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Distillation, described is used to separate miscible liquids that dissolve in each other. If two liquids do NOT mix, they form two separate layers and are known as immiscible liquids (e.g. oil/water). This is illustrated in the diagram on the left, where the lower grey liquid will be more dense than the upper layer of the yellow liquid and shows how you can separate these two liquids using a separating funnel. (particle picture on gas-liquid-solid page) 1. The mixture is put in the separating funnel with the stopper on and the tap closed and the layers left to settle out. 2. The stopper is removed, and the tap is opened so that you can carefully run the lower grey layer off first into a beaker. 3. This leaves behind the upper yellow layer liquid, so separating the two immiscible liquids.
This can be used to separate iron from a mixture with sulphur (see below). It is used in recycling to recover iron and steel from domestic waster i.e. the 'rubbish' is on a conveyer belt that passes a powerful magnet which pluck's out magnetic materials. Their use is included in Salt Preparations and titrations with the Acids, Bases, Salts, pH page. A burette is used to measure volumes accurately and a pipette is used to separate out an accurate volume of a solution from a bulk container of the solution. Decanting is the simplest possible way of separating a liquid (pure or a solution) from an insoluble solid which has a density greater than water (i.e. > 1.0 g/cm3). The solid-liquid mixture is allowed to stand e.g. in a beaker, until all the solid settles out to the bottom of the container. Then the liquid is carefully poured off to leave the insoluble solid behind. However it is inefficient e.g. a small amount of liquid is always left in the solid residue and very fine solid particles take some time to settle out and any disturbance of the liquid can mix them in with the liquid being poured off. Wine may be served in a decanter to leave the undesirable solids behind - no good for bits of cork though, they float! In its simplest form these techniques involve using a liquid to dissolve a solid to separate it from a mixture. The extraction of pure salt from a sand-salt mixture is a simple example of the technique. For more complex examples see the advanced level chemistry page. ASA2 solute distribution between two immiscible liquids, partition coefficient , calculations and uses
Burette and pipette
. Why do atoms bond together? - 'electron glue'!
Some atoms are very reluctant to combine with other atoms and exist in the air around us as single atoms. These are the Noble Gases and have very stable electron arrangements e.g. 2, 2,8 and 2,8,8 because their outer shells are full. The first three are shown in the diagrams below and explains why Noble Gases are so reluctant to form compounds with other elements.
(atomic number) electron arrangement All other atoms therefore, bond together to become electronically more stable, that is to become like Noble Gases in electron arrangement. Bonding produces new substances and usually involves only the 'outer shell' or 'valency' electrons and atoms can bond in two ways. The phrase CHEMICAL BOND refers to the strong electrical force of attraction between the atoms or ions in the structure. The combining power of an atom is sometimes referred to as its valency and its value is linked to the number of outer electrons of the original uncombined atom (see examples later). (a) IONIC BONDING - By one atom transferring electrons to another atom to form oppositely charged particles called ions which attract each other - the ionic bond. • • • • • • • • • An ion is an atom or group of atoms carrying an overall positive or negative charge o e.g. Na+, Cl-, [Cu(H2O)]2+, SO42- etc. If a particle, as in a neutral atom, has equal numbers of protons (+) and electrons (-) the particle charge is zero i.e. no overall electric charge. The proton/atomic number in an atom does not change BUT the number of associated electrons can! If negative electrons are lost the excess charge from the protons produces an overall positive ion. If negative electrons are gained there is an excess of negative charge, so a negative ion is formed. The charge on the ion is numerically related to the number of electrons transferred i.e. electrons lost or gained. For any atom or group of atoms, for every electron gained you get a one unit increase in negative charge on the ion, for every electron lost you get a one unit increase in the positive charge on the ion. The atom losing electrons forms a positive ion (cation) and is usually a metal. The atom gaining electrons forms a negative ion (anion) and is usually a non-metallic element. The ionic bond then consists of the attractive force between the positive and negative ions in the structure. The ionic bonding forces act in all directions around a particular ion, it is not directional, as in the case of covalent bonding.
(b) COVALENT BONDING - sharing electrons to form molecules with covalent bonds, the bond is usually formed between two non-metallic elements in a molecule. The two positive nuclei (due to the positive protons in them) of both atoms are mutually attracted to the shared negative electrons between them - the covalent bond. They share the electrons in a way that gives a stable Noble Gas electron arrangement. • This kind of bond or electronic linkage does act in a particular direction i.e. along the 'line' between the two nuclei of the atoms bonded together, this is why molecules have a particular shape.
(c) METALLIC BONDING isn't quite like ionic or covalent bonding, the metal atoms form positive ions, but no negative ion is formed from the same metal atoms, but the positive metal ions/atoms are attracted together by the free moving negative electrons between them.
