You are on page 1of 36

Journal of Advanced & Applied Sciences (JAAS), 2 (5): 164-176, 2014

ISSN: 2289-6260
2013 Academic Research Online Publisher.

Review Paper

An Overview on Ultra High Performance Ductile Concrete (UHPdC)

Material and Performance

Farah Subhi a,*, Amir Fatehb, Seyed Mohammadreza Ghadiri a, Chen Boon Tai a

a School of Science and Engineering, Malaysia University of Science and Technology (MUST), Kelana
Square, Jalan SS 7/26, Kelana Jaya, 47301, PJ,Selangor.
b Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia Serdang, Selangor
DarulEhsan, Malaysia.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +60(0)173766405

E-mail address:


Keywords: In 20th century the development of ultra high performance ductile concrete
(UHPdC) was one of the worthy breakthroughs in concrete technology, with
compressive strength over 150 MPa and flexural strength over 30 MPa
Ultra High Performance furthermore its increased durability compared to normal concrete. Briefly, UHPdC
ductile Concrete, is a cementitious based combined material containing special characteristics of the
Concrete Technology, ultra-high performance concrete and high tensile strength steel fibres. UHPdC is
Concrete Mix Design, mostly convenient for use in structural, architectural applications and manufacture
Steel Fiber Reinforced of precast members in civil engineering. UHPdC considered as a sustainable
Concrete. construction material with great amount of durability, ductility and tensile
capacity. This paper displays a literature survey on the UHPdC technology
containing an overview of material characteristics, the bases of UHPdC growth, its
mix design, its characteristics and its implementations.

