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Glossary

Historical Glossary of
Education Development
in Lao PDR
Continuously
Updated
Since 1995

Richard & Vithanya Noonan


Latest
Update
Copyleft Richard & Vithanya Noonan
July 27, 2017 Vientiane: Samizdat, 2017
Cover: Ari Vitikainen
Table of Contents

Table of Contents ............................................................................................................................ i


List of Annex Figures ..................................................................................................................... i
List of Annex Tables...................................................................................................................... ii
List of Annex Boxes ....................................................................................................................... ii
Preface ........................................................................................................................................... iii
Glossary.......................................................................................................................................... vi
0 9.............................................................................................................................................. 1
A................................................................................................................................................... 2
B ................................................................................................................................................... 7
C ................................................................................................................................................... 9
D................................................................................................................................................. 16
E ................................................................................................................................................. 20
F ................................................................................................................................................. 25
G................................................................................................................................................. 29
H................................................................................................................................................. 32
I .................................................................................................................................................. 33
J .................................................................................................................................................. 37
K................................................................................................................................................. 38
L ................................................................................................................................................. 39
M ................................................................................................................................................ 44
N................................................................................................................................................. 48
O................................................................................................................................................. 53
P ................................................................................................................................................. 54
Q................................................................................................................................................. 59
R ................................................................................................................................................. 60
S ................................................................................................................................................. 62
T ................................................................................................................................................. 69
U................................................................................................................................................. 74
V................................................................................................................................................. 76
W................................................................................................................................................ 78
X Y Z ...................................................................................................................................... 79
ANNEX .......................................................................................................................................... 81
ANNEX FIGURES ........................................................................................................................ 82
ANNEX TA BLES ......................................................................................................................... 89
ANNEX B OXES ........................................................................................................................... 99

List of Annex Figures

Figure 1: School System Structure as of School Year 2015/2016........................................ 82


Figure 2: System Reform Period Enrollment in Lower & Upper Secondary School ....... 83
Figure 3: Alternate School Forms as of School Year 2015/2016 ......................................... 84
Figure 4: Double Cohort, Alternate Year Intake Multi-Grade Form................................ 85
Figure 5: Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) Forms .................................. 86
Figure 6: Typical Primary School Cluster: Core School and Satellite Schools ................ 86
Figure 7: Implementation Plan for Teacher Education 2010/10 to 2014/15 ..................... 87
Figure 8: General, TVET, and IVET Streams after Lower Secondary Education.......... 87
Figure 9: MOES Organization Chart (September, 2014) .................................................... 88

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List of Annex Tables

Table 1: PESS and DESB Organization.................................................................................. 89


Table 2: Universities and Faculties .......................................................................................... 89
Table 3: Teacher Education Institutions................................................................................. 90
Table 4: Ethno-Linguistic Groups and their Population Distribution, 2015 .................... 91
Table 5: EFA National Plan of Action (EFA-NPA) - Objectives, Targets, Activities ...... 92
Table 6: Lao National Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for Education .............. 92
Table 7: Lao Adaptation of Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG4) for 2030 .............. 93
Table 8: Official Student/Teacher Ratio Targets by Level of Educational Institution ... 94
Table 9: National Qualification Framework Standards for Vocational Teacher............. 94
Table 10: TVET Institutions under MOES Supervision, with Enrollments, 2011/12 ..... 95
Table 11: Public TVET Delivery System under Other Ministries and Organizations.... 96
Table 12: Official Names of Lao Government Structure, as of July 2014 ......................... 97
Table 13: Spelling of Administrative Divisions and Common Place Names ..................... 98

List of Annex Boxes

Box 1: Summary Timeline for Major Education Policy Development, from 1990 .......... 99
Box 2: Vientiane Declaration on Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation,
2016-2025........................................................................................................................... 100

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terms have fallen into disuse, in order to facilitate
PREFACE
reading of older documents. Whenever possible,
where old abbreviations have officially fallen
Aims and Scope. This Glossary is intended as an
from usage, that fact is noted, but the entry is
aid for reading and writing English language
retained.
documents about education development in Laos.
It lists more than 3000 abbreviations, terms, Dates are given in the format yyyy-mm-dd.
expressions, and definitions in official or common
Historical terms and abbreviations included
usage found in literature specifically concerning
here are noted as such in square brackets:
development of education and training in Lao
PDR. [Formerly], referring to relatively recent
changes;
Where usage is primarily associated with one
organization, that fact is noted. No organization [History], referring to changes in the more
has a monopoly on words, however, and terms distant past, usually before the Revolution in
originating in one organizational context can 1975;
migrate to others, sometimes with slightly
modified form or meaning. Wherever possible, [Dated], referring to terms outdated by more
such variations are noted. Terms originating in modern terminology but still in use in some
vernacular writing.
individual projects are entered into the Glossary
only if they gain significant usage outside the im- Note that in September 2011 the Ministry of
mediate project context. Education (MOE) was reorganized and renamed
UN expert agencies and NGOs are listed but Ministry of Education and Sports (MOES). In the
references below we always use the contempor-
consulting firms are not. Universities are listed
when the role involves academic research or aneous abbreviations.
teaching. Private schools are listed if they often All document references are to English
appear in the English news media. language publications unless otherwise noted.
Standardization of Terminology. The reader Some historical terms are in French, which
is encouraged to avoid proliferation of out-of-date was used in school system nomenclature and
or non-standard terms and abbreviations, such as English language documents well into the 1970s
use of FD (Finance Department) to refer to DOF before the Revolution in 1975 and in some
(Department of Finance) or TTD (Teacher Train- documents even long after the Revolution. Such
ing Department) to refer to the DTE (Department terms in French are listed here only if they appear
of Teacher Education). We have tried to note out- in English language documents. Note also that the
of-date terminology and to give references to French language is still used in the names of
relevant current terminology. The use of upper government schools in some areas.
and lower case letters follows standard English
Some writers mix lower- and upper-case
lexicographical convention.
letters in abbreviations (e.g., MoES for Ministry
New terms and abbreviations are entered as of Education and Sports), while others use full
the authors find them relevant and their usage sig- upper case abbreviations (e.g., MOES). For
nificant. A liberal approach has been taken with simplicity no such distinctions are made here, and
regard to meanings. Language is organic, with some few exceptions full upper case
constantly changing as new concepts emerge and abbreviations are used.
old concepts fall into disuse. This Glossary is
Many organizations have Lao as part of the
continuously updated, as new abbreviations,
official name, e.g., Lao Womens Union (LWU).
terms, and expressions come into usage. We aim
The abbreviations of some Lao organizations,
to achieve both formal accuracy in the use of
however, are modified for use in international
official abbreviations and representative coverage
context, such as conference presentations. For
of the way terms are used in wider practice.
example, the National Commission for the
Cross-references are given where needed. Hyper-
Advancement of Women, abbreviated in the Lao
links facilitate cross-referencing on electronic
context as NCAW, can be found in international
media.
context abbreviated as LaoNCAW or LNCAW.
A conservative approach has been taken in For the sake of simplicity we record here only the
retaining older terminology, even long after the national form, e.g., NCAW.
R. & V. Noonan 2017-07-27
iii
Statistical Terminology. We find that abbreviations. It is likely nevertheless that some
common statistical terms and abbreviations are redundancies appear due to the same organization
often confused by readers and sometimes misused appearing under different names.
by writers. We therefore include here not only the
For simplicity, no distinction is made between
abbreviations and the names of indicators but also
pupil and student, and the broader term student
the formal definitions. This document, however,
is used throughout except where it appears as part
is intended only as a glossary, not a technical
of an established definition. Similarly, no
reference manual. In all cases we have taken the
distinction is made between teacher, instructor,
definitions directly from the UNESCO Institute
and trainer, and the term teacher is used
for Statistics (UIS) website: www.uis.unesco.org
throughout.
Note that not all valid and well-defined
Some Lao words and expressions frequently
statistical indicators commonly found in the
found in English language texts are included in
literature and listed here are defined by UIS. With
this Glossary. It should be noted, however, that
some few exceptions, in such cases no formal
there is no standard transliteration between the
definitions are given. Where possible, we
Lao script and the Latin alphabet (writing Lao in
reference what we consider to be the nearest
karaoke). The spellings given here are those
equivalent UIS indicator. For the sake of
often appearing in English language writings.
standardization of indicators, we urge all parties
to use only those indicators that are defined by Graphics. All graphic images shown in the
UIS where possible and to follow the UIS Annex are available in electronic format (*.bmp
definitions rigorously. This may not be possible or *.png) on request. Images can also be provided
in the case of household surveys or other studies in *.jpg format, but *.png (Portable Network
that do not access school records. Graphics) is superior for line diagrams such as
those used here because it is a lossless com-
Mathematically, a rate is also a ratio, but with
pression format that can be read by all Microsoft
education statistics, a distinction is usually made
products and most other standard software.
between a rate, as a proportion of some quantity,
which ranges from 0 to 100 percent (e.g., NER), Keeping Up-to-Date. The focus of this
and a ratio, as simply a quotient of two Glossary has always been within the ambit of the
quantities, which can exceed 100% (e.g., GER). Ministry of Education and Sports (MOES), but
today, many ministries and other agencies provide
It should be understood, however, that the
educational services to the public as Laos moves
UIS technical guidelines are revised from time to
gradually toward an education society (see
time. Moreover in some cases an indicator is
Annex, Table 10 and Table 11). This Glossary
defined on the website but not in the most recently
published technical guidelines. It is beyond the has therefore also moved beyond the ambit of
scope of this Glossary to track these changes, but MOES into a wider discoursal space.
they are recorded where they have been noted. We include definitions of special terms
Language Issues. Some organizations are originating in specialized international organiza-
known by abbreviations based on their official tions, such as UNESCO. Except for statistical
names in languages other than English. If an terminology referred to above, no attempt is made
official or widely used English translation has to provide authoritative definitions, but only to
reflect informed usage in the discourse in Laos.
been found, it is reported here. If no such
translation has been found, we have provided our We also include short general definitions of
own direct translation together with the note emergent terminology in the Lao context, such as
Author trans. blended learning, cognitive mobility and
grit. They are listed in quotation marks. For
Many Lao organizations do not have official
more precise and contextually valid definitions,
English names, and even where they do they are
often not widely known or used. Instead trans- the reader is encouraged to consult the relevant
lators and other writers often make up their own academic literature. If and when they enter
mainstream terminology in the literature on
translations and abbreviations, which leads to a
proliferation of English names and abbreviations education in Laos, we will remove them from this
Glossary.
for the same organization. Where possible,
reference is made below to the official names and

R. & V. Noonan 2017-07-27


iv
In recognition of the significant contribution though sometimes we have been compelled to
of Buddhist education, we include abbreviations, widen the scope somewhat. For much wider
terms, and expressions from the literature on reference, the best single source would be Martin
Buddhist education in Laos. We have no expertise Stuart-Fox, Historical Dictionary of Laos,
in this field, and we take no position on published in numerous editions, including the title
theological, ideological, or linguistic issues. The A to Z of Laos.
Definitions we provide are taken from the relevant
The reader is also encouraged to visit the
literature, but the reader should be aware that
MOES website at: www.moe.gov.la. For an
words with very concrete meanings can also have
English-Lao bilingual glossary of selected terms
religiously significant symbolic meanings. Our
related to education system organization and
sole aim is to help the informed lay reader gain a
management, published by the Ministry with
general understanding the Buddhist education
UNESCO support in 2003, see:
system in Laos to aid in reading and writing
English documents. http://www.moe.gov.la/data/publications/9-
Glossary-Education-Terms-Bul1(6x9).pdf
In keeping with the widening of the focus of
the Glossary, we include some references to For further information on NGOs, the reader
copyrighted materials (indicated by in the should consult the NGO Network website at:
entries) when they appear in literature falling
http://directoryofngos.org/ingo_demo/pub/index.
within the aims and scope of the Glossary as noted php#
above.
For general statistical data, the reader should
In view of the continued use of very outdated
consult Lao DECIDE Info at:
terminology related to ethnicity, we have added
Annex Table 4 with a historical note on ethnic http://www.decide.la/en/
groups in Laos. This Glossary is updated continuously, and
Because we often find incorrect and/or the latest edition is usually uploaded weekly. The
outdated names used in reference to the various latest edition of this present Glossary will always
ministries, we include a list of official English be available for downloading at:
language names of Lao ministries (Annex Table http://tc.academia.edu/RichardNoonan
12). Similarly a list of provinces and common
place names is also provided (Annex Table 13).
Finally, in Annex Box 1 we provide a brief A collection of resources for education
historical timeline of seminal events in the research in Laos can be found in the Dissertations
development of national education policy since and Research Dropbox (link below). This Drop-
1990. This will gradually expand as gaps are box was initiated by Ari Vitikainen and is
filled in. maintained by the authors of this Glossary.
Readers are invited to recommend other research
Appreciation. We would like to thank our reports for inclusion.
many colleagues in the Ministry of Education and
Sports, development partner agencies, NGOs, and https://www.dropbox.com/sh/6kumvq9i31c6i92/
others who have contributed over the years to the AADT5vIo_Pq0NjUhD0l7xxcQa?dl=0
development of this Glossary, the first edition of
which was prepared in 1995. Inevitably, errors
and omissions remain, for which we alone take R. & V. Noonan
responsibility. We invite readers to kindly inform r.d.noonan@gmail.com
us of any flaws they find, either where relevant Vientiane, July 27, 2017
terms are missing or where errors are found.
We would like to thank Ari Vitikainen for the
cover collage and design. We would also like to
thank Nanludet Moxom for providing the Lao
script for selected Lao words used in English.
Additional Sources. This Glossary is
intended to cover the education sector, even

R. & V. Noonan 2017-07-27


v
GLOSSARY

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vi
09 2020 Goal. The long-term goal of exiting the status
of Least Developed County by 2020, set by the 6 th
Note to readers of this section: Beginning in the Party Congress in March 1996, refined and re-
2009/2010 school year the structure of the school affirmed by each succeeding Party Congress.
system was changed from an 11-year 5+3+3 system (Also referred to as the 2020 Strategy, the 2020
to a 12-year 5+4+3 system. Thus all references to Vision, and Vision 2020). (See LDC definition
the 11-year system (e.g., 5+3, 8+3, 11+2, etc.) are 1 and Notes).
historical. Corresponding current references reflect
this reform (e.g., 5+4, 9+3, 12+2, etc.). 2020 Strategy. See 2020 Goal.
2020 Vision. See 2020 Goal.
0. [Formerly]. See Grade 0.
2030 Agenda. Reference to 2030 Agenda for
11+1. [History]. 1. Qualification for primary school Sustainable Development from the Sustainable
teachers, based on completion of upper secondary Development Summit at the UN headquarters in
schooling (eleven years of schooling) plus one year New York in 2015. Also Agenda 2030.
of teacher education and training. 2. Any combin-
ation of schooling involving five years of primary 2030 Vision. Vision set in 8th NSEDP, including
school, three years of lower secondary school, Laos ranking as upper-middle income developing
three years of upper secondary school, and one country by 2030. (See Vision 2030, LDC, MIC
year of additional education or training. (See definition 2).
Annex Figure 7). 3 Builds. See Three Builds.
11+2. [History]. 1. Technician Diploma level 3 Characteristics of Education. Lao: 3 Laksana.
course. 2. Qualification for pre-school and See Three Characteristics of Education.
primary school teachers, based on completion of
upper secondary schooling (eleven years of 3 Competitions of the Education and Sports
schooling) plus two years of teacher education and Sector. See Three Competitions of the Education
training. 3. Any combination of schooling and Sports Sector.
involving five years of primary school, three years
of lower secondary school, three years of upper 3 Laksana. Lao: . See Three
secondary school, and two year of additional Characteristics of Education.
education or training. (See Annex Figure 7). 3 Pillars. See Three Pillars of Education Sector
11+3. [History]. 1. Technician Diploma level Development.
course. 2. Qualification for pre-school and 3 Revolutions. See Three Revolutions.
primary school teachers, based on completion of
upper secondary schooling (eleven years of 3+3. [History]. Primary school cycle under the RLG
schooling) plus three years of teacher education comprising three years of lower primary and three
and training. 3. Any combination of schooling years of upper primary.
involving five years of primary school, three years
3Ps. Public-Private Partnership. (Also PPP,
of lower secondary school, three years of upper
definition 3; compare with 4Ps).
secondary school, and three years of additional
education or training. (See Annex Figure 7). 4 Breakthroughs. See Four Breakthroughs.
12+2. TVET Technician Diploma program based on 4 Pillars of Education. See Four Pillars of
a two-year program after completion of upper Education.
secondary schooling.
4 Pillars of Poverty Eradication Strategy. Also
12+3. TVET Diploma program based on a three-year Four Sectors of Poverty Eradication Strategy. See
program after completion of upper secondary Four Pillars of Poverty Eradication Strategy.
schooling.
4+1+1. School construction design that includes four
1-6-3 Rule. For every 10 teachers at institutions classrooms, one multi-use room that supports
offering Bachelors degree programs, 1 should science teaching and provides space for a library,
have Ph.D. degree, 6 should have Masters and one teacher-resource room.
degrees, and 3 should have Bachelors degree.
4+2. [History]. Four years of primary schooling
2 Solidarities, 3 Goods, 4 Developments. See Two followed by two years of lower secondary
Solidarities, Three Goods, Four Developments. schooling, in the Liberated Zone from the early
2, 3, 4. See Two Solidarities, Three Goods, Four 1960s until 1975.
Developments. 4Ps. Public, private, and peoples partnerships.
(Compare with 3Ps, PPP, definition 3).

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5 Domains of Education. Also 5 Principles of 8 Priorities. See Eight Priorities.
Education. Lao: 5 Lakmoun. See Five Domains of
Education. 8+3. 1. Vocational Certificate course. 2. [History].
Any combination of schooling involving five years
5 Lakmoun. Lao:
. See Five Domains of of primary school, three years of lower secondary
Education. school, and three years of additional education or
training. (See Annex Figure 7). 3. [History].
5 Pillars [or Principles] of Education. Lao: 5 Qualification for primary school teachers, based on
Lakmoun. See Five Domains of Education, completion of lower secondary schooling (eight
especially Note 1. years of schooling) plus three years of teacher
5 Priority Programs. See Five Priority Programs. education and training.

5+3+3. [History]. Eleven year school system 8NSEDP. 8th NSEDP.


structure comprising five years of primary, three 9+1, 9+2, 9+3. TVET Certificate program based on a
years of lower secondary, and three years of upper three-year continuous curriculum program after
secondary schooling, to be replaced in school year completion of lower secondary schooling. (See
2009/2010. (See 5+4+3). TVET Certificate, VC I to VC III).
5+4. [History]. Qualification for primary school
teachers based on completion of primary school A
(five years of schooling) plus four years of teacher
education and training, targeted specifically on AAA. Analytical and Advisory Activities. (WB).
preparing teachers from remote and ethnic com- AAC. Academic Advisory Committee.
munities. (See Annex Figure 7).
AACTE. [History]. American Association of
5+4+3 [Reform]. Twelve year school system Colleges for Teacher Education.
structure comprising five years of primary, four
years of lower secondary, and three years of upper AAEA. Advanced Education in Asia.
secondary schooling. The reform was imple- AAF. Australia Awards Fellowships. (Formerly
mented from school year 2009/2010. (See Annex ALAF. See also AAS).
Figure 1).
AANZFTA. ASEAN, Australia and New Zealand
5-Pointed Star. See Five Pointed Star. for a Free Trade Area.
5S [model]. [Japanese]. Seiri (Clearing, Sorting, AAOU. Asian Association of Open Universities.
Tidiness), Seiton (Organizing, Orderliness), Seiso
(Cleaning, Cleanliness), Seiketsu (Standardizing), AAP. 1. Annual Action Plan. 2. Annual Action
Shitsuke (Discipline, Commitment). (Slogan used Program.
in TVET instruction). AAR Japan. Association for Aid and Relief. (NGO,
6 Principles of Education Reform. See Six Japan).
Principles of Education Reform. AAS. Australia Awards Scholarship. (Formerly
6 Principles of Education. See Six Principles of ADS; see also ALA, EP, definition 2).
Education. ABEL. 1. Access to Basic Education in Laos (2006-
6+1. [History]. Under the RLG until 1964, primary 2011). (External financing by AusAID, through
teacher qualifications, comprising completion of partnership with UNICEF and WFP). 2. Adult
six years primary school plus one year of teacher Basic Education and Learning.
training. (See Annex Figure 7; see also 6+4). Abhidhamma [Pitaka]. Pali: [literally Basket,
6+4. [History]. Under the RLG 1965-1968, primary hence collection of] Scholarly discourses on the
teacher qualifications, comprising completion of doctrinal material appearing in the Suttas,
six years primary school plus four years of teacher providing summaries or enumerated lists. (See
training. (See Annex Figure 7; see also 6+1, also Tipitaka).
6+4+1). ABV. Australian Business Volunteers. (NGO).
6+4+1. [History]. Under the RLG after 1968, upper AC. Academic Committee.
primary teacher qualifications, comprising com-
pletion of six years primary school plus four years Academy. 1. Private education institution for
of teacher training for lower primary qualification specialized professional development, including
plus one additional year. (See Annex Figure 7; see distance learning. 2. Private education institution
also 6+1, 6+4). serving at any level from kindergarten through
upper secondary. 3. An institution or society for

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the advancement of literature, art, or science (e.g., ADDP. Asian Development with Disabled Persons.
see LASS). 4. Specialized public post-secondary
institution to serve special needs outside the Note: Active in Laos since 1992.
authority of MOES (e.g., Army Academy, Police ADF. Asian Development Fund. (ADB).
Academy).
Adjusted Net Attendance Rate. See Net Attendance
ACCP. ASEAN Common Competence Program.
Rate (Adjusted).
ACCU. Asia-Pacific Cultural Center for UNESCO.
(UNESCO Bangkok). Adjusted Net Enrollment Rate (NERA; also
ANER). UIS Definition: For primary level, it is
ACD. Association for Community Development. defined as the total number of students of the
(CSO). official primary school age group who are enrolled
ACDA. Aid for Children with Disability at either primary or secondary education levels,
Association. (Lao NPA, definition 2). expressed as a percentage of the corresponding
population. (Compare with Age-Specific
ACESP. Annual Costed Education Sector Plan. Enrollment Rate, GER, NER).
(Also ACSEP; ACSP).
ADOR. Average Dropout Rate. (Note: UIS does not
ACF. French: Action Contre la Faim. [Action define this statistic. See DR).
Against Hunger]. (NGO, France).
ADPC. Asian Disaster Preparedness Center.
ACFID. Australian Council for International (Pathumthani, Thailand).
Development.
ADR. Assessment of Development Results.
ACR. All Children Reading. (Partnership between (Evaluation of UNDPs contribution).
USAID, Australian Aid and World Vision).
ADRA. Adventist Development and Relief Agency.
ACRES. Animal Concerns Research and Education (NGO, international).
Society. (Singapore).
ADS. [Formerly]. Australian Development
ACS. Average Class Size. Scholarship. (See AAS).
ACSEP. Annual Costed Sector Plan. (Also ACESP, ADTA. Advisory Technical Assistance (ADB; see
ACSP). also AOTA).
ACSP. Annual Costed Sector Plan. (Also ACESP; AE. 1. Adult Education. 2. Art Education.
ACSEP). (Compare with PE, definition 2).
ACSS. ASEAN Community Statistical System. AEAi[I]. French: Aide et Action [International].
ACTD. Association for Community Training and [Aid and Action [International]]. Author trans.
Development. (NPA, definition 2). (INGO, Switzerland).

Action skills. Skills in applying knowledge in AEA [SEA]. French: Aide et Action. [Aid and Action
s ea

practice, including planning, organizing, setting Southeast Asia]. Author trans. (INGO; see
goals, and implementing; doing, as opposed to AEAI).
knowing. AEC [2015]. ASEAN Economic Community. (To
2015

ACTS. ASEAN Credit Transfer System. (Facilitates be established December 31, 2015). (Sometimes
physical and virtual student mobility among AUN incorrectly given as Asian Economic
member universities. See also ECTS). Community. See also AFTA).

ACU. ASEAN Cyber University. (International AED. [Formerly]. Academy for Educational
project under AUN). Development. (NGO, USA. See FHI 360).
AD. Assistive Device. AEEID. ASEAN Environmental Education
Inventory Database.
ADB. Asian Development Bank.
AEFE. French: Agence pour l'enseignement franais
Historical Note: The Kingdom of Laos joined
l'tranger. [Agency for French Education
ADB as a founding member in 1966 and was
Abroad]. (See also LFIV, LFJH).
succeeded by Lao PDR in 1975. ADB began
operations in Laos in 1968 under the RLG. AEIF. Alumni Engagement Innovation Fund. (Grant
from the US State Department).
ADBI. Asian Development Bank Institute.
AETC. Administrator Education Training Center.
(See CFAE, EATC, IEMD).

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AF. Additional Financing. (WB). AIIB. Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. Agreed
October 2014; to be established 2015.
AfA. Association for Autism. (Lao NPA, definition
2). AIM. Asian Institute of Management. (Manila)
AFAM. Administrative, Financial, and Accounting AIMS. Assessment, Information Systems,
Manual. Monitoring and Statistics Unit. (UNESCO
Bangkok).
AFC. 1. Asian Football Confederation. 2. [AfC].
Angels for Children. (NGO, Germany, Engel fr AIP. Annual Implementation Plan.
Kinder).
AIR. See Apparent Intake Rate.
AFD. French: Agence Franaise de Dveloppement.
AIS. Australian International School. (Vientiane).
[French Development Agency].
AIT. Asian Institute of Technology. (Hanoi).
AFESIP. French: Agir pour les Femmes en Situation
Prcaire. [Acting for Women in Distressing Aj. Lao: See Ajan.
Circumstances]. (NGO, Cambodia).
Ajan. Also Achan, Ajarn. Lao: . 1. Teacher,
AFMU. Administration and Financial Management
Unit. typically at secondary or higher level. (Compare
with Ku). 2. Title used to address education
AFS. Audited financial statement. officials respected for their knowledge. (Compare
with Maha).
AFSC. American Friends Service Committee.
(NGO, USA). (See also QSL). ALA. Australian Leadership Awards. (See also
AAS)
AFTA. ASEAN Free Trade Area. (Compare with
AEC, CAFTA). ALAF. [Formerly]. Australian Leadership Awards
Historical Note: Established 1992, with Lao Fellowship. (See AAF).
membership since 1997. ALAS. Australian Leadership Award Scholarship.
Age 6 entry into Grade 1 [policy]. Policy ALC. Action with Lao Children. (NGO, Japan and
introduced in the ESDF and strengthened in EDSP Laos; sometimes referred to as Action for Lao
to regulate age of entry to reduce under-age or Children; formerly ASPB).
over-age entry into primary Grade 1.
Historical Note: Founded 1982 as ASPB, renamed
Agenda 2030. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable ALC 2005. (See also CCC).
Development. (Based on 17 SDGs and 169
ALE. Adult Learning and Education. (See also
targets).
GRALE).
Note: There are 17 UN SDGs, and Laos has added
its own, SDG18: Remove the UXO obstacle to ALM. Audio-Lingual Method [of second language
national development. teaching].
Age-Specific Enrollment Rate. UIS Definition: ALMM. ASEAN Labor Ministers Meeting.
Percentage of the population of a specific age ALSA. Asian Law Students Association Laos.
enrolled, irrespective of the level of education, or
sometimes applied to individual levels of AM. Aide Memoire. (Also A-M).
education, e.g., primary. (Compare with Adjusted AMA. Art Major Asian Scholarship. (Korean
Net Enrollment Rate, Gross Enrollment Ratio, and National University of Arts).
Net Enrollment Rate).
AMD. Asset Management Division (DOF/MOES).
AGI. Adolescent Girls Initiative. (Under YEAL).
AME. French: Association des Mres ducatrices.
AgriNet. Agricultural Learning Network [for the [Mothers [Educational] Association]. Author
Northern Uplands]. trans.
AIA. ASEAN Investment Area. AMEC. Asia Math Engineering Competition.
AIDAB. [History]. Australian International (Annual robotics competition in Singapore).
Development Assistance Bureau. (Renamed AMMS. ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Sports.
AusAID in 1995 and Australian Aid in 2013).
AMMST. ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Science
AIDS. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. and Technology.
(Sometimes incorrectly given as Auto Immuno-
deficiency Syndrome; see also HIV).

R. & V. Noonan 2017-07-27

4
AMPM. APPEAL Manual for Planning and APHEDA. Australian Peoples Help in Education
Management [of Literacy and Continuing and Development. Also known as Union Aid
Education]. Abroad-APHEDA. (NGO, Australia).
AMS. ASEAN Member State. APL. 1. Adaptable Program Loan (WB).
2. Accreditation of Prior Learning. (See also
ANAR. Adjusted Net Attendance Rate. (See Net
APEL, RPL).
Attendance Rate, Adjusted, NARA).
APLHIV. Association of People Living with
ANCP. Australian NGO Cooperation Program.
HIVAIDS. (CSO).
(Supports accredited Australian NGOs).
APP. 1. Annual Procurement Plan. 2. Association
ANER. Adjusted Net Enrollment Rate.
for Poor People. (CSO).
ANFE. Adult non-formal education.
Apparent Intake Rate. (AIR). UIS Definition:
ANOBS. Alfred Nobel Open Business School Total number of new entrants in the 1st grade of
Limited (Hong Kong). primary education, regardless of age, expressed as
percentage of the population at the official primary
ANOVA. Analysis of Variance. (Statistical analysis school-entrance age. Note that this definition
method). appeared in the 2003 technical guidelines for the
ANPAP. French: Acadmie Nationale de Politique et term AIR and in the 2009 guidelines for the term
d'Administration Publique. (See also NAPPA). GIR. (Compare with NIR).
ANPRO. Analysis and Projection. (UNESCO model APPEAL. Asia and Pacific Program of Education
for education planning). (See also LANPRO). for All. (UNESCO Bangkok).
AOG. Also AG. Assemblies of God. (NGO, USA). Historical Note: Launched in 1987, aiming through
regional cooperation to facilitate national efforts
AOP. Annual Operation Plan. in:
AOPB. Annual Operational Plan and Budget. (a) Achieving universal primary education;
AOR. Annual Operation Review. (b) Eradicating illiteracy; and
(c) Providing continuing education in support of
AOTA. Advisory and Operational Technical (a) and (b) above.
Assistance (ADB; also see ADTA).
(Compare with Colombo Plan, 1950; Karachi Plan,
AP. 1. Action Plan. 2. Action Program. 3. Annual 1960; Jomtien, 1990).
Plan. 4. Authorization to Pay. 5. Affected person.
(ADB). APPREB. Asia-Pacific Cooperative Program in
Reading Promotion and Book Development.
APA. Audited project account.
APQN. Asia-Pacific Quality Network. (See also
APARNET. Asia Pacific Academic Recognition AQAN).
Network.
APSC. ASEAN Political Security Community.
APASWE. Asia Pacific Association for Social Work
Education. APT. ASEAN Plus Three. (ASEAN plus China,
Japan, and the Republic of Korea).
APCEIU. Asia-Pacific Center of Education for
International Understanding. (See also EIU). APU. Asia Pacific University. (Japan).

APEC. 1. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. AQAF. ASEAN Quality Assurance Framework.


2. Asia Pacific Economic Conference. (Compare with AQRF).

APEFE. French: lAssociation pour la promotion de AQAN. ASEAN Quality Assurance Network. (See
lducation et de la formation ltranger. also APQN).
[Association for Promoting Education and AQF. ASEAN Qualification Framework.
Training Abroad]. (Belgium).
AQRF. ASEAN Qualification Reference
APEID. Asia-Pacific Program of Educational Framework. (Compare with AQAF).
Innovation for Development. (UNESCO
Bangkok) ARC. Asia Research Center. (NUOL).

APEL. Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning. ARMI. Association for Rural Mobilization and
(See also APL, definition 2; RPL). Improvement. (Lao NPA, definition 2).

APEN. Asia Professional Education Network.

R. & V. Noonan 2017-07-27

5
ARNEC. Asia Pacific Regional Network for Early National samples, survey date, level, subjects:
Childhood (UNICEF, Bangkok). ASLO I 2006, Grade 5, Lao, Math, WAU
ARO. Asia Regional Office. ASLO II 2009, Grade 5, Lao, Math, WAU
ARQ. Above required qualification. (Compare with ASLO III 2011, Grade 3, Lao, Math
BRQ, RQ). Other samples:
ARR. Average Repetition Rate. (Note: UIS does not Plan ASLO, Bokeo. 2010, Grade 3, Lao, Math,
define this statistic. See TRR, especially Note. WAU.
See also RR). ASOER. ASEAN State of Education Report.
ARTC. APPEAL Resource and Training ASP. [Dated]. Association of Students Parents.
Consortium. (UNESCO Bangkok).
ASPB. Association for Sending Picture Books [to
ASA. Association of Southeast Asia. (Established in Lao Children]. (NGO, Japan. Renamed ALC).
1961 by the Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand).
ASPBAE. Asia South Pacific Association of Basic
ASAIHL. Association of Southeast Asian Institu- and Adult Education.
tions of Higher Learning.
ASPnet. Associated Schools Project Network.
ASC. ASEAN Skills Competition.
ASPR. 1. Annual Sector Performance Report.
ASCC. ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community. 2. Annual Sector Progress Report.
ASCF. Annual School Census Form. ASSI. ASEAN Safe Schools Initiative. (A DRM
ASCOE. ASEAN Sub-committee on Education. initiative).
(See also SEAMEO). Assistant Minister. A senior official serving below
ASD. Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Vice Minister and above Director General. (See
Annex Figure 9. Not to be confused with Deputy
ASEAN . Association of Southeast Asian Nations Minister).
(Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos,
Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Associate Degree. Qualification below Bachelors
Thailand, Vietnam). Degree. (Lao: San Kang. Also known as
Undergraduate Diploma).
Note: These ten countries are referred to as Core
ASEAN. The secretariat is in Jakarta, Indonesia). AsTEN. ASEAN Teacher Education Network.
(See also AEC, APT, ASCC, ASEAN plus 1, (Established 2014).
ASEAN plus 3, ASEAN plus 6).
ASV. American School of Vientiane. (Private).
Historical Note: Formed in 1967 (as an outgrowth
of ASA) by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, AT. Academic teacher.
Singapore, and Thailand. Laos obtained observer ATBU. Association of Theravada Buddhist
status in 1992 and membership in 1997. Universities.
ASEAN plus 1. ASEAN plus China. ATLP. APPEAL Training Materials for Literacy
ASEAN plus 3. ASEAN plus China, Japan, Republic Personnel.
of Korea. (Also APT). ATP. Attapeu Province. (Also ATT).
ASEAN plus 6. ASEAN plus Australia, China, ATR. Annual Thematic Review.
India, Japan, Republic of Korea, New Zealand.
ATRUP. Annual Teacher Recruitment and
ASED. ASEAN Education Ministers Meeting. Utilization Planning.
(Compare with SOMED).
ATS. Agriculture technical school.
ASER. Age Specific Enrollment Rate.
ATT. Attapeu Province. (Also ATP).
ASG. Asian School Games. (Compare with NSG).
AUCC. Association of Universities and Colleges of
ASLO. Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes. Canada.
(National assessments are conducted by RIES,
based on the curriculum-based approach of IEA. AUD. Australian Dollar.
Contrast with the PISA approach). (Continued) AUF. French: Agence Universitaire de la
Francophonie. [Association of Universities of the
Francophonie]. Author trans. (Montral,
Canada).

