRANS r. TRAN


290.04: lS';.:::O 11. ;:56:3 1.k10:J:3E+0b ::;:::3808
( 1.47341 ( 5.93798 ' ) ( 294.004
ARCH I MEDC::~ NO EED VOIDACE PACKED HEIGHT EXPAlJDED I~E I CHT
1;;)5.2.31. .669162 1.8b ~.6:Z:D9
( .500928 ( 1.71301

RUN
CZ= !;;21000.
( ::4.54-12
Yl- .0214 Y2= 3.8298bE-0:
X 1= .5625 XZ= .04493
-T3- 240 T2= IIl7
( 388.556, ( 314.~~7

14 Q IN a REG G LOSS r. LOSS


1~~. ::; 4 .5::~47(+~b 4.~447:~::+0b <t";.'...i7. ;:. C:;.:'4)
( 347.33~ ( 133tJ.~J5 ( 130;:.S9 ( Z7.4588
FLUID VEL RE YN0LO-, NO H T COEFF HEAT TRAlJS r. TRAN
177.:.77 11.1:5:: 1.':';7S4Eqj6
( 1.5;;'35 ( 5.9003b ( 365. bl3S
ARCHIMEDES NO BEO VOIDA'E PAGI\ED HEIGHT EXPA~WED HEIGHT
7~44C.9 .675~08 1.86 S.7:~::
( .Sbb9L.S ( 1.740044 -)

RUN
CZ: 5"iIiW.
( ::'4.5-+1~
Yl: .1ii;:14 YZ" 3.BL98bE-ilL

T3: 2b0 tz= 11<19


( :~"1. I~G 7 ( 315.7;:~

Q IN aRE.) Q LOSS
4.611:37E+IV6
~ .... ,. ., f

"''''''''':'''-'-'.
I
:. ,;.9~;: .~
( 357.778 ) ( 1351.56 { lJt'S.2 ( 36 .. :"58~

FLUID VEL REYiWLL',: NO H T CCiEFF


175.::"~~ .--- _....
,~,.,

':.
-
-' ,.
~

( 1.57408 ( 5.8~1;:

ARCHIM~DES NO BED VOI~A~E PAC,,~L, HE I CHT EXPArJDED HEIGHT


,:'~'7~7~: .:"7'j-/~':. ............... .,.
t:'" ,-:.,. i.

( 1. 771Z4
139

- ~ .. RIJN 7 .

GZ= 54500.
( 25.7211
Uoo .""iH YZ= 1.6>3014E-0Z
Xl= .5625 X2: .04493

T3; Z20 TZ= 89


( 377.444 ( 304.6b7

T4 Q IN I~ REO a LOSS I. LOSS


149.7 4.4~n9E+06 4. 34Z7::;E+(~6 ;~66l~ 1.15535
( 33.:;.3~? ( 12:?3.,",8 127<:.7 ( 25.3819

FLUID VEL REYr'40L.DS NO H T COEFF HEAT TRANS I. TRAN


30Q.689 193.i~'15 11.8926 1.L:';~96.E"~b ~7e:3:;:'
( 1.5':75 ( 6.27334 ( 3b~.33

ARCHIMEDES NO BED VOIDACE PAC!<ED HEICHT [XPA~lt:CD IIEICHT


le'.::::: 1. . ~ ;',3'::9
( '5bb92S ( 1.76904

RUN >3

.
GZ= '54'500
....
,
~

..... .-., ,
'- J I '-. "

Xl= .'5425 XZ= .04493

T3= 240 T2" 9.3


{ :3~e. 55b ( 30b.88<i

T4 a IN Q REa o LOSS i. LOSS


.;. 49870E+0,~ ';.89399E+06 :J4i;'Z.
( :';8.889 ( 1318.39 ( lL87.7 i 3>.&84

FLUID VEL REHWLDS NO H T COEFF HEAT TRAN~; i. TRAN


1 St,. (ir:~9 11.8! 7:: .3:71~7
<. 1.5748:3 ( 6.43359 ( 431. <:8

ARCHIMEDES NO t:ED VO I DACE PACKED HEIGHT EXPANDED HEIGHT


9575';
( .'566928

RUN 9

(le:= 54500.
( ~5.72~t
Y1= .i~iil1 Y2= 1.6.8014[-02

Xl= .5625 X2= .@4493

T3 2 Z~.0 TZ= 9~.5


( : i'~i. b.~7

T4 'J IN CLOSS :~ LOSS


".i..~
. ..,.
I
e..J
4. '::':';~IJ 1 c "O,~ ~ ... .."
"'0 ("" ... ..,
,-, '

