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1. A piston cylinder device is maintained at a constant pressure of 7 bars and contains 1.4

kg of air. During a process the heat transfer out is 49 kJ, while the volume changes from

0.15 to 0.09 m3 . Find the change in the internal energy of the gas, in kJ/kg. [-5.0]

2. A vessel having a volume of 5 m3 contains 0.05 m3 of saturated liquid water and 4.95 m3

of saturated water vapour at 0.1 MPa. Heat is transferred until the vessel is filled with

saturated vapour. Determine the heat transfer for this process.

: m

3 and 10

: MP a is expanded quasi-statically in a piston-cylinder

device at constant pressure until the volume is 0 050

: m

3. It is then held at constant

volume and cooled until its pressure is one-half of the initial value. Then it is compressed

quasi-statically to the original state by following the path PV = onstant . Determine

the net work for the cycle in kilojoules.

[7.67 kJ]

4. Steam at 3 MP a and 400o C enters an adiabatic nozzle steadily with a velocity of 40 m=s

and leaves at 25

: MP a and 300 m=s . Determine (a) the exit temperature and (b) the

ratio of the inlet to exit area A1 =A2

: bar C

m=s

2 . During passage through

m

m=s , and : bar

hear transfer to the surroundings is 0 5 . Determine (a) the final temperature, (b)

: kJ=kg

the mass flow rate in kg/s and (c) the outlet area in
m

2.

6. Refrigerant 134a is throttled through a porous plug from a saturated liquid at 35o C to a

final state where the pressure is 15 : bar . Determine (a) the final temperature and (b) the

physical state of the fluid at the exit.

17 2o C, x = 0.34]

[- :

7. A steam power cycle operates under the following conditions: (1) 100 bar and 500o at C

:90% quality at the turbine exit, (3) saturated liquid at

bar and

0 4 at the condenser outlet, and (4) 100 at the pump outlet. The mass flow rate

: bar bar

of water is 10 . Neglecting kinetic and potential energy changes, determine (a) the

kg=s

turbine work, (b) the condenser heat loss, (c) the pump work, all in kJ/kg and (d) the

boiler heat input, in kW.

[970, 2087, 10.2, 30463]

8. A cooler in an air conditioner brings 0.5 kg/s of air at 35o C to 5o C, both at 101 kPa.

It then mixes the output with a flow of 0.25 kg/s air at 20o C and 101 kPa, sending the

combined flow into a duct. Find the total heat transfer in the cooler and the temperature

in the duct flow.

9. A feedwater heater in a vapour power plant operates at steady state with liquid entering

at inlet 1 with T1 = 45o C and P1 = 3.0 bar. Water vapour at T2 = 320o C and P2 = 3.0

bar enters at inlet 2. Saturated liquid water exits with a pressure of P3 = 3.0 bar. Ignore

heat transfer with the surroundings and all kinetic and potential energy effects. If the

mass flow rate of the liquid entering at inlet 1 is m1 = 3 2 105 kg/h, determine the mass

:

10. An uninsulated, rigid tank contains 5 kg of steam initially at 50 bar and 300o C . The

air surrounding the tank is at a uniform temperature of 25 oC. After a period of time,

the pressure within the tank has been reduced to 10 bar due to heat transfer from the

water substance to the air. Determine (a) the heat transfer from the steam, in kJ, (b) the

entropy change for the steam, in kJ/K, (c) the entropy production for an enlarged system

composed of the steam and the heat-transfer region which includes the tank and the layer

of air adjacent to the tank, in kJ/K and (d) whether the overall process is reversible,

irreversible, or impossible.

[-7595, -15.26 10.23, possible & internally irreversible]

11. Air is compressed from 1 bar , 25o C to 40 : bar , 135o C , in a steady-flow device. Any

heat transfer occurs between the air and the environment at 27o C and the actual shaft

work input is 185 kJ=kg . (a) Determine the heat transfer, in kJ/kg, for the air flowing

through the compressor. Then determine the entropy production, in kJ/kg-K, for (b) the

control volume for the air flowing through the compressor, (c) the control volume which

includes the air flow and the immediate surroundings where heat transfer occurs, and (d)

the control volume containing only the heat-transfer region.

[-74.12, 0.1288, 0.1659, 0.03709]

12. Refrigerant 134a enters an air-cooled condenser as a superheated vapor at 10 bar and

60oC , and leaves as a saturated liquid at 10 bar . Atmospheric air at 30 oC is blown over

the condenser tubes and leaves at 45o C . The heat transfer between the two fluid streams

equals 20 . Changes in kinetic and potential energy are negligible. Determine (a)

M J=h

the mass flow rates of the R134a and the air, in kg/h, (b) the entropy production rate

in the condenser, in kJ/hr-K, and (c) the change in kinetic energy for R134a if the pipe

diameter is 2.0 cm in kJ/h. (d) Is neglecting the change in kinetic energy a reasonable

modeling assumption?

[107.5, 1324, 0.642, -0.258]

13. A pump draws a solution with a specific gravity of 1.2 from a storage tank an 10 cm pipe.

The velocity in the inlet pipe is 1.2 m/s. The height of the liquid in the storage tank is

maintained constant by the addition of makeup liquid. The open end of the 5-cm discharge

pipe is 15 m above the top of the liquid in the storage tank. If the process is assumed to

be internally reversible and adiabatic, and the fluid to be incompressible, determine the

power supplied to the pump in the piping system, in kilowatts.

[3.62]

14. A refrigeration system contains an adiabatic compressor which handles refrigerant 134a.

Inlet conditions are 140 kP a and 15o C and the exit state is 15

: MP a and 90o C . The

changes in potential and kinetic energies are negligible. Find (a) the adiabatic efficiency

of the compressor and (b) the entropy generation, in kJ/kg-K.

[67, 0.07]

15. A rigid tank is divided into two equal parts by a partition. One part of the tank contains

1.5 kg of compressed liquid water at 300 kP a and 60o C while the other part is evacuated.

The partition is now removed, and the water expands to fill the entire tank. Determine

the entropy change of water during this process, if the final pressure in the tank is 15 kP a .

[-0.1133]

16. Refrigerant 134a enters an adiabatic compressor as saturated vapor at 120 kP a at a rate of

03

:

3

m =min and exits at 1 MP a pressure. If the isentropic efficiency of the compressor is

80 percent, determine: (a) the temperature of the refrigerant at the exit of the compressor

and (b) the power input, in kW.

[59, 1.70]

: bar and 350o C has a volume of 06

: m

3 . Heat transfer occurs from the

air to the atmosphere until the temperature of the air in the tank is 40o C . The surrounding

atmosphere is 15o C and 1 bar . Determine (a) the availability change of the air, and (b)

the irreversibility of the process including the heat-transfer region, both answers in kJ.

[-975, 975]

18. One kg of steam with a quality of 20 percent is heated at a constant pressure of 200 kPa

until the temperature reaches 400o C. Calculate the work done by the steam.

19. An air-standard gas-turbine cycle operates with air entering the compressor at 100 kPa and

25 C. The pressure ratio is 7:1 and the air enters the turbine at 1100 K. The compressor

and turbine are 85 and 85 percent efficient, respectively. Compute the entropy generation

for (a) the compressor and (b) the turbine and (c) the cycle thermal efficiency assuming

the ideal-gas.

[0.073 kJ/kg-K, 0.104 kJ/kg-K, 0.25]

20. Heat transfer from a 20o C kitchen to a block of 1.5 kg ice at -10o C melts it to liquid at

10o C. How much entropy is generated?

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