Accepted: 29June2014 Academic Research Online Publisher. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction introduced in the
beginning of
The basic
constituents for
subsequently, in
producing normal
1950s high
concrete are
cement, water and
concrete (HPC)
aggregates. Since
was evolved [2]. In
the last three
the mid
1990s, ultra high
performance fibre
progression and
reinforced concrete
development has
(UHP-FRC) has
been made in the
been introduced
field of concrete
and also named
especially after
introduction of
ductile concrete
(UHPdC) or
reactive powder
concrete (RPC),
material). It is
that introducing of
impossible to
UHPdC considered
produce a new and
as one of the
advanced concrete
without the usage
developments in
of these innovative
the field of
ingredients [1]. At
first, normal
technology [3].
strength concrete
(NSC) was
Farah Subhi et al. / Journal of Advanced & Applied Sciences (JAAS), 2 (5): 164-176, 2014
2. Concrete Technology Development One of the greatest breakthroughs was
The works of John Smeaton, who was born in evolving of fibre reinforced reactive powder
1724, made the modern use of concrete to be concrete (FR-RPC), and generally known as
started. He used a kind of pozzolanic mortar the ultra-high performance ductile concrete
bound with interlocking masonry courses to (UHPdC) in the mid 1990s. Although vast
rebuild a damaged lighthouse namely the development in UHPdC technology has been
Eddystone Lighthouse in Cornwell, England, accomplished in recent decades [2, 7, 8, and 9];
in 1756. Later, he added aggregate in to the however, many developing countries are in
mix and built the Ramsgate Harbor in Perth, there beginning stages in implementing
Coldstream Bridges and the Forth and Clyde (UHPdC).
Ship Canals [4]. In early 1850s Reinforcing
3. Ultra-High Performance ductile
steel for the first time was used by Jean-Louis
Concrete (UHPdC)
Lambot in his boats [5]. In 1889, the first
reinforced concrete bridge was built by using 3.1 Definition
the concepts of reinforced concrete, which According to Federal Highway Administration
located in the USA named Alvord Lake (FHWA) tech-note on UHPdC [10], UHPdC is
Bridge. Enormous development in the a cement based combination material that
construction of concrete can be seen with the contains granular materials with optimized
development of prestressed concrete by grading curves, maximum strength discrete
Eugene Freyssinet as well as the construction micro steel fibres and a minimum water
of the first major concrete dams, Hoover Dam cement ratio (W/C) less than 0.25. Comparing
and Grand Coulee Dam, in the 1930s [2,5,6]. UHPdC with NSC and HPC, UHPdC is
For the last few decades, cementitious significantly durable because of the reduction
materials had a great interest that generally led of pores (i.e. high homogeneity) which reduce
to improve strength as well as their high- the access of deleterious material such as
performance properties. For the first time, chloride and sulphate ions. UHPdC is a
HPC was used in the 1950s. In 1973, the 260 sustainable construction material with high
m high Water Tower Place was built with a strength and ductility. UHPdC is produced by
Grade 60 concrete [5]. In the following two or mixing Portland cement, silica fume, fine
three decades, many broad implementations of washed/sieved sand, superplasticizer, water,
HPC in bridges and high rise buildings were and steel fibres. UHPdC is an excessively
recognized such as, Two Union Square (USA), homogenous cementitious blend without
Petronas Twin Towers (Malaysia), Tsing Ma adding coarse aggregates in to the mixture that
Bridge (Hong Kong) and Trump World Tower can achieve compressive strength over 150
(USA) [2]. MPa [11, 12].
Since last two decades, amazing progress has
been made in the field of concrete technology.
165 | P a g e
Farah Subhi et al. / Journal of Advanced & Applied Sciences (JAAS), 2 (5): 164-176, 2014
3.2 Basics of UHPdC Development extremely improved compressive strength and
The basic of UHPdC is based on that a lower porosity; however, UHPC matrix tend to
material with a very low of weakness such as be weak (i.e. brittle).Therefore, at various
micro- cracks and pore spaces shall be able to concrete volume percentage in UHPdC,
attain a superior quantity of the potential number of micro steel fibers with several
ultimate load carrying capacity as defined by dimensions and mechanical properties are