( 359.389 ( 13;;8.7 ( 36.5727

rLUID VEL. REYNOLDS NO H T COEFF HEAT iRMlS f. TRAN


11.7'7-':':" . :; 7' 6.:; ~ 'j
( 5.n. 778

ARC,1;MEDES 110 [:ED Vi) r DACE P':'CI<EO HEIGHT E~PAN[l=:D HEICHT


!::' ....... .., --.
_. I I .... ,';;"
140

' . _ <_, ._--._ .. __ RUN .10 - . _" - .. __ .~ _.~ .. """,-,_"T t'""~ -.,....-

G2= 54600.
( 25.768:::;
't1= .0Z14 Y2= 3.74939E-02
Xl= .5625 X2= .04493
T3= ZZ@ T2" 1 "4
( 377.444 ( 313

T4 Q IN Q REQ Q LOSS 7. LOSS


149.9 4.50208E+106 4.40315E+06 9892:::. Z.19738
( 339.5 ( 1319.38 ( 1290.39 ( 28.'7918
FLUID VEL REYNOLDS tJO H T CO;:FF HEAT TRAN:, % TRAN
305.619 193.45 11.9181 1. 09497E 'i~!.~ .2432:15
( 1.55255 ( 6.28681 ( :320.893
ARCHIMEDES NO BED VOIDACE PACKED HEICHT EXPANDED HeIGHT
~ ,-,~",--

-J ;;'..; lJ.J I
{ .566928

RUN

G2= 546H).
n= .1~<:14 Y2= 3.74939E-02

Xl= .5625 X2= .044'?3


T3= Z4.,j T2= liJ7
;o;~. 556 ( 314.667

H Q ltl I) REG: a LOS; i~ LOSS


169.1 4.5534<.,E+y)6 4.45093E+06 10~5:3. 2.:517,~
( 349.167 ( 1334.44 ( 1304.39 ( 20.ii';S3

FUJI D VEL RE YN,KDS Nlj H T COEFF HEAT TRM,S ;: TRAN


I 3:5.9'3 186.331 11 .. ::;;::6.
( 1.6;)492 ( 6.24697 ( 396.:96

ARCHIMEDES NO CEO VOIDACE PACKED HEIGHT EXrA~[ED HEIGHT


94141.4 .687'73: 1.86 5.~~OZ5
( .566928 ( 1.81668

RUN 12

G2= 54610,;1.
n= .0214 YZ= 3.74n9E-:3<:
XI= .56<:5
T3 2 26iJ TZ = 1139
{ -':'''??j~67 ( :3 15. 77:?'

a IN a REO 0 LOSS i: LOS~:;


1:38 4 l:JE t ,)6
.,~:,~ 4.494l4E+IJ6 1:9963. 2.~ 10:::;
( 359.667 ( 1355.1 ol (1:i7.05 ) ( 38.087

FLUID ','EL r\CY~'~CLDS ;~C HE;.r iRA


.:; Z. t, : ~ 1 1:24.657 11. ::::~.::
( I. /J5771

ARCH:~C:[S
,- .~, to ,_, w ,.,
~O [ED VOIC~CE
:;./.1,. . . .
141

RUN -1-'3. ,. -

CZ= S7IiH.JI2l.
( 26.901
Y1:. .001 YZ= 1.61083E-0Z

--- Xl =- -. 50ZS - XZ= .0449:3

T3 .. ZZIJ TZ" 89
( 377.444 ( 3iiJ4.H7

14 Q IN Q REQ Q LOSS % LOSS


, 15;:.6
340
4.44147E+06
( 1301.62 (
4.3~81eE+06
1274.28 (
93ZeS.
2.7.339
Z .1"@3"

FLUID VEL REYNOLDS ~It) H T COErF HEAT TRAW, % TRAN


315.3Z7 Z~1.9'33 1:.5333 1. 3t::6b9E +~Jb .::9;~7r4
( 1.60186 ( 6.61133 ( 388.799
ARCH Ii1EDE:; NO BED VI)IDAGE PAC~;ED HEIGHT EXPANDED HEIGHT
10~,097 .6915::': 1. :36 6.0<:959
( .56692::; ( 1.83782