R. & V. Noonan 2017-07-27

6
AUN. ASEAN University Network. (Established BAC. 1. Buddhist Aid Center. (NGO, Japan).
1995; NUOL is a member since 1997). 2. Baccalaurat. Le Bac .
AUN/SEED-Net. Southeast Asia Engineering Baccalaurat. [History]. Also Bac, definition 2.
Education Development Network (an autonomous French: Baccalaureate. School-leaving examina-
sub-network of AUN). tion upon completion of Lyce that qualifies the
successful candidates for university entrance.
AUN-QA. AUN Quality Assurance [initiative].
AusAID. [Formerly]. Australian Agency for Inter- BAFIS. German: Beschftigungsorientierte Aus- und
national Development. Integrated November Fortbildung fr Zielgruppen aus dem Informellen
2013, into the Department of Foreign Affairs and Sektor. Employment Oriented Training for Target
Trade (DFAT). (See Australian Aid). Groups from the Informal Sector. Author trans.
(External financing by GTZ in late 1990s).
Australian Aid. [Officially]. Department of Foreign
Affairs and Trade - Australian Aid. (Formerly Ban. Lao: . Village. (Compare with Khumban,
AusAID). Naiban).
Australian Union Aid Abroad. See APHEDA. BarCamp. International network of participant-
Automatic Promotion. Also Progressive Promotion. generated conferences or open workshops, focused
(Often used in Lao documents, although Automatic primarily on technology and the Web. (See
Promotion is far more widely used in UNESCO EDUCAMP 2014).
and UNICEF documents; see also PPP, definition BASE. Broadening Access to Sustainable Education.
4.)
Average Annual Growth Rate. Geometric growth Baseline Assessment. Assessment prior to an inter-
rate, commonly expressed as a percent. Calculated vention. (Compare with Midline Assessment,
as (EXP(LN(Y2/Y1)/N)-1)*100, where Y1 is the Endline Assessment).
value of a variable in the initial period, Y2 is the Basic education. 1. Pre-school, primary, lower
value in the final period, and N is the number of secondary education. 2. [Sub-sectors in EFA
periods. (Contrast with YOY). context] Pre-school, primary, lower secondary, and
AVID. Australian Volunteers for International non-formal. (Compare with Non-basic education
Development. (Note on language: As an adjective, and PBE).
avid means enthusiastic, eager). Historical Note: The concept Of Basic Education
AVLRC. ASEAN Virtual Learning Resources has varied over time. Until the publication in 2005
Center. of the EFA NPA, 2003-2015, basic education
was understood to include only primary, although
AWP. Annual Work Plan. inclusion of lower secondary as part of basic
AWPB. Annual Work Plan and Budget. education was foreshadowed in the Education
Strategic Planning document of August 2001
AY. Academic Year. (1st semester: Early September (Part II, Sect. V, Para. 5). This was a reflection of
to early January; 2 nd semester: Mid-January to late the outcomes of the 7 th Party Congress in March
May or June. Compare with CY, FY, SY.) 2001. With the Education Law of 2007, basic
education was formally extended to include lower
AYAD. Australian Youth Ambassador Development
secondary education (Articles 17 & 18).
[program].
AYSA. Adolescent and Youth Situation Analysis. Basic education cycle school. School covering
Grades 1-9 by adding Grades 6-9 to a complete
B and well-functioning primary school, including
those using multi-grade approaches or other
B.A. Bachelor of Arts [degree]. approaches (see Annex Figure 3 and Figure 4) to
expand education access in remote areas. (See
B.Ed. Bachelor of Education [degree]. Basic education).
B.Tn. [History]. French: Brevet de technicien. Basic education school. See Basic education cycle
[Technician Diploma]. (Awarded on completion school; Basic education).
of the second cycle of technical education.
Compare with CAP). Basic Education Teacher. [History]. Under the
USAID education program before the Revolution,
B.TVE. Bachelors degree in TVE. teacher sent to Community Rural Education
BA. See B.A. Centers, mainly to teach adults basic literacy,

R. & V. Noonan 2017-07-27

7
numeracy, and other basic knowledge and skills. BG. [Formerly] Block grant. (See also SBG); see
(See CREC. See also USAID, Historical Note). REF).
BBM. Big Brother Mouse. (Lao NPA, definition 2). BHC. Buddhist Health Center.
BC. Bidding Committee. Bhikkhu / Bhikkhuni: Pali: In Theravada Buddhism,
BCI. Behavioral Change Initiative. a fully ordained monk / nun.

BCS. Basic Computer Skills. Alt. Basic Computing BIAAG. Because I am a Girl. (Social movement).
Skills. BKO. Bokeo Province. (Also BOK).
BD. [History]. Budget Department. BKX. Borikhamxay Province. (Also BOL).
BDEA. Buddha Dharma Education Association. BLC. Basic Learning Competencies.
BDP. Buddhism for Development Project. Blended learning. Formal education programs
BE. 1. Basic education. 2. Buddhist Era. Also B.E. involving both classroom activities and computer -
mediated activities. (Also hybrid, technology-
Note: The Lao Buddhist Era and Common Era
mediated instruction, web-enhanced instruction,
years differ by 543, with the Lao Buddhist New
mixed-mode instruction, and others).
Year celebrated on Common Era April 17.
Blooms Taxonomy. Classification of learning
BEd. See B. Ed.
objectives into three domains:
BEDA. Basic Education in Disadvantaged Areas 1. Cognitive (Knowledge, Comprehension,
(DTT/MOES). Application, Analysis, Evaluation, Synthesis;
BEDP. Basic Education Development Project. revised in 2001 as Remembering, Under-
(Follow-up to BEGP). (External financing by standing, Applying, Analyzing, Evaluating,
ADB). Creating);
2. Affective (Receiving, Responding, Valuing,
BEFG. Basic Education Focal Group.
Organizing, Characterizing); and
BEGE. Basic Education and Gender Equality 3. Psychomotor (Perception, Set or disposition,
[Program] (UNICEF). Guided response, Mechanism, Complex overt
BEGP. Basic Education (Girls) Project. (External response, Adaptation, Origination).
financing by ADB and AusAID; see LABEP). Note: 1. Named after B. S. Bloom. (Contrast with
SOLO).
BEIF. BEQUAL Education Innovation Fund.
Note: 2. The cognitive domain was revised in 2001
BELL. Benefits of Lifelong Learning. by Lorin Anderson, a former student of Bloom,
BENC. Basic Education in the Northern Commun- and published as Booms Revised Taxonomy.
ities. (External financing by EU). BME. Benefit monitoring and evaluation.
BEP[C]. [History]. French: Brevet dtudes du BMZ. German: Bundesministerium fr
premier cycle [du 2 me degr]. General certificate wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung.
of secondary education [1 st cycle]. (Lower Federal Ministry for Economic Development and
secondary, grades 7-10). Cooperation. (Germany).
BEQUAL. Basic Education Quality and Access in BNC. BEQUAL NGO Consortium. (Includes Plan
Lao PDR. (External financing by Australian Aid International, Save the Children, World Vision and
and EU; see also BEIF). ChildFund)
BESDP. Basic Education Sector Development BN [L]. Basic Needs [Lao PDR]. NGO. (UK).
l

Program. (External financing by ADB).


BODMAS. Brackets, Order, Divide, Multiply, Add,
BESDP II. Second Basic Education Sector and Subtract. (Order of mathematical operations;
Development Program. (External financing by taught in primary school).
ADB). (Renamed SESDP).
BOG. Board of Governors.
BFD. Buddhism for Development [Project].
BOK. Bokeo Province. (Also BKO).
BFP. Bridge Fund Program. (US Embassy).
BOL. 1. Bank of Lao PDR. 2. Borikhamxay
BFSS. British and Foreign School Society. Province. (Also BKX).
BFW. Blessing Flower World. (NGO, Republic of
Korea).

R. & V. Noonan 2017-07-27

8
BOLIGO. Borikhamxay Livelihood Improvement BVEST. Basic Vocational Education and Skills
and Governance Project. (Lux-Development) Training.
Bonze. Buddhist monk. (In the context of Theravada
Buddhism of Laos, the term is archaic and
C
considered by some to be pejorative, although it C. Certificate.
comes from Sanskrit bon ordinary + s priest or
monk). C&P. Consultation and Participation.
BOQ. Bill of quantities. C/P. Counterpart.
C4D. Communication for Development.
Boukthalu. Lao: . Breakthrough [literally, as
CA. 1. Coordinating Agency. 2. Communicative
when a tree falls and crashes through a roof]. (See
Four Breakthroughs; see also Sam sang). Approach [to second language teaching].
CACIM. Committee for Approval of Curriculum
BPA. Brussels Program of Action [for Least and Instructional Materials.
Developed Countries]. Adopted by the 3 rd UN
Conference on Least Developed Countries, CAEN. China-ASEAN Education Information
Brussels, 2001-05-20. Network.

BPE. [History]. Bureau of Private Education. CAFTA. China-ASEAN Free Trade Area.
(MOE, renamed DPE, later DPEM. See PEACO). (Compare with AFTA).

Bridging [Course / Curriculum / Program / Year]. CAI. Computer-Assisted Instruction. (Compare with
1. (TVET). Course or curriculum with transferable IAI; RAI; TAI).
credit and recognition of prior learning (RPL). CAMKID. Community Association for Mobilizing
2. (HE). Curriculum for upper secondary school Knowledge in Development. (CSO).
graduates who have work experience in a relevant
field, allowing students to upgrade their knowledge CAMS. Computerized Asset Management System.
or expertise for their current jobs. 3. [History]. CAP. 1. Country Action Plan. 2. [History]. French:
Instruction intended to make up for formal or Certificat dAptitude Professionnelle. [Certificate
informal deficiencies in requirements for an of Professional Aptitude]. (Under the Education
education or training course or program, such as a Reform Act of 1962, the first regular two-year
program intended for primary school graduates to cycle of technical and professional preparation in
enter a teacher education program intended for Matanyom 3 and Matanyom 4). (Compare with
lower secondary school graduates. B.Tn., DEP).
BRQ. Below required qualification. (Compare with CAPE. Country Assistance Program Evaluation.
ARQ, RQ). (ADB).
BSSD. Bachelor of Arts in Sociology and Social CapEFA. Capacity Development for EFA.
Development [Program]. (At NUOL).
Capital Education Services. [History]. Education
BT. French: Brevet de Technicien. [Technician Service in Vientiane Capital. Compare with PES.
Diploma]. See also VCESS).
BTC. Belgian Technical Cooperation. (Also referred CARE [International]. Cooperative for Assistance
to as Belgian Development Cooperation or the and Relief Everywhere. [Federation of national
Belgian Development Agency, as it is Belgiums CARE Members]. (INGO).
official development cooperation agency).
Historical Note: CARE worked in Laos in the
BTOR. Back to Office Report. 1950s initially under the name Cooperative for
American Remittances to Everywhere. In 1959
BTOS. Book to School. (Project of EDF, definition the meaning of the acronym was changed to Co-
2). operative for American Relief Everywhere.
BTTC. Bankeun Teacher Training College. Caritas. Confederation of Roman Catholic relief,
Buddhist Calendar. (Note: The Lao Buddhist development, and social service organizations.
calendar and Common calendar differ by 543 (INGO).
years, with the Lao Buddhist New Year celebrated CARN. Collaborative Action Research Network.
on Common Era April 17. See BE).
CAS. Country Assistance Strategy (WB).

R. & V. Noonan 2017-07-27

9
CATS. Community Approach to Total Sanitation. CCDG. Community Child Development Group.
CAV. [History]. Center of Agriculture, Veunkhame. CCED. Community Committee for Education
(MOE; merged into NUOL 1995). Development. (See also VEDC).
CAVILAM. French: Centre dApproches Vivantes CCL. French: Comit de Coopration avec le Laos.
des Langues et des Mdias. [Center for Modern [Committee for Cooperation with Laos]. Author
Languages and Media Approaches]. (Vichy, trans. (NGO, France).
France).
CCMODA. Cross-country MODA. (Compare with
CAW. Country Analytic Work. NMODA).
CB. 1. Cost/benefit. (Compare with CE, definition CCOP. [Party] Central Committee of Organization
1). 2. Capacity Building. and Personnel.
CBA. Competency Based Assessment. CCPE. [History]. Consultant Council on Private
Education. (Advisory body to BPE).
CBC. 1. Community-Based Contracting [for school
construction]. 2. Community Based [School] CCR. Cohort Completion Rate.
Construction. 3. Competency Based
CCS. Country Cooperation Strategy.
Curriculum.
CCT. 1. Conditional cash transfer. 2. Cross-cutting
CBCOM. Community-based Contracting Operating
Theme.
Manual. (Prepared for EDP II).
CCTM. Child-Centered Teaching Methods.
CBCP. Community-based civil works and procure-
ment. CCU. Committee for Cooperation with UNICEF.
CBDRR. Community-Based Disaster Risk CD. 1. Capacity development. 2. Coordinating
Reduction. Department.
CBE. Campus based education. (Compare with DE). CDAP. Capacity Development Action Plan.
CBF. Childrens Book Festival. (Supported by CDB. Capacity Development Baseline.
ALC).
CDC. Childrens Development Center.
CBI. Communitybased initiative.
CDD. Community-driven Development.
CBL. Competency based learning. (See also CBT).
CDEC. Continuing and Distance Education Center.
CBM. Capacity Building and Management. (NUOL).
(Component in EDP II).
CDF. 1. Comprehensive Development Framework
CBMI. Christian Blind Mission International. (WB). 2. Capacity Development Framework.
CBO. Community-based organization. Note: The Capacity Development Framework was
first referenced in the ESDF documentation but not
CBR. Community-based rehabilitation. produced at that time. The ESDP review and
CBSR [P]. Community Based School Readiness
p
update, published by MOES 18 December 2013,
[Program]. (Also SRP, Play Group). assigns priority to the preparation of the Capacity
Development Framework during the period 2016-
CBSS. Country-Based Support Schemes. (EU). 2020.
CBT. Competency based training. (See also CBL). CDPM. Capacity Development Progress Map.
CBTS. Competency-Based Teacher Standards. CDS. Capacity Development Strategy.
CC. Climate Change. CDT. Curricula Development Team.
CCA. 1. Common Country Assessment. (Conducted CDTC. Community Development Training Center.
by the UNCT). 2. Community Conserved Area. 3.
Climate Change Adaptation. CDU. Curriculum Development Unit.

CCC. Childrens Cultural Center. CE. 1. Cost-effectiveness. (Compare with CB).


2. Continuing education. 3. Comparative educa-
Historical Note: First CCC founded in Vientiane in
tion. 4. Capacity enhancement (especially WB).
1994, now with some 20 CCCs around the country.
Supported by ALC. CEC. 1. Continuing Education Center. (FOE,
NUOL). 2. Children's Educational [Development]
CCCD. Child-Centered Community Development.
Center.

R. & V. Noonan 2017-07-27

10
CEDAW. Convention on the Elimination of All withdrew, that term was seen as pejorative and was
Forms of Discrimination against Women. replaced by Indochinoises (Indo-Chinese).

CEDC. 1. Children in especially difficult CEPE [I]. [History]. French: Certificat dtudes
i

circumstances. 2. Community Education Primaires lmentaires [Indigne /


Development Center. Indochinoises]). (Completion certificate for
primary schooling, 1 st cycle, P1-P3). (See Note to
Cedefop. French: Centre Europen pour le CEPC).
Dveloppement de la Formation Professionnelle.
[European Center for the Development of CEPGED. [Formerly]. Center for Education
Vocational Training]. (Thessaloniki, Greece). Promotion of Gender, Ethnic & Disabilities. (See
IEC).
CEDS. Center for Environment and Development
CEQA. Center for Educational Quality Assurance.
Studies. (NUOL).
(See Note to ESQAC). (MOES, see Annex Figure
CEFASE. French: Consolidation de lenseignement 9).
du franais en Asie du Sud-Est. [Consolidation of CERD. [International] Convention on the Elimina-
the teaching of French in Southeast Asia]. Author tion of all Forms of Racial Discrimination.
trans.
Certified teacher. Teacher having a certificate of
CELC. Center for English Language Communica- completion of teacher training from a TEI. (See
tion. (NUS). Uncertified teacher, Qualified teacher; see also
Annex Figure 7).
CELLL. [SEAMEO] Center for Lifelong Learning.
(Hanoi). CES. [History]. Capital Education Service.
(Compare with PES. See VCESS).
CEM. Country Economic Memorandum. (WB).
Cesvi. Italian: Cooperazione e Sviluppo. [Co-
Center. 1. Administrative unit specialized on operation and Development]. (NGO, Italy).
teaching, research, or technical matters, including,
at MOES: CEWED. [Formerly]. Center for Promotion of
Education for Women, Ethnic, and People with
Education Standards and Quality Assurance Disabilities. (See IEC).
Center (ESQAC);
Historical Note: CEWED replaced GEMEU in
Inclusive Education Center (IEC); 2008 and was replaced in 2011 by IEC.
Strategic Research & Educational Analysis CF. 1. Counterpart fund. 2. Catalytic Fund. (Multi-
Center (SREAC); donor, multi-recipient trust fund managed by the
Information and Communication Technology World Bank on behalf of donors; established 2003.
Center (ICTC); and See also CFC; ECF; FTI).
Education and Sports Research Center (ESRC). CFA. [History]. French: Centre de Formation
Acclre. (See cole Normale Acclre).
2. Generic term covering specialized teaching and
research units. See also CSD, ELRC, ETC, CFAA. Country Financial Accountability
NFEDC, TVET Center, WEDC. (Compare with Assessment.
College, Institute; contrast with COD, COE).
CFAE. French: Centre de Formation des
3. Generic term covering non-formal and informal Administrateurs de lEducation. (Administrator
community spaces for participatory learning. (See Education Training Center. Established 2007. See
CLC, LC, definition 2). IEMD).
Central Region. Xiengkhuang, Xaysomboon CFC. Catalytic Fund Committee. (See CF,
(formerly Xaysomboon SR), Vientiane Province, definition 2).
Vientiane Capital, Borikhamxay, Khammuane, and
Savannakhet Provinces. (See also Northern CFL. ChildFund Laos. (NGO, Australia).
Region and Southern Region). CFLE. Child Friendly Learning Environment.
CEPC [I]. [History]. French: Certificat dtudes
i
(UNICEF).
Primaires Complmentaires [Indigne / CFM. [MOES] Cabinet for Minister.
Indochinoises]. Completion certificate for primary
schooling, 2 nd cycle, P4-P6. CFS. Child-Friendly School. (See SOQ).
Historical Note: Initially the term Indigne CFSVA. Comprehensive Food Security and
(indigenous) was used, but after the French Vulnerability Assessment. (WFP).

R. & V. Noonan 2017-07-27

11
CFT. Competency Framework for Teachers. CLCMC. Community Learning Center Management
Committee.
CG. Community Grant. (EDP II).
CLDC. Community Learning Development Center.
CGECR. Committee for General Education
Curriculum Reform. CLE. Concentrated Language Encounter. (Approach
to second language teaching for ethno-linguistic
CGPA. Cumulative Grade Point Average. (See also
minority children; compare with CLT, GTM, TPR,
GPA).
definition 1).
CHA. Champasack Province. (Also CPS).
CLI. Community Learning International. (NGO,
CHAFC. Champasak Agriculture and Forestry USA).
College.
CLMV. Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam.

Chao Khoueng. Lao: . [Provincial] (Compare with CLV, CLMV+T).
Governor. CLMV+T. Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam.
. [District] Governor,
Chao Muang. Lao:
(Compare with CLV, CLMV).

Mayor. CLT. Communicative Language Teaching.


(Approach to second language teaching; compare
CHF. Swiss Franc. with CLE, GTM, TPR, definition 1).
CHOICE. Cambridge Hong Kong-Operation for CLTS. Community-Led Total Sanitation. (PI).
International Childrens Education. (NGO, Hong
Kong). Cluster. See School cluster.
Chula. [Common abbreviation for] Chulalongkorn CLV. Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam. (Compare with
University. (Bangkok. Officially abbreviated CU, CLMV, CLMV+T).
but see also CU). CMDT. Curriculum [and] Materials Development
CIC. Committee for Investment and Cooperation. Team.
(PMO). CMIS. 1. Contract Management Information
CIDA. Canadian International Development Agency. System. 2. Construction Management Information
System. (Compare with EMIS, FMIS, PBMIS,
CIDSE. French: Coopration Internationale pour le PMIS).
Dveloppement et la Solidarit. [International
Cooperation for Development and Solidarity]. CMS. 1. Course Management System. (See also
Author trans. (NGO, Belgium). LMS, VLE). 2. Consultant Management System.
(ADB).
CIE. Cambridge International Examination.
CN. Concept Note.
CIED. Community Initiative for Education
Development. (External financing by JICA). CNC. See CNTC, NCTC.
Cit universitaire. French. A university campus CNE. [History]. French. Centre national de
usually including residential quarters, an l'ducation. [National Education Center].
administrative building, cafeteria, and cultural and CNEPAJ. [History]. French: Centre national
sports venues. d'tudes politiques, administratifs et juridiques.
Civil society. Non-governmental organizations [National Center of Political, Administrative, and
(NGOs), community organizations, professional Legal Studies].
associations, NPA, definition 2. Compare with CNF. Campus numrique francophone. (French
Mass organization. (See Note to CSO). Speaking Digital Campus, at Dong Dok. See
CL. Collaborative learning. AUF).

Class Size. UIS Definition: Number of enrolled CNTC. Charter of National Teacher Competencies.
students divided by the number of classes for the (See also NCTC).
whole country. To ensure comparability among CO. Country Office. (E.g. of a DP).
countries, data include only regular programs and
exclude sub-groups outside the regular classroom COA. Chart of Accounts.
setting. COBIAC. French: Collectif de Bibliothcaires et
CLC. Community Learning Center. (NFE center at Intervenants en Action Culturelle. [International
village level, usually under the CLCMC or the Collaboration for Promotion of Reading and
VEDC, sometimes supported by an NGO or NPA). Libraries]. (NGO, France).

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12
COBP. Country Operations Business Plan. (ADB). Commune. [Formerly]. Administrative unit below
COD. Center of Development. (Institution with District and above Village. (Abolished in 2000).
(See Sub-district).
above minimum performance and has the potential
of reaching excellence; compare with COE). Community teacher. Teacher (regardless of qualifi-
CoDA. Community Development Association. cations) employed by the community, whose
(CSO). remuneration is based on negotiation with the
school or community leaders, often involving non-
COE. Center of Excellence. (Institution that monetary benefits. Also referred to as Village
continuously demonstrates excellent performance; teacher or Volunteer teacher. (See also Contract
compare with COD). Teacher; Quota teacher; Volunteer Teacher).
Cognitive mobility. 1. (Concerning employment): Competency based training. [According to TVET
Transition from one field of specialization to Law, December 2013] Learning based on specific
another, especially concerning labor mobility curriculum with testing against competency
between fields. 2. (Concerning child develop- standards determined in real-world production
ment): Movement or mobility in thinking and units.
reasoning, linking mental image to mental image,
concept to concept, idea to idea. Complete school. 1. Primary school in which
instruction is offered in all five grades.
Cohort Completion Rate. (CCR). UIS Definition:
[Historically: An elementary school in which
Percentage of a cohort of pupils enrolled in the 1st
grade of primary education in a given school year instruction is offered in all six grades]. (Compare
who are expected to complete this level of with Incomplete school, Multi-grade school,
education. CCR is the product of the probability Shifting classes, School cluster). 2. Secondary
of reaching the last grade and the probability of school combining lower and upper secondary
levels. (See Annex Figure 3).
graduating from the last grade. (Compare with
Survival Rate; Gross Graduation Ratio). Note: Approximately 81 % of primary schools are
complete; approximately 42 % of secondary
Collge . [History]. French: In the French language schools are complete (2015/16).
terminology of the colonial and post-colonial
periods, lower secondary level institution offering Completion Rate. (Note: UIS does not define a
1 or 2 year programs following a six-year primary Completion Rate because the term is ambiguous.
school. (See also Lyce. Not to be confused with When Completion Rate is written, either Cohort
the English College). Completion Rate (CCR), Gross Graduation Ratio,
or Survival Rate (SR) is usually meant).
Collge Polyvalent de Fa-Ngum. See Fa Ngum High
School. Compulsory schooling.
Historical Note: In 1951, under the RLG, a law
College. Post-secondary institutions, usually private, was passed instituting compulsory, free, three-year
fee-paying, and market-driven offering non-degree primary education for all children residing within a
programs, or degree programs after approval of radius of one kilometer from a public school. In
MOES. (Not to be confused with the French 1952 a complementary law was passed requiring
Collge. Compare with Institute.) the establishment of a primary school (provided
Colombo Plan [for Cooperative Economic and sufficient funds were available) in any community
Social Development in Asia and the Pacific]. A with a sufficient number of children. In March
framework for bi-lateral arrangements involving 1991 the 5 th Party Congress established the policy
foreign aid and technical assistance for the of enforcement of free and compulsory education.
economic and social development. It provides In August 1996 the Compulsory Education Decree
scholarships and third-country support for training. provided for free and compulsory primary educa-
tion. Education Vision 2030, in ESDP 2016-2020,
Historical Note: Established in 1950 at a Common- stipulates expansion of compulsory education to
wealth Conference of Foreign Ministers, held in include lower secondary.
Colombo, Sri Lanka. Laos joined in 1951 but is
not a participating member of CPSC. Also see Comstrat. Communication Strategy. (Reference to
NCP and APPEAL, Historical Note. Communication Strategy (2013-2020) to support
the Education Reform Agenda).
COMET. Connecting the Mekong through
Education and Training. (USAID). Concern [Worldwide Lao PDR]. (NGO, Ireland).

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13
CONFEMEN. French: Confrence des Ministres de CORC. Convention on the Rights of the Child.
lducation des pays ayant le franais en partage. (UN; also CRC).
[Conference of Ministers of Education of Historical note: Lao accession 8 May 1991.
Countries Sharing the Use of French].
CONFINTEA. French: Confrence internationale Cord. Also CORD. Christian Outreach for Relief
and Development. (INGO, UK).
sur l'ducation des adultes. [International
Conference on Adult Education]. (Also Core ASEAN. See ASEAN, Note.
CONFITEA).
Core school. A primary complete school serving as a
CONFITEA. See CONFINTEA.
pedagogical support center in a school cluster and
CONFRASIE. French: La Confrence rgionale des providing the upper grades for students in the
Recteurs des universits membres de lAgence feeder incomplete schools. (See Annex Figure 6).
universitaire de la Francophonie en Asie- (Compare with Satellite school. See also Groupe
Pacifique. [Regional Conference of Rectors of scolaire).
Members of the Association of Universities of the
Francophonie of Asia and the Pacific]. Author COSO. Central Operations Service Office (ADB).
trans. (See also AUF). CP. 1. Child Protection. 2. Country Program.
Consortium. (NGO, Laos. A collaboration of three CPA. Country Performance Assessment. (ADB).
U.S. NGOs: Save the Children/US, World
Education, and World Learning, Inc.). See WE / CPAC. Child Policy, Advocacy, and
Consortium. Communication [Program]. (UNICEF priority
program).
Constitution. The first constitution of the Lao PDR
CPAR. Country Procurement Assessment and
was promulgated in August 1991. An amended
Report. (WB).
constitution was promulgated in May 2003. The
current amended constitution was promulgated by CPC. 1. Central Planning Committee. 2. Country
President Choummaly Sayasone 15 Dec. 2015. Program Coordinator. 3. [Formerly] Committee
for Planning and Cooperation. (Changed to CPI in
Continuing Curriculum. Curriculum that facilitates 2004; formerly State Planning Committee, SPC).
continuation or upgrading of qualification in a
particular field. See also Continuous Curriculum; CPD. Continuing Professional Development.
Transition Curriculum. CPE. [History]. French. Centre provincial de
Continuous Curriculum. See Continuing l'ducation. [Provincial Education Center].
Curriculum. CPF. [History]. French: Centre Provincial
Continuous Education. (TVET). Education and Francophone. [Provincial Francophone Center].
(Plural: Centres Provinciaux Francophones).
training for upgrading level of qualification or
increasing knowledge and skills within any subject CPI. 1. Clear Path International. (NGO, USA).
or for any occupation. See also Continuous 2. Consumer Price Index. 3. [Formerly]. Com-
Curriculum; Transition Curriculum. mittee for Planning and Investment (MOFA). (In
2004 replaced CPC, under PMO; see MPI).
Contract teacher. Teacher (regardless of qualifica-
tions) employed on the basis of a contract, CPIA. Country Policy and Institutional Assessment.
typically of one year duration, whose salary is (IDA).
governed by recommendations from MOES but CPM. Critical Path Method.
agreed by the contracting parties (e.g., the
teacher and the village). (See also Community CPN. Child Protection Network. (See also CPWG).
Teacher; Quota teacher; Village teacher; Volunteer CPO. Country Program Outline. (PI).
teacher).
CPPR. Country Portfolio Performance Review.
Note: The concept of Contract teacher should not (WB).
be confused with the concepts of Underqualified or
Unqualified teachers, since there are contract CPRA. Country Procurement Risk Assessment.
teachers who are fully Qualified. (WB).

COPE. Cooperative Orthotic and Prosthetic CPRM. Country Portfolio Review Mission. (ADB).
Enterprise. CPS. 1. Champasak Province. (Also CHA).
2. Country Partnership Strategy. (ADB, formerly
CSP; WB).

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14
CPSC. Colombo Plan Staff College [for Technician CSD. Center for Skill Development. (Vientiane).
Education]. (Manila).
CSN. Children with special needs.
CPSPR. Country Partnership Strategy Progress
CSO. Civil society organization. (See also NPA,
Report. (WB).
definition 2; contrast with Mass Organization).
CPWG Child Protection Working Group. (See also Note: CSO, NPA, and Mass Organization all refer
CPN). to non-government organizations. CSO is the
CQA. [Formerly]. Center for Quality Assurance. more general term, usually referring to a wide
(See ESQAC). range of citizens associations that exist to provide
benefits or services or to influence specific groups
CQAF. Common Quality Assurance Framework. in society. Mass Organizations are defined in the
CQO. Chief Quality Officer. (NUOL). Lao Constitution. NPAs are incorporated
organizations licensed by the government.
CQS. Consultants Qualification Selection.
(Selection based on consultants qualifications). CSP. 1. Country Strategic Plan. 2. [Formerly].
(ADB, WB). Country Strategy and Program (ADB, now CPS).

CR. 1. Classroom. 2. Child Rights. 3. Country CSPU. Country Strategy and Program Update.
Report. (ADB).

CRC. 1. Convention on the Rights of the Child. CSR. Corporate Social Responsibility.
(UN; see also CORC with historical note). CSS. 1. Competency Standard Setting. 2. Compre-
2. Camera-ready copy. 3. Citizen Report Card. hensive School Safety.
4. Community Report Card.
CSSF. Comprehensive School Safety Framework.
CREC. [History]. French: Centre Rural dducation
Communautaire. [Plural: Centres Ruraux CSWG. Civil Society Working Group.
dducation Communautaire]. [Rural Center for CtC. Child to Child. (Support groups for children
Community Education]. Later referred to by with disabilities).
USAID as Community Rural Education Center
(CREC). CTPC. See MCTPC.
Crche. French: Day nursery, nominally for children CTS. Credit Transfer System. (See also ACTS,
aged 3 months to 2 years. (See ECCD; compare ECTS).
with Kindergarten, Nursery, Pre-school; see Annex CU. 1. Champasak University. (Established 2002.
Figure 5). Also known as Pakse University, with reference to
CRF. Contribution to the [ADB] Results the town in which it is located in Champasak
Framework. Province. See Annex Table 2). 2. Chulalongkorn
University. (Bangkok; see Chula).
CRG. Child Rights Governance.
CU5. Children under five years of age.
CRIN. Child Rights International Network.
Cumulative Dropout Rate. UIS Definition: The
CRPD. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Cumulative Dropout Rate in a given level is
Disabilities. calculated by subtracting the Survival Rate from
CRPF. Compensation and Resettlement Policy 100 at a given grade in that level. (Compare with
Framework. Dropout Rate).
CRS. Catholic Relief Services. (NGO, inter- CUSO. Canadian University Service Overseas.
national). (NGO, Canada).
CRSA. Child Rights Situation Analysis. CV. 1. Certificate Vocational. (See 9+3, CAP,
definition 2; VC I to VC III). 2. Curriculum Vitae.
CRWRC. [Formerly]. Christian Reformed World (Rsum; outline of a person's educational and
Relief Committee. (INGO. See WR). professional history).
CS. Competency Standard. CVC. Cluster Village Center.
CSA. 1. Civil Society Association. (See CSO). CVET. Continuous Vocational Education and
2. Center for Study Abroad (Japanese educational Training.
exchange organization). 3. Commission for
Solidarity with the Asian Underprivileged. (NGO, CW. Concern Worldwide. (NGO, Ireland).
Japan). CWD. Children with Disabilities. (See also PWD).