its component materials [12]. The UHPdC is commonly used for developing tensile and
established on the four basics that can be flexural strength, resisting impact or
summed up as follows [3, 12-14]: toughness, cracking control, and changing the
1) Improving homogeneity and rising ultra- failure mode by increasing post cracking
dense matrix by optimizing granular packing. ductility [16, 17].
2) Reducing amount of pores and capillaries,
The size of the aggregate that used in the
pore sizes, concrete cancer problems e.g.
matrix of UHPdC should not be more than
carbonation, improving impermeability, and
2.5mm and the water cement ratio also should
producing noticeable durability and strength
not be more than 0.24[18]. Moreover, the
by using very low water cement ratio.
UHPdC contains not less than 2% by volume
3) Increasing tensile strength and ductility,
of steel fibers with length dimensions ranging
improving impact and abrasive durability, and
10 to 20 mm and diameter size ranging 0.1 to
bridging micro-crack more effectively by
0.25 mm and with a tensile strength more than
including very high strength micro-fibres
2000 MPa. Vapour cured should be done for
4) Steam cured for long period of time which
the UHPdC members at temperature 90 C for
accelerates all early and drying shrinkage,
a period of 2 days (48 hours). However, other
improves overall material properties which
materials other than above mentioned may be
cause volumetrically stability, minimal creep,
used provided it is verified that the physical
and negligible shrinkage.
characteristics of the materials are either the
3.3 Standard UHPdC Mix Design same or behind the stated values in JSCE No.9
The main ingredients for producing UHPdC (2006) for strength, durability, and efficiency
are Ordinary Portland cement, silica fume, fine in construction of UHPdC structures.
aggregates, water, steel fibres and high-range
water reducing factor. A standard UHPdC mix
design with 2% by volume of micro steel
fibers is shown in Table 1. Polycarboxylate
ether (PCE)-based superplasticizer is used as
the high-range water reduction factor and no
recycled wash water shall be used in the
mixture [15]. Although UHPC shows
166 | P a g e
Farah Subhi et al. / Journal of Advanced & Applied Sciences (JAAS), 2 (5): 164-176, 2014
Table 1: Standard Mix Design of UHPdC [15]. strength beyond 5 MPa and first cracking
strength beyond MPa [18].
Ingredient Mass (Kg/m3)
UHPC Premix 2100
Superplasticizer 40 Table 2-(a): Material Characteristics of Normal
Steel Fibre 157 Strength Concrete (NSC) and High Performance
Free Water 144 Concrete (HPC) [15].
3% Moisture 30
Characteristics Unit NSC HPC
Targeted W/B Ratio 0.15
specific Density, kg/m3 2300 2400
Total Air void <4% Cylinder Compressive
MPa 20 50 50 100
Cube Compressive
MPa 20 50 50 100
3.4 Characteristics of UHPdC Strength,
Creep Coefficient at
25 12
The material characteristics of normal strength 28 day
Post Cured Shrinkage 1000 2000 500 1000
concrete (NSC) and high performance Modulus of Elasticity GPa 20 35 35 40
Poissons Ratio, 0.2 0.2
concrete (HPC) are illustrated in Table 2-(a). Split Cyl. Cracking
MPa 24 46
The mechanical properties of both commercial Split Cyl. Ultimate
MPa 24 46
blends of UHPdC that recognized as Ductal Flexural 1st Cracking
MPa 2.5 4 48
and Dura are illustrated in Table 2-(b). Modulus of Rapture MPa 2.5 4 4-8
Bending Fracture
N/mm < 0.1 < 0.2
Comparing table 2-(a) with table 2-(b) will Energy,
Bending Fracture
N/mm < 0.1 < 0.2
show that UHPdC generally has higher Energy,
Bending Fracture
N/mm < 0.1 < 0.2
mechanical and durability properties energy,
Toughness Indexes
1 1
comparing to NSC and HPC in all disciplines Modulus of Rapture MPa 2.5 4 48
Bending Fracture
[15]. Energy
N/mm < 0.1 < 0.2
Bending Fracture
N/mm < 0.1 < 0.2
UHPdC contains a compressive strength more Bending Fracture
N/mm < 0.1 < 0.2
than 150 MPa and post cracking tensile Rapid Chloride
coulomb 2000 4000 500 1000
strength more than 5 MPa. Broadly, the tensile Chloride Diffusion
mm2/s 4 8 10-6 1 4 10-6
Coefficient, Dc
conduct of UHPdC can be specified as strain Carbonation Depth mm 5 15 12
Abrasion Resistance mm 0.8 1.0 0.5 0.8
hardening, when the concrete matrix has Water Absorption % >3 1.5 3.0
Initial Surface 0.7 (10 min) 0.1 (10 min)
cracked the combined material continues Absorption 0.2 (120 min) 0.05 (120 min)

