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Kon-41.

3023 HYDRAULICS AND PNEUMATICS


Typical exam questions and problems in Hydraulics
Basic hydraulic phenomena, fluid, flow, pressure, etc.

X. List the advantages and drawbacks of hydraulics.

X. Pipe flow. Describe the characteristics of fluid flow in pipe (flow types and losses) and the factors that affect to
these characteristics.

X. Answer to the following questions (short and compact answers are preferred)
a) How does the flow type affect on the pressure or power losses appearing in fluid power systems?
b) What is meant by the term viscosity and what effects does the viscosity have on the operation of a fluid power
system?

X. What is meant with the term viscosity and what effects does the viscosity have on the operation of a hydraulic
system?

X. Which are the effects of fluid viscosity on the characteristics and operation of a hydraulic system? Use graphs to
illustrate the effects.

X. What are the functions of hydraulic fluid in hydraulic system? What kind of fluids (types) are used in hydraulic
systems?

X. Describe the following phenomena (what is meant by these terms, what the phenomena depend on and what kind of
effects they have on the fluid power system)
a) cavitation
b) pressure shock (aka pressure surge or water hammer)

Cylinder, pump, motor

X. What is a differential coupling for a cylinder? What is it used for and which are its advantages and disadvantages?
Use illustrations to clarify your statement.

X. Describe the factors that affect the total efficiency of hydraulic pump/motor. Describe also on which parameters
these factors are dependent. Use diagrams to support your answer.

Valves

X. What are the advantages of pilot operated valves over direct controlled valves? Describe the principle of pilot
operation and the achieved advantages by using either pressure control valve or directional control valve as an
example case.

X. For what purposes are the pressure valves used for? Describe the functions and applications of pressure valves in
brief and in addition represent one valve (of your choice) and its application more deeply (draw illustration of valve
and of hydraulic circuit).

X. Explain the differences between a direct operated and a pilot operated pressure relief valve and how the differences
occur in a fluid power systems operation.

X. Describe the operation of a pilot operated relief valve. Use illustrations (cross-section of the valve and valve
symbol) to clarify your statement.

X. Describe the structure and operation of pilot operated pressure reducing valve. Draw the symbol of the valve and a
schematic picture of the valve structure to support your answer.

X. Describe the operation of a pilot operated unloading valve. Use illustrations (cross-section of the valve and valve
symbol) to clarify your statement

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X. Describe the structure and operation of pilot operated pressure reducing valve. Draw the symbol of the valve and a
schematic picture of the valve structure to support your answer.

X. Explain the function principle of a pilot operated unloading valve. Also draw the symbol and a simplified structure
graph of the valve.

X. Flow valves.
Describe the operational characteristics of flow valves of different types (description of internal structures are not
required).
Also represent all the possible ways to control the speed of a double acting cylinder in one direction (draw circuit
diagrams) and describe the characteristics of these in different load conditions.

X. Describe the structure of flow control valve (draw a principal figure), describe how the valve operates and to which
functions/purposes it is used for. What types of control valves exists?

X. Describe the operation of a 3-way flow control valve (aka bypass flow control valve). Use illustrations (cross-
section of the valve and valve symbol) to clarify your statement.

X. Describe what are the means for controlling the speed of a hydraulic cylinder with a single flow control valve. How
does the loading affect to the implementation? Draw a basic hydraulic circuit for each solution that you can think
of.

X. For what purposes are the pressure valves used for? Describe the functions and applications of pressure valves in
brief and in addition represent one valve (of your choice) and its application more deeply (draw illustration of valve
and of hydraulic circuit).

Filtering

X. Describe what are the sources of impurities in hydraulic systems and what aspects should be taken into account
when a filtration system is designed into hydraulic system and the filtration rating is selected.

X. From where do the impurities or contaminants of hydraulic systems originate? What kind of impurities does the
system contain and what effects different kinds of impurities have on the system?

X. Answer to the following questions


a) From where do the impurities or contaminants of hydraulic systems originate?
b) What is meant by the term Cleanliness class (what does it represent?) and how it is defined?
c) List at least four different filter types

X. Describe the use of filters in hydraulic systems. Mention at least three different filters and describe where to place
these filters in hydraulic system (draw an example circuit where to place the filters).