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CWS. Church World Service. (NGO, United States). DCMC. District Committee for Mothers and
(Not to be confused with Christian World Service, Children. (See also NCMC, PCMC).
a New Zealand NGO which does not operate in
DCS. 1. Department of Community Sports. (MOES.
Laos).
See Annex Figure 9. Also known as Department
CY. Calendar year. (Compare with AY, FY, SY). of Sports for All). (Note: The mandate of DCS
covers community sports nationwide; compare
D with DAPE). 2. Development Cooperation
Strategy.
D&D. Decentralization and de-concentration. (Also
DCT. Dual cooperative training. Compare with
D and D).
SBT.
D. Diploma. (Compare with C, HD).
DCU. Drug Control Unit. (MOES).
D.E.A. Diplme d'tudes Approfondies. French:
Diploma of Advanced Studies. (Post-graduate DCYDA. Dongsavath Children And Youth
diploma taken before Ph.D. degree). Development Association. (Was DCYDC,
renamed and established in 2013 as Lao NPA,
D.TVE. Diploma in TVE. definition 2).
DA. Designated Account. (WB). (See also OA). DCYDC. Dongsavat Children and Youth
DAA. Dhamma Aid Asia. Buddhist INGO. Development Center. (Also DC&YDC). (See
DCYDA).
DAAD. German: Deutscher Akademischer Austausch
DD. Dong Dok. (Reference to the main campus of
Dienst. German Academic Exchange Service.
NUOL).
DAC. Development Assistance Committee. (OECD;
DDA. 1. Demand Driven Approach. (Project with
comprises 22 donor countries and the European
external financing by Sida). 2. Demand-driven
Commission).
approach. (Generic concept. Compare with
DACS. [Formerly]. Department of Administration HRBA, RBA).
and Civil Service. (See PACSA, MOHA).
DDAII. Phase II of DDA.
DACUM. Developing a Curriculum. (Methodo-
DDF. District Development Fund.
logical approach to development of TVET
curricula). DDG. Deputy DG.
Dakar Framework for Action. Adopted at the DE. 1. Distance education. (Compare with CBE).
World Education Forum in April 2000 in Dakar, 2. District Engineer.
Senegal. (Re-affirmation of the commitment to the
World Declaration on EFA, Jomtien, 1990, and DEA. [Formerly]. Division for Education
achievement of the EFA goals by 2015. See also Administrators.
Muscat Agreement). DEAM. Department of Education Administration
and Management. (NUOL/FOE). (Also referred
DAP. Direct Aid Program. (Australian Aid).
to as TEADC; TDC).
DAPE. Department of Arts and Physical Education. Note: The formal Lao name is Department of
(MOES, See Annex Figure 9). (Note: The Education Management, but it is widely referenced
mandate of DAPE covers schools specifically. in the literature as Department of Education
Compare with DCS). Administration and Management.
DBEL. Delivering Better Education in Laos (2007- DEB. 1. [History]. District Education Bureau.
2013). (AusAID). (Renamed DESB in 2010). 2. District Education
DBEP. District Basic Education Plan. Board.
DC. 1. Dubai Cares. (Philanthropic organization, DEB/PA. District Education Bureau / Pedagogical
Dubai, United Arab Republic). 2. Direct Advisor.
Contracting. DEB-C. District Education Bureau Culture [Unit].
DCDC. Donkoi Children Development Center. (See DEB-E. District Education Bureau Education
also DCYDC). [Unit].
DCE. District Construction Engineer. (EQIP II). DEC. Distance Education Center.
DCI. Development Cooperation Instrument. (EU).

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16
Decentralization [of the Education Sector]. Based DESD. 1. [UN] Decade of Education for Sustainable
on MOE Decree No. 1500/DOP.02, March 3, Development. 2. [History]. District Education and
2002. Decree on Implementing the Decentraliza- Sports Division. (See DESB).
tion in the Education Sector:
Deseret International Charities. (NGO, USA).
Relating to the build-up (see also Three Builds) Associated with the Mormon Church; specializing
of: in teaching of English but also supporting water
o Province as a Strategic Unit; and sanitation and school facilities.
o District as a Planning Unit; and DESIT. Department of Education Statistics and
o Village as an Implementation Unit. Information Technology. (Renamed, see ESITC).
Assigning responsibilities for each level: DEVAW. Declaration on the Elimination of the
o DEB is responsible for pre-school and Violence against Women.
primary; Development Triangle Area. Official development
o PES is responsible for lower secondary and area comprising 13 provinces in CLV. (Includes
upper secondary; and Attapeu, Sekong, Saravane, and Champasack
o MOE is responsible for NUOL, colleges, provinces).
technical and vocational schools, and ethnic DFA. Development Financing Agreement. (WB).
boarding schools.
DFAT. [Australian] Department of Foreign Affairs
DED. [Formerly]. German: Deutscher
and Trade, into which AusAID was integrated
Entwicklungsdienst. German Development November 1, 2013. (See Australian Aid).
Service. (See GIZ).
DFC. 1. Design for Change. 2. [History]. Dong
DEDC. District Education Development Committee. Dok Forestry College. (MAF; merged into NUOL
(Compare with EDC, VDC, VEDC, definition 1, 1995).
WEDC).
DFG. German: Deutsche Finanzierungsgesellschaft
DEI. Department of Education Inspection. (See fr Beteiligungen in Entwicklungslndern, GmbH
DOI). German Finance Company for Investments in
DEM. Decentralized education management. Developing Countries. (See also GIZ).
Demi-groupe Scolaire. [History]. French: DFID. Also Df ID. [UK] Department for Inter-
Elementary school with more than three grades but national Development.
usually less than six, in the process of becoming a Historical Note: Formerly, Overseas Development
complete school. (Compare with Groupe Administration, ODA. Re-organized as DFID in
Scolaire). 1997.
DEO. [History]. District Education Officer. DFS. District Financial Services.
DEP. [History]. French: Diplme de lEnseignement DG. Director General.
Professionnel.
DGE. [Formerly]. Department of General Educa-
DEPC[EL]. [History]. French: Diplme dtudes du tion. (MOES). (Divided into two departments in
premier cycle [denseignement laotien]. (Diploma 2008; see DPE and DSE).
for completion of the lower secondary academic
schooling, Collge, grades 7-10, in Laos). DGEI. Department of General Education Inspection.
Replaced by DEI in 2008.
Deputy Minister. Vice Minister. (Compare with
Assistant Minister). DGIS. Dutch: Directoraat-Generaal Internationale
Samenwerking [Directorate-General for Inter-
Note: The titles Deputy Minister and Vice Minister national Cooperation]. (Netherlands).
are synonymous, but Vice Minister is the more
commonly used term. DGP. Department of General Planning. (In CPI).
DER. Department of External Relations. (MOES, Dhamma. Lao: . Doctrine, teachings of the
See Annex Figure 9). Buddha.
DES. 1. Department of Elite Sports. (MOES. See DHE. Department of Higher Education. (MOES, see
Annex Figure 9). 2. [Formerly]. District Annex Figure 9. For historical note see DHTVE.)
Education Service. (See DESB).
DHHU. Deaf and Hard of Hearing Unit.
DESB. District Education and Sports Bureau.
(Formerly DEB). (See Annex Table 1).

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DHS. Demographic and Health Survey. (See also DOACS. Department of Administration and Civil
MICS, LSIS). Service. (PMO).
DHTVE. [Formerly]. Department of Higher, DOEI. Department of Education Inspection. (See
Technical, and Vocational Education. (Also DOI).
HTVED).
DOF. Department of Finance. (MOES. See Annex
Historical Note: Re-organized in 2008 into Figure 9).
separate departments, DHE and DTVE.
DOI. 1. Department of Inspection. (See Annex
DI. See DOI, definition 1. Figure 9). (See also DEI). 2. Digital Opportunity
DIC. 1. Deseret International Charities. 2. Depart- Index.
ment of International Cooperation (MOPI). Dong Dok. Main campus of NUOL, approximately
3. Drop-in Center. 10 km north of central Vientiane Capital.
DIE. Deutsches Institut fr Erwachsenenbildung. DOP. Department of Personnel and Organization
German Institute for Adult Education. (MOES. See Annex Figure 9).
DIH. Department of Industry and Handicraft. (In DOPC. See DPC.
MOIC, definition 1).
DOR. Dropout Rate. See DR.
Diplme de lEnseignement Professionnel.
[History]. French: Diploma of Vocational DOS. [Formerly]. [National] Department of
Education. Statistics. (Previously NSC, definition 2). (Under
the MPI). (See LSB).
Historical Note: Under the Education Reform of
1962, a preparatory two-year cycle of technical DP. 1. Development Partner. (See also IDP).
and professional preparation in Matanyom 1 and 2. Direct purchase. (Compare with ICB, IS, LCB).
Matanyom 2. (Compare with CAP, definition 2). 3. Department of Planning. (MOES. See Annex
Figure 9). (Formerly DPC; DPF). 4. Development
Director General. Senior official serving directly
Plan.
under a Vice Minister or Assistant Minister and
responsible for a Department or unit of equivalent DPACS. [Formerly]. Department of Public Admin-
status. (Note: Plural form Directors General). istration and Civil Service. (PMO). (See
PACSA).
Disrobe. [Of a monk]. To leave the Sangha.
DPAE. Department of Physical and Arts Education.
DIT. 1. District Implementation Team. (Compare
(See DAPE).
with NIT, PIT, definition 1). 2. District Inclusive
Education Trainer. (Compare with PIT, definition DPB. [History]. Domestic Public Bidding.
2).
DPC. [Formerly]. Department of Planning and
DLAE. [History]. Department of Literacy and Adult [International] Cooperation. Also DPIC. (MOES;
Education. replaced PSU. Renamed DP, definition 3).
DLHRD. Division of Legislation and Human DPCC. Disaster Prevention and Control Committee.
Resource Development. (In DOP). DPE. 1. Department of Primary and Pre-school
DLLM. Digital Library of Lao Manuscripts. Education. (See DPPE). 2. [Formerly]. Depart-
ment of Physical Education. (See DAPE).
DM. Disaster Management. (See also DRM, DRR, 3. [Formerly]. Department of Private Education
DRR/M, Sendai Framework). (See PEACO).
DMC. Developing Member Country. (ADB, WB). DPEA. Department of Physical Education and Art.
DMF. Design and Monitoring Framework. (See DAPE).

DMS. Detailed Measurement Survey. (ADB). DPEM. [History]. Department of Private Education
Management. (Also DPrE. See PEACO).
DMT. [History]. French: Diplme de Moniteur
Technique. Technical Instructor Diploma. DPF. [Formerly]. Department of Planning and
Finance. (Separated over several reorganizations
DNE. Department of Non-formal Education. (Also into DP, definition 3, and DOF).
DNFE and NFED). (See Annex Figure 9).
DPhAE. Department of Physical and Art Education.
DNFE. Department of Non-formal Education. (Also (See DAPE)
DNE and NFED). (See Annex Figure 9).
DNPD. Deputy National Project Director.

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18
DPhE. Department of Physical Education. (See DRS. 1. Data Recording System. 2. Data-base
DAPE) Reporting System.
DPIC. [Formerly]. Department of Planning and DRT. District Resource Team.
International Cooperation. (MOE). (See DPC).
DSA. 1. Daily subsistence allowance. 2. Department
DPIP. [History]. Department of Public Investment of Student Affairs. (MOES, see Annex Figure 9).
Program. (Also DStA). 3. [Formerly]. Division for [General
Education] School Administrators.
DPIU. District Project Implementation Unit.
(Compare with PIU, PPIU). DSD. Department of Skills Development.
(MOLSW; see DSDE).
DPL. Development Policy Letter. (ADB, see also
PL). DSDE. Department of Skills Development and
Employment. (MOLSW).
DPM. Deputy Prime Minister.
DSE. Department of Secondary Education. (MOES,
DPO. 1. Disabled Peoples Organization. 2. For unit
see Annex Figure 9).
in MOES, see DOP.
DSED. See DSDE.
DPPE. Department of Pre-school and Primary
Education. (MOES, established 2008). (See DSpA. Department of Sports for All. (MOES, see
Annex Figure 9). Annex Figure 9)
DPrE. [Formerly]. Department of Private Education DStA. Department of Student Affairs. (MOES, see
(MOE). (See also DPrE; DPEM; DPE). See Annex Figure 9)
PEACO.
DSWD. Department of Social Work and
DPRK. Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea. Development. (FSS, NUOL).
(North Korea. Compare with ROK).
DTE. Department of Teacher Education. (MOES,
DPrv.E. See DPrE. See Annex Figure 9). (Formerly DTT).
DPS. Department of Public Services. [In PMO DTL. Deputy Team Leader.
which sets quotas each year for the number of new
DTP. Desktop publishing.
permanent recruitments and government funded
contracts]. (See PACSA; Quota teacher). DTT. [History]. Department of Teacher Training.
(Renamed DTE. See Annex Figure 9).
DQAF. Data Quality Assessment Framework [for
the EMIS]. DTVE. Department of Technical and Vocational
Education. (MOES, see Annex Figure 9).
DR. Dropout Rate.
DTVET. See DTVE.
DRC. 1. Danish Red Cross. 2. District Resettlement
Committee. (ADB). Dual cooperative training. (TVET). Training in
cooperation with enterprises with the emphasis on
DRET. Disability Rights and Equality Training.
practical part of training, with the theoretical part
DRM. Disaster Risk Management. (See also DRR, of the training taking place at TVET institutions
RCC, DRR/M, Sendai Framework) and practical training in the enterprise, based on
regulations, condition, and contract between the
DRMC. Disaster Risk Management Committee. (In
parties (institution and enterprise or institution,
MOES).
enterprise, and apprentice). (Compare with
Dropout Rate. UIS Definition: Proportion of School-based training).
students from a cohort enrolled in a given grade at
DUCDA. District Unit for Construction and
a given school year who are no longer enrolled in
Development Assistance. (See also PUCDA).
the following school year. (See Dropout; compare
with Cumulative Dropout Rate). DVT. Dual vocational training.
Dropout. UIS Definition: Student who leaves DVTE. See DTVE.
school definitively in a given school year.
DVTHE. [History]. Department of Vocational,
DRR. Disaster Risk Reduction. (See also DRM, Technical, and Higher Education. (Separated into
DRR/M, Sendai Framework). two departments in April 2008, DHE and DTVE.
MOES. See Annex Figure 9).
DRR/M. Disaster Risk Reduction / Management.

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19
DVV [International]. German: [Institut fr Inter- ECCD. Early Childhood Care and Development. (In
nationale Zusammenarbeit des] Deutschen Volks- Laos, refers to pre-school services for children
hochschul-Verbandes. Institute for International aged 3 - 5 years, sometimes from 3 months,
Cooperation of the German Adult Education including both Nursery or Crche and
Association. Kindergarten. See also ECCDE, ECCE, ECE,
Note: DVV is sometimes translated as the German ECED, IECD, Pre-school).
Folk High School Association, which corresponds ECCDE. Early Childhood Care, Development, and
closely to a direct translation and to the German Education.
Volkshochschule tradition.
ECCE. Early Childhood Care and Education.
DWG. Donor Working Group. See ESWG.
Note: In Laos the term used in EFA documents is
DWHH. German: Deutsche Welthungerhilfe ECCD., but see Notes to ECE.
German Agro Action, see GAA. (NGO,
ECD TV. Early Childhood Development Television.
Germany).
ECD. 1. Early Childhood Development. (See also
E ECCD; ECCDE, ECCE; ECED; IECD; Pre-
school). 2. [Formerly]. Education Construction
. See EUR. Division. (See ECDM). 3. EC Delegation.
EA&P. East Asia and the Pacific. ECDF. Education Capacity Development Frame-
work. (See also CDF Note; ESCDF).
EA. Executing Agency.
ECDL. EC Delegation Laos.
EAB. Education[al] Advisory Board.
Note: There are EABs at central, provincial, ECDM. Education Construction and Design Man-
district, and institutional levels. agement. (Division within DOF, MOES,
previously ECS and ECD).
EAC. [Formerly]. Education Assurance Center.
(See ESQAC). ECE. Early Childhood Education. (See also ECCD;
ECCE; ECD; ECED; IECD; Pre-school).
EACAT. East Asian Circle of Applied Technology.
Note 1: The abbreviations ECCD, ECD, and ECE,
EADI. Education Administration Development are often used interchangeably. ECE is the most
Institute. (See IEAD). commonly used in Lao documentation, e.g., in the
ESDF, the ESDP, the Education Law, and the
EAEA. European Association for the Education of NESRS.
Adults.
Note 2: According to Articles 14 and 15 of the
EAL. English as an Additional Language. (See also Education Law of 2007/08, ECE includes Nursery
EAP, EFL, ESL). and Kindergarten.
EAM [P]. Education Administration and Manage-
p
ECED. Early Childhood Education and Develop-
ment [Program]. (At FOE/NUOL). ment. (See also ECCD, ECCE, ECE, IECD,
EAP. 1. English for Academic Purposes. (See also Kindergarten, Pre-school).
EAL, EFL, ESL). 2. East Asia and the Pacific. ECEP. Early Childhood Education Project (2014-
EAPRO. East Asia and the Pacific Regional Office 2019). (External financing by WB).
(UNICEF, Bangkok). ECERS. Early Childhood Environment Rating
EATC. Education Administrator Training Center. Scale. (Unicef).
(Vangvieng; compare with IEAD). ECF. Expanded Catalytic Fund. (See CF).
EB. Executive Board. ECHO. European Commissions Humanitarian Aid
EBS. Ethnic Boarding School. Office.

EC. 1. European Commission. 2. [Formerly] ECOFIN. Economic and Financial Data [Pro-
European Community. (See EU, Historical Note). jection].
3. External Communication. cole cantonale. [History]. French: Primary school
ECAFE. [History]. [United Nations] Economic in an urban district. (Compare with cole
Commission for Asia and the Far East. darrondissement).
Historical Note: Established 1947, renamed 1974. cole darrondissement. [History]. French: Primary
(See ESCAP). school in a rural district. (Compare with cole
cantonale).

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20
cole de Maitresses Maternelles. School for ECOP. Environmental Code of Practice. (For
kindergarten teachers. construction of school buildings).
cole de village. [History]. French: Village schools, ECOSOC. [United Nations] Economic and social
usually for the first three grades. Council.
cole lmentaire. [History]. French: Elementary ECS. [Formerly]. Education Construction Service.
school, Primary school. (Note that current use of See ECDM.
this term in names of public institutions can still be
ECTS. European Credit Transfer and Accumulation
found in some areas).
System. (See Erasmus; EHEA. Compare with
cole maternelle. [History]. French: Kindergarten, ACTS).
pre-school. (Note that current use of this term in
ECU. 1. Education Coordination Unit. 2. ESDF
names of public institutions can still be found in
Coordination Unit. 3. ESDP Coordination Unit.
some areas).
cole Normale Acclre. [History]. French: ED. 1. Education Disadvantage. 2. Educationally
disadvantaged. 3. Executive Director.
Accelerated Teacher Education School (2-year
program compared with standard 4-year program Ed.D. Doctor of Education [degree].
following 6-year primary schooling).
EDC. Education Development Committee. (See also
cole Normale dInstituteurs. [History]. French: VDC; VEDC, definition 1, and WEDC).
Teacher Training School [for primary school
teachers]. (See Normal school / college / EDEMV. Education Development for Ethnic
university). Minority Villages.

cole Normale de Bonzes. [History]. French: EDF. 1. Education Development Framework. (2001-
Teacher training school for monks. 2005; in MOE 2001, Education Strategic
Planning). 2. Education for Development Fund.
Historical Note: Established 1909 in Vientiane; (Formerly Minsai, NGO, Japan). 3. European
later in Luang Prabang. (See Normal school / Development Fund.
college / university).
EDG. Education Development Grant.
cole Normale Suprieure. [History]. French:
Teacher Training College [for lower secondary EDGP. Education Development Grant Program.
school teachers]. Established 1959. (See Normal (Under BESDP). (See also SAGP).
school / college / university). EDI. EFA Development Index. (UNESCO).
cole primaire. [History]. French: Primary school. Note: A composite indicator calculated for each
(Note that this term is in current usage in names of country as the arithmetic of four components:
institutions in some areas). Adult literacy rate (age 15+);
cole Royale de Mdecine [du Laos]. [History]. Universal primary education (Adjusted Net
French: [Royal School of Medicine]. Enrollment Rate, NERA);
cole secondaire, le deuxime cycle. [History]. Quality of education (Survival Rate to Grade 5);
French: Upper secondary school. (Also cole and
secondaire, 2me cycle). (Note that this term is Gender Equality Index (GEI).
still in current usage in names of institutions in
some areas). EDP. 1. Education Development Project (external
financing by the World Bank), later referred to as
cole secondaire, le premier cycle. [History].
EDP I. 2. [History]. Education Development
French: Lower secondary school. (Also cole Project financed by USAID during the period
secondaire, 1er cycle). (Note that this term is in 1961-1975.
current usage in names of institutions in some
areas). EDP I. Education Development Project. (Originally
cole secondaire. [History]. French: Secondary referred to as EDP). (External financing by WB).
school. (Note that this term is in current usage in EDP II, EDP2, EDP 2. Second Education Develop-
names of institutions in areas). ment Project. (Sometimes referred to as SEDP).
cole Suprieure de Pdagogie. [History]. French: (External financing by WB).
Teacher Training College [for upper secondary EdQUASP. Education Quality Assurance Strategic
school teachers]. College of Education. Located Plan. (More commonly EQASP).
at Dong Dok.

R. & V. Noonan 2017-07-27

21
EDRR. Education for Disaster Risk Reduction. EFA-FTI. [Formerly]. EFA Fast Track Initiative.
(Launched 2002; renamed GPE September 2011.
EDUCAMP 2014. A BarCamp on educational See also FTI).
innovations. (NUOL, March 2014).
EFAMOD. EFA Model, an education sector
ducateur de bas. [History]. See Basic Education strategic development spreadsheet model to
Teacher. support EFA. (UNESCO).
Education Law. The current education law is EFA-NPA. Education for All National Plan of
promulgated by Presidential Decree No. 133/PD, Action 2003-2015 (MOE, March 2005). (See
28 Aug 2015. EFA). (Sometimes referred to as the EFA National
Action Plan or the National EFA Action Plan).
Historical Note: The term education law
sometimes also refers to: Note: The publication date of the Education for All
National Plan of Action 2003-2015 is cited in the
The Education Law of 2007 (as it was adopted literature variously as 2003, 2004, and 2005.
by the National Assembly 3 July 2007), or the Although the period covered is from 2003-2015, it
Education Law of 2008 (as it was published by was approved by the Government Cabinet
MOE in March 2008). It is sometimes referred December 30, 2004, and published 2005 for the
to as the Education Law of 2007/08. Ministry of Education by the UNESCO Asia and
The Education Law of 2000, Approved by the Pacific Regional Bureau for Education. (For
National Assembly April 8, 2000; further information, see Annex Table 5).
The Compulsory Education Decree of the Prime EFEO [Vientiane]. French: cole Franaise
Minister, August 15, 1996; or dExtrme-Orient. French School of East Asian
The Education Reform of 1962. (Although it Studies [Vientiane branch]. (Also known as
was not an act of the National Assembly but French School for the Far East).
rather a Royal Decree, it is often referred to in Effective Transition Rate. (ETranR). UIS
later years as the The Education Reform Act) Definition: The number of new entrants into the
EDV. Education Department of Vientiane [Capital 1 st grade of a higher level of education in Year
City]. Y+1, expressed as a percentage of the number of
students enrolled in the final grade of the lower
EDWG. Education [and Gender] Donors Working level of education in Year Y who did not repeat
Group. (Replaced by EGSWG. See ESWG and that grade in Year Y+1. (Compare with Transition
IEDWG). Rate, PR, SR, definition 1).
EE. Environmental Education. Notes: 1. Compared with the Transition Rate, this
indicator better reflects the real transition rate,
EEA. Environmental Education and Awareness. regardless of repetition, where students repeat the
EECS. Environmental Education and last grade of the lower level but may eventually
Communication Strategy. make the transition to the higher level. However,
calculation is somewhat more demanding, so
EEF. European Education Fund. (NGO). figures reported to be Effective Transition Rates
EEFA. Equal Education For All. (Lao NPA, may sometimes actually be simple Transition
definition 2). Rates. 2. Since 2016, the UIS data sets contain
only Effective Transition Rate.
EEG. Education Evaluation Group. (Activity in
ASLO component of EDP II). EFIS. Education Finance Information System. (See
also FMIS. Compare with EMIS, PBMIS).
EEME. Empowerment of Ethnic Minorities through
Education. EFL. English as a Foreign Language. (See also
EAL, EAP, ESL; TOEFL).
EEPA. Employability and Entrepreneurship
Potential Assessment. EfS. Education for Sustainability.

EEPF. Education Equipment Production Factory EGDP. 1. Ethnic Group Development Plan. (See
[Enterprise]. also EGP). 2. Ethnic Group Development Project.

EFA. 1. Education for All. (See Jomtien, Dakar EGMA. Early Grade Mathematics Assessment.
Framework, Muscat Agreement, UBE; UPC; UPE, (Compare with EGRA).
EFA-NPA). 2. [EfA]. Education for ASEAN. EGP. Ethnic Group Plan. (See also EGDP).
EGPF. Ethnic Group Policy Framework. (PRF).

R. & V. Noonan 2017-07-27

22
EGRA. Early Grade Reading Assessment. ELO. Expanded Learning Opportunities.
(Compare with EGMA). ELP. English Language Proficiency. (See also
EGSWG. Education and Gender Sector Working TELP).
Group. (MOES). (Usually referred to as ESWG). ELPS. Early Learning in Primary School. (Sup-
ported by SC-UK and SCN).
EGWG. Education and Gender Working Group
(MOES). (Replaced by EGSWG). ELRC. English Language Resource Center. (Under
DTE).
EHEA. European Higher Education Area.
ELTT[P]. English Language Teacher Training
p

EHEF. European Higher Education Fair. [Program].


EIA. Environmental Impact Assessment. EMBS. Ethnic Minority Boarding School.
EIC. [Formerly]. Education Inspection Committee. EMDP. Ethnic Minority Development Plan. (See
(MOES). (See DOI). EGDP).
EIDHR. European Instrument for Democracy and EMECW. Erasmus Mundus External Cooperation
Human Rights. (EU). Window.
EMIS. Educational Management Information
EIFL. Electronic Information for Libraries.
System. (Compare with CMIS, FMIS, GIS, TMIS,
(Foundation; Netherlands).
TEMIS, PBMIS, PMIS).
EIGE. European Institute for Gender Equality. EMMP. Environmental Mitigation and Monitoring
(Vilnius, Lithuania; established 2007). Plan.
Eight Priorities. Core components of the 4th NSEDP E-MTEF. Education sector MTEF. (See also
(4th Five Year Plan, 1996-2000): ESMTEF; MTEF).
1. Food production; ENAG. [History]. cole Nationale dAdministration
2. Goods production; et de Gestion. French: National School of
3. Discontinuation of slash and burn cultivation; Administration and Management. (See NSAM,
Historical Note).
4. Rural development;
Endline Assessment. Assessment at the completion
5. Infrastructure development;
of an intervention. (Compare with Baseline
6. Development of relationships and cooperation Assessment, Midline Assessment).
with foreign partners;
ENI. [History]. French: cole Normale dInstitut-
7. Development of human resources; and eurs. Teacher Training School for primary school
8. Development of services. Cycle II (grades 4-6) teachers.
EIRR. Economic Internal Rate of Return. ENQA. European Association for Quality Assurance
EIU. Education for International Understanding. in Higher Education.
Historical Note: Established in 2000 as European
EL. Education Law.
Network for Quality Assurance in Higher
ELDS. Early Learning and Development Standards. Education. In 2004 renamed European Associa-
(UNICEF). tion for Quality Assurance in Higher Education,
Elementary school. 1. [Rare current usage] but the acronym was retained.
Incomplete primary school. 2. [History]. Primary ENS. [History]. French: cole Normale Suprieure.
school. Under the RLG, primary schooling Teacher Training College for secondary school
comprised two cycles. The 1 st cycle, lower teachers. (See also ESP, definition 3).
elementary covered Grades 1-3. The 2 nd cycle, ENV. [History]. French: cole Normale de
upper elementary covered Grades 4-6. In some Vientiane. Teacher Training School in Vientiane.
texts the term primary is used to refer to the 1 st
cycle, and elementary is used to refer to the 2 nd EOI. Expression of Interest.
cycle. In some texts the term refers to Grades 1-6. EOJ. Embassy of Japan.
(See 3+3; Lower Primary; Upper Primary). EP. 1. Equivalency Program. (See also PEEP, PEP,
lve. [History]. French: Student. definition 2). 2. Endeavor Program. (Australian
ELI[C]. English Language Institute [of China].
c
scholarship program; see also AAS, ALA).
Active in Laos since 1996. EPDF. Education Program Development Fund.
ELICOS. English Language Intensive Course for (WB, FTI).
Overseas Students. (Australia).

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23
EPDFSC. Education Program Development Fund ESBS. Eastern Star Bilingual School. (Private,
Strategy Committee. (WB, FTI). Vientiane).
EPE. Education Publishing Enterprise. Also known ESC. Education Statistics Center. (See ESITC).
as Education[al] Printing Enterprise.
ESCAP. [United Nations] Economic and Social
EPF. Education Promotion Foundation. (See FPE). Commission for Asia and the Pacific. (UN).
EPFL. cole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne.
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne. ESCDF. Education Sector Capacity Development
(Note: Provided technical support in Polytechnic Framework. See also CDF Note, ECDF.
Institute Project, which lead to development of ESD. Education for Sustainable Development.
NUOL).
ESDF. Education Sector Development Framework.
EPR. Education Policy and Reform [Unit]. (2009-2015). (MOE, April 2009). (See also EDF,
(UNESCO Bangkok). definition 1; compare with ESDP).
EQA. External Quality Assurance. (For external Note: There are four quite different documents
comparison, e. g, accreditation). (Compare with commonly cited in the literature as ESDF, three
IQA). of which are consultant reports. The official MOE
EQAC. [Formerly, but see Note to ESQAC)]. version is dated April 2009. The final consultant
Education Quality Assurance Center. (MOES). report is dated September 2009.

EQASP. Education Quality Assurance Strategic Plan ESDF PP. ESDF Preparation [for Implementation]
[for 2011 to 2020]. Plan.
EQF. European Qualifications Framework. ESDP . 1. Education Sector Development Program.
1

(See SDP). 2. Education Sector Development Plan


EQIP. Education Quality Improvement Project.
(2011-2015). (MOES, September 2011; includes
(ADB, 1992-1998, also referred to as EQIP I).
7 th 5-year Education Development Plan, 2011-
EQIP II. Second Education Quality Improvement 2015). 3. Education and Sports Sector Develop-
Project. (External financing by ADB and Sida; see ment Plan (2016-2020). (See ESDP2).
also TTEST). Historical Notes: 1. ESDP can also refer to MOE
EQR. External Quality Review. (1995). Education Sector Development Plan,
1996-2000. (See also EDF, definition 1; ESDF).
EQS. Education Quality Standard. (See also SOQ).
2. Although ESDP (2011-2015) was published by
ER. Enrollment Rate. See NER, GER. the newly re-organized MOES, the document was
Erasmus Mundus. EU program to enhance quality prepared prior to the reorganization and makes no
reference to sports except on the cover.
in higher education through scholarships and
academic cooperation between Europe and the rest ESDP 2. Education and Sports Development Plan
2

of the world. (See also ECTS, EHEA, EMECW). (2016-2020). (Published December 2015. Pre-
Note 1: Named for the 16 th century noted Dutch pared as input to the 10 th Party Congress and 8 th
philosopher, Erasmus. NSEDP).
Note 2: Mundus. Latin: World. Note: Although ESDP2 is intended as an updating
of ESDP (2011-2015), definition 2, the meaning of
ERI. Environment Research Institute. the abbreviation is changed to reflect the re-
ERIKS. Swedish: Erikshjlpen. [Literally Eriks organization of the Ministry with the addition of
help]. ERIKS Development Partner. the mandate for sports.
ESF. French: coles Sans Frontires. Schools
ERI-Net. Education Research Institutes Network [in
without Borders. (NGO, France).
the Asia-Pacific]. (UNESCO Bangkok).
ESFG. Education Sector Focal Group. (See ESWG
ERM. [History]. French: cole Royale de Mdecine Focal Group; Focal Group).
du Laos. Lao Royal School of Medicine.
ESIC. [Formerly]. Education and Sport Information
ERR. Economic rate of return. (Compare with FRR, Center. (See ESIMC).
IRR).
ESIMC. Education and Sport Information and Media
ESAP. Education Sector Annual Plan. Center. (MOES, see Annex Figure 9).
ESAPB. Education Sector Annual Program Budget.