resisting higher residual tensile strength. In

other words, matrix cracking strength of
UHPdC is less than the post cracking strength
by means of the usage of very high strength
micro steel fibers. The sort, amount,
orientation and distribution of steel fibers
noticeably impact the strain capacity and post
cracking tensile strength of the UHPdC [14].
UHPdC should have the characteristic
compressive strength beyond 150MPa, tensile
167 | P a g e
Farah Subhi et al. / Journal of Advanced & Applied Sciences (JAAS), 2 (5): 164-176, 2014
Table 2-(b): Mechanical properties of both steel fibers in UHPdC that have tensile
commercial blends of UHPdC that recognized as
Ductal and Dura [15]. strength more than 2000 MPa, by that way
fiber fracture will never happen, which
Characteristics Unit DURA DUCTAL
specific Density kg/m3 2350 2450 2440 2550 guarantees the high ductility of UHPdC during
Cylinder Compressive
MPa 120 160 123 210 cracking. Two behaviours in UHPdC will be
Cube Compressive
MPa 130 170 158 220
Strength occurred during tensile strength stresses that
Creep Coefficient at
0.2 0.5 0.29 0.66
28 days resulted from the greater mechanical properties
Post Cured Shrinkage < 100 0
Modulus of Elasticity GPa 40 50 50 53 which are UHPdC demonstrates
Poissons Ratio 0.18 0.2 0.2
Split Cyl. Cracking strain hardening and displacement
MPa 5 10 8.6 12.4
hardening behaviours, while such behaviours
Split Cyl. Ultimate
MPa 10 18 18.3 26.5
Strength might not be seen in traditional SFRC [19].
Flexural 1st Cracking
MPa 8 9.3 9 9.7
Modulus of Rapture MPa 18 35 40 50
Bending Fracture
N/mm 1 2.5 N/A 3.6 Steel fibers corrosion in UHPdC
Bending Fracture
N/mm 10 20 N/A
In general, on the external surface of the
Bending Fracture structural elements, some corrosion stain may
N/mm 15 30 N/A
I5 5.3 6.2 46 come in to view which occurred by oxidation
11.8 14.4 10 15 of steel fibers that are laid at the surface of the
25.9 32.8 20 35 concrete. However, existing corrosion stain on
Modulus of Rapture MPa 18 35 40 50
Bending Fracture steel fibers at the surface of the concrete is not
N/mm 1 2.5 N/A
Bending Fracture structurally considerable. UHPdC matrix
N/mm 10 20 N/A
Bending Fracture
N/mm 15 30 N/A
behaviour is at least 20 times more
Rapid Chloride
coulomb < 200 < 50
impermeable compared to traditional concrete,
Chloride Diffusion
mm2/s 0.050.1 10-6 0.02 10-6
herewith; oxygen, moisture and chloride ions
Carbonation Depth mm < 0.1 < 0.5 are not capable to permeate deeper into the
Abrasion Resistance mm < 0.03 < 0.03
Water Absorption % < 0.2 N/A concrete, thus, according to experimental
Initial Surface <0.02 (10 min)
ml/(m2s) N/A
Absorption <0.01 (120 min) investigations, even in an aggressive
environment with high possibility corrosion,
3.5 UHPdC with Traditional Steel Fibre
rusting of the steel fibers will not permeate
Reinforced Concrete (SFRC)
behind a depth of 2 mm from the external
UHPdC, respecting to common mechanical
surface of the concrete. Therefore, rusting of
characteristics, is excellent compared to the
the steel fibers will not permeate and spread
traditional steel fibre reinforced concrete
further and it will stop at the surface rust zone.
(SFRC). The steel fibres that used in
Although, the steel fibers at the surface of
traditional SFRC have tensile strength which is
concrete will corrosion and expand 30% of its
usually not less than 1000 MPa and the fiber
original volume; however, adequate internal
fracture may take place during cracking;
stress to fragment the adjacent ultra high
while, the using of very high strength micro
strength concrete will not be produced by this
168 | P a g e
Farah Subhi et al. / Journal of Advanced & Applied Sciences (JAAS), 2 (5): 164-176, 2014
increased volume occurred by expansion 3.7.3 Durability
because of the small size of the steel fibers. The durability properties of UHPdC will be
Hence, at serviceability conditions, the improved extensively comparing it with NSC
potentiality of rusting of the internal steel and HPC, due to availability of a very density
fibers is insignificant [19]. matrix with very small and intermittent pores.
Moreover, this feature keeps UHPdC away
3.7 Members Features in UHPdC
from curing treatment. However, increasing the
The members that made from UHPdC are
degree of the concrete hydration, enhancing the
assumed to have the following features basing
microstructure of the concrete, and reducing its
on the phenomenal material characteristics of
permeability due to the steam-based curing;
thereby, it can extremely raise durability
3.7.1 Aesthetic properties of UHPdC. For instance, it notably
The products that are made of UHPdC have raises the erosion resistance and uncommonly
capability to reach phenomenal finished reduces the ability of chloride ion to permeate
surface comparing with traditional concrete, into the concrete [21].
due to the removal of coarse aggregates,
3.7.4 Ductility
superior homogeneity and granular packing
Adding ultra-high strength micro steel fibers
distribution of the UHPdC matrix. In addition,
improve the tensile fracture properties of
it is not needed to be painted or coated because
UHPdC matrix and provide ultra high
the natural fair-face concrete finish will
performance-fiber reinforced concrete (UHP-
maintain its properties over time [15].
FRC) which is commonly known as UHPdC.
3.7.2 Workability Significantly improving the ductile behaviour
Although, a noticeable decreasing in the of UHP-FRC until flexural failure and reaching
porosity of the UHPdC matrix occurs and the ultimate tensile strain capacity of UHP-
improves impermeability by using extremely FRC more than 5 X 10-3 are occurred by the
low water cement ratio (W/ C less than 0.20) addition of the steel fibre. Displacement-