RUN

Y1= .j~"1

Xl: .5625 X2= .044'13


T3= ::40 TZ::o. 93
( :3:;;8.556 ( 306.889

14 Q IN Q RC;: Q LOSS /, lO:;S


171.5 4.513j.~E"06 4.39940E+:n 11455? :.5::788'
( 35".5 ( 1289.:'1 ( :3.5;27
FLIJI (; Vel REYNOLD:~ No) H T COEFF HEAT TRANS !. TRAN
:~5.rJ43 lZ.';~~<;' t.57746;:",vJ6
( 1.6512:: ( 6.56944 ( 4-62.29

ARCHIMEDES NO SED UOIDACE PACKED HEIGHT EXPANDED HEIGHT


95519.4 .69703 1.,;6. 6.1:';~Z:
( .5~69Z8 ( 1.87124

RUN 15
C2= 57000.
( 2,::'. "701
Y 1= ._)<11

Xl: .S6,ZS X::= ."44'?3

T3= 2613 TZ= 96.5


( 399.667 ( 8C8 .. 833

I) IN ,) REel CLOSS ,. :"'(1 s~;


4. J489'7'E +-0t. .-
'- ,
.......
J. I
~
.~, I

( ~.:, 1 111 ( 1 :i:3. ~2

FLUID 'v'El
:~:;~.
'i7Z
I~E Y ~~C:"D:,
1~':'.773
NG
1 - A -, "
.. _ . ",_,,, '..I
, ~ ,..
"'t.''''~
........ .
.1. 1
....

( 1. 7f; 1'J6 ( ,s. ~ 559': ~


~RCHIMEDE; ~o 8[D VOIDACE PACKED HEIGHT EXFANDE~ H~iGHT
9:J~9.3 .7~17J)
142

RIJN 16

GZ--57100.
( 26.9482
Y1 a .~214 Y2= 3.67892E-02

Xl~ -.5625 X2= .04493

T3- 220 T2= 104


( 377.444 ( :;13

T4 Q IN Q REI) Q LOSS 'l. LOSS


4.5~~73E+06 4.4;874E+06 97985. Z.174t9
( 340.167 ( 1320.74 ( 129':.1':13 ( 28.7155

FLUID VEL RE"(NOLDS N,j H T C0EFF HEkT TRAns 7. iRAN


320 .,~4/.. z'0:..::;a7 1.1 S5::::E f.i~b
f 1.62888 ( 6.6249 ( 347.343

ARCHIMEDES NO BED VOIC~~E PACKED HEiGHT EXPANDED HEIGHT


lW4SZ5. .69415Z 1.G~ b.Z8147
( .56c.928 ( 1.8536:3

17

(;4= 571~~.
( ~(, .. '/48;:
Vi" JL14 Y2= 3.c.7892E-E)Z

Xl" .e02S X;:= .1044'1::

T3= 240 T,> 1~7


383.556 ( 314.667

T4 Q IN Q REI) a LOSS 7. LO%


172 .1 4.56J46E"'~o 4. 456522:+;:)6 lJ3940. Z.2791,~
( 3Sg.833 ( 1330.49 ( 131216.0, ( 31il.4W7

FLUID VEe..
. ........
REYNOLDS NO
.I.
-'
l"t ....... j.J
.."
H T COEFF
.-. ~ ~ ,-, C'
.. '- .. "'t I ..,.J
HEriT TRANS 7. iRAN
.. 3: :;'1 4';
( 1.68331 ( 6.58~9Z

ARCHIMEDES NO BED VOIDAGE PACKED HEIGHT EXPANDED HEIGHT

RUN 18

GZ" 5710.).
{ :,s. 'i4:JL:
Yl= .,;)214 'f Z= 3.1;,789~t:-~Z:

Xl = XZ=

T3" '::60 TZ" 109


{ 319.667 ( 315.778

T4 Q ,
"t,!
. I~ r..;::o
4.49'77:E+06 1."'",07.
~~ LG.~:~
~. ?~i4'3,~
( 1.:;5::; 114 ( 1: l;} 0':'; ( ':'':;'.4479

r:":J:D \'EL
1 ,-. ~ . . ....
.. "1"'0'" .. ...
H T COEFF
: .:. ';'Wl.i 1 ~,
-
-. -. ,-, --i
~<.J~

( 107::;.:';;; , ~.57:::7: { 5J7.7:J?