X. Enumerate the filter types used in hydraulic systems and describe the meaning of filtration to the operation of a
hydraulic system.

X. Filtration. Why filtration is needed, how the placement (location) of filters will affect the performance (efficiency)
of filtration and how the filtration capacity is expressed (3 ways)?

Pressure accumulator

X. Enumerate the operations that a hydraulic accumulator can be used to in a hydraulic system.

X. Describe the structures of pressure accumulators and their applications in fluid power systems (draw three
application examples in form of fluid power circuits with accompanying description of operations).

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Reservoir

X. What are the functions of a hydraulic tank? Describe these functions and the features that affect the capability of a
tank to perform these functions.

Calculations

X. The hydraulic system shown in Fig. 1 is used to power up the newest twirler of a amusement park. The shaft of
the twirler is connected to the shaft of hydraulic motor M2. Calculate
a) the maximum achievable rotational speed of motor M2
b) to which level the setting pressure of the pressure relief valve (PRV) should be adjusted in
order to achieve the highest possible value of rotational speed of M2 when the torque load of
the motor M2 is 2000 Nm
c) what is the total efficiency of the system (calculated with the shaft power needed at the pump
and the shaft power gained at the motor M2)

Pump P1: Vk,p1 = 100 cm3/r, hm,p1 = 0.93, v,p1 = 0.97.


Pump P2: Vk,p2 = 20 cm3/r, = 0.94, v,p2 = 0.95.
hm,p2
Hydraulic motor M1: Vk,m1 = 75 cm3/r, hm,m1 = 0.96, v,m1 = 0.92.
Hydraulic motor M2: Vk,m2 = 500 cm3/r, hm,m2 = 0.98, v,m2 = 0.90.

The leakage of motor M1 is totally external, the leakages of other components are totally internal. The speed of
the electric motor that drives the pump is np1 = 1500 r/min. Characteristic curves for the directional valve are
shown in Appendix 1. = 860 kg/m3, Cq = 0,7.

M1 P2 M2
M

PRV
P1

Figure 1.

3
A B

P T
14 P B
p
[bar]
12
A T

10
B T

P A
8

4
6

Pressure loss
Kon-41.3023 Fluid power and pneumatics

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

Flow Q / [l/min]
Appendix 1
X. In a system shown in Fig. 1 a hydraulic motor drives a condensation water pump, whose flow is regulated with a
throttle valve. The throttle is subcircular in cross-section and the orifice diameter is adjustable over range dklv =
5 - 30 mm (corresponding condensation water flow is qlv,min - qlv,max). (Lauhdutin = Condenser)
Define to which level the setting pressure of the pressure relief valve is to be adjusted in order to achieve the
highest possible value of qlv,max.
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System pump: Vk,p = 200 cm /r, v,p = 0.90 and hm,p = 0.85, the speed of the electric motor that drives the pump
is nsm = 1500 r/min.
3
Hydraulic motor: Vk,m = 125 cm /r, v,m = 0.80 and hm,m = 0.95, the leakage of the motor is totally external.
3
Condensation water pump: Vk,lv = 1200 cm /r, v,lv = 0.87 and hm,lv = 0.7.

Characteristic curves for the directional valve are shown in Appendix 1. The pressure loss of the condenser is
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insignificant. Cq = 0.7 ja water = 1000 kg/m

dklv

Lauhdutin

LA

TC

Figure 1.

5
A B

P T
14 P B
p
[bar]
12
A T

10
B T

P A
8

6
6

Pressure loss
P T
Kon-41.3023 Fluid power and pneumatics

0
0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400
Appendix 1

Flow Q / [l/min]
X. The circuit in the figure 1 drives two hydraulic motors which rotates cutting blades. The loading torque of the
motor 2 M2 = 700 Nm is constant, but the loading torque of the motor 1 M1 varies according the diagram below.
The rotational speeds of the motors should be equal in the time period t1 - t2. Calculate how big the diameter of
the orifice (throttle) must be so that the speed requirement (demand) will be carried out. The orifice cross-section
is circular.
At the time t3 the loading torque of the motor 1 will achieve its maximum value. Calculate the rotational speeds of
the motors in the time period t3 - t4, when the adjustment (setting) of the orifice will be held at the above calculated
value. Calculate also the power needed at the pump shaft in the system, when the load is at its maximum.