in UHPdC; thereby, brings significant hardening behaviour can be recognized in
durability and strength; however, using an UHPdC samples because of the bridging
ultra high-range PCE based superplasticizers effects of the steel fibers which limit crack
causes a sufficient flowability.Thus, the diffusion [22]. In addition, significant ductility
behaviour of UHPdC is same as self- of UHPdC samples is presented by various fine
compacting concrete (SCC). The chance of cracks comparing with traditional RC [15].
casting very slender elements will be high by
availability of this characteristic [15, 20].
169 | P a g e
Farah Subhi et al. / Journal of Advanced & Applied Sciences (JAAS), 2 (5): 164-176, 2014
3.7.5 Sustainability will result in saving immediate project costs.
UHPdC technology is listed as a green Moreover, it will lead to minimize the cost of
technology which supports the concept of maintenance and also minimize the long-term
sustainable evolution. According to terrible service costs. Besides, by using UHPdC, due to
warns of many scientists worldwide, the most removal of conventional reinforcement and the
damaging problem that people face nowadays self-heating potential of UHPdC after cracking,
is global warming. The use of UHPdC leads to designers and architects will have flexibility
some preliminary savings in terms of cost, and freedom of innovative design which gives
increase embodied energy and achieve CO2 the ability to design more irregular and thin
emissions comparing with traditional concrete structures which are more
approaches. Moreover, the sustainability of aesthetically interesting [2].
UHPdC is even more than other sources of
concrete by respecting of life-cycle [15]. In addition, UHPdC is more suitable for
handling, transporting and installing because of
3.8 The Benefits of UHPdC its ultra-light weight property, usually by a
UHPdC according to its phenomenal factor of two, compared to traditional
characteristics such as durability and strength, reinforced concrete (RC) or prestressed
UHPdC has the potential to be implemented in concrete (PC) elements. Thereby, it will lead to
many structural and non-structural applications increase in cost savings and safety margins in
as a new generation of sustainable construction the construction procedures [29]. About long-
material [22, 23, 24, and 26]. term behaviour, UHPdC explains noticeable
characteristics such as minimum crawl and
Recently, UHPdC has been known as a new shrinkage, thereby most of the design
construction material for precast prestressed considerations associated with time dependent
concrete highway bridges because of the strains can be eliminated [2, 22, 30]. UHPdC
reduction of the maintenance cost comparing can stand against physical and chemical
with steel and traditional concrete bridge aggressive environment, high impedance to
girders. Moreover, secondary shear erosion, abrasion and impact loads because of
reinforcement is not needed in the UHPdC excellent durability with high impermeability
bridge girders because of its improvement in that UHPdC presents. Mass transmit is very
tensile behaviour [27, 28]. Removing the low because of the low and intermittent
traditional steel reinforcement bars and porosity of UHPdC; thereby, permeation of
stirrups lead to reduce in the use of human liquid, gas or radioactive materials roughly
labours, monitoring and quality control. impossible. UHPdC considered unique
Therefore, in terms of construction material for the storage of nuclear waste and
management, the construction time and labour hazardous that because of these characteristics
costs may also be significantly reduced, which [2, 12, 23, 24, and 25].
170 | P a g e
Farah Subhi et al. / Journal of Advanced & Applied Sciences (JAAS), 2 (5): 164-176, 2014
3.9 UHPdC Growth and Implementations the weight is an important problem during
In the mid 1990s, for the first time reactive construction as well as in the final structure,
powder concrete (RPC) was introduced which when fatigue or impact loads are serious issues
the compressive strength of the RPC was not [38]. Table 3 shows the different areas of
less than 200 MPa and modulus of rupture of UHPdC implementations that include some of
25 to 50 MPa have been recorded [ 3,12]. In the projects accomplished in 2003 to 2005
1997 at Sherbrook, Canada the first using Ceracem [20].
implementation of RPC was the RPC in-filled
steel tube composite used in the construction Table 3: Accomplished Projects Using
CeraCem in 2003 to 2005 and Their
of a footbridge [31]. From that time, many Implementations Areas [20].
academics, engineers and many governmental
Project/Client Application Year
departments worldwide are interested in RPC. Bridge 7 at Villepinte. Decorative faade 2003
The first fully RPC/UHPdC footbridge was Underpass at St-Lo. Precast cornices. 2003
Toll barrier at Milau. Slender prestressed shell 2003-
constructed in Seoul, South Korea in 2002, structure. 2004
Aqueduct over the Prestressed canal 2004
LGV Est. aqueduct.
which its span was 120 meters [32]. Shell Petrochemicals 2004
Impermeable bulkheads.
Thereafter, a motorway bridge was designed Renovation of Slender, fire resistant 2004
GECITER building. columns.
by VSL (Australia) at Shepherds Gully Creek, Lecture theatre at 2004
Acoustic panels.
Cachans College.
Australia, and was opened to traffic in 2005 Valabres viaduct. Strengthening of a pier. 2004
St-Julien canal, Mt 2004
[13]. The UHPdC can be used in a wide range Denis.
Anti-abrasion lining.
Marseille City Hall. Planting containers. 2005
of highway infrastructure implementations Viaduct over the Cher. Decorative facing 2005
because of its high compressive and tensile Zonnestraal Innovative structure 2005
monument (NL). with complex shapes
strengths and its enhanced durability and design