143

RUN
FLUID,

RUN
GZ= ~2611)".
( 29.5439
n- .0101 YZ= 1. 75081E-02
Xl= .5625 X2= .I044n
T3= ZZiil T2= &9
( 377.444 ( 304.b~7

T4 0 IN a REO 0 LOSS 7. LOSS


146.4 S.3Z653E+06 5.20396E+06 122575. Z.301Z:
( 33~.55~ ( 1560.99 ( 1525.07 ( 35.9Z18

.,,. TRAN
FLUID VEL REnliJLDS rw H T COEC"F HEAT TRANS
344.276 221.794 1:3.9857- 1.41462E-+I06 .265581
( 1.74892 ( 7.37746 ( 414.57

ARCH Ir1EDES NO BED VOIDAGE PACKED HEIGHT EXPANDED HEICH7


1967<:10. .71571iH ... .... .......
,,-.4,J'- _ 7.85089
( .680313 ( :.39Z95

RIJN 2

C2= IJ'::I...iI 0.
( 2';0.50;39
11 = .1::;;)1 Y:= 1.7~081E-"2

Xl= .5625 XZ= .Z4493

T3;:; ~40 TZ= 9:;


3:313.556 ( 306.&&9

T4 Q IN Q REQ Q LOSS ;~ LOS:~


165.3 5. 4Z~ 1~E+06. 14017;:7. : .6Q:~ 1
( 347.056 ( 15S4.32 ( 1543.08 ( 41.;:4 i 4

FLUID VEL R~YN!~LDS N;J H T COEFF HEAT Tr.Ar;S ;: TRAN


355.018 Z13.655 1:3.8971 l. 69646E '06
( 1. ~:iJ.349 ( 7.33072 ( 497.165
ARCHlnEDES NO BED VOIOACE PACKED HEIGHT EXPANDED HEIGHT
9~g44.8 .721375 2.232 8.01076
( .68~Jt8 ( Z . 441~8

RIJN
GZ= 6~600.
( ;:" .54:39
n= .iJOI rz= 1.7513S1E-02
-eo
Xl= c:"'
,_,IJ""',J X~= .04498

;::'iJ
( :-;'J9. b.S 7

T4 ~) RE:: IJ Lr)SS i: LOS':


s. :;,,4-'; 7E+{~6
~,~1~77 2.93'1'93
( 357.556 ( 16.J7. ,S5 15.:'0. :;9 : 47.:,:'38

,LUID VEL R~':'N::L.DS NG h T C::'FF


:;s~. 1\-'~6 .: 11.713 13.87'3:5
( 1. ::.:;':;8 ( 7 .31934 ( 582.6:;1

A~CHI~EDES NO rED VIJIDACE F';CkED HEIG1{"7 [X?A~lDED riEIGHT


91~0/.:J .7~6':17 .s. 15~":'4
( .~6J~13 ( ~.~S~Z6
144

RUN 4

C2: 62400.
- ._.. - (29.4495
Y1: .0214 yz= 3.82986E-1<12
Xl = .5625 X2: .04493
T3= zz~ T2= 104
. ( 377.444 ( 313

T4 Q IN a REQ Q LOSS % LOSS


14b.7 S.3e011E+11J6 5. 271>63E+0-!' 1034132. 1. 92342
( 33b.722 ( 1576.69 ( 1546.37 ( 3~.3464

FLIJID VEL REYNOLDS NO H T COEFF HEAT TRM1S i. TRAN


3413.135 221.1<18;; 13.9334 1.242~2E+06 .23kl853
( 1.76809 ( 7.34989 ( S~.3. 9:35

ARCHIMEDES NO BED VOIDACE PACKED HEICHT EXPANDED HEICHT


.105231. .716941 Z.Z3Z 7.885ze
( .6e~~13 ( 2.40343

RUN 5

CZ= 6:4C0.
( 2'1.449'5
11= .:~~:';

T3= z~z TZ= 1~7


( 388.556 ( 314.H7

T4 o LOSS . ., .,! . e
165.8 5. 3:3:~7:~+!Zl6 112.439. L.. . . . _'"'l'
lie'

1:; ;".3. 1

.- .~ y t~l)~O':: NO H T CC':F'F
212.972 1:~. :24<;: . :.;;3: :':.
{ 1.8;:;:'21 { -;. ::J~.:L. ( ~ .:..,-.

