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# Discussion

In the experiment part 2.1, we are using a 2N3904 transistor to determine the value. The
2N3904 transistor is used for general purpose low frequency voltage amplifying or switching
applications. It is designed for low current and power, medium voltage. It can operate at
moderately high speeds. Usually, the value for the 2N3904 transistor is in the range from 100
to 300. From the experiment, the value that determined by our group is 140.05. At the same
time, the value determined by the others groups is 139.3 and 147.25. Therefore, it is valid to
state that the value is in the range from 100 to 300. The variation is due to the different value
obtained for IB and IC for every group because the resistor that is being used by different group
have different resistance value.

For the experiment 2.2, we have to measure and calculate the measurement of the voltage
divider configuration and compare the measured values and the calculated values (theoretical
value) of VB,VC,VE,VCE, and the current of IE and IC. By comparing the measured values and
calculated values, all the calculated values and measured values were almost the same.
Therefore, Q-point is only slightly effected by , which is temperature dependent value. The
small difference occurred because in reality, some carriers are lost due to recombination in the
base region. The Q-point is determined by the intersection of the load-line and I C - V CE
curve corresponding to the appropriate base current I B . For the Q-point of this voltage

## divider configuration is I CQ =1.54 mA and V CEQ = 3.91V for calculated and

I CQ =1.564 mA and V CEQ = 3.73V for measured. The slight differences in the values can
also be explained due to the lab equipment used were faulty or worn out from long term usage.
Due to the wore out condition, the circuits constructed might undergoes some leakage or lost in
voltage.

For the experiment 2.3, we have to calculate the amplifiers small signal voltage gain,

RC
AV for fully bypassed emitter using the equation Av = and calculate the circuit no-
re

V out
load voltage gain, Av using the oscilloscope A V = . After calculated, the amplifier
V
voltage gain, AV for fully by passed emitter is calculated at 175.92 and the circuit no-
load voltage gain, Av is measured and calculated at -180 and the different for this two
following voltage gain, Av is 4.08. The measured value of Av is larger than the calculated
value of A v . It can be shown that the voltage gain can be affected by a fully bypassed emitter
and the load, the different of effect will have a different voltage gain, A v . The reason is
because for the fully bypassed emitter, the emitter resistance RE is treated as zero since it is
connected to a capacitor CE which is short. However, the reason for the circuit no-load
voltage is the circuit didnt have the resistance R L . According to the results, the waveform can
be said to be in an appropriate position because the output waveform performed the same shape
as the input waveform. Moreover, the output waveform is also double the input waveform. This
means that the output signal is amplified approximately 175 times for theoretical and 180 times
for experimental. The negative sign indicated the signal is inversed. The difference between the
two values may be caused by the surrounding temperature which is not consistent.

Last but not least, there are some precautions that need to be taken into account to reduce
the errors of the results. First, the components must be checked before conducting the experiment
because the inaccuracy of the results may be caused by some faulty electronic devices or
components. Then, we should make sure that the signal generator and oscilloscope is well
connected and calibrated so that we can observed the waveform clearly. Besides that, we should
also avoid human error such as parallax error that must be reduced when taking the readings.
Other than that, the components must be fitted properly into the breadboard while constructing
the circuit. Moreover, the experiment is encouraged to be repeated for several times so that the
results taken will be more accurate.

Conclusion

As a conclusion, for part 2.1, the common emitter current gain, value is 140.05. The
collector current and base current normally will have a big difference as the value is huge
enough. So, the value calculated is reasonable. For part 2.2, the DC operating point, Q-point of
the BJT is determined and it lies on the active region. For part 2.3, the small voltage gained is
obtained by using the equation derived from the analysis of the circuit through DC and AC
analyzing. As a result, the objectives of the experiment are successfully achieved.