Hydraulic motors: Vk,m1 = 140 cm3/r, hm,m1 = 0.95, v,m1 = 0.92.


Vk,m2 = 600 cm3/r, hm,m2 = 0.97, v,m2 = 0.9.
Pump: Vk,p = 1000 cm3/r, hm,p = 0.94, v,p = 0.91.
Rotational speed of the electric motor driving the pump np = 1500 r/min. = 860 kg/m3, Cq = 0.7.

Vkm1 M1
Vkm2 [Nm]
420

350

Vkp
t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5

Figure 1.

X. The cylinder in the system shown in Figure 1 should extend at a speed of 0.5 m/s (in the direction of the arrow
marked with v). Calculate the force F that can be produced during the movement phase. The pump produces
constant flow of 50 l/min. The cylinder is assumed to be leak free and frictionless.
2 2 3
A1 = 0.003 m , A2 = 0.001 m , dk = 2 mm, Cq = 0.7 and = 860 kg/m .

v
A1
F
A2

dk

Figure 1.

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X. The circuit in Figure 1 is used for lifting three separate masses. Working cycle of the system is as follows: At the
outset all masses are in down positions and the directional control valves are in their center positions. The mass m1
is lifted first with cylinder S1 by switching the directional control valve SV1 into corresponding position. When
the mass m1 has reached its top position the valve SV1 is returned to center position. Then the masses m2 and m3
are lifted to their top positions with cylinders S2 and S3 by switching the directional control valve SV2 into
corresponding position. After this the valve SV2 is returned to center position.
Calculate the minimum setting pressure of the pressure relief valve that is needed for these operations to be
fulfilled. The losses that are to be taken into account in calculations are the pressure losses in directional control
valves and the losses of cylinders.
Masses: m1 = m2 = 8000 kg and m3 = 13000 kg.
Cylinders: piston d1 = 100 mm, piston rod d2 = 70 mm, total efficiency t = 0.95, cylinders can be considered
leak free. Characteristic curves for the directional valve are shown in Liite 1 (= Appendix 1, Tilavuusvirta =
Flow, Painehvi = Pressure loss) [Use Appendix shown at page 10, ignore P-T-curve]

m2 m3
S1
S2 S3

m1 SV1 SV2

LA 60 l/min
TC

Figure 1.

X. The system in Fig. 1 is used in studying the division of flows in hydraulics systems. All the throttles are subcircular
in cross-section and all their characteristics are identical except the diameters. The throttles 1, 2, 4 are of fixed size:
dk1 = 4 mm, dk2 = 8 mm ja dk4 = 5 mm.
Define what the diameter setting of throttle 3 should be to achieve the situation where the pump flow is divided into
two pipe flows of equal size at the pipe branching (marked in figure as Putkiristeys)?

dk2

Putki-
risteys dk1 dk3

dk4

Figure 1.

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X. The system shown in Figure 1 is used to drive two conveyors. Usually the speeds of these conveyors are allowed
to be different, but in this case their speeds have to be identical. The directional control valve is in this situation
switched in the position B.
Calculate:
a) Into which diameter value dk the adjustable throttle valve should be adjusted in order to achieve the acquired
state (The orifice of the throttle is subcircular in cross-section.)
b) The speed of the motors at this state
c) The required shaft power of the pump at this state

Hydraulic motor 1: Vk,m1 = 125 cm3/r, efficiencies hm,m1 = 0.96 and v,1 = 0.88, load torque Mm1 = 190 Nm.
Hydraulic motor 2: Vkm2 = 50 cm3/r, efficiencies hm,m2 = 0.91 and v,m2 = 0.92, load torque Mm2 = 60 Nm.
Pump: Vk,p = 70 cm3/r, efficiencies hm,p = 0.94 and v,p = 0.95. Speed of the electric motor driving the pump nsm =
1500 r/min.
The opening pressure of the pressure relief valve is adjusted to value of 150 bar. For the throttle valve Cq = 0.7.
Density of fluid = 860 kg/m3. The characteristic curves for the directional control valve are in Appendix 1.

A 0 B

Figure 1.

