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Art. 1348.

Impossible things or services cannot be Determinate- the genus of the object should be
the object of contracts expressed although there might be no determination
of the individual specie
Impossible things or services
If the object is not determinate or determinable, the
If the parties enter into a contract with respect to an contract is void for want of an essential requisitethe
impossible thing, the contract is void or inexistent. object of the contract
As far as impossible services are concerned, a There need not be any specication of the
distinction should be made between absolute and qualities and circumstances of the thing which
relative impossibility constitutes the object of the contract,
Absolute impossibility- arises from the very nature Art. 1246: When the obligation consists in
or essence of the act or service itself, renders the the delivery of an indeterminate or generic
contract void; thing, whose quality and circumstances
have not been stated, the creditor cannot
Relative impossibility- arises from the
demand a thing of superior quality. Neither
circumstances or qualications of the obligor
can the debtor deliver a thing of inferior
rendering him incapable of executing the act or
quality. The purpose of the obligation and
service, allows the perfection of the contract, although
other circumstances shall be taken into
the fulllment thereof is hardly probable
Ex: In a contract of partnership where one of the
Ex: Sabi sa contract ni Mau at ni Gelo bibigyan si Mau
partners obligates himself to contribute to the
ng 5 na dildos. Contract between them is valid
common fund an amount which is beyond his means,
because the law merely requires that the object must
the contract is not void because the impossibility may
be determinate, or at least determinable, as to its kind
The fact that the quantity is not determinate shall
When the impossibility is permanent, however, the
not be an obstacle to the existence of the
contract is void
contract, provided it is possible to determine the
Ex: A is unable to perform the service which he has same, without the need of a new contract between
contracted because of total blindness the parties. In this case, there can be no question
about the validity of a contract in which there is no
Impossibility may be: specication of the quantity.
a) Nature and transaction or because of the law This would occur in those cases where the contract
b) Absolute (objectively impossible)- No one itself has established the basis upon which such
can do it quantity can be determined
c) Relative (subjectively impossible)- The Ex: needs of a family, provisions needed for a factory,
particular debtor cannot comply materials for a particular work
The impossibility referred to by the law is
absolute impossibility

Impossibility Not to Be Confused from Mere


A showing of mere inconvenience, unexpected

impediments, or increased expenses is not enough

Art. 1349. The object of every contract must be

determinate as to its kind. The fact that the
quantity is not determinate shall not be an
obstacle to the existence of the contract, provided
it is possible to determine the same, without the
need of a new contract between the parties.

Determinability of object--- It is also an

indispensable requisite that the object is
determinable, or at least, determinable, as to its
Section 3. Cause of Contracts of Sale acquisition of the
purchase price;
Art. 1350. In onerous contracts the cause is obligation of the
understood to be, for each contracting party, the vendee
and the price
prestation or promise of a thing or service by the which is paid
other; in remuneratory ones, the service or benet Vendee-
which is remunerated; and in contracts of pure acquisition of a
thing; obligation of
benecence, the mere liberality of the benefactor
the vendor
Concept of Cause

Cause is the why of the contract or the essential Cause in Accessory Contracts Like Mortgage and
reason which moves the contracting parties to Pledge
enter into the contract
The cause is the same as the cause for the principal
-it is the immediate, direct or most proximate reason
contract of loan
which explains and justies the creation of an
obligation through the will of the contracting parties. Cause in Accessory Contracts of Personal
Guaranty (Guaranty and Suretyship)
Onerous Remuneratory
it is the service or The cause is, generally, pure liberality. The contract of
The cause is
benet which is guaranty is gratuitous, unless there is stipulation to
understood to be, for
remunerated; and in the contrary. Sometimes, however, some material
each contracting party,
contracts of pure consideration may be given
the prestation or
benecence, it is the
promise of a thing or
liberality of the Moral Obligation as a Valid Cause of a Civil
service by the other
benefactor Obligation

If moral obligation does not exist, there is no valid

Distinguished from consideration- may be used cause.
interchangeably. What may be the subject matter for
one part will be the cause or consideration for the Shocking Cause or Consideration
other party
May render the contract void/ void ab initio
Cause Consideration
Causa, merely a the
Common law term
civil law term
Limited in scopre in
Broader scope in civil
law jurisdictions

Many agreements which cannot be supported in

Anglo-American law for want of consideration can be
enforced under the broader doctrine of causa

Distinguished from object

Contract Cause Object

Renumera Thing which is
tory Service or benefit
given in
Contracts renumerated
Gratuitou Limited in
s Broader scope in scopre in
Contracts civil law Anglo-
jurisdictions American
Onerous Prestation or
Contracts promise of a thing The thing of
or service by the service itself
Contract Vendor- The thing sold