R. & V. Noonan 2017-07-27

24
ESIT[C]. [Formerly]. Educational Statistics and
c
1995 census report). These groups are classified
Information Technology [Center]. (MOES / DP. into four distinct ethno-linguistic families and their
See Annex Figure 9). respective subfamilies (linguists list some 150 or
more branches):
ESL. English as a Second Language. (See also
Tai-Kadai (sub-family Lao-Phutai);
EFL).
Austro-Asiatic (sub-family Mon Khmer);
ESM. Education Sector MTEF. (See also
ESMTEF). Hmong Iu-Mien (sub-family Hmong Iu-Mien);
and
ESMF. Environment and Social Management
Sino-Tibetan (subfamily Tibeto-Burman).
Framework.
(See Annex Table 4 and Historical Note).
ESMP. Environmental and Social Management Plan.
(WB). ETranR. Effective Transition Rate.

ESMTEF. Education Sector Medium Term ETS. Educational Testing Service. (Private non-
Expenditure Framework. (See also E-MTEF, profit testing organization, USA. See also TOEFL;
MTEF). TOEIC. Compare with IELTS).

ESP. 1. Education Sector Plan. 2. English for EU. 1. European Union. 2. See EUR.
Specific Purposes. (E.g., specifically for ASEAN; Historical Note: The European Economic Com-
see LEAP, definition 1). 3. Education Sector munity (EEC) was established in 1957, was
Planning [Program]. 4. [History]. French: cole officially renamed the European Community (EC)
Suprieure de Pdagogie. Teacher Training in 1993, and was replaced by the European Union
College for Secondary School Teachers. (See also (EU) in 2009. EU has a development cooperation
ENS, IPS). agreement with Lao PDR since 1997.
ESQAC. Education Standards and Quality Assur- EUR. Euro. (Also ).
ance Center. (MOES, see Annex Figure 9). (See
also CEQA; EQAC, QAC). EVI. Economic Vulnerability Index. (One of three
indices on which a countrys LDC status is
Note: The three abbreviations, CEQA, EQAC, determined; see also GNI per Capita, HAI).
ESQAC, and QAC all refer to the same organiza-
tional unit. The abbreviation ESQAC is well- EWEC. East-West Economic Corridor.
established and is by far the most widely used. It EWG. Education Working Group.
accurately represents the activities of the unit. The
formal Lao name, however, does not contain the Exma [Project]. Excellent Management [Project].
word for standards, so CEQA and EQAC are (To test learners knowledge via an online system).
more accurate as direct translations.
ESRC. Education and Sports Research Center.
F
(MOES / DP. See Annex Figure 9). FA / EFA. Framework for Action on Education for
ESW. Economic and Sector Work (ADB). All (EFA). (See also EFA NAP).
ESWG. Education Sector Working Group. (Joint Fa Ngum High School. [History]. Under the RLG,
GOL-development partners under MOES a seven-year comprehensive high school (4+3),
leadership). (See also Focal Group; DWG, financed by USAID and modeled after the
IEDWG). American comprehensive high school. Referred to
in French as Collge Polyvalent de Fa-Ngum.
ETA. [Fulbright] English [Language] Teaching
Assistant. FA. Force Account.
tage 1. [History]. French: 1st stage of cole Falang. Also Farang. Lao: . [Non-Asian]
primaire, Grades 1-3. Foreigner.
tage 2. [History]. French: 2 nd stage of cole FAM. Finance and Administration Manual. (WB).
primaire, Grades 4-6.
FAR. Faculty of Architecture. (NUOL). Also
ETC. 1. Education Technology Center. (Within FOAR.
RIES). 2. English Tutoring Class.
FBO. Faith Based Organization.
ETF. European Training Foundation.
FC. Field Coordinator.
Ethnicity. Forty-nine ethno-linguistic groups are
listed in the 2005 census report (47 listed in the FCD. [History]. Foreign Currency Department.

R. & V. Noonan 2017-07-27

25
FD. See DOF. Plan in the Lao PDR, published by MOES in
1991, repeated in Education Strategic Planning,
FDI. Foreign direct investment. August 2001, and still widely referenced currently
FE. Faculty of Engineering. (NUOL). (Also FEN). (e.g., ESDP, definition 2):
1. Moral education [or Behavior];
FEA. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture.
(NUOL). 2. Intellectual education [or Intelligence];
3. Aesthetic [or Artistic] education;
FEB. Faculty of Economics and Business
[Administration / Management]. (NUOL; also 4. Physical education; and
FEBM, FEM). 5. Labor education.
FEBM. Faculty of Economics and Business Note 1: Sometimes translated as the Five
Management. (NUOL; also FEB, FEM) Aspects, Five Dimensions, Five Pillars, Five
Principles, or Five Spheres. The term Five
FED. Faculty of Education. (More commonly FOE, Principles is not appropriate because a principle is
definition 1). usually a statement of a rule or law and requires a
FELM. Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Mission. subject and predicate. The term Domains might
be preferred because of the parallel with Blooms
FEM. Faculty of Economics and [Business] Taxonomy.
Management. (NUOL; also FEB, FEBM). Note 2: Not to be confused with the Three Pillars
FEN. Faculty of Engineering. (NUOL). (Also FE). of Education Sector Development, the Four Pillars
of Education, or the Six Principles of Education.
FES. Faculty of Environmental Sciences. (NUOL).
Note 3: Often cited in connection with the Three
FEU. Far Eastern University. (Manila). Characteristics of Education.
FFE. Food for Education. (Program financed by Note 4: Today the concept labor education is
USDA; see LEAPS). usually interpreted broadly as education about the
world of work, the labor market, skill develop-
FG. 1. [ESWG] Focal Group. (See Focal Group). ment, production, entrepreneurship, or work ethics.
2. Focus Group. It is sometimes translated as Vocational
FGD. 1. Focal Group Discussion. 2. Focus Group Education.
Discussion. Five Pointed Star. (Also 5-Pointed Star). Teaching
FGM. Focus Group Meeting. method concept introduced in 1994 under EQIP I
by TDC, targeting primary and lower secondary
FHI 360. (NGO, USA; formed in 2011 through education, introduced in the Primary School
merger of FHI and AED). Curriculum in 1998. The five points of the star are
FHI. [Formerly]. Family Health International. still currently referenced, usually with current
(NGO, USA. See FHI 360). terminology:
1. Activity-based learning;
FI. Friends-International. (INGO).
2. Teacher questioning;
FIAS. [History]. French: The Fdration Indo-
3. Using teaching aids effectively;
chinoise des Associations du Scoutisme (FIAS)
(Indochinese Federation of Scouting Associations. 4. Group learning and group discussion; and
See Scouts, Historical Note). 5. Application to daily life.
FIDA. Finnish Development Cooperation Organiza- Five Principles of Education. See Five Domains of
tion. (NGO, Finland; not to be confused with Education. (See especially Note 1).
FINNIDA).
Five Priority Programs. Priority programs for
FIMC. Foreign Investment Management Committee. national development by 2000 adopted by the 4th
Party Congress in 1986:
FINNIDA. [Finnish] Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Development Cooperation. (Not to be confused 1. Food;
with FIDA). 2. Environment;
FIT. Fit for School [Program]. External support by 3. Production for export;
GIZ. 4. Transport and communication; and
Five Domains of Education. (Lao: 5 Lakmoun). 5. Education reforms.
The Five Domains of Education presented in
Principles and General Education Development

R. & V. Noonan 2017-07-27

26
Five-Year Plan. Key political level economic and FOL. Faculty of Letters (NUOL). (Also FLE).
social plan document, covering 5-year periods.
FOS. Faculty of [Natural] Sciences (NUOL). (Also
Formally NSEDP.
FNS; compare with FSS).
FLA. Faculty of Law and [Public] Administration.
FOT. Field of Training.
(NUOL).
Foundation [Course / Program / Year]. Instruction
FLE. Faculty of Letters (NUOL). (Also FOL).
intended to make up for formal or informal
FLP. Faculty of Law and Political Science. deficiencies in requirements for an education or
(NUOL). training course or program, such as a program
intended for primary school graduates to enter a
FLS. 1. Flexible Learning Strategies. 2. Faculty of
teacher training program intended for lower
Library Science (NUOL).
secondary school graduates.
FM. 1. Financial Manager. 2. Financial manage- Historical Note: Prior to the extension of the
ment. school system from 11 to 12 years in SY 2009/10
FMA. Financial Management Assessment. (WB). (see Annex Figure 2), entering university students
would typically begin with a one- or two-year
FMAC. Financial Management Adjustment Credit. Foundation Program (ISCED 4) before entering a
(WB). degree program. With the lengthening of the
FMCBC. Financial Management Capacity Building school system, the Foundation Program was
Credit. (WB). dropped.

FMCBP. Financial Management Capacity Building Four Breakthroughs. Lao: Boukthalu. For educa-
Project. (WB). tion, a goal expressed by the 8 th Party Congress:
Create breakthrough changes in education and
FMIS. Financial Management Information System. training in terms of quality and quantity. More
(Compare with CMIS, EFIS, EMIS, PBMIS, broadly, slogan embodying goals introduced at the
PMIS). 9 th Party Congress and presented in the 7 th NSEDP.
FMM. Financial Management Manual. (See also Three Builds).
1. Breakthrough in thinking, to release and renew
FMR. Financial Monitoring Report. (WB).
the unchanged, conservative mind, old stereo-
FMS. [Formerly]. Faculty of Medical Sciences types, recklessness, unfairness, dogmatism,
(NUOL). and complacency;
FNS. Faculty of Natural Sciences (NUOL). (Also 2. Breakthrough in human resource development
FOS. Compare with FSS). in all areas, especially in development and
building capacity of civil servants in various
FOA. 1. Faculty of Agriculture (NUOL). Also areas, according to the real situation;
FOAG. 2. Faculty of Architecture (NUOL). Also
3. Breakthrough in solving challenges in the
FOAR.
governance and management systems that are
FOAG. Faculty of Agriculture (NUOL). Also FOA. hindering commercial production and service
delivery; and
FOAR. Faculty of Architecture (NUOL). Also FAR.
4. Breakthrough in poverty eradication by
Focal Group. ESWG Focal Group. (Also Thematic seeking the source of funds and special
Focal Group, Sub-SWG). promotion policy, and creating social and
Note: These Focal Groups change from time to economic infrastructure by setting priority on
time. FGs as of January 2014: holistic development.
FG1: Basic Education; Note: These are referred to in the 7 th NSEDP as
FG2: Post-basic Education; the Four Dynamic Objectives. In this
connection Boukthalu has sometimes been
FG3: Education Management, Administration translated in the media simply as dynamic, as in
and Performance Assessment; and The Four Dynamics. Although that is not an
FG4: Education Research and Analysis. accurate translation of the word boukthalu, it
does express the spirit of the 9th Party Congress
FOE. 1. Faculty of Education. (See Annex Table and the 7 th NSEDP: The plan is intended to be
2). 2. Faculty of Engineering. (NUOL, but see flexible and dynamic, based on the actual situation
also FEN). at the time, to ensure achievement of the planned
FOF. Faculty of Forestry [Science] (NUOL). objectives.

R. & V. Noonan 2017-07-27

27
Four Pillars of Education. (In reference to the 1953 (October) Franco-Lao Treaty of Amity &
report of the International Commission on Association recognizes the Kingdom of Laos
Education for the 21 st Century, Learning: The as a fully independent and sovereign state
Treasure Within, published by UNESCO in 1996, and transfers French powers (except
known as the Delors Report): military) to RLG; Laos remains in the
French Union.
1. Learning to know;
1954 (July) Final Declaration of the Geneva
2. Learning to do;
Conference acknowledges full independence
3. Learning to live together; and and sovereignty of the Royal Kingdom of
4. Learning to be. Laos. French Military Mission remains in
Note: Not to be confused with the Three Pillars of place until December 1975 to train the Royal
Education Sector Development in Laos. Lao Army.
1957 (August) Revised Constitution of Laos omits
Four Pillars of Poverty Eradication Strategy. Also reference to the French Union.
Four Sectors of Poverty Eradication Strategy.
1958 French Union is replaced by French Com-
1. Agriculture and forestry; munity, and Laos terminates its membership.
2. Education; FRESH. Focusing Resources on Effective School
3. Health; and Health. (Initiative by UNESCO, WHO, UNICEF,
4. Infrastructure, especially rural roads. WFP, WB, and others as part of the EFA Dakar
(See NGPES). agenda in 2000).
FRM. Feedback and Resolution Mechanism.
FPE. Foundation for Promoting Education [in Lao
PDR]. (Also known as Education Promotion of FRR. Financial rate of return. (Compare with ERR,
Foundation). IRR).
FPIC. Free Prior Informed Consultation. FRS. Financial Reporting System.
FPT University. Private university in Da Nang, FS. Functional Skills.
Vietnam. (Founded 2006, specializing in software
development). FSS. Faculty of Social Sciences. (NUOL).
(Compare with FNS).
Francophonie. [Formally]. French: Organisation
internationale de la Francophonie. International FT. Fixed Tranche. (EC budget support). (Compare
Organization of the French-speaking World. (See with VT).
OIF). FTA. Free trade area.
French Colonial Period. Historical Note: FTI. [Formerly] [EFA] Fast Track Initiative.
1893 Luang Prabang becomes French Protector- (Launched 2002; sponsored by WB; renamed GPE
ate; Vientiane and Champasak become in September 2011, later referred to as the
French colonies. Initiative).
1895 (June) Sino-French treaty is signed, ceding FTI-CF. [Formerly] Fast Track Initiative Catalytic
provinces Phongsaly and Muang Sing to the Fund. (See FTI, CF, definition 2).
French protectorate of Laos.
FTP. Full Technical Proposal.
1899 Vientiane and Champasak are ruled from
Luang Prabang as part of the French FTU. [Lao] Federation of Trade Unions. (Also
Protectorate. LFTU, LTUF).
1945 (April) King Sisavangvong, under pressure FWR. Faculty of Water Resources (NUOL).
from the Japanese coup de force, reluctantly
declares the French Protectorate null and FY. Fiscal Year (in Laos beginning October 1 and
void. ending September 30). (Compare with AY, CY,
SY).
1945 (September) Following the Japanese sur-
render, Vice-Regent and Prime Minister FYP. Five Year Plan. (Formally National Socio-
Prince Phetsarath re-affirms Lao inde- Economic Development Plan, NSEDP).
pendence from France (for which he is
dismissed by the King).
1949 (July) Laos becomes an Associated State
within the French Union, although with
limited autonomy. (Continued)

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28
G GEFI. [UN Secretary-Generals] Global Education
First Initiative. (Launched 2012 to accelerate
G&M. Governance and Management. progress towards EFA goals and MDGs).
G1-G5. Grade [in primary school]. (Also P1-P5). GEGAP. Gender and Ethnic Groups Action Plan.
(Compare with M1-M4, M5-M7).
GEGDP. Gender and Ethnic Groups Development
GAA. German Agro Action. (See DWHH). Plan.
GAD. Gender and Development. GEI. Gender Equality Index. (Compare with Gender
Parity Index, GPI).
GAP. 1. Gender Action Plan. 2. Global Action
Program [on ESD]. (Adopted at the World GEIC. General Education Inspection Committee
Conference on Education for Sustainable Develop- (MOES). Also GICE, IC.
ment, Aichi-Nagoya, Japan, November, 2014).
GEM. 1. Global EFA Meeting. 2. Global Education
GADRRRES. Global Alliance for Disaster Risk Monitoring [Report]. (UNESCO, formerly GMR).
Reduction & Resilience in the Education Sector. Note: UNESCO publishes the annual GEM. The
GAPE. Global Association for People and the World Bank and the IMF publish an annual MDG
Environment. (NGO). Global Monitoring Report.
GAR. Gross Admission Rate. (Note: UIS does not GEMEU. [Formerly]. Gender and Ethnic Minority
define this term. When this term is written, Gross Education Unit. (Under the DGE). (See IEC;
Intake Ratio (GIR) is probably meant.) CEWED, Historical Note).
GATS. General Agreement on Trade in Services. Historical Note: Created in 1996 by the MOE to
oversee BEGP.
GBEP. Girls Basic Education Project. (See BEGP).
GEMS. Gender and Ethnic Minority Strategy.
GBS. General Budget Support. (Compare with SBS;
GEMU. [Formerly]. Gender and Ethnic Minority
see also PRSO).
Education Unit. Also GEMEU. (Under the DGE).
GBV. Gender Based Violence. (See also SRGBV). (See IEC; CEWED, Historical Note).
GCAC. Give Children a Choice. (NGO, USA). Gender Equality Index. (GEI). An index with a
range 0-1 used in calculating the EDI, equal to
GCDES. Governments Capacity Development in
either the GPI or 1/GPI.
the Education Sector. (External financing by EC).
Note 1: UIS does not explicitly define this statistic,
GCE[d]. 1. Global Citizenship Education. 2. Global although it is used in some EFA documents, where
Campaign for Education [beyond 2015]. it is well-defined in terms of the GPI, which UIS
(UNESCO initiative). does define.
GCT. 1. Graduate Certificate of Teaching. Note 2: The GPI exceeds unity when, for a given
2. Guidelines for Certification of Teachers. statistic, the value for females is greater than the
value for males, e.g. GERfemale/GERmale > 1. In
GDA. Gender and Development Association. (Lao
such cases, since all indicators making up the EDI
NPA, definition 2). (Formerly GDG; WID).
must range from 0 to 1, the GEI is calculated as the
GDG. Gender and Development Group [of like- inverse of the GPI. Gender equality is indicated
minded NGOs]. (Formerly WID, re-constituted as when GEI = 1.0.
GDA, Lao NPA, definition 2). Note 3: Not to be confused with the indicator of
GDP p. c. Gross Domestic Product per capita. the same name used by EIGE, which is a much
[GDP/Population] more comprehensive and complex compound.

GDP. Gross Domestic Product. Gender Gap. Generic term referring to gender
disparity. In the education sector it usually refers
GDP/c. Gross Domestic Product per capita to the female/male ratio of some common statistic,
[GDP/Population]. such as NERf/NERm or (Literacy Rate)f/(Literacy
GE. General education. (Compare with TVET). Rate)m. A Gender Gap is indicated when the ratio
is less than 1. It is not defined by UIS. (Compare
GED. Global Education Dialogues. (Facilitated with Reverse Gender Gap).
dialogues between governments, universities, and
industry; sponsored by British Council). Gender Inequality Index. Index of gender disparity
based on reproductive health, empowerment, and
GEEU. [Formerly]. Gender and Ethnic Education labor market participation; introduced by UNDP.
Unit. (See IEC). (Compare with Gender Parity Index).

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29
Gender Parity Index. (GPI). UIS Definition: Ratio GICE. General Inspection Committee for Education.
of female to male values of a given indicator (ratio Also GEIC, IC.
of females/males for a given statistic, e.g.,
GID. Gender Inclusion and Disability.
GERfemale/GERmale). (Compare with Gender
Ratio). GII. Gender Inequality Index. (Compare with GPI).
Note: The valid range of the GPI is from 0 (in the Gini Index. (Also Gini Coefficient). A statistical
complete absence of females) to (in the measure commonly used to represent national
complete absence of males). Gender Parity is distribution of income or wealth. The valid range
indicated when GPI = 1.0. (See also Gender is from 0 (perfect equality, e.g., everyone has the
Equality Index; Gender Ratio, Note 2). same income) to 1 (maximum inequality, e.g., one
Gender Ratio. (GR). (Also referred to as Sex Ratio, person has all the income, and all others have
especially by demographers). none).
Note 1: UIS does not explicitly define this statistic, Note: Named after Corrado Gini, 1912.
although it is widely used in UNESCO documents, GIR. 1. Gross Intake Ratio. (Compare with NIR).
where it refers to the ratio of the absolute number 2. Governance and Institutional Reform.
of females to the absolute number of males for a
given indicator. E.g. the ratio of the number of GIRLG. Gross Intake Ratio in the Last Grade of
females enrolled to the number of males enrolled, Primary. (Sometimes called Primary Completion
or equivalently, the ratio of the proportion of Rate, PCR, but that term is misleading because
enrollees who are female to the proportion of GIRLG is a measure of intake, not completion.
enrollees who are male, i.e., %Female/%Male, or See also Gross Graduation Ratio).
f/m. GIS. Geographic Information System. (Compare
Note 2: If GR known, the relative proportions f with CMIS, EMIS, FMIS, PMIS).
and m are easily calculated: f=GR/(1+GR), and GIZ. German: [Deutsche] Gesellschaft fr Inter-
m=1/(1+GR).
nationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH. German
Note 3: By long-standing tradition, demographers Agency for International Cooperation.
define the Sex Ratio as the ratio of males/females, (Established 2011-01-01 through merger of DED,
whereas educators generally use the inverse. GTZ, and InWEnt.). (See also DFG).
(Compare with Gender Parity Index).
GKS. Global Korea Scholarship.
Note 4: The valid range of the GR is from 0 (in the
complete absence of females) to (in the com- GLAD. German-Lao Association for Development.
plete absence of males). Gender Parity is
Global [Partnership] Monitoring Framework.
indicated when GR = 1.0. Sometimes GR is
Tracks progress on the commitments and actions
expressed as %, in which case Gender Parity is
agreed at the Fourth High Level Forum on Aid
indicated when GR = 100.
Effectiveness in Busan, Korea, 2011.
GENIA. Gender in Education Network in Glo-local [approach to curriculum development].
Asia[-Pacific]. Global, national and local needs, responsibilities,
GEQua-BasEd. Governance, Equity, Quality, and roles considered in a balanced way.
Access Basic Education. (EU program).
GMR. [Formerly] [EFA / MDG] Global Monitoring
GER. Gross Enrollment Ratio. (Compare with Report. (See GEM).
NER).
GMS. Greater Mekong Sub-region. (Compare with
GES. General education schools. Mekong Sub-region).
GFDRR. Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and GMSARN. Greater Mekong Sub-region Academic
Recovery. (World Bank). and Research Network.
GFIS. Government Financial Management GNI per Capita. Gross National Income per person
Information System. in the population.
GFP. Gender Focal Point. GNI. 1. Gross National Income. 2. Good Neighbors
International. (NGO, Republic of Korea).
GGP. Grant-in-Aid Scheme for Grassroots Human
Security Projects. (Government of Japan). GNI/c. See GNI per Capita.
GGR. Gross Graduation Ratio. See also GPGR. GNL. Good Neighbors Laos. (NGO, Republic of
Korea; see GNI, definition 2).

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30
GNP. Gross National Product. Greater Mekong Sub-region. Cambodia, China
(Yunnan Province), Laos, Myanmar, Thailand,
GO. Government Organization. (Compare with
Vietnam. (Compare with Mekong Sub-region).
INGO, NGO, NPO).
GREF. French: Groupement des Retraits
GOA. Government of Australia.
ducateurs sans Frontires. Group of Retired
GOJ. Government of Japan. Educators without Borders. Author trans. (NGO,
France).
GOL. Government of Lao Peoples Democratic
Republic. GRID. Gender Resource Information and
Development [Center]. (Supported by UNDP;
GOLPET. Government of Laos Professional English NORAD; SNV).
Language Training [program]. (See LAI).
Grit. A combination of passion and perseverance.
Good Hands Laos. Korean Buddhist NGO.
Gross Enrollment Ratio. (GER). UIS Definition:
GPA. Grade Point Average. (See also CGPA). Total enrollment in a specific level of education,
GPAR. Governance and Public Administration regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the
Reform. eligible official school-age population correspond-
ing to the same level of education in a given
GPE. Global Partnership for Education. (Formerly school-year. (Compare with Net Enrollment Rate,
EFA-FTI, renamed September 2011; see also FTI). Age-Specific Enrollment Rate).
GPEDC. Global Partnership for Effective Develop- Note: The Gross Enrollment Ratio is equal to Net
ment Cooperation. Enrollment Rate + Overage Enrollment Ratio +
GPEF. GPE Fund. Underage Enrollment Ratio.

GPGR. Gross Primary Graduation Ratio. Gross Entry Ratio. (Note: UIS does not define this
term. When this term is written, reference is
GPI. 1. Gender Parity Index. 2. Good People probably made to Gross Intake Ratio).
International. (NGO, Republic of Korea).
Gross Graduation Ratio. UIS Definition: Number
GPL. Great Peace in Lao PDR. (NGO, Republic of of graduates, regardless of age, in a given level or
Korea). program, expressed as a percentage of the
population at the theoretical graduation age for that
GPN. General Procurement Notice. (WB).
level or program. (Compare with Gross Primary
GR. Gender Ratio. Graduation Ratio).
Grade 0. Also Grade Zero. Special Pre-school Gross Intake Ratio (GIR) [to Grade 1 of a given
classes attached to a primary school to prepare 5- level of education]. UIS Definition: Total number
year-old children to enter Grade 1, particularly of new entrants in Grade 1 of a given level,
targeting non-Lao ethnic groups, girls, and regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the
children from the poorest families who have not population at the official entrance age for that
attended Kindergarten. (See Annex Figure 1 and level. (Compare with NIR; see also Gross Entry
Figure 5. Compare with ECCD. Contrast with Ratio).
Pre-Primary and Pre-school).
Gross Intake Ratio in the Last Grade of Primary
Grade 1-12. Grades 1-5: Primary. Grades 6-9: (GIRLG). UIS Definition: Total number of new
Lower Secondary; Grades 10-12: Upper entrants in the last grade of primary education,
Secondary. regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the
Note: Grades 6-9 are often referred to as population at the theoretical entrance age to the
Secondary Grades 1-4, and Grades 10-12 are last grade of primary.
often referred to as Secondary Grades 5-7. See Gross Primary Graduation Ratio. UIS Definition:
Matanyom, Annex Figure 1, Note 3). Total number of graduates from the last grade of
Graduate Diploma. Qualification between primary education, regardless of age, expressed as
Bachelors Degree and Masters Degree. (Lao: a percentage of the population at the theoretical
San Sung. Compare with Undergraduate graduation age for primary.
Diploma). Groupe Scolaire. [History]. French: In some
GRALE. Global Report on Adult Learning and communities, a network or cluster of typically 3 - 5
Education. (UNESCO). incomplete primary schools, which provide mutual
pedagogical support and collectively provide
complete primary schooling. This historical term

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31
is still in use in some areas. (See Complete school; HI. 1. Handicap International. (INGO,
Incomplete school; School cluster; School Belgium/France). 2. Hearing impairment.
network; Muad; Lower primary; upper primary).
HIB. Handicap International Belgium. (NGO,
GSE. General secondary education. (Compare with Belgium).
TVET).
Hid sipsong. Lao: . Twelve [monthly]
GTM. Grammar Translation Method. (Approach to
second language teaching; compare with CLE, Buddhist Festivals [of the annual ritual cycle].
CLT, TPR, definition 1). HIF. Handicap International France. (NGO,
GTPS. Graduate teacher placement scheme. France).

GTZ. [Formerly]. German: [Deutsche] Gesellschaft HIPC. Heavily Indebted Poor Country. (IMF and
fr Technische Zusammenarbeit. German Agency WB).
for Technical Cooperation. (See GIZ. See also HIPV. [History]. Higher Institute of Pedagogy in
DFG). Vientiane. (See PUV)
Note: The HIPV was created through the merger of
H NIPV and the Viengsay Normal School following
the establishment of the Lao PDR in 1975. It had
H&N. Health and Nutrition. branch campuses in Luang Prabang and
H.E. His/Her Excellency. (Presentation title for high Savannakhet.
ranking official). HIV. Human immunodeficiency virus. (See also
HACT. Harmonized Approach to Cash Transfers. AIDS).

Haeng Xad teacher. Lao: . National HJA. Huam Jai Asasamak. Lao:

Teacher. (Honorific title for teacher selected at . [Join Hearts Volunteers]. Lao Volunteer
national level). Compare with Paxaxon Teacher. Service.
HAI. Human Assets Index. (One of three indices on HLE. Home literacy environment.
which a countrys LDC status is determined; see
also GNI per Capita, EVI). HLF4. 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness.
(Busan, Republic of Korea, 2011).
HD. Higher Diploma. (Compare with D, HD.TVE,
HDC). HLRTM. High Level Round Table Meeting.
(Compare with RTM).
HD.TVE. Higher Diploma in TVE.
HO. 1. Head Office. 2. Host Organization.
HDC. Higher Diploma Continuous. (Compare with
HD). Honorific Title. (Of teachers). Title officially
awarded on the basis of merit in teaching and
HDI. 1. Human Development Index. 2. Humpty associated with salary supplements:
Dumpty Institute.
Lao term English term .
HE. Higher education. Haeng Xad National Teacher
HEC. Higher Education Commission. Paxaxon Peoples Teacher .
HEI. Higher education institution. (Compare with (Compare with Rank).
TEI). Note: These categories are defined in the
Helvetas [Swiss Intercooperation]. Swiss Education Law of 2007/08.
Association for International Cooperation. HOTS. Higher Order Thinking Skills:
HEMIS. Higher Education Management Information Creativity;
System. (Compare with EMIS, TEMIS). Critical thinking;
HEMP. Higher Education Master Plan. Logical reasoning;
HEQS. Higher Education Quality Standards. Problem solving;
HES. Higher education subsector. Decision-making.
Note: SEAMEO INNOTECH. Competency
HFA. Hyogo Framework for Action [for Disaster Framework for Southeast Asian Teachers of the
Risk Reduction] (2013-2015). 21st Century.
HOU. Huaphanh Province. (Also HPH).

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32
HPAE. High-performing Asian economies. Income Index;
HPH. Huaphanh Province. (Also HOU). Life Expectancy Index; and
Education Index [= (Mean Years of Schooling
HPI. [History]. Higher Pedagogical Institute. (See Index + Expected Years of Schooling Index)/2].
also ESP, definition 3).
Humpty Dumpty Institute. (NGO, USA). Working
HPS. Health Promotion in Primary Schools. in Laos since 2006 with school feeding, water and
HR. 1. Human resources. 2. Human Rights. sanitation, teacher training, UXO.
HRBA[P]. Human Rights Based Approach [to
p
Hybrid Courses. Courses based on a combination of
programming]. (Compare with DDA, RBA). face to face traditional training sequences, and
monitoring of online courses. (Also blended
HRD. Human resource development. learning, technology-mediated instruction,
HRDME. Also HRD-ME. Human Resource web-enhanced instruction, mixed-mode
Development for a Market Economy. (Lao- instruction, and others).
German development cooperation program). Hyogo. Reference to the World Conference on
HRDNC. Human Resource Development National Disaster Reduction in Kobe (Hyogo Prefecture),
Commission. (Compare with [HRD] NTC, Japan, in January 2005.
definition 3).
I
HRDU. Human Resources Development Unit.
HRE. Human Rights Education. I/A. Imprest Account.

HRM. Human resource management. IAAPS. International Association for Asia Pacific
Studies.
HRMIS. Human Resources Management
Information System. (Compare with PMIS). IACD. Institute of Asian Culture and Development.

HSK. Hny Shupng Kosh. Chinese: IAD. Institute for Administration Development.
(See IEAD).
. Official Chinese proficiency test for standard
IAG. Information, Advice, and Guidance. (In-school
Chinese for non-native speakers, e.g., for studies in
career counselling).
China.
IAI. 1. Internet-Assisted Instruction. (Compare with
HTCEE. [History]. Higher Technical College of
Electronics and Electro-technics (MOE; merged CAI; RAI; TAI). 2. Initiative for ASEAN
into NUOL in 1995). Integration.
IAPSO. Inter-Agency Procurement Service Office.
HTS. Higher Technical School.
(UNDP).
HTVED. 1. Higher, technical, and vocational
IARS. Imprest Account Reconciliation Statement.
education. 2. [Formerly]. See DVTHE.
IATI. International Aid Transparency Initiative.
Human Assets Index (HAI). Also Human Asset
Index. A measure of the level of human capital of IAU. International Association of Universities.
a country. (UNESCO-based worldwide association of higher
Note 1: The Human Assets Index, the GNI per education institutions).
capita, and the Economic Vulnerability Index are IAV. Institute of Agriculture, Veunkham. (Merged
used by the UN as the criteria for classification of into NUOL in 1995).
a country as a Least Developed Country (LDC).
Note 2: The Human Assets Index is calculated as a IB. 1. International Baccalaureate. (International
composite of four equally weighted indicators: foundation offering educational programs
awarding internationally recognized certificates
Percentage of population undernourished; and diplomas; Geneva). 2. [History]. French:
Mortality rate for children aged five years or Institut Bouddhique.
under;
IBE. International Bureau of Education. (Geneva).
Gross secondary school enrollment; and
IBSP. Intergovernmental Programs in Basic
Adult literacy rate. Sciences. (UNESCO).
Human Development Index (HDI). (UNDP). A
statistical composite of: (Continued)

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33
IC. 1. Inspection Committee (MOES). (See also IDCB. Institutional Development and Capacity
GICE). 2. Inclusive Community. (Compare with Building.
IE, IEM).
IDCJ. International Development Center of Japan.
ICA. [History]. [United States] International
IDD. Iodine Deficiency Disorder.
Cooperation Agency. (Predecessor to USAID).
IDF. 1. Institutional Development Fund (WB).
ICAE. International Council for Adult Education.
2. International Development Fund.
ICB. International Competitive Bidding. (Compare
IDP. International Development Partner.
with DP, IS, LCB, NCB).
IDU. Intellectual Disability Unit.
ICCPR. International Covenant on Civil and
Political Rights. IDWG. (See IEDWG).
ICE. International Conference on Education. IE. Inclusive education.
(Generic abbreviation for international conferences Historical Note: Also called Integrated Education.
on education).
IE School. Inclusive Education School.
ICERD. International Convention on the Elimination
of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. IEA. International Association for the Evaluation of
Educational Achievement. (Compare with PISA).
ICESCR. International Covenant on Economic,
IEAD. Institute for Educational Administration
Social, and Cultural Rights.
Development. (See IEMD. See Annex Figure 9).
ICO. International charitable organization. IEAWN. Inclusive Education and Advancement of
ICF. International Classification of Functioning, Women Network.
Disability and Health. IEC. 1. Inclusive Education Center. (MOES /
ICR. 1. Institute for Cultural Research. (Ministry of DPPE. See Annex Figure 9). 2. Information,
Information, Culture, and Tourism; see also ILR). Education, Communication.
2. Implementation Completion [and Results] Historical Note: Established 2011 based on Decree
Report. (WB, previously PCR). No. 509/PM, December 2010. See CEWED,
Historical Note.
ICS. 1. Dutch: Internationaal Christelijk Steunfonds
[International Christian Support Fund] (NGO, IECD. Integrated Early Childhood Development
Netherlands). 2. International Child Support (UNICEF). (See also ECCD; ECCE; ECED; Pre-
(NGO, Netherlands). 3. Individual Consultant school).
Selection. (ADB, WB). IEDWG. 1. Informal Education Development
ICSEI. International Congress for School [Partner] Working Group. (Informal group for
Effectiveness and Improvement. coordination and consultation related to ESWG
meetings). 2. [Formerly]. Informal Education
ICT. 1. Information and Communications Donor Working Group.
Technology. 2. In-Country Training.
IEE. Initial Environmental Examination. (ADB).
ICT4D. ICT for Development. IELTS. International English Language Testing
ICT4E. ICT for Education. (See also ICT4LE). System. (British. Compare with ETS).
ICT4IE. ICT for Illiteracy Eradication. IEM. Inclusive Education Management.
IEMD. Institute for Educational Management
ICT4LE. ICT for Lao Education.
Development. (MOES, see Annex Figure 9, Km 8,
ICTC. 1. International Cooperation and Training Thadeua Road; also known as IEAD).
Center (Vientiane). 2. Information Communica- IENSC. Inclusive Education National Steering
tion and Technology Center. (MOES, See Annex Committee. (MOES).
Figure 9).
IEP. 1. [History]. Integrated Education Project /
ICT-CFT. [UNESCO] ICT Competency Framework [renamed] Inclusive Education Project. (An IE
for Teachers. project, 1993-2009). 2. Inclusive Education
ID. Implementing Department. Policy. 3. Individual Education Plan.
IFA. 1. Integrated Fiduciary Assessment. 2. Institute
IDA. International Development Association. (Con-
of Foreign Affairs.
cessional financing or soft-loan arm of the
World Bank Group). IFB. Invitation for Bids.