ARCH:MEDES NO :ED ~~:~;CE


94~48.9 .7~~JJ~

RI);\I

, ~'i'. 44';'5
Yl= (~: 14 YZ= 3.82'?8,~E-~:

Xl= .044'13

T3= z,t,;; T=:= I.J"


( 397.6/;,7 ( 315.778

T4 :) !N Q ~O:, ~ ~~ LOS:
184.6 1488::; 1. :.6901~
( 357.773 ( : S: 1. 8i ( 4.:;. ,S: 1:

R: Y:~,jL[': NO
,-,.-.
~,....

-..II 4. rJ.;;, Z 11 ~j :;,; 13.8:':::7


( 1. ;~8::;';' , 7.:'919'1

~~C~lrM:DES ~~ t~: VOID~G[


~. ':.1 .7~~~6~ ~._~~ 8.~1~~~
( .~80313 ( Z.~~:~~
145

RIJN 7
C2= 65400.
- -- - - - - ( 311.1.8653
Yl= .001 YZ= 1.6S,H4E-02

Xl= .56Z5 X2= .04493

T::= ZZ~ TZ= 89


( 377 .444 ( 394.667

T4 Q IN Q REQ CLOSS 7. LOSS


149.7 S.31527Et06 5.21133E+06 UJ:3934. 1.9553'1
( 333.389 ( 1557.69 ( 1527.23 ( :JiZJ.45C9

FLIJID VEL RE'(NOLDS NO H T COEFF HEAT TRAiJ:~ 'l. TRAN


360.827 Z31.715 14.7Z1iJ4 _,87121
( 1.63~ ( 7.76499

ARCHIMEDES NO EED VOIDACE PACI:E:D HE I CHT EXPA~JOEO HE I CHi


106361. .7Z~Z~4 2.232 8.21355
( .680313 C 2.50349

RIJN e:

Yl= .001 Y2= 1.68;)14E-02

Xl= .5625 xz = .0449:

T3= 240 T:=


388.5S6 ( 306.8S9

T4
1"\ , .. ,
Q REQ LO~': ~: i...C~. ':
168.6
'4 ... ,.

5.39844E+'')6 5.Z7:79E~06
Q
1':5~44.
...., --'''' ~
.... .:.4./""!
..
( 848. :;:39 l!i';S.:'; \ :';6.SZ;1':'

d T ':::ttTF
I.
T' ""
,1\1"1,.
~

.j7;'. f.it.~;:' -. - - ...- =


14.6':71 ..,.j J ~ ~

, 1. ::;:j', .;." , 7.71578

AF,C:l! ~1:: :'3 ~~::, BE:::' !~'.:;! [:.=t:E


?575~. .7J~9S7

RUN 9

I -'r" ''''1;;'.
\ 'J"J.',J'J~'J

Y1 = .001 OJ,,: 1.6.8'}14E-J~

Xl= .56~5 X~= .:::'4~93

T=:= 260 TZ-= ?6.5


(399. ,~6 7

I) ! ;.J ~: LOS'~
-.... eo
4~ I .j 5.48161E+i:;6 Z.72~J:
( .35'7' .:'::.': lSL':.5:

~~ y :~;)LD::; NO n T =.O::i="F
'-,.-,.-, -..::-
221.182 14. '_ 044 ::.. 1:" 7 77 ~ .. (i6
:.J'J.:;' . J.~'