NOBLE GASES are very reluctant to share, gain or lose electrons to form a chemical bond. They are already
electronically very stable. For most other elements the types of bonding and the resulting properties of the elements
The overall charge on the ion is negative because of the gain. will all be electronically similar. The atom gaining electrons forms a negative ion (an anion) and is usually a non-metallic element.8.7) ==> Na+ (2. and therefore excess. sodium fluoride NaF.8]- ONE combines with ONE to form The valencies of Na and Cl are both 1. in the sense that the force of attraction between the positive ions and the negative ions act in every direction around the ions.or compounds are described in detail in Parts 2 to 5. Elements consist of neutral atoms or molecules.8. potassium bromide KBr and lithium iodide LiI etc. The examples below combining a metal from Groups 1 (Alkali Metals).electron transfer Ionic bonds are formed by one atom transferring electrons to another atom to form ions. and where they end up in the ions. with a non-metal from Group 6 or Group 7 (The Halogens).8) can be summarised electronically to give the stable 'noble gas' structures as [2. are shown in the dot and cross (ox) diagrams Ionic bonding is not directional like covalent bonding. because electronically.8. Ions are atoms. Note: The charge on the sodium ion Na+ is +1 units (shown as just +) because there is one more positive proton than there are negative electrons in the sodium ion. or groups of atoms. Only the outer electrons of the original atoms.g. The electron structures are shown in () or . the electrical neutrality is because the number of positive protons equals the number of negative electrons.is -1 units (shown as just -) because there is one more negative electron than there are positive protons in the chloride ion. . 2.7] ==> [2.8) Cl.(2. the sodium donates its outer electron to a chlorine atom forming a single positive sodium ion and a single negative chloride ion. which have lost or gained electrons to have a net electrical charge overall . The overall charge on the ion is positive due to excess positive nuclear charge (protons do NOT change in chemical reactions).8. The atoms have become stable ions.1] + [2.8. In all the electronic diagrams ONLY the outer electrons are shown. the numerical charge on the ions.In terms of electron arrangement. The charge on the chloride ion Cl. The atom losing electrons forms a positive ion (a cation) and is usually a metal. sodium + chlorine ==> sodium chloride NaCl or ionic formula Na+Cl.8]+ [2.1) + Cl (2. Example 1: A Group 1 metal + a Group 7 non-metal e. that is.8. sodium becomes like neon and chlorine like argon. Na (2. 2 or 3. of negative electrons. Ionic Bonding .
F is 2.8. Mg (2.See Example 6.(2. because aluminium and fluorine becomes electronically like neon.7] ==> [2.8) can be summarised electronically as [2.2. magnesium + chlorine ==> magnesium chloride MgCl2 or ionic formula Mg2+(Cl-)2 In terms of electron arrangement.8. because electronically. The atoms have become stable ions. i.8.1.g. equal to the charges on the ions.8. The atoms have become stable ions.1. Li is 2.8) can be summarised electronically as [2.2] + 2[2. the magnesium donates its two outer electrons to two chlorine atoms forming a double positive magnesium ion and two single negative chloride ions.8. Example 2: A Group 2 metal + a Group 7 non-metal e.2) + 2Cl (2.7] ==> [2.7 rest of dot and cross diagrams are up to you.8]3+ [2.7) ==> Al3+ (2. rest of dot and cross diagram is up to you. calcium chloride CaCl2 or barium iodide BaI2 etc.8) 3F.(2. the aluminium donates its three outer electrons to three fluorine atoms forming a triple positive aluminium ion and three single negative fluoride ions.8.7) ==> Mg2+ (2. aluminium oxide for more highly charged ion analysis.8. Ca is 2.e. as in ordinary chemical formula. The valency of Mg is 2 and chlorine 1.3) + 3F (2. Example 3: A Group 3 metal + a Group 7 non-metal e.8]-3 . F is 2. magnesium becomes like neon and chlorine like argon.g. aluminium + fluorine ==> aluminium fluoride AlF3 or ionic formula Al3+(F-)3 In terms of electron arrangement.e.8) 2Cl.8.8.8]-2 ONE combines with TWO to form see * * NOTE you can draw two separate chloride ions. Compounds and Mixtures" page and it is followed by a section on naming compounds. the numerical charges of the ions. but in these examples square brackets and a number subscript have been used. Beryllium fluoride BeF2. Reminder: How to work out formula of ionic compounds without going through some demanding electronic thinking is described on the "Elements.7.3] + 3[2. i. will all be electronically similar. K is 2.8]2+ [126.96.36.199. Al (2. Valency of Al is 3 and F is 1. magnesium bromide MgBr2.
6) ==> 2K+ (2. This results in two single positive potassium ions to one double negative oxide ion. All the ions have the stable electronic structures 2. but these points are best left for an advanced AS-A2 chemistry discussion.8.1) + O (2. not for GCSE students! Example 4: A Group 1 metal + a Group 6 non-metal e.g.8) O2.8]2- . oxygen 2.In terms of electron arrangement.(2. will be similar. Lithium oxide.8. sodium/potassium + oxygen ==> sodium/potassium oxide Na2O/K2O or ionic formula (Na+)2O2-/(K+)2O188.8.131.52 (argon like) or 2.8.ONE combines with THREE to form Solid aluminium chloride/bromide/iodide have similar formula but are covalent when vapourised into Al2X6 dimer molecules.1] + [184.108.40.206]+2 [2.8.8) can be summarised electronically as 2[2.8) can be summarised electronically as 2[2. the two sodium/potassium atoms donate their outer electron to one oxygen atom. sodium oxide 2Na (2.6] ==> [2.6) ==> 2Na+ (2. Valencies.(2.1] + [2. not sure on solid AlBr3 and AlI3.6] ==> [2.8]2- TWO combine with ONE to form or + ==> potassium oxide 2K (2.8.8. but AlCl3 has an ionic lattice in the solid. K 1. sodium sulphide Na2S and potassium K2S etc. Li2O.1) + O (2.8) O2. sodium oxide Na2O.8]+2 [2.8 (neon like).
8 (neon like).2) + O (2.8) O2.8) the stable 'noble gas' structures can be summarised electronically as [2.8. magnesium oxide ONE combines with ONE to form For magnesium oxide: Mg (2.8.8.g. S is 2.8]2- calcium oxide Ca (2.8]2- ONE combines with ONE to form .2] + [2.8. magnesium/calcium + oxygen ==> magnesium/calcium oxide MgO/CaO or ionic formula Mg2+O2-/Ca2+O2.2] + [2.In terms of electron arrangement. the valency of both calcium and oxygen is 2.6] ==> [2. All the ions have the stable electronic structures 2.(2.8) O2.1. Li is 2.1.8.TWO combine with ONE to form The electronic similarities between the two examples are very obvious.6 (for group 1 sulphide compound).8.8.8. rest of dots and crosses diagrams are up to you.(2.8) can be summarised electronically as [2. one magnesium/calcium atom donates its two outer electrons to one oxygen atom.6] ==> [2.8.8]2+ [2. Example 5: A Group 2 metal + a Group 6 non-metal e.8]2+ [2. Na is 2.8.6) ==> Mg2+ (2.8 (argon like) or 2.2) + O (2.8. This results in a double positive calcium ion to one double negative oxide ion.6) ==> Ca2+ (2.8.