properties; thereby allowing a longer

design/service life and thin overlays,
Dura is trade- mark of UHPdC in Malaysia
claddings, or shells. In USA, three UHPdC
which is commercially available since 2006.
prestressed concrete girder simple-span
Recently many projects have been completed
bridges have been constructed [10]. Moreover,
by the use of Dura-UHPdC in Malaysia. Some
UHPdC is also being considered to be used in
of the projects are shown as follow:
a range of other implementations such as
precast concrete piles [33], seismic retrofit of In 2008, Wilson Hall which is the world first
substandard bridge substructures [18, 34, and portal frame building with a roof coverage area
35] , thin-bonded overlays on deteriorated of 2861 m2 was built using the precast Dura-
bridge decks [9], and security and blast UHPdC system [39]. At the Wilson Hall in
mitigation implementations [36, 37]. UHPdC 2008, anti-climb protective wall was placed
is the best choice to be used in bridge there with total long of 56m, total height of 7
constructions specifically when the bridge is m and a total width of 2 m. Each wall panel
located in an aggressive environment, when has a self- weight of 2400 kg per piece [40].In
171 | P a g e
Farah Subhi et al. / Journal of Advanced & Applied Sciences (JAAS), 2 (5): 164-176, 2014
Ipoh, Malaysia L-shaped short-retaining wall applications of UHPdC can be summarized
of Dura-UHPdC was used for a housing into the following categories:
development project with the dimensions of 3 The UHPdC can be implemented in the
m in length, 1.5 m in height and 30 to 50 mm production of precast elements for civil
thick. The self-weight of Dura- UHPdC short- engineering, structural and architectural
retaining wall is 260 kg/m; however, applications [39]. Generally, the
traditional RC L-shaped wall weighs 1200 implementations of UHPdC can be summed up
kg/m (i.e. five times lighter than the traditional as follow:
RC wall) [15]. In Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia 1) Infra-structural implementation: such as
in January 2011, they tried to connect between ultra-light and slender sections for pedestrian
two villages called KampungLinsum and and highway bridges.
KampungSiliau for that purpose the Sungai 2) Impact resistance structures: such as
Linggi was constructed which was a medium security panels against impact, seismic and
traffic motorway bridge crossed a river. The blast loads, crash safety barriers.
bridge was built using a single 50 m long, 1.75 3) Prestressed elements: such as piles, culverts,
m deep and 2.5 m wide at the top U-trough retaining walls, pipes, safety vaults and etc.
girder, with a 4 m wide cast in-situ 200 mm 4) Building implementations: such as ultra-
thick reinforced concrete deck in the top. To slender beam, slab and column systems, long
date, this bridge considered as the longest span floors and roofs.
bridge in the world and the first UHPdC 5) Other implementations: such as
composite motorway bridge in Malaysia [41]. architectural features, acoustic barrier,
structural walls, marine/sea walls and decks,
In Malaysia, in February 2012 another anchorage plates, leave in-place forms/moulds,
medium traffic motorway bridge crossing a container, storage tanks [29].
river at KampungUluGeroh was built. The
bridge was built by using two pieces 25 m 3.10 The Commercial Blends of UHPdC
long, 1.5 m wide and 1.325 m deep T post-
Within the last two decades, conducting
tensioned beam. To date, this bridge is
considerable research projects has been done
considered as the first full UHPdC motorway
by the academics and engineers around the
bridge in Malaysia using the UHPdC beam
world for manufacturing UHPdC technology
deck system.
as a substitutional construction material that
UHPdC as a new generation of ultra-high supports the concept of sustainable
performance sustainable construction material development [42]. Table 4 illustrates the
can be used in the fabrication of precast developed concretes that could be classified as
elements for civil engineering, structural and UHPdC such as Ductal, Ceracem,
architectural applications [39]. In general, the Densit, Ducon and Dura .Although there
are differences between these types of
172 | P a g e
Farah Subhi et al. / Journal of Advanced & Applied Sciences (JAAS), 2 (5): 164-176, 2014
UHPdCs; however, there are many overall joint, airport runway deck, beam/column
similarities. systems and many others. In this paper the
principles of UHPdC growth, its mix design,
Table 4: Commercial UHPdC Blends its advantages, and its applications are
UHPdC Blends Established Date Established Place reviewed, including summary of the material
Densit Developed in 1960s Denmark
Ductal mid 1990s current France characteristics of a Malaysian UHPdC blend
Ceracem 2000 current France, Swiss
Ducan 2004 current Germany (i.e. Dura).
Dura 2006 current Malaysia
Note: *Licensed to Canada, Australia, Japan,
Europe, and USA. 5. References

[1] Nematollahi, Behzad, et al. A review on

4. Conclusion
ultra high performance ductileconcrete

During the last two decades a noteworthy (UHPdC) technology. International Journal of
development has been made in concrete Civil & Structural Engineering 2.3 (2012):

technology. In the 20th century, one of the 1003-1018.

considerable advances was the development of [2] Voo, Yen Lei, and Stephen James Foster.
Ultra-High Performance ductile Concrete Reactive powder concrete: analysis and design