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34
IFEAD. Institute for Educational Administration IMU. Instructional Materials Unit. (MOES/DOF).
Development. Also IEAD. (See IEMD).
Incheon Declaration. Outcome of the WEF in
IFI. International Financial Institution. Incheon, Republic of Korea, Education 2030:
IFMT. French: Institut de la Francophonie pour la Towards inclusive and equitable quality education
Mdecine Tropicale. Francophone Institute for and lifelong learning for all. (See Jomtien, Dakar
Tropical Medicine. Author trans. Framework for Action, Muscat Agreement,
IFO. International Financial Organization. SDG4).
IFR. Interim Financial Report. Inclusive Education School. Mainstream school
with facilities and human and physical resources to
IGA. Income generating activity. provide teaching and learning strategies responsive
IGCSE. International General Certificate of to the needs of all learners.
Secondary Education.
Incomplete school. 1. Primary school offering
IGO. Intergovernmental Organization. instruction in fewer than 5 grades, often due to an
IGP. Income generating project. insufficient number of teachers to provide
instruction in all five grades. 2. Secondary school
II. International institution.
containing only one level, usually referring to
IIEP. [UNESCO] International Institute for lower secondary level only. (Compare with
Educational Planning. (In Paris). Complete school, Multi-grade school, Shifting
IITE. [UNESCO] Institute for Information classes. See also School cluster, Village school).
Technology in Education. (In Moscow). (See Annex Figure 3).
IK. Indigenous Knowledge. Independence Day. See French Colonial Period.
(Sometimes National Day is referred to as
IKS. Indigenous Knowledge System. Independence Day).
ILE. International Learning Exchange. (UNICEF; Indochina Wars. The 1 st Indochina War refers to
See WASH, WinS). the anti-colonial struggle after World War II. The
iLEAD. Initiative for Livelihoods Education and 2nd Indochina War refers to what in the West is
Development. (AEA, with external financing by called the Vietnam War and in Vietnam is called
EU). the American War, which included the Secret
War in Laos.
ILFE. Inclusive and Learning-Friendly Environ-
ment. INEE. International Network for Education in
Emergencies.
ILO. International Labor Organization.
Historical Note: Laos became a member state in INGO. Also iNGO. International NGO.
1965, but active participation began in the late Initiative, the. See FTI.
1980s.
INNOTECH. [SEAMEO] Regional Center for
ILR. Institute for Linguistic Research. (Ministry of Educational Innovation and Technology. (Manila).
Information, Culture, and Tourism; formerly a
department within ICR, definition 1). INP. French: Institut National Polytechnique.
National Polytechnic Institute. (See also NPI).
IM. Instructional materials.
INQAAHE. International Network for Quality
IMC. Information and Media Center. (MOES, See Assurance Agencies in Higher Education.
Annex Figure 9).
INSET. In-service education and training. (See also
IMCI. Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. PRESET and UPSET).
IMDU. Instructional Materials Development Unit. Institut Bouddhique. French: Buddhist Institute.
(In TEADC).
Historical Note: Founded 1931 in Vientiane and
IMF. International Monetary Fund. 1933 in Luang Prabang; also known as Institute of
Buddhist Studies. (Compare with Institut Indigne
IMR. Infant Mortality Rate. Defined by the United
dtudes Bouddhiques). In 1996 the Institute in
Nations Population Division as the number of
Vientiane was renamed the Sangha College. (See
deaths of children less than one year of age per
also Sangha College, Champasak, and Sangha
1000 live births.
College, Vientiane).
IMSO. International Mathematics and Science
Olympiad. Institut de Droit et dAdministration. [History].
French: Institute of Law and Administration.

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35
Institut Indigne dtudes Bouddhiques. [History]. IPRSP. Also I-PRSP. Interim Poverty Reduction
French: [Indigenous] Institute of Buddhist Studies. Strategy Paper. (WB. See also PRSP; NPEP;
NGPES).
Historical Note: Established 1944 at Wat Luang
Pakse. (Compare with Institut Bouddhique). IPS. [History]. French: Institut Pdagogique
Suprieur. (Previously known as ESP).
Institute. 1. Specialized post-secondary or tertiary
professional education and training institution Historical Note: Founded 1959.
usually offering Higher Diploma but not IPSA. Initial Poverty and Social Analysis (ADB).
Bachelors Degree (e.g., EADI, IEAD, LANITH,
NIEQA, NPI, Polytechnic Institute, VEDI). Also IPTT. Indicator Performance Tracking Table.
Institution, as in HEI, TEI. 2. Specialized research IQA. Internal Quality Assurance. (For improvement
institution (e.g. RIES, NERI). (Note that the of internal mechanisms for quality assurance).
Office of Research at NUOL is sometimes (Compare with EQA; see also IQAN).
incorrectly referred to as a Research Institute).
IQAN. Internal Quality Assurance Network.
INT. [Department of] Institutional Integrity. (WB).
IRD. International Relief and Development. (INGO,
Integrated Vocational Education and Training. USA).
(IVET). Training approach which includes: (a)
IRDA. [History]. French: Institut Royale de Droit et
Formal, non-formal, and informal education and
dAdministration. Royal Institute of Law and
training; (b) Theoretical and practical teaching and
Administration.
learning organized at the same institutions accord-
ing to specified conditions; and (c) Transfer of IRR. 1. Implementing Rules and Regulations
credits between formal and non-formal programs. (MOF). 2. Internal Rate of Return. (See also
ERR; FRR).
International dollar. Hypothetical unit of currency
that has the same purchasing power that the US IRRI. International Rice Research Institute.
dollar has in the United States at a given point in Historical Note: Lao branch established 2007.
time. It is widely used by economists to make
comparisons between countries and over time. It is IRW. Integrated Reading and Writing [approach to
based on Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). second language teaching].
Internship Student. Also Intern Student. Student IS. International shopping. (Compare with DP, ICB,
with internship placement prior to completion of LCB).
studies, e.g. student teachers. (Contrast with ISBN. International Standard Book Number. (A
Students Teacher). unique numeric commercial book identifier).
INVENT. Integrated Waste Management Modules ISCED. International Standard Classification of
for Different Courses of Graduate Studies. Education. (UNESCO). Nine main categories
(NUOL cooperation with HochschuleBremen, relevant to Laos are defined (see also Annex
Bremen University of AppliedSciences). Figure 1). Note that several digits are used to
Note: Not to be confused with the homophonous indicate distinctions within the following main
(same sound) InWEnt. categories:
Inverse Gender Gap. See Reverse Gender Gap. 0 Early childhood; Pre-primary education;
1 Primary education;
InWEnt. [Formerly]. German: Internationale
2 Lower secondary education;
Weiterbildung und Entwicklung gemeinntzige
GmbH. Capacity Building International [Non- 34 Upper secondary, general;
profit Corporation]. (See GIZ). 35 Upper secondary, vocational;
Note: Not to be confused with the homophonous 44 Post-secondary, non-tertiary, general;
(same sound) INVENT. 45 Post-secondary, non-tertiary, vocational;
IOM. International Organization for Migration. 5 Short-cycle tertiary education;
IP. 1. Inception Phase. 2. Implementing Partner. 6 Bachelors degree or equivalent;
7 Masters degree or equivalent; and
IPB. [History]. International Public Bidding.
8 Doctors degree or equivalent. (Continued)
IPEC. International Program on the Elimination of
Child Labor. (ILO program; see also TICW).

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36
Note 1: For many of these main categories, several Pedagogy, University of Pedagogy, Pedagogical
sub-categories are also assigned numerical codes. University and more (See PUV; see also IUPV).
Note 2: References to 1997 codes are sometimes IUP V. [History]. French: Institut universitaire de
v

denoted ISCED97. The current edition is denoted pdagogie de Vientiane. Also referred to as
ISCED 2011. Pedagogical University of Vientiane, Upper
Note 3: Compare with ISCO, ISIC. School of Pedagogy, Vientiane Teacher Training
College. (Compare with IUP; see also PUV).
ISCO. International Standard Classification of
Occupations. (ILO). (Compare with ISCED, Historical Note: Located at site of present-day
ISIC). Vientiane High School, near Patusay Monument.
Annexes in Luang Prabang and Savannakhet.
ISDS. Integrated Safeguards Data Sheet. (WB).
IVEP. International Volunteer Exchange Program.
ISIC. International Standard Industrial Classification (Volunteer program of the MCC).
[of All Economic Activities]. (United Nations
system for classifying economic data). (Compare IVET. Sometimes iVET. 1. Integrated Vocational
with ISCED, ISCO). Education and Training. (GIZ usage; most
common usage in Laos). 2. Project externally
ISM. Implementation Support Mission financed by German government. 3. Initial
ISMO. Inter-school Math and Puzzle Olympiad. Vocational Education and Training. (ILO usage).

ISP. [History]. French: Institut Suprieure de IVET Certificate. [Formerly]. See TVET
Pdagogie. Higher Institute of Pedagogy. (See Certificate.
PUV). IVETS. Integrated Vocational Education and Train-
ISSE. Improving the Secondary School Environ- ing System.
ment. (External financing by JICA). IV-Japan. NGO, Japan. Also IVJ. (Formerly
ISTTD. In-service Teacher Training Division. (In International Volunteers Association of Japan).
DTE; compare with PSTTD). IVLP. International Visitor Leadership Program.
ISTTUC. In-service Teacher Training and (US State Department).
Upgrading Center. (More commonly ISTUC; IVS. [History]. International Voluntary Services,
TUC). Inc. (NGO, USA).
ISTU. In-service Training Unit. IWGE. International Working Group on Education.
ISTUC. In-service Teacher Upgrading Center. (See (Replaced by ESWG; IEDWG).
also ISTTUC; TUC). IWRAW. International Womens Rights Action
IT. Information technology. (Compare with ICT). Watch.

ITC. Information Technology Center. (Under IYIPO. International Young Inventors Project
STEA). Olympiad. (Held annually since 2007 in Tblisi,
Georgia).
ITE. Institute of Technical Education. (Singapore).
iTEAM. Improving Teaching and Learning J
Mathematics for Primary Education in Lao PDR.
JAIF. Japan-ASEAN Integration Fund.
ITEC. Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation
[Program]. JaLYA. Japan-Laos Youth Association. (NGO,
Japan).
ITECC. International Trade Exhibition and
Convention Center JAR. Joint Annual Review. (Compare with JSAR).

ITEES. ITE Education Services. (Singapore). Jardins denfants. [History]. French: Literally
equivalent to German Kindergarten, Pre-school,
ITSME. Improving In-service Teacher Training for nursery school. See ECCE.
Science and Mathematics Education. (Supported
by JICA). Sometimes incorrectly given as ISTME. Jataka. Pali: Literally Birth [story]. A voluminous
collection of moral-bearing stories about the
IU. Implementation Unit. previous lives of the Buddha.
IUP. [History]. French: Institut universitaire de Historical Note: Many of these stories, especially
pdagogie. University Institute of Pedagogy [at the animal fables, are well-known to Lao children
Dong Dok]. Also referred to as Institute of and adults. Some closely parallel stories

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37
embedded in other cultural traditions, including JSRC. Japan Sotoshu [, a school of Japanese
Aesops fables from ancient Greece. Zen Buddhism] Relief Committee. (Renamed
JBIC. Japan Bank for International Cooperation. SVA in 1999, reverted to JSRC in 2005).
JBU. Japan Federation of Basic Industry Workers JSRM. Joint Sector Review Mission.
Union. Junior high school. See Lower secondary school.
JCC. Joint Coordination Committee. Junior primary school. See Lower primary school.
JCU. Japan Committee for UNICEF. Juveniles. Organization for age children, 6-8 years
JD. Job Description. old; under LPRYU. (Compare with Young
Pioneers).
JDS. Japanese Grant Aid for Human Resource
Development Scholarships. (See also YLP). JV. Joint venture.
JENESYS. Japan-East Asia Network of Exchange K
for Students and Youths.
JETRO. Japan External Trade Organization. K, KN, K. Kip. (Lao currency unit, see also LAK.
Plural: Kip).
JFIT. Japanese Funds in Trust.
KAB. Know[ing] about Business. (ILO).
JFPR. Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction.
KAFF. Korea-Asia Friendship Foundation. (See
JICA. Japan International Cooperation Agency. also KKAFF).
JICC. Japan Information and Culture Center KAP. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices.
(Embassy of Japan, Vientiane).
Karachi Plan. [History]. Plan for universal,
JICE. Japan International Cooperation Center. compulsory, and free primary education by 1980.
JICHIRO. All Japan Prefectural and Municipal Historical Note: Initiated at a UNESCO meeting in
Workers Union. (NGO). Karachi, Pakistan, in January 1960. Led in April
1962 at a Meeting of Ministers of Education of
JITCO. Japan International Training Cooperation
Asian [UNESCO] Member States to establishment
Organization.
of an intergovernmental framework for co-
JLPT. Japanese Language Proficiency Test. operation. Laos was one of 18 signatories.
(Compare with APPEAL, Colombo Plan, Jomtien.
JOCA. Japan Overseas Cooperative Association. See APPEAL, Historical Note).
(See also JOCV).
KCDA. Kong Community Development
JOCV[/SV]. Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers
Association. (CSO).
[/Senior Volunteer]. (See also JOCA).
KfW. German: Kreditanstalt fr Wiederaufbau.
JODC. Japan Overseas Development Corporation. German Development Bank.
JOICFP. Japanese Organization for International KG. Kindergarten. Sometimes designating year
Cooperation in Family Planning. level KG1, KG2, KG3
Jomtien. Reference to the World Conference on
KGSP. Korean Government Scholarship Program.
Education for All, held in Jomtien, Thailand,
March 5-9, 1990, resulting in the World KHA. Khammuane Province. (Also KHM, KMN).
Declaration on Education for All (EFA). Laos Khet. Lao: . Traditional informal administrative
participated and was a signatory. (See also Dakar
Framework, Muscat Agreement, and Incheon unit between village level and district level for
Declaration). communication and some administrative and
police services.
Historical Note: Compare with APPEAL,
Colombo Plan, Karachi Plan. KHM. Khammuane Province. (Also KHA, KMN).
JRM. Joint Review Mission. Khou. Lao: . Ku.
JSAR. Joint Semi-Annual Review. (Compare with Khoueng. Lao: . Province. (Compare with
JAR).
Muang).
JSDF. Japanese Social Development Fund.
Khumban. Also Kum Ban. Lao: . Village
JSF. Japan Special Fund. (At the ADB).
cluster, below district level, organized in sparsely

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38
populated areas to collectively provide services LABEP. Lao[s]-Australian Basic Education Project
that cannot be provided in each village. (Compare (1999-2007). (Component of BEGP, parallel co-
with Ban, Tasseng; see also School cluster). financed by AusAID).
KI. Key informant. LAC. Lao American College. (Vientiane).
KII. Key informant interview. LACI. Loan Administration Change Initiative.
Kindergarten. Considered a part of Pre-school, (WB).
nominally for children aged 3 - 5 years. (Compare LAD. Lao Association for the Deaf.
with Pre-primary; Pre-school; see Annex Figure 5).
LADC. Lao Association for Disadvantaged Children.
Kip. Lao: . Unit of Lao currency.
LADLF. Lao-Australia Development Learning
KIS. 1. Kiettisack International School. (Private, Facility.
Vientiane). 2. Knowledge and Information
LADP. Long [District, Luangnamtha Province]
System. (CSO).
Alternative Development Project.
KKAFF. Republic of Korea and Korea-Asia
LAELP. Lao Australian English Language Project.
Friendship Foundation. (See also KAFF).
LAI. Laos Australia Institute. (Australias principal
KKU. Khon Kaen University. Thailand.
investment in HRD in Laos, managing several
KLFA. Korea-Laos Friendship Association. programs).
KMN. Khammuane Province. (Also KHA, KHM). LAK. Lao Kip. (See also K, KN, K).
KMUTT. King Mongkuts University of LALIC. Laos Library and Information Consortium.
Technology, Thonburi. (Thailand).
LAMP. Literacy Assessment and Monitoring
KOICA. Korean International Cooperation Agency. Program. (UIS, UNESCO Bangkok)
KOV. Korea Overseas Volunteers. Land-linked. Historical Note: Laos is the only
Southeast Asian country without a seacoast,
KPI. Key Performance Indicator.
without direct sea links with the outside world.
KRA. Key Result Area. Although some trade routes before the French
Colonial Period passed through Luang Prabang,
KRIVET. Korea Research Institute for Vocational Laos has always been relatively isolated from the
Education and Training. world outside peninsular Southeast Asia, as
Ku. Also Khou. Lao: . Teacher, usually at primary suggested by the term land-locked.
level. Sometimes spelled Kru. (From Sanskrit With the focus increasingly on Southeast Asian
Guru). (Compare with Ajan). and global economic integration and investment in
the north-south and east-west transport corridors
KUST. Kunming University of Science and linking Laos with the regional markets, the 7th
Technology. (In Kunming, Yunnan Province, Party Congress, March 2001, included in the
China). general goals of the Socio-Economic Development
KVTS. Khammuane Vocational and Technical Strategy for the ten-year period 2001-2010,
School. (At Thakhek, external financing by Lux- Develop our country to become the central point
Development). of transit of the region in the future, i.e., as a
transport hub no longer isolated, but instead
L land-linked. This was referred to as the 2020
Strategy. (See 2020 Goal).
L.A.O.S. Lao Academic Opportunity Scheme. LANGOCA. Lao-Australia NGO Cooperation
L1. Mother-tongue or native language. (Also MT, Agreement.
definition 2. Compare with L2). LANI. Lao-American Nutrition Institute.
L2. Second language. (Compare with L1). LANITH. Lao National Institute of Tourism and
LA. Logistics Aid. Hospitality.
LAA. [History]. Lao American Association. LANPRO. Lao adaptation of ANPRO.
LAB. Lao Association for the Blind. LANS. Laos Australian National Scholarship. (See
LAI).

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39
Lao. Lao: . The word Lao can be used as and fifteen ethnic groups. (See Historical Note to
Lao Loum; see also Ethnicity).
either a noun or an adjective. As an adjective it
can describe the Lao people, the Lao culture, Laoization. Also Laocization. [History]. The
Lao citizens, etc. As a noun, Lao can refer to process, begun after the French Colonial Period, of
either: revision of the school curriculum to make it more
suitable to Lao conditions and translation of
The language of the ethnic Lao people (e.g., instructional materials from French into the Lao
She speaks Lao or The book is written in language.
Lao); or
A person of Lao ethnicity (e.g., The conference LAOS. Learning and Opportunities for Students.
was attended by three Lao, two Hmong, and a (NGO, Hong Kong).
Khmou.); or Laos. When the French colonized Laos in 1893 (see
A Lao citizen regardless of ethnicity (e.g. At French Colonial Period), they referred to the
last! They finally appointed a Lao as Country country as Le Pays des Laos, the Land of the
Director instead of a falang!) Laos (i.e., Land of the Lao people), the plural form
Note 1: The plural form of Lao in reference to a of the largest and dominant ethnic group (one Lao,
person of Lao ethnicity or Lao citizenship is many Laos). Some contemporary English writing
also referred to the land of the Laos, i.e., plural
Lao, e.g., Three Lao attended the conference.
form. Today the name of is officially Lao PDR or
Note 2: Lao is sometimes used to refer to the Laos, as short form.
country (e.g., He lives in Lao), but purists regard
this as poor style because the established short LAO-SC. Lao American Alumni Overseas Students
form of the country name is Laos. (See Laos). Club.
LAO EDUInfo. Website for monitoring and Laosese. [History]. In some documents from the
disseminating education data for Laos. French Colonial Period the word Laosese was
(http://www.devinfo.org/laoeduinfo/libraries/aspx/ used as either a noun referring to a Lao person or
Home.aspx). the Lao language or an adjective describing a Lao
person or institution (e.g., Laosese Ministry of
Lao Loum. Lao: . Lowland Lao, compris- Education), or the Lao language. Compare with
ing the Tai-Kadai language family (Lao-Phutai Lao.
sub-family) and four ethnic groups. (See
Ethnicity; see also Annex Table 4). Laotian. [History]. (Pronounced La o' shan or
Lay o' shan). Noun referring to a Lao person or
Historical Note: The RLG classified the population the Lao language. Adjective describing a Lao
of Laos into three groups based on the assumed person or the Lao language. Compare with Lao.
topographical distribution, with little regard to
ethno-linguistic characteristics. The 1992 Central Note: Some writers use Laotian to include any
Party Resolution on Ethnic Minorities recom- person of Lao nationality and the term Lao to
mended that this classification no longer be used. include only members of the Tai-Kadai ethno-
linguistic family. (See Ethnicity).
(See Note to Annex Table 4). Nevertheless, the
classification into Lao Loum, Lao Soung, and Lao LAR. Land acquisition and resettlement. (ADB).
Theung remain in widespread usage in common
speech and even in some academic writing. LARLP. Laos-Australia Rural Livelihoods Program.
LASP. Lao-Australian Scholarship Program.
Lao Ngyai. [History]. Lao: . Great Laos.
The first Lao newspaper, published 1941-1945 and LASS. Lao [National] Academy of Social Sciences.
focusing mainly on cultural, literary, and linguistic (See also NASS).
issues. LBFO. Lao Buddhist Fellowship Organization.
Lao Soung. Lao: . Highland Lao or hill LC. 1. Learning community. (See also PLC).
tribes, comprising the Hmong-Iu Mien and Sino- 2. Learning Center. (See CLC).
Tibetan language families (or Hmong-Iu Mien and L /C. Letter of Credit.
c

Tibeto-Burman sub-families) and four ethnic


groups. (See Historical Note to Lao Loum; see LCB. Local competitive bidding. (Compare with
also Ethnicity). DP, ICB, IS).
Lao Theung. Lao: . Upland or midland LCCD. Learning for Child and Community
Development [Project]. (UNICEF).
Lao or Slope-dwellers, comprising the Austro-
Asiatic language family (Mon Khmer sub-family) LCF. Lao PDR Cooperation Facility. (EU).

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40
LCCI. 1. Lao Chamber of Commerce and Industry. LECS 4 2007/08
(Also LNCCI). 2. London Chamber of Commerce LECS 5 2012/13
and Industry.
LEG. Local education group. (See ESWG).
LCHRD. Leading Committee on Human Resource
Development (of GOL). LEGR. Lao Early Grade Reading. (Project under
GPE II).
LCLM. Low Cost Learning Material.
LELC. LEOT English Learning Center.
LCR. Learner-to-Computer Ratio. (See CAI).
LEMTEP. Lao Ethnic Minority Teacher Education
LCS. Least Cost Selection. (WB). Program (supported by LABEP).
LDC. 1. Least Developed Country. (Also LLDC, LEOT. Lao Education Opportunities Trust. (NGO,
Compare with MIC, definition 2). 2. Less UK).
Developed Country.
LERNET. Lao Education and Research Network.
Note 1: Laos is categorized by the United Nations (See also TEIN, UniNET).
as a Least Developed Country. The 6 th Party
Congress in March 1996 defined the long term LFA. 1. Logical Framework Analysis. 2. Logical
goal as exiting the status of Least Developed Framework Approach.
County by 2020. (See 2020 Goal). The 10 th Party
LFCLS. Laos Labor Force and Child Labor Survey.
Congress and the 8 th NSEDP established the 2010.
Vision 2030 goal of Laos ranking as an upper-
middle income developing country. LFIS. Loan and Grant Financial Information
Note 2: In some contexts LCD refers to Less Service. Also LGFIS. (ADB).
Developed Country, and Least Developed LFIV. Lyce Franais International de Vientiane
country is abbreviated LLDC, but in the Lao Josu-Hoffet. (Also LFJH, AEFE).
context, LCD always refers to Least Developed
Historical Note: Named after Josu Hoffet, the
Country.
French geologist and paleontologist who
LDPA. Lao Disabled Peoples Association. (NPA, discovered Cretaceous fossil sites in Savannakhet
definition 2; established 2001). Province in 1936.
LDR: Lao Development Report. (WB). LFJH. Lyce Franais Josu-Hoffet. (Vientiane.
Also known as Joshua Hoffet French School. See
LDWDC. Lao Disabled Womens Development
also AEFE, LFIV).
Center.
LFNC. Lao Front for National Construction. Lao:
Le Bac. See Baccalaurat.
Neo Lao Sang Xat, .
LE. Learning Element. (In an MOI).
Note 1: Sometimes translated as Lao Front for
LeAF. Learning Assessment Framework. National Reconstruction, but that is not correct
LEAP. 1. Lao-Australian English for ASEAN because the Lao word used, sang, clearly means
Purposes. 2. Laos Education Advancement construction, not reconstruction. (For the Lao
word sang, see Note to Three Builds).
Project. 3. Learning through Evaluation with
Accountability and Planning [Project]. (WV[L]). Note 2: LFNC is sometimes incorrectly described
as a mass organization. (See Note to Mass
LEAPS. Learning and Engaging All in Primary Organization).
School. (FFE Program financed by USDA).
Historical Note: Successor in 1979 to the LPF.
LEARN. 1. Lao Educational Access, Research and
Networking [Project]. (Plan International Laos, LFNR. Lao Front for National Reconstruction.
(Incorrect translation. See LFNC, Note 1).
funding by Dubai Cares). 2. Lao Equity through
Policy Analysis and Research Networks. (Funding LFS. Labor Force Survey.
by EU, definition 1).
LFTU. Lao Federation of Trade Unions. (Also FTU,
LECS. Lao Expenditure and Consumption Survey. LTUF).
(First conducted 1992/93, also called LECS I).
(See also MICS). LGFA. Lao-German Friendship Association.
LECS [1] 1992/93 LGFIS. Loan and Grant Financial Information
Service. (ADB).
LECS 2 1997/98
LECS 3 2002/03 (Continued) LGS. Lao-Guizhou Scholarship.

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41
LGTC. [Formerly]. Lao-German Technical College. LNA. 1. Lao National Assembly. 2. Luangnamtha
(Also known as Lao-German Technical School and Province. (Also LN, LNT).
Km 3 Technical School).
LNADA. Lao National Data Archive. (See DOS).
LGTS. [Formerly]. Lao-German Technical School.
LNCC [I]. Lao National Chamber of Commerce [and
(Also known as Lao-German Technical College
i

Industry]. (Also LCCI).


and Km 3 Technical School).
LNCDC. Lao National Commission on Drugs
LGU. Local government unit.
Control.
LHD. Learning House for Development. (Central
LNCF. Lao National Construction Front. (Non-
networking home for Lao CSOs).
standard translation. See LFNC).
LI. Legislative Instrument.
LNF. Lao National Front. (Non-standard translation.
Liberated Zone. The name given by the Pathet Lao See LFNC).
to those gradually expanding parts of Laos under
LNLS. Lao National Literacy Survey.
their control until the Revolution in December
1975. Historical Note: This survey is referred to in the
literature as either LNLS 2000, LNLS 2001, LNLS
LIEDC. Lao-India Entrepreneurship Development 2002, or LNLS 2004, because:
Center.
2000. Preparatory work was conducted;
LIFE. Literacy Initiative for Empowerment. 2001. Field data were collected;
LIL. Learning and Innovation Loan. (WB). 2002. MOE published Lao National Literacy
LJC. Lao-Japan Center for Human Resources Survey 2000. (Final Report); and
Cooperation. Also known as Laos-Japan Center. 2004. UNESCO BKK published Lao National
(At NUOL; see also LJI). Literacy Survey 2001. Final Report.
LJI. Laos-Japan [Human Resource Development] LNMC. Lao National Mekong Committee.
Institute. (At NUOL; see also LJC).
LNS. [History]. Lao National Syllabus.
LJTTC. Lao-Japan Technical Training Center.
LNSC. (Formerly). Lao National Sports Committee.
LKVTC. Lao-Korea Vocational Training Center. (MOES, see Annex Figure 9). (Merged with MOE
(Under MOLSW). in September 2011 to form MOES).
LL. Labor Law. (Most recent, 2014). LNT. Luangnamtha Province. (Also LN, LNA).
LLA. 1. Lao Language Aide. (Lao volunteers to LNTA. Lao National Tourism Administration.
work with at risk students to support Lao
LNTV. Lao National Television.
language development). 2. Lao Library
Association. (CSO). LNVQF. Lao National Vocational Qualifications
Framework. Also LVQF, NQF, NVQF, VQF.
LLB. [Historical]. Local Limited Bidding.
(See detail in VQF).
LLDC. 1. Least developed country. (See LDC,
LO. Local Organization. (See VDC, VEDC).
Notes). 2. Land-locked developing country.
LOC. Lao Olympic Committee. See NOCL.
LLL. 1. Lifelong Learning. (Also Life Long
Learning). 2. Dutch: Laat Laos Leren. [Let Laos Local curriculum. In principle the curriculum for
Learn]. (NGO, Belgium). grades 1-12 comprise 80% national curriculum
provided by MOES, and 20% local curriculum
LLU. Lao Labor Union. (Lao Federation of Trade
provided by the school, the DESB, or the PESS. In
Unions, LFTU).
practice local curricula are rarely or never applied
LMI. 1. Lower Mekong Initiative. (Multi-national due to lack of technical and financial resources.
partnership among Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Location Supplement. Salary supplement for
Thailand, Vietnam, and the United States). teachers serving in remote, isolated, or especially
2. Labor market information. (See also LMIS). difficult areas, determined as a percent of net
LMIS. Labor Market Information System. salary, in three categories as follows:
LMS. Learning Management System. (See also Remote and isolated areas 15 %
CMS; VLE). Remote and mountainous areas 20 % (Cont.)
LN. Luangnamtha Province. (Also LNA, LNT).

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42
Especially difficult areas 25 % LRHS. Lao Reproductive Health Survey. (1994,
(See also Multi-grade Teaching Supplement). 2000, 2005).
LODP. Letter of Development Policy. LRIC. Learning Resources and Information Center.
Lower primary school. [History]. Grades 1-3. LRM. Lao PDR Resident Mission [of the ADB].
(Compare with Upper primary school, Elementary
LRPPCC. Lao Revolutionary Party Political Central
school).
Committee. (See also PCC, LPRP).
Lower secondary school. Grades 6 9, alt.
LRU. Loei Rajabhat University. (Thailand).
Secondary Grades 1 - 4. (See also Matanyom.
Compare with Upper Secondary School, LS. Lower Secondary [Education]. (See LSE).
Secondary School. See Annex Figure 1).
LSB. Lao Statistics Bureau. (Previously NSC;
Historical Note: Prior to the 2009/10 school year, DOS).
lower secondary school comprised a three year
program, grades 6 8, thus part of an 11 year LSBC. Lao-Singapore Business College.
school system, now a 12 year system. (See (Vientiane).
Historical Note to M5-M7; see also Annex Figure LSCO [-6]. Lao Standard Classified Occupation
.
2).
[to 6-digit level, established 2016].
LPA. Labor and Professional Promotion Association.
LSDA. Life Skills Development Association. (Lao
(CSO).
NPA, definition 2; Vientiane, established 2010).
LPB. Luangprabang [Province]. (See also LSTC, definition 1).
LPF. [History]. Lao Patriotic Front. Lao: Neo Lao LSE. Lower secondary education. (Grades 6 9
Hak Xat, Lao: . Replaced in 1979 since 2009/10). (Compare with USE).
by the LFNC. LSF. Learning for a Sustainable Future.
LPP. [History]. Lao Peoples Party. (See LPRP). LSIS. Lao Social Indicator Survey. (See also LECS;
LPRC. Law on the Protection of the Rights and MICS). (1993, 2011/12).
Interests of Children. (2007). Note 1: LSIS 2011/12 is a household survey using
the technical frameworks of the MICS and DHS.
LPRP. Lao Peoples Revolutionary Party.
(Commonly known simply as the Party). Note 2: LSIS II is scheduled for 2016/17.
Historical Note: Established at the 1 st Congress LSS. Lower secondary school. (Compare with USS.
1955-03-22 as LPP, renamed at 2 nd Party Also see LSE).
Congress, February 1972. LSSG. Lower Secondary Student Grant.
LPRYU. Lao Peoples Revolutionary Youth Union. LSSGP. Lower Secondary Student Grants Program.
(Also referred to as LPYU, LYU). Mass
organization; youth wing of LPRP, comprising LSSS. Lower Secondary School Survey.
three age levels:
LSTC. 1. Life Skills Training Center (Vientiane; see
Juveniles (age 6-8 years); also LSDA). 2. Lao-Singapore Training Center
Young Pioneers (age 9-14); and (Vientiane, Km 4, Thadeua Road).
Youth (age 15-30 years). LSTE. Lower Secondary Teacher Education.
Historical Note: Established 1955. LTP. Long-term Priority. (Compare with MTP,
LPYU. Lao Peoples Youth Union. (Formally STP).
LPRYU). LTPU. [Formerly]. Lao Textbook Publishing Unit.
LQA. Local Qualified Assistant. (See EPE).