6) ==> Mg2+ (2. All the ions have the stable electronic structure of neon 2.8) can be summarised electronically as 2[2.8.8]3+2 [2. both non-metals in Group 6.8) S2. Al 3 and O 2.Magnesium oxide MgO.8) S2. have 6 outer electrons and gain 2 electrons to form 220.127.116.11.8.is -2 units (shown as 2-) because there are two more negative electrons than there are positive protons in the oxide ion.8. Example 6: A Group 3 metal + a Group 6 non-metal e. For magnesium sulphide: Mg (2.8.3] + 3[2.8) 3O2.(2.8) For calcium sulphide: Ca (2.3) + 3O (2.8.8. two aluminium atoms donate their three outer electrons to three oxygen atoms. This results in two triple positive aluminium ions to three double negative oxide ions. except Mg instead of Ca (same group) and S instead of O (same group of Periodic Table).8.8]2-3 TWO Note: combine with THREE to form The charge on the aluminium ion Al3+ is +3 units (shown as 3+) because there are three more positive protons than there are negative electrons in the aluminium ion. 2Al (2.6] ==> [2. magnesium sulphide MgS and calcium sulphide CaS will be similar electronically and give identical giant ionic lattice structures. on another web page is how to work out an ionic formula given the ionic charges (combining power) The properties of Ionic Compounds . Valencies.2) + S (2. Group 2 metals lose the two outer electrons to give the stable 2+ positive ion (cation) and S and O. The charge on the oxide ion O2.6) ==> Ca2+ (2.6) ==> 2Al3+ (2. aluminium + oxygen ==> aluminium oxide Al2O3 or ionic formula (Al3+)2(O2-)3 In terms of electron arrangement.(2.negative ion (anion).8) The dot and cross (ox) diagrams will be identical to that for calcium oxide above.8.2) + S (2.(2.g.
• The bonding extends throughout the crystal in all directions. This reduces the attractive forces between the ions. so they are not very volatile! • A relatively large amount of energy is needed to melt or boil ionic compounds.g. . This type of bond usually formed between two non-metallic elements. • Salts and metal oxides are typical ionic compounds. However. They are hard but brittle. when stressed the bonds are broken along planes of ions which shear away.• • • • The diagram on the right is typical of the giant ionic crystal structure of ionic compounds like sodium chloride and magnesium oxide. Unlike covalent molecules. Many ionic compounds are soluble in water. as the ion particles are now free. Salts can dissolve in water because the ions can separate and become surrounded by water molecules which weakly bond to the ions. • This strong bonding force makes the structure hard (if brittle) and have high melting and boiling points. magnesium oxide Mg2+O2. One single covalent bond is a sharing of 1 pair of electrons.electron sharing in big or small molecules! Covalent bonds are formed by atoms sharing electrons to form molecules. preventing the crystal structure to exist. if the ionic compound is melted or dissolved in water. • • Covalent Bonding . the liquid will now conduct electricity.has a higher melting point than sodium chloride Na+Cl-. • The alternate positive and negative ions in an ionic solid are arranged in an orderly way in a giant ionic lattice structure shown on the left. The solid crystals DO NOT conduct electricity because the ions are not free to move to carry an electric current.e. one type of atom only OR from different elements chemically combined to form a compound. The molecules might be that of an element i. They are NOT malleable like metals (see below). The bigger the charges on the ions the stronger the bonding attraction e. Energy changes for the physical changes of state of melting and boiling for a range of differently bonded substances are compared in a section of the Energetics Notes. two pairs of shared electrons between the same two atoms gives a double bond and it is possible for two atoms to share 3 pairs of electrons and give a triple bond. Evaporating the water from a salt solution will eventually allow the ionic crystal lattice to reform. • The ionic bond is the strong electrical attraction between the positive and negative ions next to each other in the lattice. ALL ionic compounds are crystalline solids at room temperature. but not all. and the negative electrons between them. The covalent bonding is caused by the mutual electrical attraction between the two positive nuclei of the two atoms of the bond. so don't make assumptions.
The electrons are shown as dots and crosses to indicate which atom the electrons come from.8. Any covalent bond is formed from the mutual attraction of two positive nuclei and negative electrons between them.8. though all electrons are the same. hydrogen bromide HBr and hydrogen iodide HI. All the other halogens would be similar e.g. Valency of halogens like chlorine is 1 here. If the gas is dissolved in a hydrocarbon solvent like hexane or methylbenzene it remains as HCl molecules and because there are no ions . hydrogen fluoride HF. The nuclei would be a tiny dot in the middle of where the H symbols are drawn! H valency is 1. Note: Hydrogen chloride gas is a true covalent substance consisting of small HCl molecules. All the other hydrogen halides will be similar e.g.e. along the 'line' between the two nuclei of the atoms bonded together. Example 3: one atom of hydrogen (1) combines with one atom of chlorine (2. Br2 and I2 etc. F2. The bonding in Small Covalent Molecules The simplest molecules are formed from two atoms and examples of their formation are shown below. the electrical attractive forces act in all directions around the particles involved. this is why molecules have a particular shape. Examples of simple covalent molecules are … Example 1: two hydrogen atoms (1) form the molecule of the element hydrogen H2 and combine to form where both atoms have a pseudo helium structure of 2 outer electrons around each atom's nucleus. This kind of bond or electronic linkage does act in a particular direction i. Example 2: two chlorine atoms (2. The electron structures are given in (). In the case of ionic or metallic bonding.7) to form the molecule of the compound hydrogen chloride HCl and combine to form where hydrogen is electronically like helium and chlorine like argon.7) form the molecule of the element chlorine Cl2 and combine to form where both atoms have a pseudo argon structure of 8 outer electrons around each atom. The diagrams may only show the outer electron arrangements for atoms that use two or more electron shells.Note: In the examples it is assumed you can work out the electron configuration (arrangement in shells or energy levels) given the atomic number from the Periodic Table.