(UHPdC) that considered as highly of RPC girders. Lambert Academic Publishing,

cementitious based composite material with 2009.

compressive strength over 150 MPa and [3] Richard, Pierre, and M. H. Cheyrezy.
flexural strength over 30 MPa and noticeable "Reactive powder concretes with high ductility
improvement in durability similar to natural and 200-800 MPa compressive strength. ACI
rocks. Over the years, a lot of depth studies Special Publication 1994; 144.

have been done for the material characteristics [4] Skempton, A. W., John Smeaton, FRS,
of UHPdC and its practical implementations American Society of Civil Engineering (1992).
have been demonstrated in different countries 2004.
over the world. From the time of the first [5] Shaeffer, R. E. Reinforced Concrete:
introduction of UHPdC in 1994 by Richard Preliminary Design For Architects And
and Cheyrezy, number of research groups and Builders Author: RE Shaeffer, Publisher:
engineers worldwide undertook Mcgraw-HillColleg, 1992: 196.
comprehensive research and development on [6] Armstrong, Paul J. "Architectural Issues
this material in hopes to promote UHPdC as an for Concrete Design and Construction.
ultimate sustainable construction material for CTBUH Review, School of architecture,
the future. Some of the most common University of Illinois, USA, 2001.
applications consist of pedestrian and [7] Fehling, Ekkehard, Michael Schmidt, and
motorway bridges, archi-structural feature Simone Strwald. Ultra high performance
such as built facades, retaining walls, bridge concrete (UHPC). Proceedings of Second
173 | P a g e
Farah Subhi et al. / Journal of Advanced & Applied Sciences (JAAS), 2 (5): 164-176, 2014
International Symposium on Ultra High [15] Voo, Yen Lei, and Stephen J. Foster.
Performance Concrete.Kassel University Characteristics of ultra-high performance
Press (SchriftenreiheBaustoffe und Massivbau ductileconcrete and its impact on sustainable
10), GmbH, Germany. 2008. construction. The IES Journal Part A: Civil &
[8] Graybeal, Benjamin A. Material property Structural Engineering 2010; 3(3): 168-187.
characterization of ultra-high performance [16] Garas, Victor Y., Lawrence F. Kahn, and
concrete. No. FHWA-HRT-06-103. 2006. Kimberly E. Kurtis. Short-term tensile creep
[9] Schmidt, C., S. Riedl, C. Geisenhanslke, and shrinkage of ultra-high performance
and M. Schmidt. Strengthening and concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites
Rehabilitation of Pavements Applying Thin 2009; 31(3): 147-152.
Layers of Reinforced Ultra-High Performance [17] Shah, Surendra P., and W. Jason Weiss.
Concrete (UHPC-White Topping). Ultra high performance concrete: a look to the
In Proceedings, The Second International future. Paul Zia International Symposium,
Symposium on Ultra-High Performance Spring Convention, American Concrete
Concrete. 2008. Institute, Houston. 1998.
[10] Graybeal, Ben. Ultra-high performance [18] Recommendations for design and
concrete. No. FHWA-HRT-11-038. 2011. construction of ultra high strength fiber
[11] Voo, Y. L., and W. K. Poon. Ultra High reinforced concrete structures (Draft), JSCE
Performance ductile Concrete (UHPdC) For Guideline for Concrete, Concrete Committee
Bridge Engineering. Proceedings of the of Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE).
International Conference and Exhibition on JSCE 2006; (9).
Bridge Engineering. 2009. [19] Voo, Y. L., (2006c), Frequent Asked
[12] Richard, Pierre, and Marcel Cheyrezy. Question (FAQ), Retrieved 10 February
"Composition of reactive powder 2010, from
concretes." Cement and concrete [20] Abdelrazig, B. Properties and applications
research 1995; 25.7: 1501-1511. of CeraCem ultra high performance self-
[13] Bonneau, Olivier, Mohamed Lachemi, compacting concrete. Proceeding of the
Eric Dallaire, Jerome Dugat, and Pierre- International Conference on Construction and
Claude Aitcin. Mechanical properties and Building Technolog 2008; 20.
durability of two industrial reactive powder [21] Graybeal, Benjamin, and JussaraTanesi.
concretes. ACI Materials Journal 1997; 94(4). "Durability of an ultrahigh-performance
[14]Resplendent, J., and J. Petitjean. concrete." Journal of materials in civil
"Btonsfibrs ultra-hautes performances. engineering 2007; 19(10): 848-854.
Recommandations provisoires, Ultra-high [22] Rossi, Pierre, et al. Bending and
Performance Fibre-reinforced Concretes. compressive behaviours of a new cement
Interim Recommendations, AFGC-Stra , composite. Cement and Concrete
2002. Research 2005; 35(1): 27-33.
174 | P a g e
Farah Subhi et al. / Journal of Advanced & Applied Sciences (JAAS), 2 (5): 164-176, 2014