, 7.7,::';:,:; 1 ,
\
, - -.
' ; " _ . .J
~ ,
..JV"T
..
146

RUN

G::= 65Sli!iiI.
( :~0.912'5
Yl= .0::14 Y2= 3.74'?SSE-02

Xl .562S XZ" .04493


T3 2Z0 TZ. 104
( 377 .444 ( 313

T4 o IN .) REO Q LOSS f. LOSS


149.9 S. 4008'3E+0,~ 5.28378E+f)0 117065. 2.16753
( 338.5 ( 1582.77 ( 1548.47 ( :4.3071 ) ,

FLUIO VEL REYNO!..!)', NO H T COEFF HEAT TRAN:, :~ mAN


3bb.633 Z3Z.0/.:,? 14.74/;,7 1.3S4S5EHi" .Z~0859
( 1.86Z-!.9 ( 7.778SS ( 397.05Z

ARCHIMeDES NO BED VOIDACE PACKED HEIGHT EXPANDED HEIGH7


104601. .730884 2.232 8.2938t
( .6e~313 ( :.5~795

RUN 11

C:= 655Z0.
( ,;;,0.9125
Yl = .0214

XI = .5625 XZ 044'93

T3= Z40 TZ. 107


( :;;;38 .. 556 ( 314.667

Q IN a R~') a LIJSS
169.1 5.4~,Z48E+06 5.34111E .. I;'' - 121373. Z.Z219~
( :4'7.16.7 , 1~C0.C'; ( 1~~~.:7 C 3S .5"'io

rLurD V~L REYNOLC'~ :'JI) H T ccc::-r f-:EAT TR';;J~~ :~ ;RA~~


~79.~~1 Z:~3 .. 553 14.65:;;3 I.U321E+00 .. :;\~6.::~"::'1
{ 1 .. -:-; ~5::'J ( 7.7'::959 ( 4\"jJ.35

nRCHIMEDC~ ~o BE8 ~:;~~CE


9414l. .7~7J18
( .68~313

RUN 12

( :3~.91;:5
Yl v);:;H y~= :~. 7498SE-04:

Xl- .%25

T~= Zb0 TZ = 1 ~9
( 399.607 ( 315.778

,.
T'
Q IN Q LDSS i~ LOS:;.
.....
. .."
:.~ 5.547Z-3E+06 5.3:t::97E+I~;6
( ':5'1.61.,7 ( 158'].~':'

rLU:O \,':~ REYNOLr;'~ :~:J H T COCrr HEA T Tr.;1~~::


':'j 1 S 1 5 _':!.5~ ;.. ;JZ.:;'.~9E+Ob
( 1. ': .~. ':: 'j ( 7.71761 ( .5:;,~. :":;::;

t'\f\CH I ;<C:'Z 3 r~o r,::; '1'1): D;'C:


814;:.3 .74230i , 1- ',-,._
, '..I'..t"; -' j, _:
147

RUN

CZ= 1~:J4!'.".
- - ( 3Z.Z81Z
U'" .011.11 YZ= l.bI083E-02

X1= .5625 XZ= .04493


T3= ZZIiI TZ= 89
... ( 377.444 ( 304.61>7

T4 Q IN Q REO a LOSS % LOS';


152.b 5. 32976E":"6 5.21782E+01> 111947. z. 10")41
( 340 ( I%L'i~ ( IS2')'I~ ( :Z.C2!7Z
FLIJID VEL. RE Y~'OLDS NO H T COEFF HEAT TfHI/J" ~: iRAN
378.392 Z4::.344 15.5134 1.64::14E+06 .%J:~1.J7
( 1.9Z2Z3 ( S.18333 ( 481.245
ARCHIMEDES NO CEe VOICACE l"ACKED HEICHT EXrA~JDE:; :iEICHT
106097. .741311 2.232 8.6Z777
( .680313 ( :.62974

RUN 14

CZ= ,~840:-.
( :~Z.L.814
Yl= .:J31

.. '- -'-'
...- , -.C"

T3= 240 TZ= 9~


( :JSS.S;;l, ( 3"b.SZC;'

T4 I) REI) ::: LC.S~ ~: LO:~::


7L7! .5 3.';!~7~.ErrJ,~ 13;~73. Z. 5~:7'j':
( ::50.5 ( 1:;::7.43 ( 1547.14 ( ';Z.:87:~

r~!J~L veL. H T COErF ;'~E:\ T Tr.;'~J:;


0,
I.
",,""II\r.1
I r.M'~

3'~' J. 05~ 15.~15t 1.9S:54[t06 ::6G.!,;.:;