Valency of oxygen and sulphur is 2 here.6) to form the molecule of the compound water H2O and and combine to form so that the hydrogen atoms are electronically like helium and the oxygen atom becomes like neon. The molecule can be shown as with two hydrogen oxygen single covalent bonds (AS note: called a V or bent shape. things are very different and the HCl molecules split into ions. PH3 will be similar since phosphorus (2.present. since sulphur (2.hydrogen single covalent bonds (AS note: called a trigonal pyramid shape.8. the solution does not conduct electricity. Compounds and Mixtures" page and it is followed by a section on naming compounds.6) is in the same Group 6 as oxygen. Example 4: two atoms of hydrogen (1) combine with one atom of oxygen (2. Hydrochloric acid is formed which consists of a solution of hydrogen ions (H+) and chloride ions (Cl-). Valency of nitrogen or phosphorus is 3 here. The molecule can be shown as with three nitrogen . the H-N-H bond angle is 107o). Reminder: How to work out formula of covalent compounds without going through some demanding electronic thinking is described on the "Elements. However. current causes electrolysis to take place forming hydrogen and chlorine. The solution then conducts electricity and passage of a d.5) to form the molecule of the compound ammonia NH3 three of and one combine to form so that the hydrogen atoms are electronically like helium and the nitrogen atom becomes like neon.c. if hydrogen chloride gas is dissolved in water. Hydrogen sulphide will be similar.8. Example 5: three atoms of hydrogen (1) combine with one atom of nitrogen (2.5) is in the same Group 5 as nitrogen. the H-O-H bond angle is 105o). .
H and O. involving C. SiH4 will be similar because silicon (2. Below are three examples 7-9. More complex examples can be worked out e. The molecule can be shown as with two carbon = oxygen double covalent bonds (AS note: called a linear shape.g. Oxygen valency 2. . or 8 around the C or O (electronically like Ne). In each case link in the atoms so that there are 2 around a H (electronically like He).6) combine to form the molecules of the element oxygen O2.6) to form the compound carbon dioxide CO2. The molecule can be shown as with four carbon . All the bonds in the above examples are single covalent bonds.4) combines with two atoms of oxygen (2.4) is in the same group as carbon. Carbon and silicon have a valency of 4. the O=C=O bond angle is 180o).Example 6: four atoms of hydrogen (1) combine with one atom of carbon (2. in order that the atoms have stable Noble Gas outer electron arrangements around each atom. Valencies of C and O are 4 and 2 respectively. . The molecule has one O=O double covalent bond Example 8: One atom of carbon (2. the H-C-H bond angle is 109o).hydrogen single covalent bonds (AS note: called a tetrahedral shape.4) to form the molecule of the compound methane CH4 four of and one of combine to form so that the hydrogen atoms are electronically like helium and the nitrogen atom becomes like neon. where there is a double bond in the molecule. Example 7: Two atoms of oxygen (2.8.
no.8. The valency of carbon is still 4. H 1. although a covalent molecule like iodine. From these you can work out others e.7) and O at.5). In liquids the increase in the average particle kinetic energy makes it easier for molecules to overcome the intermolecular forces and change into a gas or vapour.g. Cl and O: N at. 17 (2. 12 can be used to derive the ox diagram for tetrachloromethane CCl4. it does NOT break up into iodine atoms I.Example 9: Two atoms of carbon (2. between atoms in a molecule are usually very strong. Electronic origin of the diagrams showing the outer electrons of N. most covalent molecules do not change chemically on moderate heating. Typical properties of simple covalent substances . Examples 10-13: The scribbles below illustrate some more complex examples. (1). H at. Ex. The effect of absorbing heat energy results in increased the thermal vibration of the molecules which weakens the intermolecular forces. 7 (2. no. 10 nitrogen N2.small molecules! • The electrical forces of attraction. 8 (2.4). These weak electrical attractions are known as intermolecular forces and are readily weakened further on heating.6) plus a variety of crosses and blobs! The valencies or combining power in theses examples are N 3. the H-C=C and H-C-H bond angles are 120o). The I-I covalent bond is strong enough to withstand the heating and the purple vapour still consists of the same I2 molecules as the dark coloured solid is made up of. 11 ethane C2H6. • • . no. no. 12 chloromethane CH3Cl and Ex. I2. no. 13 methanol CH3OH. that is the chemical bond. Consequently. 6 (2. Ex. C. Ex.g. Cl 1 and O 2.hydrogen single covalent bonds (called a planar shape. The molecule can be shown as with one carbon = carbon double bond and four carbon .4) combine with four atoms of hydrogen (1) to form ethene C2H4. o e. Cl at. so the bulk material is not very strong physically and there are also consequences for the melting and boiling points. so. C 4. So why the ease of vaporisation on heating? o The electrical attractive forces between individual molecules are weak. is readily vapourised on heating. its completely flat!. Can you deduce them for yourself? Ex. C at.