LRC. 1. Literacy Resource Center. 2. Literacy LTTI. [History]. Laotian Teacher Training Institute.
Resource Centers for Girls and Women. (Japanese (At Dong Dok). (Also known as ESP; NEC,
program for assisting NGOs in developing literacy definition 2).
resource centers for girls and women). 3. Learning LTUF. Lao Trade Union Federation. (Also FTU,
Resource Center (under NFEDC). LFTU).
LRF. 1. Lao Rehabilitation Foundation. (NGO, LUBO. Lao United Buddhists Organization.
USA). 2. Lao Rugby Federation. (Est. 2001).
LURC. Land Use Rights Certificate.

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43
LUSEA. Lao Union of Science and Engineering. MAG. Mines Advisory Group. (INGO).
Lux-Development. Luxembourg Agency for Maha. From Sanskrit. Lao: . Literally great
Development Cooperation.
or high. Title for a person highly educated in the
LUXOP. Lao UXO Program. (See also UXO). Buddhist temple but who has left the monastic
order. (Compare with Ajan).
LVQF. See LNVQF.
Mahavithanyalay. From Sanskrit. University. Used
LVS. Lao Volunteer Service. (Financed by CUSO; in current Lao.
see also HJA).
Mahout. From Sanskrit: Elephant handler. Used in
LWAN. Lao Womens Association Network. English but not used in the Lao language.
LWC. Language of wider communication. (Also Mainstream school. School serving the general
referred to as lingua franca. In discourse on population but lacking facilities and resources
language of instruction. Compare with NDL). enabling them to provide education for children
LWF. 1. Learn without Fear. (Social movement). with severe sensory disabilities. (Compare with
2. Lutheran World Federation. (INGO). Special school).
LWTC. Lao Womens [Vocational] Training Center. MAIP. Multi-Annual Indicative Program. (Also
MIP). (EC).
LWU. Lao Womens Union. (Mass organization;
established 1955). Mass Organization. Lao mass organization, under
the leadership of the Party, including the Lao
Lyce. [History]. French: Lyceum. In the Lao Federation of Military Veterans, the Lao Federa-
(French) terminology of the colonial and post- tion of Trade Unions, the Lao Womens Union,
colonial periods, upper secondary level institution and the Lao [Peoples Revolutionary] Youth
leading to the baccalaurat. Sometimes a Union. (See also LFNC).
combined lower secondary and upper secondary
Note: Article 10 of the Amended Lao Constitution
institution was also referred to as a Lyce. (See
of 2003 specifically distinguishes Party and state
also Collge, French Colonial Period).
organizations, the LFNC, mass organizations, and
LYN. Lao Youth Network. social organizations, all of which are bound by the
Constitution and laws. (Contrast with CSO, NPA,
LYU. Lao Youth Union. (Formally LPRYU).
definition 2).
M Matanyom . Lao: . Secondary school
grades, including both Lower Secondary and
M&E. Monitoring and Evaluation.
Upper Secondary. (See Matanyom ton, Matanyom
M.B.A. Master of Business Administration [degree]. pai, M1-M4, M5-M7; compare with Oudom,
Pathom).
M.Ed. Master of Education [degree].
Historical Note: In some older writings,
M.Sc. Master of Science [degree]. Mathanyom refers only to Lower Secondary
M.Sc.U.E.P. Master of Science in Urban school, Grades 6-8, while Upper Secondary school,
Environmental Planning [degree]. (NUOL). Grades 9-11, are referred to as Oudom.

M.U.D. Master of Urban Design [degree]. Matanyom Ek. [History]. Advanced level in the
nine-year Buddhist Pali School education system
M1-M4. Lao: Matanyom 1-4. Secondary grades 1-4. during the RLG period.
(Grades 6-9; Lower secondary). (See Matanyom). Historical Note: The Buddhist Pali School
(Compare with P1-P5). (See Historical Note to comprised three levels of three years each:
M5-M7).
Matanyom Tri. (Elementary level, Years 1-3);
M5-M7. Lao: Matanyom 5-7. Secondary grades 5-7.
Matanyom Tho. (Intermediate level, Years 4-6);
(Grades 10-12; Upper secondary). (See
and
Matanyom). (Compare with P1-P5).
Historical Note: As a consequence of the NESR, Matanyom Ek. (Advanced level, Years 7-9).
M4 became part of LS beginning in SY 2009/10, Linguistic Note: These three terms denoting
but there were no students in M7 until 2010/11. education level are used today for university level
(See Annex Figure 2). studies:
MAF. 1. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Tri. Bachelor degree level;
2. MDG Acceleration Framework. Tho. Masters degree level; and

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44
Ek. Ph.D. degree level. MDRD-EDU. Mainstreaming Disaster Risk
Reduction into Education Sector Development.
Matanyom pai. Lao: . Upper
Secondary, Grades 10-12; also Oudom. (See M5- MDTF. Multi-Donor Trust Fund.
M7; compare with Matanyom ton). MEAL. Monitoring, Evaluation, Accountability, and
Matanyom tho. [History]. (See Matanyom Ek, Learning. (CRS, definition 1).
Historical Note). MEC. Mekong English Center. (Private, Luang
Prabang).
Lower
Matanyom ton. Lao: .
Secondary, Grades 6-9. (See M1-M4; compare MEFL. Marubeni Education Foundation in Laos.
with Matanyom pai). (Corporate foundation, Japan).

Matanyom Tri. [History]. (See Matanyom Ek, Mekong Sub-Region. Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar,
Historical Note). Thailand, Vietnam.

MAUS. Master Program of Architecture and Urban Meo. [History]. Term used by the government of the
Studies [degree]. United States during the Vietnam war to refer to
the Hmong Iu-Mien ethno-linguistic groups living
MBA. See M.B.A. in Laos and Vietnam. Considered derogatory by
MCA. Maximum Country Allocation. (GPE; see many Hmong people (See Ethnicity).
also NPF). MEPF. [Historical]. Ministry of Economy,
MCC. Mennonite Central Committee. (NGO, USA, Planning, and Finance.
Canada). MEREPA. [History]. Meeting of Experts on
MCH. Mother and Child Health. Research for Educational Planning in Asia.
UNESCO.
MCTPC. [Formerly]. Ministry of Communication,
Transport, Post, and Construction. (See MPT and MES. Ministry of Education and Sports. (More
MPWT). commonly, MOES).

MDA. Mid-Decade Assessment [of progress toward MESRA. [History]. Ministry of Education, Sports,
EFA goals]. and Religious Affairs.

MDG [s]. Millennium Development Goal[s]. (See


s
Meuang. See Muang.
also MLG, SDG). MEXT. [Japan] Ministry of Education, Culture,
Note 1: Of the eight goals set, only two have Sports, Science, and Technology.
special relevance to the education sector: MfDR. Managing for Development Results. (WB;
MDG2: Ensure that by 2015 children every- see also SRF).
where, boys and girls alike, will be able to
complete a full course of primary schooling; MG [T]. Multi-grade [teaching]. (See Multi-grade
t

and classroom; Multi-grade school; Multi-grade


teaching).
MDG3: Eliminate gender disparity in primary
and secondary education, preferably by 2005, MI. Mekong Institute. (Intergovernmental
and in all levels of education no later than 2015. organization founded by members of the GMS,
Note 2: For a complete listing of the Lao national supporting capacity development for regional
goals, indicators, and targets for the education cooperation and integration).
sector, see Annex Table 6. MIC. 1. See MOIC. 2. Middle Income Country.
Historical Note: Established following the (Compare with LDC). 3. [Formerly]. Ministry of
adoption of the United Nations Millennium Information and Culture. (See MICT).
Declaration at the UN Millennium Summit in MICS. Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. (See also
September 2000 and subsequently nationalized LECS, LSIS).
to reflect the particular situation in each country.
MICS 2000
MDGR. MDG Report. MICS 2005/06
MDIS. Management Development Institute MICS/DHS/LSIS 2011/12
Singapore.
MICT. Ministry of Information, Culture, and
MDRD. Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction into Tourism. (Also MOICT).
Development [Projects].

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45
Midline Assessment. Assessment during an inter- Ministry of Education, Sport, and Youth;
vention. (Compare with Baseline Assessment, Ministry of National Education;
Endline Assessment).
Ministry of National Education and Fine Arts;
MIH. [Formerly]. Ministry of Industry and Handi- Ministry of National Education, Fine Arts,
craft. (See DIH, MOIC). Sports, and Youth.
Minsai. Japanese NGO. (See EDF, definition 2). MOES. Ministry of Education and Sports. Also
MIP. Multi-annual Indicative Program. (Also MES. (See MOE, Historical Note).
MAIP). (EC). Historical Note: (MOES was re-organized and re-
named MOE in April, 1993; it was merged with
MIS. 1. Management Information System. (See
the LNSC in September, 2011 and renamed MOES
CMIS, EMIS, FMIS, HEMIS, HRMIS, PBMIS,
again).
PMIS, SMIS, TEMIS). 2. Monitoring Information
System. MOET. [In Vietnam]. Ministry of Education and
Training.
MJIIT. Malaysia-Japan International Institute of
Technology. MOF. Ministry of Finance.
MLE. Multi-lingual education. Specialists often MOFA. Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
distinguish between Weak MLE: 2 years of
MOH. Ministry of Health.
mother tongue instruction prior to transition to
national language, and Strong MLE: at least 5 MOHA. Ministry of Home Affairs. (Established 30
years of mother tongue instruction prior to June 2011; formerly PACSA; responsible for inter
transition to national language. (See also MTB- alia registration and control of NPAs).
MLE).
MOI. Module of Instruction.
MLG. Millennium Learning Goal. (See MDG).
MOIC. 1. Ministry of Industry and Commerce.
MLL. Minimum Level of Learning. 2. [History]. Ministry of Information and Culture.
(See MICT; MOICT).
MLLT. Methods of Lao Language Teaching.
MOICT. Ministry of Information, Culture, and
MLSW. See MOLSW.
Tourism. (Also MICT).
MOA. Memorandum of Agreement.
MOJ. Ministry of Justice.
MOAF. Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry.
MOLSW. Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare.
Mobile Teacher. Teacher deployed to a remote Also MLSW.
village without a school (but see CLC) in a priority
Monastic College. Sangha College. (See Sangha
district to teach in a non-formal literacy classes,
College, Champasak; Sangha College, Vientiane).
primary or lower secondary school equivalency
programs or other non-formal programs; recruited MONRE. Ministry of Natural Resources and
from among either experienced teachers or new Environment. (Est. 2011).
TEI graduates; under responsibility of DNFE.
Montagnard[s]. French: Literally mountain
MODA. Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis. dweller[s], referring during the French Colonial
Period generally to ethnic communities in the
MOE. [History]. Ministry of Education. (Renamed
upland and mountainous areas of Laos and
MOES in September, 2011, after merger with the Vietnam; during the Vietnam War (American War)
LNSC).
referring in the American literature more
Historical Note: Over the years, before and after specifically but not exclusively to the Hmong
the Revolution in 1975, in the RLG and the PL communities. (Compare with Meo).
Liberated Zone, the ministry responsible for
education has had many different mandates and MOOC. Massive Open Online Course.
names, including: MOODLE. Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic
Ministry of Education; Learning Environment.
Ministry of Education and Propaganda; MOPH. [Formerly] Ministry of Public Health. See
Ministry of Education and Sports; MOH.
Ministry of Education, Art, and Pioneer Sports; MOPI. Ministry of Planning and Investment. Also
MPI. (Replaced CPI). (Also MPI).
Ministry of Education, Sport, and Religious
Affairs; (Continued) MOPS. Ministry of Public Security.

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46
MOPWT. Ministry of Public Works and Transport. MTP. 1. Mobile Teacher Program. (See Mobile
Also MPWT. Teacher). 2. Modular Training Package.
MOS. Microsoft Office Specialist. (Certification 3. Medium-term Priority. (Compare with LTP,
program for using the Microsoft Office suite of STP).
business applications; see also MOSWC). MTPEP. Medium Term Provincial Education
MOST. Ministry of Science and Technology. [Development] Plan.

MOSWC. Microsoft Office Specialist World MTR. Mid-term Review. (See also MTE).
Championship.
MTSP. Medium Term Strategic Plan.
MoU. Memorandum of Understanding.
MTSPIP. [Financial Management] Medium Term
Mouvement de Jeunesse. [History]. French: Youth Strategy and Performance Improvement Plan.
Movement.
MTT. Mobile Training Team.
MPC. [History]. [Education] Materials Production
Center. (MOE). Muad. Lao: . A traditional cluster or sub-
MPDF. Mekong Project Development Facility. cluster of incomplete feeder schools and a
MPI. Ministry of Planning and Investment. Also complete school. A muad usually contains 3 - 5
MOPI. (Replaced CPI). schools (school clusters are sometimes larger),
usually including only primary schools, but in
MPIC. [History]. Ministry of Propaganda, some communities including also include
Information, and Culture. (Renamed MOIC). secondary schools. (See Complete school; Groupe
MPT. Ministry of Post and Telecommunications. Scolaire; School cluster; School network).

MPWT. Ministry of Public Works and Transport. Muang. Lao: . 1. Town, city, district. (Also
(Formerly MCTPC). spelled Meuang, Muong. Compare with Khoueng).
2. [History]. Principality.
MRA. Mutual Recognition Arrangement. (Inter-
national agreements for recognition of professional MUD. See M.U.D.
qualifications to support free flow of skilled labor
through harmonization and standardization). Multi-grade classroom. Classroom in which
instruction is provided at two or more grade levels.
MRC. Mekong River Commission. (Also Mixed classes).
MRE. Mine Risk Education. Note: Approximately 27 % of primary classrooms
are multi-grade (2015/2016).
MRISA. Mekong River International Schools
Association. Multi-grade school. School in which teaching is
MRM. Midterm Review Mission. conducted in multi-grade classrooms, usually in
sparsely populated areas, as a cost-effective
MS. Market survey. (E.g., product survey or labor approach to providing complete primary level
market survey). instruction. (Compare with Complete school, In-
MSC. 1. Most significant change. (Data collection complete school, Shifting classes. See Annex
tool). 2. [Usually as MSc]. Master of Science Figure 3 and Figure 4).
[degree]. Multi-grade Teaching Supplement. Salary supple-
MSHEI. Minimum Standards for Higher Education ment for teachers serving in multi-grade class-
Institutions. (Adopted 2013). rooms, determined as a percent of base salary, as
follows:
MT. 1. Mobile Teacher. 2. Mother-tongue. (See
also L1, L2). Two-grade classrooms 25 %

MTB-MLE. Also MTBMLE. Mother Tongue- Three-grade classrooms 50 %


Based Multilingual Education. (See also MLE). Note: The percent values of these supplements can
change over time. (See also Location
MTE. Midterm Evaluation. (See also MTR). Supplement).
MTEF. 1. Medium Term Expenditure Framework.
Multi-grade teaching. Instruction in the context of
(See also E-MTEF). 2. Mid-term Expenditure
Framework. two or more primary school grades in the same
classroom.

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47
Muscat Agreement. Adopted at GEM in Muscat, National Teachers Day. Designated 7th October by
Oman in May 2014. (Set global targets for Education Law Revised 2015.
education in 2030. See also EFA, Jomtien, Dakar
Framework, Incheon Declaration). Nayobai. Lao: . Literally Policy, often
used to refer to the policy of granting special rights
MWP. 1. Manual of Work Procedures. (Developed or exemptions to specific individuals or groups, for
originally with support from BEGP). 2. Master example the policy of exempting children of
Work Plan. teachers from sitting for admission exams for
teacher training or the affirmative action policy
N for admission of children from remote ethnic
communities or children of national heroes to
NA. 1. National Assembly. 2. Nutrition Advisor. education programs.
3. National Authority. (Compare with PA,
NBTS. National Baseline Tracer Study.
definition 4).
NAC. 1. National Assembly Commission. NCA. Norwegian Church Aid. (NGO, Norway).
2. [History]. Nabong Agriculture College. (MAF; NCAW. National Commission for the Advancement
merged into NUOL 1995). of Women.
NADA. [Lao] National Data Archive. (Also NCB. National Competitive Bidding. (Compare
LNADA). (See DOS). with DP, ICB, IS, LCB).
NAFC. Northern Agriculture and Forestry College. NCDP. National Committee for Disabled People.
(Under MOAF). (Previously National Commission for Disabled
NAFRI. National Agriculture and Forestry Research People).
Institute. (Under MOAF). NCEA. National Conference of Education
Administrators.
Naiban. Lao: . Village head.
NCEFA. National Commission for EFA. (See Note
NAPPA. National Academy of Politics and Public to NEFAC).
Administration.
NCER. National Commission for Education Reform.
NAPS. National Association of Private Schools.
(Note: When this name is used in Laos, reference NCESR. National Commission for Education
is probably made to the Private Education Sector System Reform. (See NCER; NCNESR).
Association.) NCMC. National Commission for Mothers and
NAR. 1. Net Attendance Rate. (See also NARA). Children. (See also DCMC, PCMC).
2. Net Admission Rate. (Note: UIS does not NCNESR. National Commission for National
define this term. When this term is written, Net Education System Reform. (See NESR; NESRC;
Intake Rate (NIR) is probably meant.) NESRS; NCER).
NARA. (Also ANAR). Net Attendance Rate, NCP. New Colombo Plan. (Australian Government
Adjusted. higher education exchange program). (See also
Colombo Plan).
NASS. [Lao] National Academy of Social Sciences.
(See also LASS). NCRE. See NCER.
NAST. National Authority for Science and NCSEZ. National Committee for Special [and
Technology. (Under the PMO, definition 1; Specific] Economic Zones. (See also SEZ, SSEZ,
compare with NSTA). S-NCSEZ).
Natasin School. Lao: . School of NCT. Newly certified teacher.
Dramatic Arts; School of Music and Drama. NCTC. National Charter of Teacher Competencies.
(Under MOICT; Compare with Silapa School). Published 2007). (See also CNC, CNTC, NTC).
NatCom. National Commission [for UNESCO]. NCTS. National Council for TVET and SD.
Also UNC. Replaced NTC December 2009. (See also
National Day. December 2, when the proclamation NVCLSDC).
of the Lao Peoples Democratic Republic in 1975 NCU. National Committee for UNESCO.
is celebrated. (Sometimes referred to in official
documents as Independence Day). NDF. 1. National Development Framework.
2. Nordic Development Fund.

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48
NDL. Non-dominant language. (In discourse on NERI. National Economics Research Institute.
language of instruction. Compare with LWC). (Under MPI).
NDMC. National Disaster Management Committee. Historical Note: Established 1997 under CPI,
(Members include MOES Chief of Cabinet). definition 3.
NDMO. National Disaster Management Office. NESE. National Excellent Students Examination.
NDPCC. National Disaster Prevention and Control NESPAP [Open Platform]. National Education
Committee. Systems and Policies in the Asia-Pacific.
NEA. National Education Account. (Project in (UNESCO).
cooperation with IIEP and UIS). NESQAC. 1. [Formerly] National Education
NEC. 1. [Annual] National Education Conference Standard and Quality Accreditation Commission.
(typically held in July each year for planning and 2. [Formerly] National Education Standard and
preparation of the coming school year). Quality Assurance Center. (See ESQAC)
2. [History]. National Education Center. (Name NESR. National Education System Reform (2006-
applied by USAID in the 1960s for cole 2015). (MOE, 2006). (See NCNESR; NESRS;
Suprieure de Pdagogie and other educational see also Historical Note to M5-M7).
institutions developed in the 1960s and early 1970s
at Dong Dok, some 10 km north of Vientiane). NESRC. National Education System Reform
Committee. (See NESR; NESRS; NCER).
NEDC. See NFEDC.
NEFAAP. National EFA Action Plan. NESRS. National Education System Reform
Strategy [Phase I: 2006-2010, Phase II: 2010-
NEFAC. National EFA Commission. (Also 2015]. (MOE, April 2008). (See NCNESR;
NCEFA). NESRC; NESR).
Note: The National EFA Commission is referenced Historical Note: An early draft of the NESRS was
by several different abbreviations in the literature, circulated in 2006, and a later draft was circulated
but the Prime Ministers Decree No. 68/PM, 24 in 2007. The final English version is dated April
March 2005 established the National Education 2008, but the official Lao version is dated August
for All Commission. 2008. In English language documents, NESRS is
NEM. [History]. New Economic Mechanism. commonly cited as either 2006, 2007, or 2008.
Historical Note: Endorsed in November 1986 by Net Attendance Rate (NAR). UIS Definition: Total
the 4 th Party Congress, launching the transition to a number of children in the official age group for a
market economy. Comparable with Doi Moi given level of education attending that level at any
policies in Vietnam. (See also New Thinking). time during the reference academic year, expressed
NENE. Not in employment, not in education. as a percentage of the total population in that age
group. Compare with Net Attendance Rate
Neo Lao Hak Xat. Lao: . See LPF. (Adjusted), Total Net Attendance Rate (TNAR).

Neo Lao Sang Xat. Lao: . See Net Attendance Rate, Adjusted. (NARA). UIS
Definition: Total number of children of the official
LFNC.
primary school age who attended primary or
NEQAF. National Education Quality Assurance secondary education at any time during the
Framework. reference academic year, expressed as a percentage
of the official primary school age population.
NEQMAP. Network on Education Quality (Compare with Net Attendance Rate, Total Net
Monitoring in the Asia-Pacific. (UNESCO Attendance Rate).
Bangkok; ESQAC and RIES are Lao members).
Note: The LSIS defines NARA for secondary level
NEQS [F]. National Education Quality Standards
f
as total number of children or youth of the official
[Framework]. secondary school age group who attended
secondary or tertiary education at any time during
NER. Net Enrollment Rate. (Compare with GER, the reference academic year, expressed as a
ASER). percentage of the corresponding population. To
NERA. Adjusted Net Enrollment Rate (ANER). provide a more complete picture, however, it also
Compare with ASER, GER, NER). calculates the number of secondary school children
or youth who attended primary school. Compare

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49
with Net Attendance Rate (NAR), Total Net NIES. National Inclusive Education Strategy.
Attendance Rate (TNAR).
NIFA. National Institute of Fine Arts. (Vientiane,
Net Enrollment Rate (NER). UIS Definition: under MICT).
Enrolment of the official age group for a given
level of education expressed as a percentage of the NIPV. [History]. National Institute of Pedagogy in
corresponding population. (Compare with Gross Vientiane. See IUP; ESP; HIPV; NEC, definition
Enrollment Ratio, Age-Specific Enrollment Rate). 2; VPU; PUV. Merged into NUOL in 1996).
Net Intake Rate. (NIR). UIS Definition: Total NIR. Net Intake Rate. (Compare with AIR, GIR).
number of new entrants in Grade 1 of a given level NIT. National Implementation Team. (Compare
of education who are of the official entrance age with DIT, definition 1, PIT, definition 1).
for that level, expressed as a percentage of the
population of the same age. (Compare with AIR, NL. National Library.
GIR). NLHS. Also NLHX. Lao: Neo Lao Hak Sat. See
NEU. National Economics University [of Vietnam] LPF.
(in cooperative program with NUOL to provide NLHX. Also NLHS. Lao: Neo Lao Hak Xat. See
MBA degrees in Laos). LPF.
New Millennium. Sports plan adopted by the LNSC
in 1999. NLPG. National Language Processing Group.
(Under ITC).
New Thinking. [History]. Lao: Chin tanakan mai.
. Political slogan associated with NLS. National Literacy Survey. Also LNLS.
the introduction of the NEM in 1986. NLSX. Lao: Neo Lao Sang Xat. See LFNC.
NFE. Non-formal education. NMODA. National MODA. (Compare with
NFEC. [Formerly]. Non-formal Education Center. CCMODA).
(See NFEDC).
NOC[L]. National Olympic Committee [of Laos].
Historical Note: Established 1992, renamed
Historical Note: Created 1975, recognized 1979.
NFEDC 1996.
Laos first participated in the Olympics 1980.
NFED. (See DNFE).
NOL. No objections Letter.
NFEDC. Non-formal Education Development
Center. (Vientiane, at Km 8, Thadeua Road. See Non-basic education. [Sub-sectors in EFA context].
NFEC, Historical Note). Upper secondary, vocational and technical, and
higher education. (Compare with Basic education.
NFUAJ. National Federation of UNESCO See also PBE).
Associations in Japan. (NGO, Japan).
NORAD. Norwegian Agency for Development
NGO. Non-governmental organization. (See also
Cooperation.
FBO, GO, INGO; NPO).
NGPES. National Growth and Poverty Eradication Normal [school / college / university]. [History].
Strategy. (Published June 2004. Early drafts Following 19 th and 20 th century American and
referred to as PRSP; NPAS, NPEP). (See also NP / French terminology, Normal School or cole
P / PP). Normale referred to a teacher education
institution. This historical usage is still found
NGPES-Ed. National Growth and Poverty today many countries in the form Normal
Eradication Strategy, Part IV, Chapter 2: Poverty- School, Normal College, and Normal
focused Education Development Action Plan University. In Laos, referring to USAID support
Priorities. (Early drafts referred to NPEP-Ed). to RLG and PGNU).
(See NGPES).
NORRAG. Network for International Policies and
NHEC. National Higher Education Council. Cooperation in Education and Training. (Formerly
(Established by the Decree on Higher Education, Northern Research Review and Advisory
2015). Group).
NIEP. National Inclusive Education Policy. (See
Northern Region. Phongsaly, Luang Namtha,
NPIE).
Oudamxay, Bokeo, Luang Phrabang, Houphanh,
NIEQA. National Institute for Education Quality and Xayabury Provinces. (See also Central
Assessment. Region; Southern Region; Special Region).

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50
NOSPA. National Organization for the Study of with Polytechnic College located nearby). (See
Policy and Administration. FOE, definition 2; FOAR).

NP / P / PP. Non-poor / Poor / Poorest. (Poverty NPIE. National Policy on Inclusive Education.
classification of districts established in NGPES, NPIPO. NPI Project Office. Note: In Polytechnic
published in June 2004). Institute Project leading to the establishment of
Note 1: Out of the total of 142 districts (in 2004), NUOL.
NGPES made the following poverty classification:
NPO. Non-profit organization; Not-for-profit
organization. (See NPA).
NPRS. National Poverty Reduction Strategy.
NPV. Net Present Value.
NQAF. [Generic] National Quality Assurance
Framework. (Compare with NEQAF; NQAF-TE).
Note 2: In later writings the distribution is often NQAF-TE. National Quality Assurance Framework
simplified as 47 Poorest, 25 Poor, and 70 Non- for Teacher Education. (Compare with NEQAF).
poor.
NQF. National Qualifications Framework. (Also
Note 3: The ESDF targeted priority action to the
LNVQF, NVQF, VQF. (See detail in VQF;
47 Poorest districts, but the ESDP targeted the
56 most Educationally Disadvantaged districts. compare with NQI, RQF).
Note 4: The BEQUAL project focuses on up to 66 NQI. National Quality Infrastructure. (See also
of the most educationally disadvantaged districts. NVQF, LNVQF, VQF; compare with NQF, RQF).
NP. Ngee Ann Polytechnic. (Singapore). NQT. Newly qualified teacher.

NPA. 1. National Plan of Action. (See especially NRA. National Regulatory Authority [for the UXO /
EFA-NPA, NSPAIE; see also POA). 2. Non-profit Mine Action Sector].
association. (Defined by Decree on Associations, NRC. 1. National Research Center. (NUOL).
No. 115/PM, 2009-04-29. See also CSO; contrast 2. National Rehabilitation Center.
with Mass Organization). 3. Norwegian Peoples
Aid. (NGO; Norway). NRCHRD. National Review Conference on the
Human Resource Development. (August 1996).
NPAS. National Poverty Alleviation Strategy.
(Renamed NGPES). NREN. National Research and Education Network.

NPD. National Project Director. NRIES. [Formerly]. National Research Institute for
Educational Sciences. (Re-organized in 2008 as a
NPDP. National Population and Development department-level unit within MOE. See RIES,
Policy. Historical Note).
NPE. National Project Engineer. (EQIP II). NSAM. [History]. National School of Administra-
NPEP-Ed. [Lao PDR] National Poverty Eradication tion and Management.
Plan Education Sector. (See NGPES-Ed). Historical Note: Founded 1990; merged in 1995
with the School for Higher Studies in Political
NPEP [S]. [Lao PDR] National Poverty Eradication
s

Theory to form NOSPA).


Program [Strategy]. (Earlier referred to as PRSP,
later renamed NGPES; see also NPEP-Ed). NSAW. National Strategy for the Advancement of
Women.
NPF. Needs and Performance Framework.
(Allocation formula for GPE). NSC. 1. Natural Science Center. (Within RIES).
Note: In 2014 the performance part was 2. [Formerly]. National Statistics Center.
removed, and the revised allocation formula, (Renamed DOS, now LSB). 3. National Sports
sometimes referred to as the revised NPF, was Committee. (See also LNSC).
based solely on need. See also MCA.) NSDF. National Skills Development Fund.
NPHECD. National Policy for Holistic Early (Managed by MOLSW).
Childhood Development. NSDW. National Strategy for the Development of
NPI. National Polytechnic Institute. (Founded 1984, Women. (1998-2005, 2005-2010).
merged in 1995 into NUOL, Faculty of NSEDP. National Socio-Economic Development
Engineering and Architecture. Not to be confused Plan. (Also Five-Year Plan; endorsed by the Party

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51
Congress, designed to implement the resolution of NTPC. Nam Theun2 Power Company Ltd.
the Congress, and approved by the National
Assembly). NTTP. National Teacher Training Plan. Renamed
NTEP (developed under TTEST support), renamed
1st Plan, 1981-1985;
TESAP.
2nd Plan, 1986-1990;
NTU. 1. Network for Teacher Upgrading.
3rd Plan, 1991-1995 (Delayed implementation); 2. Nanyang Technological University.
4th Plan, 1996-2000; (Singapore).
5th Plan, 2001-2005, 2001-2010, 2001-2020; NTUC. 1. Network for Teachers Upgrading Centers.
6th Plan, 2006-2010; (See also TUC). 2. [Formerly] National Teacher
Upgrading Center.
7th Plan, 2011-2015;
8th Plan, 2016-2020 NTUP. 1. Network for Teacher Upgrading Program.
(See also TUP). 2. [Formerly] National Teacher
Note: The abbreviations often include the Plan
Upgrading Program.
number, e.g. NSEDP8 or 8NSEDP for the 8 th Plan.
NUL. See NUOL.
NSEEA. National Strategy on Environmental
Education and Awareness. NUOL PS. The National University of Laos
Provincial Scholarship.
NSG. National School Games. (Compare with
ASG). NUOL. National University of Lao PDR. (See
Annex Table 2).
NSMP. National School Meals Program. (See also
SMP). Historical Note: NUOL was established by Prime
Ministerial Decree 50/PM in 1995 and opened in
NSP. Non-state Provider [of educational services]. 1996 following the merger of nine higher
(Compare with PPP, definition 3). education institutions, a Center of Agriculture, and
two other institutions, namely:
NSPAIE. National Strategy and Plan of Action on
Inclusive Education 2011-2015. (Pub. MOES, 1. University of Pedagogy (Dong Dok), also
2011). known as Vientiane Teacher Training College;
2. Polytechnic University, also known as the
NSTA. National Science and Technology Agency. National Polytechnic Institute (Vientiane);
(See STEA; compare with NAST).
3. University of Health Sciences, also known as
NT II. Nam Theun 2 [Hydropower Project]. (Also the College of Medical Sciences (Vientiane);
NT2). 4. College of Agriculture (Nabong);
NT2. Nam Theun 2 [Hydropower Project]. (Also 5. College of Forestry (Dong Dok);
NT II). 6. School of Irrigation (Tad Thong);
NTC. 1. National [Charter of] Teacher Compe- 7. School of Architecture (Vientiane);
tencies. (See NCTC). 2. National Training 8. School of Communication and Transport
Council. (Established in April 2002, replaced by (Vientiane);
NCTS in December 2009). (Compare with RTC).
9. Lao-German School of Electronics, also
3. [HRD] National Technical Committee.
known as the College of Electronics and
(Chaired by the Minister of Education and Sports, Electro-technology (Vientiane);
with high-level representation from other 10. Veunkham Agriculture Center (Vientiane);
ministries and national organizations). (Compare
with HRDNC). 11. Overseas Preparation School (Dong Dok); and
12. Overseas Reception Center (Dong Dok).
NTC-PO. National Training Council Permanent
Office. NUPT. Nanjing University of Post and
Telecommunications.
NTEAB. National Teacher Education Advisory
Board. (Established under EQIP). NURBIDS. National Urban-Rural Basic Infra-
structure Development Strategy.
NTEP. National Teacher Education Plan. (Earlier
named NTTP, developed with support of TTEST. Nursery. Nominally for children aged 3 months to 3
Led to TES and TESAP). years; in practice more commonly for children
aged 1-3 years. (See ECCD; compare with
NTNA. National Training Needs Analysis.
Crche, Kindergarten, Pre-school; see Annex
(Conducted under HRD-ME support).
Figure 5).