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A B

P T
14 P B
p
[bar]
12
A T

10
B T

P A
8

10
6

Pressure loss
Kon-41.023 Introduction to fluid power

P T

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Flow Q / [l/min]
Appendix 1
X. The system in Fig. 1 is used for lifting masses. Lift function is realized with hydraulic motors with wire cable
drums attached to them. The lift phase starts when the spool of the directional control valve is shifted to the left
position.
Describe the function of the system at lifting phase and calculate the lifting speeds of the masses. Also calculate
the pressures at pressure gauge and the needed pump shaft powers during lifting phase and also during the phase
when the masses are held in upper positions i.e. the spool of the directional control valve is in the center position.
The leaks of the motors are fully external.
Characteristic curves of directional control valve are shown in Appendix 1 (Appendix 1 = Liite 1; Tilavuusvirta =
Flow, Painehvi = Pressure loss)
Technical data for motors, loads and wire drums:
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Vk,m1 = 160 cm /r, v,m1 = 0.90 and hm,m1 = 0.85, m1 = 50 kg, d1 = 0.5 m.
3
Vk,m2 = 260 cm /r, v,m2 = 0.90 and hm,m2 = 0.85, m2 = 150 kg, d2 = 1.0 m.
3
Pump: Vk,p = 6 cm /r, v,p = 0.95 and hm,p = 0.9. The speed of the electric motor driving the pump nsm = 1000
r/min.

Vkm1 d1

m1

Vkm2 d2

m2

290 bar

Figure 1.

11
A B

P T
14 P B
p
[bar]
12
A T

10
B T

P A
8

12
6

Painehvi
P T
Kon-41.3023 Hydrauliikka ja pneumatiikka

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Tilavuusvirta Q / [l/min]
Liite 1
X. The cross-sections of the throttle valves in the system of Fig. 1 are subcircular ( dk1, dk2, dk3 and dk4). The
sizes of dk1 = 4 mm, dk2 = 8 mm and dk4 = 5 mm. Calculate what should the diameter of dk3 to be in order to
achieve a situation where the flow in the pipe junction (= Putkiristeys) divides into two components of equal size
when the directional control valve is switched to another position and the piston of the cylinder travels outwards.
The losses of flow meters, directional control valve and cylinder are assumed to be insignificant. The diameter of
the piston of the cylinder is d1 = 63 mm and the diameter of piston rod is d2 = 30 mm.

dk2

Putki-
dk1 dk3
risteys

dk4

Figure 1.

X. Calculate the flow through the orifice 3 ( dk3) of Figure 1 in a situation where the flow through the pressure
relief valve is 25 l/min. The diameters of subcircular orifices are dk1 = 2 mm, dk2 = 3 mm, dk3 = 1 mm, dk4 =
3
1.5 mm. Cq = 0.6 and = 860 kg/m . The characteristic curve of pressure relief valve is shown below.

p dk2 dk3
[bar]
20
dk1 dk4

10

0
10 20 30 40
Q [l/min]

Figure 1.

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X. The system in Figure 1 is used to drive a cylinder and a hydraulic motor connected in parallel. When the cylinder
is totally extended (in outmost end-position) and stopped, the hydraulic motor that is loaded with constant torque
load of 200 Nm should rotate at speed of 500 r/min. The rotational speed is adjusted with adjustable throttle valve.
Calculate into which diameter value the adjustable throttle valve should be adjusted in order to achieve the
acquired state (The orifice of the throttle is subcircular in cross-section).
After the adjustment of the throttle valve the cylinder is retracted (to inmost end-position). Then the directional
valve is switched to position that starts the outward motion of cylinder. Calculate the speed of the cylinder and the
speed of the hydraulic motor while the cylinder moves.
Hydraulic motor: Vk,m = 80 cm3/r, hm,m = 0.96, v,m = 0.92.
Pump: Vk,p = 45 cm3/r, hm,p = 0.90, v,p = 0.97. The speed of the electric motor driving the pump np = 1500
r/min.
Cylinder: piston dm = 63 mm, piston rod dmv = 45 mm, hm,s = 0.95, v,s = 1.0, load mass m = 3000 kg.
= 860 kg/m3, Cq = 0.611.
Characteristics of directional valve is shown in Appendix 1. [Use Appendix shown at page 10, ignore P-T-curve]

300 bar

Figure 1.

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