another element in Group 4. all the other properties are significantly different! • 4. The properties of these simple small molecules should be compared and contrasted with those molecules of a giant covalent nature (next section). graphite and fullerenes). o This again contrasts with giant covalent structures where the strong bond network stops solvent molecules interacting with the particles making up the material. Large Covalent Molecules and their Properties (macromolecules . This produces a very strong 3-dimensional covalent bond network or lattice. This is illustrated by carbon in the form of diamond (an allotrope of carbon). o Apart from points on the strong bonds between the atoms in the molecule and the lack of electrical conduction. o On heating the inter-molecular forces are easily overcome with the increased kinetic energy of the particles giving the material a low melting or boiling point and a relatively small amount of energy is needed to effect these state changes. Carbon has four outer electrons that form four single bonds. Covalent structures are usually poor conductors of electricity because there are no free electrons or ions in any state to carry electric charge. DIAGRAMS DIAMOND . and these are sometimes referred to as intramolecular forces (i. O2. strong structures can be formed. o Note: The weak electrical attractive forces between molecules.giant covalent networks and polymers) Because covalent bonds act in a particular direction i. This gives them significantly different properties from the small simple covalent molecules mentioned above.etc. Most small molecules will dissolve in some solvent to form a solution. o This contrasts with the high melting points of giant covalent structures with their strong 3D network. o Energy changes for the physical changes of state of melting and boiling for a range of differently bonded substances are compared in a section of the Energetics Notes. the so called intermolecular forces should be clearly distinguished between the strong covalent bonding between atoms in molecules (small or giant).e.• • • small covalent molecules tend to be volatile liquids with low boiling points. two different crystalline forms based on small S8 molecules called rhombic and monoclinic sulphur and a 3rd form of long chain ( -S-S-S. and ozone (trioxygen). O3.) molecules called plastic sulphur. especially if the covalent bonds are arranged in a strong three dimensional giant covalent lattice. Pure silicon. internal to the molecule). o NOTE: Allotropes are different forms of the same element in the same physical state. silicon and silicon dioxide (silica) • • • • It is possible for many atoms to link up to form a giant covalent structure or lattice. Oxygen (dioxygen). has a similar structure. They occur due to different bonding arrangements and so diamond. along the 'line' between the two nuclei of the atoms bonded together in an individual bond. The structure of the three allotropes of carbon (diamond. so each carbon bonds to four others by electron pairing/sharing. graphite (below) and fullerenes (below) are the three solid allotropes of the element carbon. The atoms are usually non-metals. Sulphur has three solid allotropes. or low melting point solids. so easily vapourised.e. are the two small gaseous allotrope molecules of the element oxygen.
they are often very hard. Graphite will not dissolve in solvents because of the strong bonding BUT there are two crucial differences compared to diamond . Many naturally occurring minerals are based on -O-X-O.. o The weak forces enable the layers to slip over each other so where as diamond is hard material graphite is a 'soft' crystal. o Silicon dioxide is found as quartz in granite (igneous rock) and is the main component in sandstone . from the 'shared bond'. Energy changes for the physical changes of state of melting and boiling for a range of differently bonded substances are compared in a section of the Energetics Notes. the fourth outer electron is 'delocalised' or shared between the carbon atoms to form the equivalent of a 4th bond per carbon atom (this situation requires advanced level concepts to fully explain. The carbon atoms form joined hexagonal rings forming layers 1 atom thick. Also because of the strength of the bonding in all directions in the structure. and in aromatic compounds you deal with at advanced level).g. it feels slippery. strong and will not dissolve in solvents like water. rare and attractive when polished. three of the most abundant elements in the earth's crust. The hardness of diamond enables it to be used as the 'leading edge' on cutting tools.. A relatively large amount of energy is needed to melt or boil giant covalent structures. SILICA silicon dioxide • • • • • • Carbon also occurs in the form of graphite. SiO2) has a similar 3D structure and properties to carbon (diamond) shown below. There are three strong covalent bonds per carbon (3 C-C bonds in a planar arrangement from 3 of its 4 outer electrons). hold great value as gemstones. and this bonding situation also occurs in fullerenes described below. Energy changes for the physical changes of state of melting and boiling for a range of differently bonded substances is given in a section of the Energetics Notes. These two different characteristics described above are put to a common use with GRAPHITE • . Like diamond and silica (above) the large molecules of the layer ensure graphite has typically very high melting point because of the strong 2D bonding network (note: NOT 3D network). electrodes in electrolysis.linked 3D structures where X is often silicon (Si) and aluminium (Al).which is a sedimentary rock formed the compressed erosion products of igneous rocks. They are usually poor conductors of electricity because the electrons are not usually free to move as they can in metallic structures. The bonding network is too strong to allow the atoms to become surrounded by solvent molecules Silicon dioxide (silica. o Many some minerals that are hard wearing.• • • • • • • • • TYPICAL PROPERTIES of GIANT COVALENT STRUCTURES This type of giant covalent structure is thermally very stable and has a very high melting and boiling points because of the strong covalent bond network (3D or 2D in the case of graphite below). Graphite is used in electrical contacts e.. Graphite is used as a lubricant. o Electrons. can move freely through each layer. so graphite is a conductor like a metal (diamond is an electrical insulator and a poor heat conductor). The layers are only held together by weak intermolecular forces shown by the dotted lines NOT by strong covalent bonds. BUT.
more reactant molecules have enough kinetic energy to react compared to the uncatalysed situation and so the reaction speeds up with the greater chance of a 'fruitful' collision. The graphite brushes provide good electrical contact and are selflubricating as the carbon layers slide over each other. The significance of activation energy • • • • • • • • When gases or liquids are heated the particles gain kinetic energy and move faster increasing the chance of collision between reactant molecules and therefore the increased chance of a fruitful collision (i. It does not matter whether the reaction is an exothermic or an endothermic energy change (see the pair of reaction profile diagrams below). as atoms become electronically more stable). Higher temperature molecules in gases and liquids have a greater average kinetic energy and so a greater proportion of them will then have the required activation energy to react on collision. representing bond formation (energy released. o down the other side of the hump is exothermic.). The increased chance of higher energy collisions greatly increases the speed of the reaction because it greatly increases the chance of a fruitful collision forming the reaction products by bonds being broken in the reactants and new bonds formed in the reaction products. representing breaking bonds (energy absorbed.the electrical contacts in electric motors and dynamos. one resulting in product formation). . Before any change takes place on collision. Catalysts and Activation Energy • • • Catalysts increase the rate of a reaction by helping break chemical bonds in reactant molecules.e. needed to pull atoms apart). Therefore at the same temperature. o Up the hump is endothermic. Do not confuse activation energy with the overall energy change also shown in the diagrams below. This effectively means the activation energy is reduced (see diagram 'humps' below). the colliding molecules must have a minimum kinetic energy called the activation energy. The activation energy 'hump' can be related to the process of bond breaking and making (see section 5. These contacts (called brushes) are made of graphite sprung onto the spinning brass contacts of the armature. that is the overall energy absorbed-taken in by the system (endothermic) or given out to the surroundings (exothermic). Activation Energy and Reaction Profiles 3a. However! this is NOT the main reason for the increased reaction speed on increasing the temperature of reactant molecules because most molecular collisions do not result in chemical change.