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52
NUS. National University of Singapore. Historical Note: Laos became a member of OIF in
1991.
NVCLSDC. National Vocational Consulting and
Labor Skill Development Council. (See NCTS). OJT. On-the-job training. (Compare with OffJT,
Practicum).
NVCSDC. National Vocational Consulting and
Skills Development Committee. OM. Operations Manual. (See also POM).

NVQF. National Vocational Qualifications OMI. [History]. Oblate of Mary Immaculate.


Framework. Also LNVQF, NQF, VQF. (See Historical Note: Missionary religious congregation
detail in VQF). in the Roman Catholic Church, active in Laos from
1956 to 1974, building churches, orphanages, and
NVSDC. National Vocational Standard Development
schools.
Committee
OOPP. Objectives-Oriented Project Planning. (See
NZAID. New Zealand International Aid and
also ZOPP).
Development Agency.
OOSC. Out-of-School Children [Primary school
NZAP. New Zealand Aid Program.
age]. Also OOS. UIS Definition: Number of
NZAS. New Zealand ASEAN Scholar [Awards]. children of official primary school age who are not
enrolled in primary or secondary school. Children
O enrolled in pre-primary education are excluded and
considered out of school.
O&M. 1. Operation and Maintenance. 2. Orientation
OOSCI. Out-of-School Children Initiative.
and Mobility [for blind people].
(UNICEF).
OA. Operating Account. (WB). (See also DA). OOSCY. Out-of-School Children and Youth.
OC. Operating Committee. OOSR. Out-of-School Rate [for Children or Youth,
by level]. UIS Definition: For a given level of
ODA. Official Development Assistance. (Some- schooling, the number of children or youth of the
times incorrectly given as Overseas Development official age for that level, who are not enrolled in
Assistance; see also DFID, Historical Note). schooling at any level from Primary through Post-
Note: Includes assistance from both bilateral secondary (i.e., ISCED 1-8), expressed as a
donors and multilateral institutions, both grants percentage of the population of official age for the
and concessional loans. given level. Children enrolled in pre-primary
education (ISCED 0) are excluded and considered
ODF. Open defecation free. out of school.
ODL. Open and distance learning. OP. Operation Permit. (Also referred to as Operat-
ing Permit or Operational Permit, but the
ODOP. One district, one product. (Compare with
document issued to an NGO by MOFA is titled
OVOP).
Operation Permit).
ODX. Oudomxay Province. (Also OUD, UDX). Open learning. Learning programs which can be
OECD. Organization for Economic Cooperation and interrupted at any time, in which credits or learning
Development. units can be accumulated to bridge the gap
between courses at a given qualification level.
OED. Operations Evaluation Department. (WB).
ORAF. Operational Risk Assessment Framework.
OEM. Operations Evaluation Mission. (ADB).
OSF. Open Society Foundation. (Foundation, also
OER. Open Educational Resources. known as Soros Foundation; USA).
OffJT. Off-the-job training. (Compare with OJT). OSOP. One School, One Project. (Project of EDF,
OHRC. [Japan] Osaka Hirano Rotary Club. definition 2).
OUD. Oudomxay Province. (Also ODX, UDX).
OHSU. Oregon Health and Science University.
OIC. 1. Officer in Charge. 2. Organizational Oudom. Lao: . Upper secondary school grades.
Improvement Committee. (MOE). (Also Matanyom pai, M5-7). (Compare with
Pathom, Matanyom ton, M1-4).
OIF. French: Organisation Internationale de la
Francophonie. International Organization of the Over-age Enrollment Ratio. Enrollment above the
French-speaking World. (Continued) official age group for a given level of education

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53
expressed as a percentage of the official age teach school-age boys not only the traditional
population. (Compare with Under-age Enrollment religious curriculum but also secular subjects
Ratio, Gross Enrollment Ratio, Net Enrollment reading, writing, and arithmetic. With the spread
Rate). of state-based secular schooling, enrollments in the
Pali schools declined, especially after the intro-
OVI. Objectively Verifiable Indicator. (Used
duction of compulsory schooling. (Not to be
especially in LFA; see also SOV).
confused with the secular functions of Temple
OVOP. One village, one product. (Compare with schools or Wat schools).
ODOP).
Palm leaf manuscript. [History]. Documents,
OxAus. Oxfam Australia. (NGO, Australia). mainly Buddhist religious texts, written on palm
leaves, among the first writing materials used in
P Southeast Asia.

P. See NP / P / PP. PAM. 1. Project Administration Manual. (ADB).


2. Policy Action Matrix (e.g., in PAF).
P1-P3. [History]. Primary, 1st Cycle, grades 1-3.
(See also P4-P6). PAME. Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation.

P1-P5. Primary grades 1-5. (See Pathom). (Also PAP. Project Affected Persons.
G1-G5). (Compare with M1-M4, M5-M7). PAR. 1. Participatory action research. 2. Project
P4-P6. [History]. Primary, 2 nd Cycle, grades 4-6. Appraisal Report.
(See also P1-P3). Paris Declaration [on Aid Effectiveness].
PA. 1. Pedagogical Advisor. (Experienced teacher Declaration signed at high level conference in
responsible for monitoring, supervising, and Paris, March 2, 2005. (See also Vientiane
supporting teachers at school level. For primary Declaration on Aid Effectiveness). Main features
level, based at DESB; for secondary level, based at included:
PESS. See also PPA, SPA). 2. Professional Ownership: Developing countries set their own
Assistant [based at TEIs and responsible for strategies for poverty reduction, improve their
development of teacher trainers]. 3. Provincial institutions and tackle corruption;
[bank] account. 4. Provincial Assembly. Alignment: Donor countries align behind these
(Compare with NA, definition 3). 5. Performance objectives and use local systems in their support
Assessment. (See PAF). programs;
PACSA. [Formerly]. Public Administration and Harmonization: Donor countries coordinate,
Civil Service Authority. (See MOHA). their programs, simplify procedures and share
PAD. 1. Project Appraisal Document (WB). information to avoid duplication;
2. [Formerly]. Policy Analysis Division. Results: Developing countries and donors shift
(Renamed SREAC). focus to development results and results get
measured; and
PADETC. Participatory Development Training
Center. (Vientiane; established 1996). Mutual accountability: Donors and partners are
accountable for development results.
PAF. Performance Assessment Framework.
(Compare with PAM, definition 2). Pariyatti. Pali: Intellectual or theoretical understand-
ing of the teachings of the Buddha.
Pagoda. See Wat.
Party Congress. Key decision-making forum. First
Pali. Liturgical language of Theravada Buddhism. Party Congress held in 1955. Since 1986 held
Written in the Tham script. every five years and endorsing the Five-Year Plan
(FYP, formally NSEDP) for the following period:
Pali Institute. See Sangha College, Vientiane.
1st Congress March 22, 1955 No FYP
Pali School. Schools providing monastic education, 2nd Congress February 3-6, 1972 No FYP
including the Buddhist Dhamma (doctrine, teach-
3rd Congress April 27-30, 1982 1st FYP
ings of the Buddha) and the Pali language, with
teaching at primary, secondary, and tertiary level. 4th Congress Nov. 13-15, 1986 2nd FYP
Historical Note: Before the French Colonial 5 Congress March 27-29, 1991 3rd FYP
th

Period, the wat served as the center of culture and 6th Congress March 18-20, 1996 4th FYP
learning. During the colonial period the temple 7th Congress March 12-14, 2001 5th FYP
schools, especially in the rural villages, began to
8th Congress March 18-21, 2006 6th FYP

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54
9th Congress March 17-21, 2011 7th FYP PCK. Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Seven
10 th Congress January 18-22, 2016 8th FYP domains proposed for teacher education:
Party, The. See LPRP. 1. Content knowledge;
2. Pedagogical knowledge;
PASEC. French: Programme dAnalyse des Systmes
ducatifs de la CONFEMEN. Program on the 3. Knowledge of educational contexts;
Analysis of Education Systems of CONFEMEN. 4. Knowledge of learners;
5. Curriculum knowledge;
Pasopkane Teacher. Lao: . Experienced
6. Pedagogical content knowledge; and
Teacher. [Title, 4 th Rank]. (See also Samnanekane
Teacher; Xiosane Teacher; Xiosane Avouso 7. Knowledge of educational ends, purposes,
Teacher). values.
Note: Proposed by L. S. Shulman. (Compare with
PATA. Policy and Advisory Technical Assistance.
PK, SMK).
(ADB).
PClR. Pupil/Classroom Ratio. (Note: UIS does not
Pathet Lao. [History]. Lao: . Literally define a Pupil/Classroom Ratio. Compare with
Land of the Lao [people]. In the 1950s through PTR). (Note also that the third letter is lower-case
1975 it was widely used in Western literature to L, not upper-case i).
denote the Lao revolutionary movement as a
whole. PCM. 1. Provincial Coordination Meeting.
2. Provincial Coordinating Mechanism. 3. Project
Pathom. Lao: . Primary school grades. (See Cycle Management.
P1-P5; compare with Matanyom, Oudom). PCMC. Provincial Commission for Mothers and
Paxaxon teacher. Lao: . Peoples Teacher. Children. (See also NCMC).
(Honorific title for teacher selected at provincial PCN. Project Concept Note.
level). Compare with Haeng Xad Teacher.
PCR. 1. Project Completion Report. (ADB). (WB,
Payment Course. See Special Course. renamed ICR). 2. Primary Completion Rate.
PBA. 1. Program Based Approach. 2. Performance (Note: UIS does not define a Primary Completion
Based Allocation (ADB). Rate. See Cohort Completion Rate and Gross
Intake Ratio to Last Grade of Primary).
PBC. Planning and Budgeting Committee.
3. Pupil/Class Ratio. Compare with PTR.
PBE. Post-Basic Education. Referred to by UIS as Class Size.
PBL. 1. Project Based Learning. 2. Problem Based PCSS. Procurement Contract Summary Sheet.
Learning. (ADB). (See also PCUS).
PBMIS. Planning and Budgeting Management PCU. Project Coordination Unit. (See also PID,
Information System. definition 3; PIU).
PC. [Historical]. Price Comparison. PCUS. Procurement Contract Update Sheet. (ADB).
PCA. 1. Procurement Capacity Assessment (WB). (See also PCSS).
2. Program Cooperation Agreement. PD. 1. Professional development. 2. Paris
PCC. Party Central Committee. (See also Declaration. (Compare with VD). 3. Presidential
Decree.
LRPPCC).
PCD. 1. Project Coordination Division. (See PCU). PDA. Professional Development Assistants.
2. Planning and Cooperation Department. (See PDC. 1. Professional Development Coordination.
MOES/DPC). 3. Procurement Concept Document 2. Professional Development Coordinator.
(WB).
PDD. 1. Project Design Document. 2. Program
PCEM. [History]. French. Premier Cycle dtudes Design Document.
Mdicales. First cycle of study toward Doctor of
Medicine degree. PDM. Project Design Matrix.

PCF. Pestalozzi Childrens Foundation. (NGO, PDMC. Provincial Disaster Management


Switzerland). Committee.
PDN. Professional Development Network.

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55
PDO. 1. Program Development Operations. (WB). PES. [History]. Provincial Education Services.
2. Project Development Objective. (WB). (Renamed PESS in 2010). (See also CES).
PDP. 1. Professional Development Program. PESL. Primary Education Support for Laos.
2. Professional Development Plan. 3. Provincial (External financing by French Cooperation).
Development Plan.
PESS. Provincial Education and Sports Services.
PDR. Peoples Democratic Republic. (Formerly PES). (See Annex Table 1).
PDS. Project Data Sheet. (ADB). PET. Project Evaluation Team.
PDU. Professional Development Unit. PETS. Public Expenditure Tracking Survey.
PE. 1. Primary Education. 2. Physical Education. Peuan Mit. Lao: . Friends. (NGO; see FI).
(Compare with AE, definition 2).
PFM. Public Financial Management.
PEA. 1. Private Education Association. (Formally
Association of Private Education). 2. Project PFMSP. Public Financial Management Strengthen-
Executing Agency. (Compare with PIA). ing Program. (External financing by WB;
3. Provincial Education Allocation. 4. [Historical]. formerly PEMSP).
Provincial Education Authority. PFO. Project Financial Officer.
PEACO. Private Education Advisory Council PFS. Provincial Financial Services.
Office.
PGNU. [History]. Provisional Government of
PE [C]C. [Formerly]. Private Education [Con-
cc
National Union. (Official title of the 2 nd and 3 rd
sultative] Council. (Renamed PEACO). Coalition Governments, 1962-1963, 1973-1975).
PEDA. Population Education and Development Phaetsat [University]. Lao: . University of
Association. (CSO).
Health Sciences. (Vientiane; see UHS).
PEEP. Primary Education Equivalency Program.
(Also PEP). Phagna. [History]. Lao: . Honorary title of
nobility, usually granted in recognition of military
PEFA. Public Expenditure and Financial or civil service to the state.
Accountability.
PHC. Population and Housing Census.
PEM. Public Expenditure Management.
Phi. Lao: . Spirit an incorporeal being, as in
PEMSP. [Formerly]. Public Expenditure Manage-
ment Strengthening Program. (Renamed PFMSP). spirit world.
PHO. Phongsaly Province. (Also PSL).
PEO. [History]. Provincial Education Officer.
PEP. 1. Public Expenditure Plan. 2. Primary Phra Sangkharat. Lao: . Chief Abbot
Education Equivalency Program. (Also PEEP). of the Lao Buddhist Sangha.
PEQS. Primary Education Quality Standards. PI. Plan International. (INGO).
P-EQS. Priority Education Quality Standards. PIA. Project Implementing Agency. Also Project
Implementation Agency. (Compare with PEA,
PER. Public Expenditure Review. definition 2).
Permanent teacher. A teacher (regardless of qualifi- PIAAC. Program for the International Assessment of
cations) permanently assigned to a given school. Adult Competencies. (OECD. Compare with
(Compare with Temporary teacher). (Not to be PISA).
confused with Quota teacher).
PIB. Public information booklet. (ADB).
PERP. [History]. Post-secondary Education
Rationalization Project. (Also PSERP. 1995- PIC. Pubic Information Center. (World Bank
2003. External financing by ADB. Led to the Office, Vientiane).
establishment of NUOL). PID. 1. Project Information Document (WB).
Persistence Rate [to Grade 5]. See Survival Rate. 2. Program Information Document (WB).
Note: This term is used by the World Bank 3. Project Implementation Division. (See also
Development Indicators, but it corresponds to the PCU, PIU). 4. Project implementation design.
UIS indicator Survival Rate [to Grade 5] with Pillar. See Three Pillars; Four Pillars of Education.
repetition.
PIM. Project Implementation Manual.

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56
Pioneer [s]. See Young Pioneers.
s PNU. Philippines Normal University. (See Normal
school / college / university).
PIP. 1. Public Investment Program. 2. Project
Implementation Plan. PO. 1. Program Officer. 2. Permanent Office.
3. Plan of Operation.
PIR. Project Implementation Report.
POA. Plan of Action. (See also NPA, definition 1).
PIRLS. Progress in International Reading Literacy
Study. Polytechnic Institute. Post-secondary, non-tertiary
vocational institution offering courses in many
PIS. Panyathip International School. (Private,
fields.
Vientiane).
POM. 1. Project Operation Manual. (See also OM).
PISA. Program for International Student
2. Policy and Operations Manual.
Assessment. (OECD. Compare with IEA,
PIAAC). PoP. Pencils of Promise. (NGO, USA).
PIT. 1. Provincial Implementation Team. (Compare PORDEA. Poverty Reduction and Development
with DIT, definition 1; NIT). 2. Provincial Association.
Inclusive Education Trainer.
Post-Colonial Period. Historical Note: Period
Pitaka. Pali: [literally Basket, hence collection of] between the end of the French Colonial Period and
Buddhist teachings. (See also Tipitaka). the Revolution December 2, 1975. Different
writers refer to different periods: 1945-1975, 1949-
PIU. Project Implementation Unit. (See also PCU;
1975, 1954-1975, 1957-1975, or 1958-1975. (See
PID, definition 3; PMU). (Compare with DPIU;
French Colonial Period for timeline. See also
PPIU).
Semi-Royalist Period).
PK. Pedagogical Knowledge. (Compare with PCK,
POWER International. [Formerly]. (Private non-
SMK).
profit company, UK).
PL. Policy Letter (WB). (See also DPL).
PP. 1. Preparation Plan. 2. See NP / P / PP.
PLA. Participatory Learning and Action.
PPA. 1. Primary Pedagogical Advisor. (See also PA,
Plan. Plan International Laos. (INGO) SPA). 2. Pupil-Parent Association. 3. Project
Preparation Advance. 4. Participatory Poverty
Play group. School readiness program for pre-school Assessment.
children, organized by the community, typically
with support from NGOs. (Compare with Crche, PPAL. [Association for the] Preservation of the Arts
Pre-school, Kindergarten., CBSRP. See Annex and Literature. (Lao CSO).
Figure 5).
PPAR. Project Performance Audit Report. (ADB;
PLC. Professional Learning Community. compare with TPAR).
PLD. Provincial Labor Department. PPD. Primary and Preschool [Education]
Department. (See DPPE).
PLM. Primary Learning Metrics. Also SEA-PLM.
(A SEAMEO initiative). PPE. 1. Provincial Project Engineer (EQIP II).
2. Pre-primary Education.
PM. 1. Progress map. 2. Policy matrix (e.g., in
ESDF). 3. Person-months. 4. Prime Minister. PPF. Project Preparation Facility (WB).
PMD. Project Management Division. (MOES, PPID. Provincial Planning and Investment
within DP, definition 3). Department.
PMF. Performance Measurement Framework. PPIU. Provincial Project Implementation Unit.
(Compare with PIU, DPIU).
PMIS. Personnel Management Information System.
(Compare with CMIS, EMIS, FMIS, GIS). PPM. Policy Planning Matrix. (E.g., in ESDP).
PMO. 1. Prime Ministers Office. 2. Project PPO. [Project] Procurement Officer.
Management Office.
PPP. 1. Purchasing Power Parity (also ppp).
PMP. Performance Monitoring Plan. 2. Program, Policy, and Procedure. 3. Public-
Private Partnership. (Compare with 4Ps, NSP).
PMR. Project Management Reporting. 4. Progressive Promotion Policy. (See Automatic
PMRO. Project Monitoring and Reporting Officer. Promotion).
PMU. Program Management Unit. (See also PIU). PPPD. Public-Private Partnership Dialogue.

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57
PPR. Project Performance Report. (ADB). Primary Completion Rate. (Note: UIS does not
define a Primary Completion Rate. See Cohort
PPRA. Project Procurement-related Audit. (ADB).
Completion Rate.)
PPRE. Per Pupil Recurrent Expenditure.
Primary school. Grades 1 - 5. (See also Pathom;
PPS. 1. Provincial Planning Service. 2. Probability Annex Figure 1).
proportional to size. (Sampling method commonly
Priority District. A district prioritized for poverty-
used in school surveys; contrast with SRS).
reduction or other specific government action.
PPTA. Project Preparatory Technical Assistance. (See NGPES; see also NP / P / PP, Note 3).
(Also Project Preparation Technical Assistance).
PrMO. Procurement Monitoring Office. (MOF).
PR [by grade]. Promotion Rate [by grade].
PROAP. Principal Regional Office for Asia and the
PRA. Participatory Rural Appraisal. Pacific (UNESCO Bangkok; includes Asia and
Pacific Regional Bureau for Education).
Practicum. (TVET). Course in which theory is put
into practice in an actual workplace, e.g., in an Historical Note: Established 1986.
enterprise. (Compare with OJT). ProCEEd. Promotion of Climate-related Environ-
Pratom. See Pathom. mental Education. (Under MONRE, GIZ).

PRC. 1. Provincial Rehabilitation Center. PRODOC. 1. Project Document. 2. Program


2. Peoples Republic of China. Document.

Pre-ADS. Pre-Australian Development Scholarship. Progressive Promotion. See Automatic Promotion.

Pre-education. See Pre-school. Promotion Rate [by grade]. (PR). UIS Definition:
Proportion of students from a cohort enrolled in a
PREI. Procurement Review for Effective Implemen- given grade in a given school year who study in
tation. (ADB). the next grade in the following school year.
Pre-primary. Pre-school classes, usually attached to (Compare with SR, TR).
a primary school, to prepare children to enter Proviseur. [History]. French: [School] Principal,
Grade 1. Government initiatives target particularly Director.
non-Lao ethnic groups, girls, and children from the
poorest families who have not attended PRS. Poverty Reduction Strategy.
Kindergarten. Private initiatives generally serve PRSC. Poverty Reduction Support Credit. (WB).
urban middle income families. (See Annex Figure
1 and Figure 5. Compare with ECCD; contrast PRSO. Poverty Reduction Support Operation.
with Pre-school). (Multi-sector budget support program led by WB
and with the participation of EC and others,
Note: In Laos, often used as synonymous with
starting in 2007). (See also GBS, SBS).
Grade 0, but this usage is at variance with the
ISCED 0 classification, which includes children PRSP. Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. (WB).
aged 3 to the start of Primary. In practice many (See also IPRSP, renamed NPEP by GOL, later
Pre-primary classes include children ranging in age renamed NGPES).
from 3 to 5, which is consistent with ISCED 0
PRTR. Progress Report on Tranche Release.
classification and data provided by UIS.
(ADB).
Pre-school. Commonly referring to services for
PSC. 1. Project Steering Committee. 2. Population
children aged 2 - 5 years, sometimes from 3
Study Center. (NUOL).
months. Can include Crche, kindergarten, and
Pre-primary. Also called Pre-Education. (Com- PSE. Post-secondary education.
pare with ECCD, Pre-primary; see Annex Figure 1
PSERP. [History]. Also PERP. Post-secondary
and Figure 5).
Education Rationalization Project, 1995-2003.
PRESET. Pre-service education and training. (See (Sometimes incorrectly referred to as Post-
also INSET and UPSET). Secondary Rehabilitation Project. External
financing by ADB. Contributed to the establish-
PRF. Poverty Reduction Fund.
ment of NUOL).
PRGF. Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility
PSI. 1. Population Services International. (INGO).
(WB).
2. [History]. Primary School Inspector.
PSIA. Poverty and Social Impact Analysis. (WB).

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58
PSL. Phongsaly Province. (Also PHO). PUV. [History]. Pedagogical University, Vientiane.
(Also known as Institut Universitaire Pdagogie,
PSM. 1. Prospective School Map. 2. Provincial
cole Suprieure de Pdagogie, Vientiane Higher
Simulation Model. (For education planning).
Pedagogical Institute, Vientiane Teacher Training
PSP. Primary school principal. College, College of Education, Vientiane Teacher
Training School, National School of Pedagogy,
PSQS. Primary School Quality Standards. (Based Dong Dok Institute of Pedagogy, National Institute
on and replaces SOQ; compare with SSQS). of Pedagogy [Vientiane], and Vientiane Peda-
Note: The PSQS instrument comprise 42 items gogical University). (See also IUP; ESP; HIPV;
relating to the student, teaching and learning NEC, definition 2; NIPV; VPU. Merged into
methods, the school environment, management and NUOL in 1996).
administration, and community participation, but it
Note: Still today, one of the buildings at the NUOL
does not include evidence about student learning Dong Dok campus is often referred to as the PUV
outcomes. building, usually without an awareness of the
PSR. Public Service Reform. origin or meaning of the term.
PSS. Pedagogical Support System. PWD. Person(s) with disability (disabilities); People
with disabilities. (See also CWD).
PSSCM. Primary-Secondary School Cluster Model.
PWG. Project Working Group.
PSSP. Primary School Sanitation Program
(UNICEF). PWMS. Pooled Weighted Mean Score.
PSSZ. Primary School Service Zone. (Created under PWP. Project Work Plan.
EQIP II, mechanism for managing student flow
within a region). Q
PST. Primary school teacher. QA. Quality Assurance.
PSTE. Pre-school Teacher Education. QAC. [Formerly]. Quality Assurance Center. (See
PSTTD. Pre-service Teacher Training Division. (In ESQAC).
DTE; compare with ISTTD). QAE. Quality at Entry. (WB).
PSU. Project Support Unit. (MOES, later subsumed QAG. Quality Assurance Group. (WB).
by DPC).
QAM. Quality Assurance Mechanism.
PTC. 1. Polytechnic College. 2. Propaganda &
Training Committee [of Central Committee of the QAS. Quality Assurance System.
Party]. QAU. Quality Assurance Unit.
PTCA. Parent-Teacher Community Association. QBS. Quality-based Selection. (ADB, WB).
PTE. Primary Teacher Education. (Compare with QCBS).
PTI. Private Training Institution. QCBS. Quality- and Cost-based Selection. (ADB,
WB). (Compare with QBS).
PTR. Pupil/Teacher Ratio. UIS Definition: (Head-
count basis: Total number of pupils enrolled at the QE. Quality education.
specified level of education divided by the number QEEG. Quality [Basic] Education, Especially Girls
of teachers at the same level). (Also known as [Project]. (Supported by UNICEF).
Student/Teacher Ratio). (See Annex Table 8).
QER. 1. Quality Education Project. (SCNL).
PTS. Pakpasak Technical School. (Vientiane). 2. Quality Enhancement Review. (WB).
PTTC. Pakse Teacher Training College. QES. Quality Education Standard. (See also EQS,
PUCA. Provincial Unit for Construction Assistance. SOQ, PSQS, SSQS).
PUCDA. Provincial Unit for Construction and QF. Qualification Framework.
Development Assistance. (See also DUCDA). QIP. Quality Improvement Plan.
Purchasing power parity. PPP. Technique used to QITEP. [SEAMEO Regional Center for] Quality
determine the relative value of different currencies; Improvement of Teachers and Education
useful for making comparisons between countries. Personnel. (Continued)
(E.g., see International Dollar).

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59
Note: There are three QITEP Regional Centers Rank. (Of teachers). Title officially awarded on the
focusing on language, mathematics, and science, basis of merit in teaching and associated with
respectively. All are in Indonesia. salary supplements:
QMS. Quality management system. Lao term Rank English term .
QOP. [Historical]. Quotation of Price. Xiosane Avouso 1st Senior Expert;
QPR. Quarterly Progress Report. Xiosane 2nd Expert;
Samnanekane 3rd Skilled;
QSA. Quality of Supervision Assessment. (WB).
Pasopkane 4th Experienced.
QSL. Quaker Service Laos. (NGO, USA). Program .
of AFSC. (Compare with Honorific Title).
QTS. Qualified teacher status. Note: These categories are defined in the
Education Law of 2007 and expanded in Article 50
Qualified teacher. A teacher with current formal of the Education Law of 2015.
teacher education qualifications for the level of
schooling at which he/she is teaching. (See RAS. Rapid Assessment Survey.
Underqualified teacher; Unqualified teacher; RBA. Rights-based Approach. (Compare with DDA,
Certified teacher). HRBA).
Quartile. See Quintile, definition 1, Notes. RBAC. Rattana Business Administration College.
Quintile. 1. Each of 5 numerically equal groups into (Private college, Vientiane)
which a population can be divided according to the RBM. Results-based management.
values of a particular variable. E.g. With test
scores, the 1st quintile would include the lowest 20 RC. Resource Center.
% of scores, and the 5th quintile would include the RCC. Regional Consultative Committee [on Disaster
highest 20 % of scores. 2. The cut-off value Management].
separating the groups; e.g., the 2 nd quintile would
be the score below which 2/5 of the scores fall. RCM. Resource Center Manager.
Note 1: Some writers invert the scale, referring to RCP. Regional Cooperation Platform. (Network of
top 20 % as the 1st quintile. universities involved in VTE in the ASEAN region
Note 2: Related terms include Tertile or Tercile (3 and China).
groups), Quartile (4 groups), Decile (10 groups), RDC. Research Development Committee. (NUOL).
etc.
RDMA. 1. Regional Development Mission for Asia.
Quota teacher. A teacher employed as civil servant, (Bangkok. USAID regional implementation
based on a government quota or long term salary office). 2. Rural Development in Mountainous
commitment established by the National Assembly Areas.
and the Ministry of Finance, and whose salary is
set by the Civil Service Commission. (See also RE. Recipient Executed. (WB).
Community teacher; Contract teacher; Village READI. Regional EU-ASEAN Dialogue
teacher; Volunteer teacher). Instruments.
Note: The concept of Quota teacher should not be
confused with the concept of Qualified teacher, RECSAM. Regional Center for Education in Science
since there exist quota teachers who are and Mathematics. (SEAMEO, in Penang,
Underqualified or even Unqualified. Malaysia).
Historical Note: In 2011/12 budget year the quota Redd barna. Norwegian: Save the Children
system was abolished, and the needs were to be Norway. (See SC, definition 1; SCF/N; SCN).
met from the local level, based on directions from REF. Recurrent Education Fund. (Formerly SBG).
the district and provincial development plans. In
2013/14, however, a severe budget deficit RELC. Regional Language Center (SEAMEO,
compelled the restoration of the quota system. Singapore).
Repetition Rate (RR) [by grade]. UIS Definition:
R Proportion of students from a cohort enrolled in a
given grade at a given school year who study in
R&D. Research and Development.
the same grade in the following school year.
RAI. Radio-Assisted Instruction. (Compare with (Compare with Total Repetition Rate).
CAI; IAI, definition 1; TAI).

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60
RET. Rural Ethnic Teacher Project. (Project of RLG. [History]. Royal Lao Government. Replaced
EDF, definition 2). by the Government of the Lao PDR December
1975.
RETA. Regional Technical Assistance.
RMA. Revenue Management Arrangements.
RETRAC. [SEAMEO] Regional Training Center.
(In Ho Chi Minh City). RMES. Results-Based [Sector Performance]
Monitoring and Evaluation System.
Reverse Gender Gap. Generic term referring to
gender disparity. In the education sector it usually RMIT [University]. (Main campus, Melbourne,
refers to the female/male ratio of some common Australia).
statistic, such as NERf/NERm or Literacy Historical Note: Formerly Royal Melbourne
Ratef/Literacy Rate m. A Reverse Gender Gap is Institute of Technology. Renamed RMIT
indicated when the ratio is greater than 1. It is not University in 1992.
defined by UIS. (Sometimes referred to as
Inverse Gender Gap. Compare with Gender RNFEC. Regional Non-formal Education Center.
Gap). RNI. Rate of Natural Increase [of the population].
Revision. The process of review or study, as for an ROEAP. [UNESCO] Regional Office for Education
examination. (Chiefly British). in Asia and the Pacific. (Bangkok).
Revision notes. Students study notes, especially in Historical Note: Formerly Regional Office for
preparing for an exam. (See Revision). Primary Education, established 1961. Became
ROEAP 1978 and PROAP 1986.
RF. 1. Registration Fee. 2. Resettlement
Framework. ROK. Republic of Korea. (South Korea. Compare
with DPRK).
RFP. Request for Payment.
RP. Resource Person.
RFQ. Request for Quote.
RPL. Recognition of Prior Learning. (See also
RICE. 1. Returns Invested in Children and
APEL; APL, definition 2).
Education. (ICO, Singapore). 2. Raffles
International Centre for Education. (Private RPP. Reading Promotion Project.
college, Vientiane).
RQ. Required qualification. (See also ARQ; BRQ).
RIES. Research Institute for Educational Sciences.
(MOES; see also NRIES). RQA. Registry of Qualified Applicants.
Historical Note: RQF. Regional Qualification[s] Framework.
(ASEAN). (Compare with NQF).
1960 Compilation Div. of Education Committee
(LPF Central Committee); RR. Repetition Rate [by grade]. (Compare with
1975 Dept. of Research & Compilation (Re- Total Repetition Rate).
organization merging Dept. of Research & RRDPA. Rural Research and Development
Compilation with NEC, definition 2); Promoting Knowledge Association. (Lao NPA).
1983 Research Committee for Educational
Sciences (Reorganization replacing the RRDTC. Rural Research & Development Training
Dept. of Research & Compilation and the Center. (RRDPA).
Research Committee for Educational RRP. Report and Recommendation of the President
Sciences); [to the Board of Directors]. (ADB).
1986 Research Institute for Educational Sciences; RRR. Risk Reduction and Resilience.
1996 National Research Institute for Educational
Sciences; RTA. Regional Technical Assistance.
2008 Research Institute for Educational Sciences. RTC. Regional Training Council. (Compare with
NTC).
RIHED. Regional Center for Higher Education and
Development (SEAMEO, in Bangkok). RTF. Round Table Forum. (See also RTM).
(Sometimes incorrectly referred to as Regional
RTIM. Round Table Implementation Meeting.
Center for Higher Education Development, i.e., (Annual. See also RTM).
missing the and).
RtL. Right to Learn. (Project supporting IE).
RIP. Remote In-service Program.

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61
RTM. Round Table Meeting [of Government and Samnanekane Teacher. Lao: Highly Experienced
Development Partners]. (Every 4 th year. See also Teacher. [Title, 3 rd Rank]. (See also Pasopkane
HLRTM, RTIM). Teacher; Xiosane Teacher; Xiosane Avouso
Teacher).
RTP. Round Table Process. (See also RTIM; RTM).
RtR. Room to Read [Laos]. (NGO, international). San Kang. (Also Sankang). Lao: Upper certificate
level vocational and technical program (3-year
RTTC. [History]. Rural Teacher Training College. program after completion of lower secondary
RUPP. Royal University of Phnom Penh. schooling). (Compare with San Sung, San Ton).