( 1. S'8: 4:. ( G.l:::148 ( 57:.211

ARCH~r~:::D~;
~~~~i.4
NO ~;ED
..
VOI!)AC.E
.... ,.
.,....,.,"",OJ.,. ...
"\
PAC,;:;:r, HE I CHi
2.:::::::
( ~S0:313

RUN 13

YZ= 1.6108~E-0Z

Xl = .51;,;::; XZ= .0449:~

260 TZ= 96.5


~99.1.!"7 , 3"S.8J3

To;
1 ),,:;.6
'. ...,~
! -tY 1::9.
( 31.1.11:

FLU:::: tv!E:" ~[':'~4,::LD::; ~~(I H T ,:;':;EFF .;~ TR~~"


401.':;67 '-31 . ~:~; 1~, .::'>1: ~ 1 -:.:' -:~.
I I -r .-.
( : . C41 '/'; ( :::.11887 \
I
,.,.:,,/
~
..... "!.,.

,
""
~.
-.,.. -.
J"t .....
"',~
..I ..
148

RUN 16

C2= 08 ee.
( :3 .3'S4
U= .0 14 Y2= 3.6n:nE-02
Xl= .5025 X2: .04493
T3= 2Z0 T2= 1 14
- f 377 .444 ( 313

T4 Q IN Q REQ Q LOSS 7- LOSS


152.9 S.4e649Efo00 5.29049E+06 116005. Z.145l;.6
( ~4i!J.167 ( 1584.43 ( 1550.43 ( 33.9964

FLU:!: 'JEL
384.664
F:EYNOLC~::
Z42.69S
NO H
15.54
-
CGEFF HEAT TF:~~J~:;
1.466S4E.06
~~ TRri~!
.2712S6
( 1.95409 ( :~ .19733 ( 429.785

ARCHIMEDES NO BED VOIOACE PACKEO HEIGHT EXF'MJC::::O HE~:;H-;-


104525. .744046 2.<:'32 e.7Z0:3
( .6SG"'?i~~ )- ( 2.6~i"i:;

RIJN 17

Y1= .!ilZ14

T-w-- TZ= 107


.... ,-.,"\ ~<:,
( . 0..,''''' '..,',J'",

14 J) :iJ .~ 1 - ..... ,..


'. . . . . ' ~'J 'l. L.;J~: ':
5.47(;95E+.n 5 .:'478Z.E-tv.;1:., lZ3l32. :.:S.:~:
~ e" I "
"'."J'
- .....
.~.., , :';,. z::,s ~
~L.U!~, V:=::L H::::AT TRA:,',
~S'7.:;~7 15.4415 1.799770.->;;6
{ Z.Z~';'::J ( ;:;.145'; , 5~7.~:'9

~RCHr~IEDES r~o [~D VOIC~~E


9J668. ,75020.3 2.~3Z S.935~~
( .6SJ313 ( ~.7;:':?'47

RUN t ~
'J

C:= 0CS()0.
{ :3, .:3ZS';
Y1; 1)3:14 y~: 3.679:;;E-tiZ

T3= ::60 T2= 11~?


:?/19. 667 ( 315.778

T4
., ,
n

,
\
., ......-.
... 'J'" ~
"',""
... ,
5. 39~71:.8E+06
;~

\
,
LO':'S
., 1"'0, .......
"t..;; ..... ,.;,. '-'J

;- LU:~ tJ:::~ H T ':CGT i. ,,\,..,

.; ~ ~i :.:;~::. ~...! l . . ';"'J'-I 1:::;.'; 1 75


\ :.. ;;'~ :::7 ( ;3. 1.:'::' 7,~ ,
~
,-. ...
,;.. ' - ._
-"""t
~.1.

"'-'-C-"-, -, r'(.~
V I .... -.J J j .1-.).,.).""..,.,
- ....
9. ~ ::0.:.7
; ::.7S:9i
VITA

The author, James Gerard Gerstle, is the son of Louis


Bernard Gerstle and Mary Ann (Hellmann) Gerstle. He was
born April 21, 1957, in Louisville, Kentucky.
His elementary education was obtained at Saint
Stephen Martyr's in Louisville and his secondary education
at Saint Xavier High School, also in Louisville. He was
graduated in May, 1975.
In September, 1975, he entered the University of
Louisville, and in May, 1980, received the degree of
Bachelor of Science in Applied Sciences. yfuile attending
the University of Louisville (the Horne of the 1980 NCAA
Basketball Champions), he was a student member of the
American Institute of Chemical Engineers and a meIDber of
the Union for Student Activities. In ~1ay, 1979, he was

awarded the Monsanto Chemical Company Scholarship.

149