The catalyst might help break the bonds BUT it cannot change the actual bond energies. Although a true catalyst does take part in the reaction. especially if the reaction is exothermic. is for higher GCSE students and an introduction for advanced level students of how to do bond enthalpy (bond dissociation energy) calculations. . The energy to make or break a chemical bond is called the bond energy and is quoted in kJ/mol of bonds. o 5. o Each bond has a typical value e. it may change chemically on a temporary basis but would be reformed as the reaction products also form. the overall exothermic or endothermic energy change is the same for both the catalysed or uncatalysed reaction. it does not get used up and can be reused with more reactants.• • • Note that a catalyst does NOT change the energy of the molecules. to break 1 mole of C-H bonds is on average about 413kJ. it reduces the threshold kinetic energy needed for a molecules to react. Also note from the diagram that although the activation energy is reduced. Atoms in molecules are held together by chemical bonds which are the electrical attractive forces between the atoms. The bond energy is the energy involved in making or breaking bonds and is usually quoted in kJ per mole of the particular bond involved. To break a chemical bond requires the molecule to take in energy to pull atoms apart. which is an endothermic change. However a solid catalyst might change physically permanently by becoming more finely divided.g. Calculation of heat transfer using bond energies (bond enthalpies) • • • • • • PLEASE NOTE that section 5. the atoms must give out energy to become combined and electronically more stable in the molecule. To make a chemical bond. this is an exothermic change. The atoms of the bond vibrate more until they spring apart.
We do this by calculating the energy taken in to break the bonds in the reactant molecules.2 Hydrogen Bromide ==> Hydrogen + Bromine o The symbol equation is: 2HBr(g) ==> H2(g) + Br2(g) o but think of it as: H-Br + H-Br ==> H-H + Br-Br o (where . The difference between these two gives us the net energy change.5kJ per mole of HBr decomposed) o More energy is taken in than given out.• • • • • • • the C=O takes an average 743 kJ/mol in organic compounds and 803 kJ/mol in carbon dioxide. H-H 436. releases. than is given out when the new bonds are formed in the product molecules. We then calculate the energy given out when the new bonds are formed. During a chemical reaction. this the endothermic 'upward' slope on the reaction profile on diagrams above.e. and note the stronger double bond. o If more energy is needed to break the original existing bonds of the reactant molecules. taken in. this is the exothermic 'downward' slope on the reaction profile on diagrams above. so the reaction is exothermic. more energy released to surroundings than is taken in to break bonds of reactants.3 hydrogen + oxygen ==> water o 2H2(g) + O2(g) ==> 2H2O(g) o or 2 H-H + O=O ==> 2 H-O-H (where . the reaction is endothermic i. energy must be supplied to break chemical bonds in the molecules. so more energy is needed.1 Hydrogen + Chlorine ==> Hydrogen Chloride o The symbol equation is: H2(g) + Cl2(g) ==> 2HCl(g) o but think of it as: H-H + Cl-Cl ==> H-Cl + H-Cl o (where . o These arguments can then be used to explain why reactions can be exothermic or endothermic. less energy is released to the surroundings than is taken in to break the reactant molecule bonds. Br-Br 193 o Energy needed to break bonds = 366 + 366 = 732 kJ taken in o Energy released on bond formation = 436 + 193 = 629 kJ given out o The net difference between them = 732-629 = 103 kJ taken in (51. exothermic). If we know all the bond energies (enthalpies) f the molecules involved in a reaction. a typical double bond needs more energy to break than a typical single bond. endothermic). o In a reaction energy must be supplied to break bonds (energy absorbed. Example 5. o Energy is released when new bonds are formed (energy given out.e. we can theoretically calculate what the net energy change is for that reaction and determine whether the reaction is exothermic or endothermic.represents the chemical bonds to be broken or formed) o the bond energies in kJ/mol are: H-Br 366. than is given out when the new bonds are formed in the product molecules.or = represent the covalent bonds) o bond energies in kJ/mol: H-H is 436. so the reaction is endothermic Example 5. new bonds must be made in the process. o So the overall energy change for a reaction (ΔH) is the overall energy net change from the bond making and bond forming processes. Example 5. o If less energy is needed to break the original existing bonds of the reactant molecules. H-Cl 431 o Energy needed to break bonds = 436 + 242 = 678 kJ taken in o Energy released on bond formation = 431 + 431 = 862 kJ given out o The net difference between them = 862-678 = 184 kJ given out (92 kJ per mole of HCl formed) o More energy is given out than taken in.represents the chemical bonds to be broken or formed) o the bond energies in kJ/mol are: H-H 436. o and not surprisingly. When the new molecules are formed. Cl-Cl 242. These ideas are illustrated in the calculations below. O=O is 496 and O-H is 463 o bonds broken and energy absorbed (taken in): o (2 x H-H) + (1 x O=O) = (2 x 436) + (1 x 496) = 1368 kJ o bonds made and energy released (given out): o (4 x O-H) = (4 x 463) = 1852 kJ o . the reaction is exothermic i.