[23] Matte, V., and M. Moranville. Durability [31] Adeline, R., M. Lachemi, and P. Blais.
of reactive powder composites: influence of Design and behaviour of the Sherbrooke
silica fume on the leaching properties of very footbridge. Proceedings International
low water/binder pastes. Cement and Concrete SymposiumonHigh-Performanceand
Composites 1999; 21(1): 1-9. Reactive Powder Concretes, Sherbrooke 1998;
[24] Torrenti, J. M., V. Matte, V. Maret, and 3.
C. Richet. High integrity containers for interim [32] Deem, S. Concrete Attraction-Something
storage of nuclear wastes using reactive New on the French Menu-Concrete."available
powder concrete. In 4th International at from http://www. popularmechanics.
Symposium on Utilizationof High- com/science/research/2002/6/concrete/print,
Performance Concrete 1996: 1407-1413. accessed during January 2012.
[25] Richard, Pierre, and Marcel Cheyrezy. [33] Voort, Thomas L. Vande, Muhannad T.
"Composition of reactive powder Suleiman, and Sri Sritharan. Design and
concretes." Cement and concrete Performance Verification of UHPC Piles for
research 1995; 25(7): 1501-1511. Deep Foundations.Center for Transportation
[26] Roux, N., C. Andrade, and M. A. Research and Education, Iowa State
Sanjuan. "Experimental study of durability of University, 2008.
reactive powder concretes. Journal of [34] Massicotte, Bruno, and Guillaume
Materials in Civil Engineering 1996; 8(1): 1-6. BoucherProulx. Seismic retrofitting of bridge

[27] Voo, Yen Lei, WaiKeat Poon, and piers with UHPFRC jackets. Designing and
Stephen J. Foster. "Shear strength of steel Building with UHPFRC 2010: 531-540.
fiber-reinforced ultrahigh-performance [35] Brhwiler, Eugen, and Emmanuel
concrete beams without stirrups. Journal of Denarie. Rehabilitation of concrete structures
structural engineering 2010; 136(11):1393- using ultra-high performance fibre reinforced
1400. concrete. InProceedings, The Second
[28] Voo, Yen Lei, Stephen J. Foster, and R. International Symposium on Ultra-High
Ian Gilbert. Shear strength of fiber reinforced Performance Concrete 2008.
reactive powder concrete prestressed girders [36] An investigation of UHPC/RPC materials
without stirrups. Journal of Advanced for enhanced penetration resistance. US Army
Concrete Technology 2006; 4(1): 123-132. Corps of Engineers, Engineer Research and
[29] Voo, Y. L., (2006a), Discover UHPC, Development Center, 2010.
Retrieved 10 February 2010, from [37] Rebentrost, Mark, and Gavin Wight. "Investigation of UHPFRC slabs under blast
[30] Cheyrezy, Marcel. "Structural loads. Proceedings, Ultra-High Performance
applications of RPC. Concrete 1999; 33(1): Fiber Reinforced Concrete 2009.
20-23. [38] Cavill, Brian, and GordanChirgwin. "The
worlds first Ductal road bridge Shepherds

175 | P a g e
Farah Subhi et al. / Journal of Advanced & Applied Sciences (JAAS), 2 (5): 164-176, 2014

gully creek bridge, NSW. In 21st Biennial

Conference of the Concrete Institute of
Australia 2003;17.
[39] Voo, Y. L., and W. K. Poon. "The world
first portal frame building (Wilson Hall)
constructed using ultra-high performance
concrete. Proceedings of the 33 rd Conference
on Our World in Concrete and Structures:
Sustainability, 25th27th August. 2008.
[40] Poon, W. K., Y. L. Voo, and S. K. Yap.
"Thin protective wall panel made from 150
MPa ultra-high performance ductile concrete
(UHPdC-DURA). Proceedings of the 10th
international conference on concrete
engineering and technology 2009. [41] Voo,
Yen Lei, P. Augustin, and T. Thamboe.
Construction and design of a 50m single span
uhp ductile concrete composite road bridge.
Structural Engineer 2011; 89(15): 24 - 31.

176 | P a g e