.• overall energy change is: 1852 . since more energy is given out than taken in. using solar cells.g. O=O double bond is 496. the reaction is exothermic.5 methane + oxygen ==> carbon dioxide + water o CH4(g) + 2O2(g) ==> CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) o o o • o or o o o o o o o or using displayed formulae bond energies in kJ/mol: C-H single bond is 412.1368 = 484 kJ given out (242 kJ per mole hydrogen burned or water formed) since more energy is given out than taken in. H-O single bond is 463 bonds broken and heat energy absorbed from surroundings. This shows that heats of combustion can be theoretically calculated. It burns with a pale blue flame in air reacting with oxygen to be oxidised to form water. (see Oil Note and Extra Organic Chemistry) . It would be ideal if it could be manufactured cheaply by electrolysis of water e. endothermic change (4 x C-H) + 2 x (1 x O=O) = (4 x 412) + 2 x (1 x 496) = 1648 + 992 = 2640 kJ taken in bonds formed and heat energy released and given out to surroundings.2252 = 76 kJ given out (38 kJ per mole of ammonia formed) o since more energy is given out than taken in. the reaction is exothermic.4 nitrogen + hydrogen ==> ammonia o N2(g) + 3H2(g) ==> 2NH3(g) o o o o or N N + 3 H-H ==> 2 bond energies in kJ/mol: N N is 944.2640 = 698 kJ/mol given out per mole methane burned. the reaction is exothermic. H-H is 436 and N-H is 388 bonds broken and energy absorbed (taken in): (1 x N N) + (3 x H-H) = (1 x 944) + (3 x 436) = 2252 kJ o bonds made and energy released (given out): 2 x (3 x N-H) = 2 x 3 x 388 = 2328 kJ o overall energy change is: 2328 . Example 5. C=O double bond is 803 (in carbon dioxide). Example 5. exothermic change (2 x C=O) + 2 x (2 x O-H) = (2 x 803) + 2 x (2 x 463) = 1606 + 1852 = 3458 given out overall energy change is: 3338 . Hydrogen can be used to power fuel cells. otherwise electrolysis is very expensive due to high cost of electricity. hydrogen + oxygen ==> water 2H2(g) + O2(g) ==> 2H2O(l) It is a non-polluting clean fuel since the only combustion product is water and so its use would not lead to all environmental problems associated with burning fossil fuels. NOTE: This is the typical very exothermic combustion chemistry of burning fossil fuels but has many associated environmental problems. NOTE: Hydrogen gas can be used as fuel and a long-term possible alternative to fossil fuels (see methane combustion below in example 5.
Exothermic bond formation: 6 x C=O bonds made.• Example 5. . 2 C-C bonds broken. • Explaining the physical properties of metals • This strong bonding generally results in dense. 8 x O-H bonds made. • These free or 'delocalised' electrons are the 'electronic glue' holding the particles together. BONDING IN METALS A giant metallic lattice. • Metallic bonding is not directional like covalent bonding. 5 O=O bonds broken. you could base your calculation on the displayed formula equation o o o Endothermic bond breaking: 8 C-H bonds broken. The crystal lattice of metals consists of ions NOT atoms surrounded by a 'sea of electrons' forming another type of giant lattice. it is like ionic bonding in the sense that the force of attraction between the positive metal ions and the mobile electrons acts in every direction about the fixed (immobile) metal ions. • The outer electrons (-) from the original metal atoms are free to move around between the positive metal ions formed (+).6 analysing the bonds in more complex molecules o ethyl ethanoate 2 x C-C single covalent bonds 8 x C-H single covalent bonds 2 x C-O single covalent bonds 1 x C=O double covalent bond o o ethanol 1 x C-C single covalent bond 5 x C-H single covalent bonds 1 x C-O single covalent bond 1 x O-H single covalent bond If you wanted to work out the theoretical enthalpy/heat of combustion of propane. strong materials with high melting and boiling points. • There is a strong electrical force of attraction between these mobile electrons (-) and the 'immobile' positive metal ions (+) and this is the metallic bond.
4. Energy changes for the physical changes of state of melting and boiling for a range of differently bonded substances are compared in a section of the Energetics Notes. The result is a stronger harder less malleable metal. and try out. The main point about using alloys is that you can make up. Shows an alloy mixture. knocking against cooler less strongly vibrating atoms to pass the particle kinetic energy on. The layers of atoms can slide 3. Ni. o Note on Alloy Structure 1. the 'hot' high kinetic energy electrons move around freely to transfer the particle kinetic energy more efficiently to 'cooler' atoms. 2. it can be another metal e. This can't happen in ionic solids. and it can be bigger or smaller than iron atoms). C or a compound of carbon or manganese. as well as this effect. The layers of atoms can slide over each other without fracturing the structure (see below). Typical metals also have a silvery surface but remember this may be easily tarnished by corrosive oxidation in air and water. In metals. Unlike ionic solids.g. over each other and the bonding is maintained as the mobile electrons keep in contact with atoms. The presence of the other atoms (smaller or bigger) disrupts the symmetry of the layers and reduces the 'slip ability' of one layer next to another.• • • • • Usually a relatively large amount of energy is needed to melt or boil metals. pressed or hammered into shape. The reason for this is the mobility of the electrons. It is NOT a compound but a physical mixing of a metal plus at least one other material (shown by red circle. Shows the regular arrangement of the atoms in a metal crystal and the white spaces show where the free electrons are (yellow circles actually positive metal ions). so the metal remains intact BUT a different shape. all sorts of different compositions until you find the one that best suits the required purpose. Non-metallic solids conduct heat energy by hotter more strongly vibrating atoms. Metals are good conductors of electricity because these 'free' electrons carry the charge of an electric current when a potential difference (voltage!) is applied across a piece of metal. Shows what happens when the metal is stressed by a strong force. For more on the properties and uses of metals see Transition Metals and Extra Industrial Chemistry pages and the note and diagram below. This is also due to the free moving electrons. a non-metal e. Metals are also good conductors of heat.g. When planes of metal atoms are 'bent' or slide the electrons can run in between the atoms and maintain a strong bonding situation. The three fundamental particles of which atoms are composed . they can be readily bent. Many alloys are produced to give a stronger metal. metals are very malleable.
Protons and neutrons are the 'nucleons' or 'sub-atomic' particles present in the minute positive nucleus and the negative electrons are held by the positive protons in 'orbits' called energy levels or shells. in an energy level around the nucleus.proton/atomic number In a neutral atom the number of protons (+) equals the number of electrons (-). excess negative electrons. o If not.an image of what you can't see! • The diagram below 'portrait of an atom' above. uncharged particle in the nucleus o electron: mass = 1/1850 ~1/2000. It cannot be overemphasised that it is the electronic structure that determines the chemical character of an element. • • • • • • • • • • • .What can we say about 'A Portrait of an Atom'? . the charged particle in the nucleus o neutron: mass = 1. It is the proton/atomic number (Z) that determines the number of electrons an element has. 10 electrons. excess positive protons). the nucleus of protons plus neutrons is on about a ten thousandth of the diameter of an atom. gives some idea on the structure of an atom (sometimes called the Bohr Atomic Model). the positive sodium ion Na+ (11 protons. 18 electrons. Other alternative atomic structure diagrams than the one below are described and shown in Appendix 2. it also includes some important definitions and notation used to describe atomic structure o The three fundamental particles you need to know are o proton: mass = 1. The atomic/proton number (Z) is the number of protons in the nucleus and is also known as the proton number of the particular element. charge = 0. o Incidently. or the negative chloride ion Cl. its specific electron structure and therefore the specific identity of a particular element in terms of its physical and chemical properties. o Therefore the mass/nucleon number = sum of the protons plus neutrons in the nucleus. charge = -1. and is then called an ion e. for more details and examples see ionic bonding notes. that is the number of positive charges is equal to the number of negative charges.g. Some important evidence for this 'picture' is obtained from alpha particle scattering experiments (see Appendix 1). The neutron number (N) = mass number . must of the volume of an atom is where the electrons are.definition and examples). the nuclide notation states that o before the chemical symbol of the element Li o the top left number = nucleon/mass number = 7 o and the bottom left number = proton/atomic number = 3 The electrons are arranged in specific energy levels according to a set of rules (dealt with in section 3). that is the number of particles in the nucleus of a particular atom-isotope (notes on isotopes . and the atom has an overall surplus electrical charge. NOT in nucleus.(17 protons. charge = +1. hence the proton/atomic number determines everything about a particular element The mass number (A) is also known as the nucleon number. In the example below for lithium-7.
Examples of isotopes are illustrated and described below. this depends on the stability of the nucleus i. 2H and 3H since the chemical symbol H means hydrogen and therefore must have only one proton.26). 27 electrons Californium atom (californium-98). unstable atoms (radioactive) might be referred to as radioisotopes. Caution Note: Do NOT assume the word isotope means the atom it is radioactive. NOT an ion. but. are the two isotopes of helium with mass numbers of 3 and 4. o They are sometimes denoted more simply as 1H. being the same element they have the same atomic or proton number and are identical chemically.atomic/proton number Iron atom (iron-56). after the great Danish scientist Niels Bohr (1885-1962).• • This description of an atom consisting of the relatively minute nucleus of protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons in particular shells or energy levels is sometimes referred to as the Bohr Model of the atom. 27 protons. • • • • • • • • .e.27). 32 neutrons (59 . Other examples of interpreting the nuclide notation and definition reminders: o Top left number is the nucleon number or mass number (A = sum of protons + neutrons = nucleons) o Bottom left number is the atomic number or proton number (Z = protons in nucleus) o Electrons = protons if the atom is electrically neutral i. There are small physical differences between the isotopes e. since all are hydrogen! Hydrogen-1 is the most common. Many isotopes are extremely stable in the nuclear sense and NOT radioactive i.e. ISOTOPES • Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons and therefore different masses (different nucleon/mass numbers). 30 neutrons (56 . 148 neutrons (246 . the heavier isotope has a greater density or boiling point. and are the three isotopes of hydrogen with mass numbers of 1.nuclear fusion weapons.Z i. most of the atoms that make up you and the world around you! . with 1 and 2 neutrons respectively but both have 2 protons. 2 and 3. However. o The neutron number N = A . This gives each isotope of a particular element a different mass or nucleon number. All have 1 proton. 26 electrons Cobalt atom (cobalt-59). because they have the same number of protons (proton/atomic number) isotopes of a particular element have the same electronic structure and identical chemistry. 1 and 2 neutrons respectively. 98 electrons 2. 98 protons.g.98). one of the brilliant founders of modern atomic theory.e. with 0. The phrase 'heavier' or 'lighter' isotope means 'bigger' or 'smaller' mass number. and or 3He and 4He. the lighter the isotope the faster it diffuses. Helium-4 is also formed in the Sun and as a product of radioactive alpha decay of an unstable nucleus.e. mass/nucleon number . 26 protons. Helium-3 is formed in the Sun by the initial nuclear fusion process. there is a trace of hydrogen-2 (sometimes called deuterium) naturally but hydrogen-3 (sometime called tritium) is very unstable and is used in atomic bombs .
sodium chloride) but sodium-24 is a radio-isotope and is a gamma emitter used in medicine as a radioactive tracer e.00000 i. with 12 and 13 neutrons respectively but both have 11 protons.g. Sodium-23 is quite stable e.o An alpha particle is a helium nucleus and if it picks up two electrons it becomes a stable atoms of the gas helium.g.e. • • and or 23Na and 24Na. the standard) . to examine organs and the blood system. The relative atomic mass of an element is the average mass of all the isotopes present compared to 1/12th of the mass of carbon-12 atom (12C = 12. are the two isotopes of sodium with mass numbers of 23 and 24. in common salt (NaCl.
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