RVA. Recognition, validation, and accreditation. San Sung. (Also Sansung). Lao: Higher diploma or
degree level technical and professional program
RVT. Rural vocational training. (typically 4-year program at polytechnic institute
or university after completion of upper secondary
S schooling). (Compare with San Kang, San Ton).
S&T. Science and Technology. San Ton. (Also Santon, Santong, San Tonh). 1. Lao:
SA. 1. Special Account. 2. Social Assessment. Lower certificate level vocational program; 1- or
2-year vocational program after completion of
SAA. [Historical]. State Audit Authority. lower secondary schooling; can also be operated in
vocational centers, upper secondary general and
SABER. 1. Systems Approach for Better Education
TVET schools, TVET colleges, and enterprises).
Results. 2. Systems Assessment for Better
2. [Formerly]. 3-year program after completion of
Education Results. 3. Systems Approach and
primary schooling (5 + 3), now phased out.
Benchmarking for Education Results. (World
(Compare with San Kang, San Sung).
Bank; note that even in official World Bank
documents and websites, these different names Sangha. Lao: . [In Theravada Buddhism]
appear).
Monastic order; the community of (at least
SAC. 1. Structural Adjustment Credit. (WB). 2. partially) enlightened people, often referring to the
Self-Assessment Committee. community of Buddhist monks and nuns.
SAEFI. [Group for] Supporting Asian Education Sangha College, Champasak. Buddhist higher
Fund Ibaraki. (Japanese NGO, Ibaraki Prefecture). education institution.
SAGP. School Access Grants Program. (Under Historical Note: The Pariyatti Dhamma School
SESDP). (See also EDGP; SAGPM; SSSP). was established in 1940 in Wat Luang Pakse. In
1942 a Pali School is established in the same
SAGPM. School Access Grants Program Manual. monastery. In 1944, the Institute Indigne
Dtudes Bouddhiques was established there, and
Sala. Lao: . An open place of shelter, rest,
after Independence, the Pai Schools and the
meditation, and ceremonies, often associated with Institute of Buddhist Studies were renamed as
a Buddhist temple (wat). Buddhist High Schools. In 2005 Champasak
Salary supplement. See Location Supplement; Sangha College was established.
Multi-grade Teaching Supplement. Sangha College, Vientiane. Buddhist higher
education institution, at Wat Ong Teu. Also
SALT [Volunteer]. Serving and Learning Together.
National Monastic College.
(Volunteer program of the MCC).
Historical Note: In the 17 th century King Souligna
Sam Neua Province. [History]. Under the RLG Vongsa transformed Wat Ong Teu into a Buddhist
administration, the northeastern province, border- learning center in order to teach, enlighten, and
ing on Vietnam, with capital city Sam Neua. inspire worshippers. Pariyatti Dhamma School
Under Pathet Lao administration, the capital city was established 1929 in Vientiane; renamed the
was Viang Xai. After the Revolution, renamed Pali Institute in 1953; renamed Buddhist
Huaphanh Province, with capital city Sam Neua. Educational Institute in 1967; renamed the Sangha
(See also Wapikhamthong Province). College in 1996.
Sam sang. Lao: [literally] Three Builds. Capacity Sangha School. Lao: . Hong hian song.
development policy as introduced by the 9th Party Buddhist school, which can include both primary
Congress (March 2011) and expressed in the 7 th and secondary level.
NSEDP. (See also Boukthalu).

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62
Sangkharat. Lao: . [In Theravada SCF/A. Save the Children [Federation] Australia.
Buddhism] Abbot of the Lao Buddhist Sangha. (NGO, Australia; also called Save Australia,
SCA). See also SCI.
(See also Phra Sangkharat).
SAO. State Audit Organization. SCF/N. Save the Children [Federation] Norway.
(NGO, Norway; also called Save Norway). (See
SAR. 1. Self-Assessment Report. 2. Staff Appraisal also Redd barna, SCI).
Report. (WB). 3. [Of China] Special
Administrative Region. (Hong Kong and Macau). SCF/UK. Save the Children [Federation] UK.
4. Saravane Province. (Also SRV). (NGO, UK; also called Save UK, SC-UK,
SCUK). See also SCI.
SAREC. Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation
with Developing Countries. School Assembly. Committee comprising the school
principal and teachers or teacher representatives
SAT. Sida Advisory Team (for TTEST). (depending on the size and organization of the
Satellite school. An incomplete primary school school) responsible for school management
organized into a school cluster. (See Annex Figure decisions. (Also called School Management
6). (Compare with Core school). Committee).

SAV. [History]. 1. School of Architecture Vientiane. School based training. [According to TVET Law,
(MCTPC; merged into NUOL in 1995). 2. December 2013] TVET training based mainly in
Savannakhet Province. (Also SKT, SVK). schools with occasional practice in real-world
production unit in accordance with the curriculum.
Save. See SC. [E.g. She works for one of the Saves (Compare with Dual cooperative training).
maybe Save Australia.]
School cluster [Network]. 1. Primary school
SBD. Standard Bidding Document. cluster. A group of primary schools, usually
SBG. [Formerly]. School Block Grant. (Also BG. including at least one complete primary school
See REF). (core school) and one or more incomplete schools
(satellite schools), organized to provide
SBM. School-based management. pedagogical support and collectively complete
primary schooling. (See Annex Figure 6). (See
SBS. Sector Budget Support. (Compare with GBS;
also Complete school; Groupe scolaire; Khumban;
see also PRSO).
Muad; School network,). 2. Primary-secondary
SBSD. Support for Better Service Delivery. (Under school cluster. A group of primary and secondary
GPAR). schools, where the primary schools serve as
feeders into the lower secondary schools, which in
SBT. School-based training. Compare with DCT.
turn serve as feeders into the upper secondary
SC. 1. Save the Children (Australia, Norway (Redd schools.
barna), UK). (INGO). 2. Steering Committee.
School Life Expectancy [Net of Repetition].
3. Standing Committee. 4. Sangha College.
(SLE[N]). UIS Definition: Number of years a
5. School construction.
person of school entrance age can expect to spend
SC UK. Save the Children [Federation] UK. within the specified level of education [, excluding
(NGO, UK). Also SCF/UK, SCUK. years spent repeating grades].
SCA. Save the Children [Federation] Australia. School Management Committee. Committee
(NGO, Australia). Also SCF/A. comprising the school principal and teachers or
teacher representatives (depending on the size and
SCAC. School Cluster Administrative Committee. organization of the school) responsible for school
Scaffolding. Instructional support given during the management decisions. (Also called School
learning process, tailored to the learning goals and Assembly).
needs of the student and gradually removed as the School network. 1. The collection of all schools of a
student develops autonomous learning strategies.
given category in a given administrative unit, such
A concept closely related to the idea of ZPD.
as the set of all primary schools in a given prov-
SCC. Sangha College, Champasak. ince or district, often used in connection with plan-
ning for rational use of school resources with
SCEP. Steering Committee on Education Projects. respect to demographic distributions. 2. School
SCF. Save the Children Federation. cluster.
SCI. Save the Children International.

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63
SCL. Student Centered Learning. of interventions and indicators, see Appendix
Table 7.
SCN [L]. Save the Children Norway [Laos]. (See
l

also Redd barna). SDG [s]. Sustainable Development Goal[s]. (Com-


s

pare with MDG. See also ESD; 2030 Agenda;


SCOPE. Strengthening the Capacity of Organization SDG4).
for Poverty Eradication. (Project in Savannakhet).
Note: There are seventeen SDG, to which Laos has
Scouts. [Lao]. See Young Pioneers. added its own, SDG18: Remove the UXO obstacle
Historical Note: The Fdration Indochinoise des to national development. SDG4 is specifically
Associations du Scoutisme (FIAS) (Indochinese relevant to education sector development.
Federation of Scouting Associations) was
SDIE. Social Development and Inclusive Education.
established during the French Colonial Period, but
scouting activity was interrupted by World War II SDP. 1. Sector Development Program. (Focusing on
and the 1 st and 2 nd Indochina Wars. The FIAS the aims and objectives of sector development).
ceased to exist in 1954. Scouts Lao was estab- (See ESDP; see also SIP). 2. Sector Development
lished in 1959 but was disestablished after 1975 Program. (Lending product, ADB). 3. Social
and replaced by the Young Pioneers and the Development Plan. 4. School Development Plan.
LPRYU.
SDR. Special Drawing Rights. (ADB, WB).
SCP. 1. Skills Contracting Program. (Under
SDS. Sector Development Strategy.
STVET). 2. Singapore Cooperation Program.
SDTP Staff Development and Training Program.
SCS. [Formerly]. School Construction Services.
(MOES; renamed ECDM). SE. 1. Supervision Entity. 2. Standard Error [of
Estimate / of Sampling / of Measurement].
SCSCD. Strengthening community Support for
Children with Disabilities. (CRS, definition 1). SEA Games. Biennial sports event involving 11
countries of Southeast Asia, most notably hosted
SCSP. [GMS] Sub-regional Cooperation Strategy
by Laos in 2009.
and Program.
SEA. 1. Southeast Asia. 2. Senior Education
SCU. Seoul Cyber University [of Korea]. (See
Advisor.
ACU).
SEAMEC. Southeast Asian Ministers of Education
SCUK. Save the Children UK.
Council. (See also SEAMEO; SEAMES;
SCV. 1. Sangha College, Vientiane. 2. [History]. SEAMOLEC; SEAVERN).
School of Communication, Vientiane. (MCTPC;
SEAMEO VOCTECH. SEAMEO Regional Center
merged into NUOL in 1995).
for Vocational and Technical Education. (In
SD. 1. Service delivery. 2. Skill[s] development. Brunei).
3. School Director. 4. Social development.
SEAMEO. Southeast Asian Ministers of Education
5. Standard Deviation.
Organization. (Secretariat in Bangkok). (See also
Note: An administrative distinction is made ASCOE; SEAMEC; SEAMES; SEAMOLEC;
between Skills Development (under the oversight SEAVERN).
of MOLSW) and TVET (under the oversight of
Member countries include Brunei Darussalam,
MOES).
Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines,
SDA. Sisterhood for Development Association. Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Myanmar, and
(CSO). Vietnam.
SDC. 1. Skill Development Committee. (In NCTS). SEAMES. SEAMEC Secretariat. (In Bangkok).
2. Skill Development Center. 3. Swiss Agency for
SEAMOLEC. SEAMEO Regional Open Learning
Development and Cooperation.
Center. (See also QITEP, SEAMEC; SEAVERN).
SDG4. Sustainable Development Goal No. 4: Ensure
SEAP. 1. Secondary Education Action Plan.
inclusive and equitable quality education and
2. Southeast Asian Peninsula.
promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.
(See SDGs; Incheon Declaration; 2030 Agenda). SEARCA. Southeast Asian Regional Center for
Note: In the Lao national adaptation there are four Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture.
key outcomes from the UN Sustainable Develop- (SEAMEO).
ment Goals, SDG4. For these outcomes and the SEA-SPF. South East Asia School Principal Forum.
associated indicative areas for further development

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64
SEASREP. Southeast Asian Studies Regional SFS. [Formerly]. School of Foundation Studies.
Exchange Program. (NUOL).
SEAVERN. Southeast Asian Vocational Education SFU. Simon Fraser University. (Canada).
Research Network. (SEAMEO. See also
SG. School Grant.
SEAMEC; SEAMOLEC).
SHARE. [EU] Support to Higher Education in the
SEAYLP. South East Asia Youth Leadership
ASEAN Region.
Program. (Professional development exchange
program, USA; see also YSEALI). SHEP. Strengthening Higher Education Project.
(External financing by ADB).
SECAL. Sector Adjustment Loan. (WB).
SHG. Self-help group.
Secondary School. Combined Lower Secondary
School and Upper Secondary School. SHIA. Swedish: Svenska Handikapporganisationers
Internationella Bistndsfrening. [Swedish
SEDP. 1. Second Education Development Project.
Organizations of Disabled Persons International
(WB, commonly referred to as EDP II). 2. Socio-
Aid Association Solidarity, Humanity, Inter-
Economic Development Plan. (See NSEDP).
national Aid]. (NGO. Sweden).
SEED-Net. Southeast Asia Engineering Education
Shifting classes. Classes operating on two shifts
Development Network. (See AUN/SEED-Net).
(e. g, morning shift for grades 1-3, afternoon shift
SEK. 1. Sekong Province. (Also SKN). 2. Swedish: for grades 4-5), as a cost-effective approach to
Swedish Crown. (Currency Unit). providing complete primary schooling in sparsely
populated areas. (See Annex Figure 3; compare
Semi-examination. 1. Mid-term examination.
with Multi-grade school).
2. Partial examination, possibly take-home, open-
book, or oral examination prior to the final SHN. School Health & Nutrition.
examination.
SI. School [building / facilities] Inventory.
Semi-Royalist Period. Period between the end of the
SIAA. State Inspection and Anti-Corruption
French Colonial Period and the Revolution,
Authority.
December 2, 1975. During this time the PL was
gaining control of a gradually increasing propor- SIBS. Sengdara International Bilingual School.
tion of the country and the RLG or the PGNU were (Private, Vientiane).
in control of the diminishing remainder. Hence
Sida. Swedish International Development Coopera-
only semi-royalist.
tion Agency. (Formerly Swedish International
Sendai Framework. Reference to the Sendai Development Authority).
Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-
2030, adopted at the World Conference on Disaster SIE. Stockholm Institute of Education (Lrarhg-
Risk Reduction held in Sendai, Japan, in which skolan i Stockholm, Sweden).
Laos participated. SIF. Singapore International Foundation. (NGO).
Senior high school. See Upper secondary school. SIG. 1. School Improvement Grant. 2. Special
Interest Group.
Senior primary school. See Upper primary school.
SEQS. Secondary Education Quality Standards. SIL. 1. Summer Institute of Linguistics. 2. Specific
Investment Loan. (WB).
Serve 2U. (Non-profit charity, Hong Kong).
Silapa School. Lao: . National School of
SES. Secondary education [sub]sector.
Dance and Music. (Under MOICT; Compare with
SESDP. Secondary Education Sector Development Natasin School).
Program. (External financing by ADB).
SIP. 1. Sector Investment Program. (Focusing on the
(Formerly BESDP II).
investment aspects of sector development). (See
Sex Ratio. See Gender Ratio. also SDP). 2. School Improvement Program.
3. School Improvement Plan[ning].
SEZ. 1. Special Economic Zone. 2. Specific
Economic Zone. (See also SSEZ). SIREP. SEAMEO INNOTECH Regional Education
Program.
SF. School facilities.
Sisavangvong University. [History]. University in
SFAP. Strategic Framework and Action Plan.
Vientiane established in 1958 under the Royal Lao
SF [P]. School Feeding [Program]. (See also SMP).
p Government, named for King Sisavangvong,

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65
supported by USAID, located at Dong Dok north 3. Education in school shall be in close relation
of Vientiane. Comprised cole Suprieure de with education in family, in society, and out of
Pdagogie, cole Royale de Mdecine, and Institut school;
de Droit et dAdministration. Dissolved following 4. Education shall combine theory with practice,
major exodus of teaching staff (mostly French and learning shall go along with experimentations,
American) after 1975, emerging in 1996 as NUOL. and education shall be in close relation with the
(Not to be confused with Souphanouvong world of work;
University in Luang Prabang).
5. Education shall meet the socio-economic
SISD. Statistics and Information Systems Division. development needs of each period; and
(See SITD). 6. National education shall be relevant to regional
SIT. [History]. School of Irrigation Tad Thong. and international education.
(MAF; merged into NUOL 1995). SKL. Schools for Kids in Laos. (NGO, Canada).
SITCES. Statistics and Information Technology SKN. Sekong Province. (Also SEK).
Center of Education and Sports.
SKT. Savannakhet Province. (Also SAV, SVK).
SITD. Statistics and Information Technology
Division. (To be established in DPC under EDP SKU. Savannakhet University. (Founded 2009; see
II; also SISD; see ESIT; see SITCES). Annex Table 2).

Six Principles of Education Reform. The six SLE[N]. School Life Expectancy [Net of
directives on which the NESRS (2006-2015) is Repetition].
based (not to be confused with the Six Principles SL. Sign Language.
of Education):
1. Aim to develop human resources applicable to SLO. Standard Learning Outcomes.
the strategic development of the countrys SM. 1. School mapping. 2. School Meals.
economy and international goals;
SMaLL. [Project on] Small Schools Management for
2. Emphasize the national education structure, so Lifelong Learning. (SEAMEO INNOTECH).
that attitudes and perceptions in society about
the educational structural reforms are widely SMAP. School mapping.
understood; SMATT. Science and Mathematics Teacher Training
3. Implement with the participation of society to [Project]. (Supported by JICA).
ensure that education will continue to grow and
develop; SMCS. Social Marketing and Communication
Strategy.
4. Expand intellectual life, preserve the traditions
and culture of the nation, and inspire a spirit of SME. Small and Medium Enterprise.
solidarity among the population throughout the
SMEPDC. SME Promotion and Development
country; Committee.
5. Expand access to education, promote
capabilities of people, improve their living SMEPDO. SME Promotion and Development
conditions, and link with regional and inter- Office. (Under MOIC definition 1; established
national situations; and 2004).
6. Enhance the status of teachers roles and SMIS. School Management Information System.
positions.
SMK. Subject Matter Knowledge. (Compare with
Six Principles of Education. From Education Law PCK, PK).
of 2007/08, Article 5: Education Principles.
SMP. School Meals Program. (See also NSMP,
(Not to be confused with the Five Domains of
SFP).
Education, also called the Five Principles of
Education or the Six Principles of Education SMU. Singapore Management University
Reform):
SN. School Network.
1. Education shall be conducted in accordance
with socialist directives; it shall reflect national, S-NCSEZ. Also SNCSEZ. Secretariat to National
mass, scientific, and progressive aspects; Committee for Special Economic Zone. (See also
NCSEZ, SEZ, SSEZ).
2. General education shall relate to vocational
education; (Continued) SNM. School network mapping.
SNU. Seoul National University.

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66
SNV. Netherlands Development Organization. SOS. Source of supply. (Procurement).
(NGO, Netherlands).
SOSCV. SOS Childrens Village. (INGO providing
Historical Note: Previously Stichting Nederlandse orphanages and boarding schools).
Vrijwilligers [Foundation for Netherlnds
Volunteers]. Renamed in 1993. Southern Region. Saravane, Sekong, Champasak,
Attapeu Provinces. (See also Northern Region;
SO. Strategic Objective. (Compare with ST). Central Region; Special Region).
SOA. Statement of Availability. South-South Cooperation. Cooperation involving
SOAS. [University of London] School of Oriental exchange of resources, technology, and knowledge
and African Studies. between developing countries. (Compare with
Triangular Cooperation).
SODA. Social Development Alliance Association.
(CSO). SOV. Source of Verification. (Used especially in
LFA; see also OVI).
SOE. 1. State owned enterprise. (See also SRE).
2. Statement of Expenditure. SOW. Scope of Work.

SOI [Asia]. School of the Internet [Asia]. (Collabor- SP. Strategy Paper. (EC).
ation among some 20 universities throughout SPA. 1. Secondary Pedagogical Advisor. (See also
Asia). PA, PPA). 2. Student-Parent Association.
SOLO. Structure of Observed Learning Outcome. A 3. [History]. Supreme Peoples Assembly.
taxonomy of levels of increasing complexity in (Renamed National Assembly with the
students understanding of subjects: ratification of the Constitution, 1991).
Pre-structural (Task not attacked appropriately; SPC. 1. State Planning Committee. (Under PMO, in
student hasnt really understood the point and 2002 replaced by CPC, later by CPI). Sometimes
uses too simple an approach); translated as State Planning Commission. 2.
Uni-structural (Students response focuses on School Procurement Committee.
only one relevant aspect); SPD. [Formerly]. Statistics and Planning Division
Multi-structural (Students response focuses on (In DPC; see ESIT[C]).
several relevant aspects treated independently
and additively, and assessment is primarily Special course. [Higher education]. Fee payment
quantitative); university course.
Historical Note: Special course were offered to fee
Relational (Different aspects are integrated into
paying students, typically outside regular teaching
a coherent whole); and
hours but taught by regular university teachers.
Extended abstract (Previous integrated whole Many students attending special courses were
can be conceptualized at a higher level of sponsored by their employers and often received a
abstraction and generalized to new topic or salary increase upon completion. Fees for students
area). attending regular university courses were
Note: Proposed by J. B. Biggs and K. F. Collis. introduced in AY 2010/11, and special courses
(Contrast with Blooms Taxonomy). were regularized in AY 2011/12.
Somdet Phra Loukeo. Lao: .
Special Region. [History]. Xaysomboon Special
Region. (The districts of the Region were
Supreme Patriarch of the Lao Sangha.
transferred in 2006 to Xiengkhuang and Vientiane
SOMED. Also SOM-ED. Senior Officials Meeting Provinces; restored as Xaysomboon Province
on Education. (ASEAN; compare with ASED). December 31, 2013).
SOMS. Senior Official Meeting on Sports. Special school. School with facilities and resources
(ASEAN). enabling them to provide education for children
with severe sensory disabilities. (Compare with
SOP. 1. Standard Operating Procedures. 2. Sector
Mainstream school.)
Operational [Rolling] Plan. 3. Society of
Pedagogy Project. (Project of EDF, definition 2). SPIU. [Formerly]. Statistics, Planning, and
SOQ. School of Quality. (Holistic approach to Investment Unit. (In DPC).
school quality. See also EQS, QES, PSQS, SPMT. School Project Management Team. (See
SSQS). EDP II).
Soros Foundation. See OSF.

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67
SPPE. Strategy for Promoting Private Education SSCTT. Skills Standard, Curricula, and Teacher
(2010-2020). Training. (STVET Project).
SPRSS. Summary Poverty Reduction and Social SSDC. Southern Skill Development Center. (In
Strategy. (ADB). Pakse, Champasack Province; under MOLSW).
SPS. Safeguard Policy Statement. SSE. School Self Evaluation.
SPSS. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. SSEAYP. Ship for Southeast Asian Youth Program.
(Computer program package).
SSEZ. Special and Specific Economic Zones. (See
SPU. [Formerly]. Statistics and Planning Unit (In also SEZ).
DPC; see ESIT[C]).
SSHEP. Second Strengthening Higher Education
SQAC. [Formerly]. School Quality Assurance Project.
Center. (See ESQAC).
SSL. School Support Laos. (NGO, Norway).
SR. 1. Survival Rate [by grade]. (Sometimes written
SSME. Snapshot of School Management Effective-
to indicate grade level, e.g., SRG5 for Survival
ness.
Rate to Grade 5). 2. Special Region. (See also
Northern Region; Central Region; Southern SSP. Secondary school principal.
Region).
SSQS. Secondary School Quality Standards. (Based
SRC. 1. School Readiness Competency. 2. Sector on and replaces SOQ; compare with PSQS).
Reform Contract (EU). Note: The SSQS instrument comprise 45 indicators
SRE. State Run Enterprise. (See also SOE). relating to the student, teaching and learning
methods, the school environment, management and
SREAC. Strategy Research and Educational administration, and community participation, but it
Analysis Center. (Formerly PAD; SREAD). does not include indicators on student learning
(MOES, see Annex Figure 9). outcomes.
SREAD. [Formerly]. Strategy Research and SSSP. Secondary Student Stipend Program. (Under
Education Analysis Division (of DPC). (Formerly SESDP; see also SAGP).
PAD; renamed SREAC).
SST. Secondary school teacher.
SRF. Statistics for Results Facility. (WB; see also
MfDR). SSTrC. South-South and Triangular Cooperation.
(Compare with SSC).
SRG5. Survival Rate to Grade 5. (See SR).
SSTVET [P]. Second Strengthening Technical and
p

SRGBV. School Related Gender-Based Violence. Vocational Education and Training [Project].
SRH. Sexual Reproductive Health [Education]. (External financing by ADB).

SRM. Supplementary Reading Materials. ST. Strategic Thrust. (Compare with SO).
SRP. 1. School Readiness Program. (See also STA. [National] Science and Technology Agency.
CBSRP). 2. Short Resettlement Plan. (ADB). (See STEA).
SRS. Simple random sample. (Contrast with PPS). Stagiaire. [History]. French: Intern, student teacher.

SRU. [History]. Slippery Rock University. STCN. See SCN.


(Slippery Rock, Pennsylvania. Reference to a STD. 1. Standard Deviation. 2. Sexually Trans-
study of education financing in Laos in the 1990s). mitted Disease. (See also STI).
SRV. Saravane Province. (Also SAR). STEA. [Formerly]. Science, Technology, and
SS. School sector. (Covering early childhood, Environment Agency. (Established 1996 under the
primary, lower- and upper secondary levels; PMO; restructured in 2007 and absorbed as NSTA
teacher education, technical and vocational into MOST).
education, and non-formal education). STEIC. Statistic and Technology Education
SSA. School Self-Assessment. Information Center.
SSC. 1. South-South Cooperation. (Compare with STEM. 1. Science, technology, engineering,
SSTrC). 2. [Formerly]. State Statistics Center. mathematics. 2. [History]. [United States] Special
(Became NSC, now DOS). Technical and Economic Mission. (Operated

SSCP. Special Skill Contracting Program.

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68
mainly in Indochina, early 1950s; replaced by Survival Rate [to grade n]. (SR). UIS Definition:
USOM). Percentage of a cohort of students enrolled in the
STEP. 1. Skills Toward Employability and Produc- 1 st grade of a given cycle of education in a given
tivity. Also Skills Toward Employment and school year who are expected to reach successive
Productivity. (WB). 2. Secondary Teacher grades n. It is calculated using the reconstructed
Education Program. cohort method. Note that a distinction is made
between Survival Rate without repetition and
STF. Special Task Force. Survival Rate with repetition (Persistence Rate).
STI. 1. Sexually Transmitted Infection / Illness. (See (Compare with Cohort Completion Rate; Gross
also STD). 2. Science, Technology, Innovation. Graduation Ratio; PR; TR).

STOU. Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University. SUSI. Study of US Institutes [Program]. (US State
(Bangkok, Thailand). Department).
STP. Short-term Priority. (Compare with LTP, Sutta [Pitaka]. Pali: [literally Basket, hence
MTP). collection of] Buddhist writings or teachings; the
scriptures of Theravada Buddhism. (See also
STR. 1. Student/Textbook Ratio. 2. Student/Teacher Tipitaka).
Ratio. (See PTR).
SV. Senior Volunteer. (See also JOCV).
STU. Santapol College. (Udon Thani, Thailand).
SVA. Shanti [Sanskrit: Peace] [Japanese Buddhist]
Student/Teacher Ratio. See PTR. (See also Annex [International] Volunteer Association. (See
Table 8). JSRC).
Students Teacher. Idiosyncratic reference in the SVK. Savannakhet Province. (Also SAV, SKT).
MOES annual statistical Annex to students
enrolled in teacher education programs. (Contrast SWAp. Sector Wide Approach [to Development
with Internship Student). Programming]. (Also SWAP).
STVET[P]. Strengthening Technical and Vocational
p
SWELP. Sustainable Womens Employment and
Education and Training [Project]. (External Leadership Project. (GDG).
financing by ADB). SWG. Sector Working Group. (See ESWG).
STW. School-to-work [transition]. SWOP. State of the World Population. (UNFPA
SU. 1. Souphanouvong University. (Luang Prabang, report).
founded 2003; see Annex Table 2). SWOT. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities,
2. [History]. Sisavangvong University. Threats.
(Vientiane).
SWOTI. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities,
Sub-district. In remote areas, unofficial administra- Threats, Innovation.
tive organization of some ten villages, below the
District level. (Compare with Khumban. See SY. School year. (Compare with AY, CY, FY).
Commune.)
T
Sub-SWG. See SWG; Focal Group.
Suksamai Magazine. Education Sciences Journal. T/C. Teachers per class. (Note: UIS does not define
(Published quarterly by RIES). this statistic).
TA. Technical Assistance.
SUL. Soochow University in Laos. (Overseas
branch campus of Soochow University, TACR. 1. Technical Assistance Consultants Report.
Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, PRC; not to be confused (ADB). 2. Technical Assistance Completion
with Soochow University, Taipei City, Taiwan). Report. (ADB)

Supplement. See Salary supplement. TAEC. Traditional Arts & Ethnology Center.
(Luang Prabang).
SURAFCO. Support to the Reform of the Northern
Agriculture and Forestry College. [Project]. TAF. The Asia Foundation. (INGO).
(External financing by SDC, definition 3). TAG. Technical Advisory Group.
Surveillant. [History]. French: Supervisor (e.g., of TAI. Television-Assisted Instruction. (Compare
student teachers), Director of Studies. with CAI; IAI, definition 1; RAI).

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69
TALIS. 1. Teaching and Learning International TDC. Teacher Development Center (NUOL/FOE,
Survey. (OECD). 2. Teaching and Learning established under EQIP; also referred to as
International Study. (OECD). TEADC, DEAM; provides services in the field of
Note: Even in official OECD documents and teaching and education administrators training).
websites, these two different names appear. TDMP. Teacher Development and Management
TALK. Teaching and Learning Kit. (RIES; BEGP). Policy [Framework and Action Plan]. (See
TDMPF).
TAPs. Technical [and] Administrative Provisions.
(EU). TDMPF [AP]. Teacher Development and
ap

Management Policy Framework [and Action Plan]


TAR. Technical Assistance Report. (ADB). 2010-2015. (See also TRDPF).
Targeted. Unless otherwise noted, the term TDO. Teacher Development Office (at TEIs).
targeted as used in official documents means
pro-poor targeting, targeting vulnerable groups, TDS. 1. Teacher Development Services (at PESs).
persons with disabilities, disadvantaged ethnic 2. Training Development Specialist.
groups, supporting gender parity, inclusive TDU. Teacher Development Units (at DESBs).
education, etc.
TE. Teacher education.
TASF. Technical Assistance Special Fund. (ADB).
TEAB. See NTEAB.
Tasseng. Lao: . [History]. 1. Administrative
Teachers Day. Also National Teachers Day, 7th
unit between village and district; sub-district. (See October.
Muang, Khumban). 2. Head of this unit.
(Compare with Naiban). TEADC. Teacher and Education Administrator
TAT. 1. Textbook Assessment Team. 2. Technical Development Center (NUOL/FOE; see TDC, also
Assistance Team. 3. Traditional Apprenticeship referred to as DEAM).
Training. TEAM. Training, Economic Empowerment,
TATF. Technical Assistance and Training Facility. Assistive Technology and Medical Rehabilitation.
ASEAN-U.S. (Project of WEL with external financing by
USAID).
TAVP. Training Assistance Voucher Program.
(Initiated under STVET). (See also TAVS). TEAR. Transformation, Empowerment, Advocacy,
Relief. (INGO, Christian international aid and
TAVS. Training Assistance Voucher Scheme. development agency).
(Initiated under STVET). (See also TAVP).
TEC. Technical Evaluation Committee.
TAVSC. Training Assistance Voucher Steering
Committee. Technician Diploma. Diploma awarded on comple-
tion of a TVET 12+2 year program. Compare with
TB. Textbook. Vocational Diploma.
TBA. Traditional Birth Attendant. TEE. Total education expenditure.
TBC. To be confirmed. (Compare with TBD, TBE). TEEC. Teacher Education Evaluation and
TBD. To be determined; To be decided. (Compare Coordination. (See TEECD).
with TBC, TBE).
TEECD. [Formerly]. Teacher Education Evaluation
TBE. To be established. (Compare with TBC, and Coordination Division. (See TEED).
TBD). TEED. Teacher Education Evaluation Division
TBWG. Textbook Working Group. (DTE / MOES).
TC. 1. Technical college. (Compare with TS). TEI. Teacher Education Institution. (Generic term;
2. Technical Cooperation. includes TTC and sometimes FOE, definition 1,
also formerly TTS, TTI; compare with HEI). (See
TCOL. Technical Cooperation Office for the EC Annex Table 2, Annex Table 3)
Cooperation Program in Lao PDR.
Note: Although teacher education institution
TCR. Technical [Assistance] Completion Report. represents more progressive terminology, teacher
(ADB). (Compare with PCR). training college is still widely used in the official
TCTP. Third Country Training Program. names of teacher education institutions.

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TEIAB. Teacher Education Institution Advisory Three Builds. Lao: Sam sang. Slogan embodying
Board. the resolution of the 9 th Party Congress (March 17-
21, 2011) and promulgated as the Prime Ministers
TEIN. Trans-Eurasia Information Network. (See
Sam Sang Directive of October 2012:
also LERNET, UniNET).
1. Build the provinces as strategic units;
TELP. Test of English Language Proficiency.
2. Build the capacity of the districts in all regards;
TEMIS. Teacher Education Management Informa- and
tion System. (Compare with HEMIS, TMIS). 3. Build the villages into implementation units, in
Temple school. Primary school situated in the some cases through merging villages into
temple compound, following the secular state clusters (khumban).
curriculum, and often taught by monks qualified Note: The Lao word sang has a range of meanings.
through secular teacher education. Some primary It can mean build in a literal sense, as in build a
school age boys also receive religious instruction house; it mean strengthen, as in build up your
outside regular school hours. (Also Wat school; muscles; it can mean develop, as in capacity
compare with Pali school). building; or it can mean construction, as in Lao
Front for National Construction, LFNC. (See Note
Temple. See Wat.
to LFNC. See also Four Breakthroughs).
Temporary teacher. A teacher (regardless of
Three Characteristics of Education. (Lao: 3
qualifications) permanently assigned to one school Laksana):
but temporarily assigned to a different school.
(Compare with Permanent teacher). (Not to be 1. Nation oriented (i.e., for national unity);
confused with Contract teacher). 2. Progressive and Mass (i.e., for equity); and
TES. Teacher Education Strategy [2006-2015]. 3. Scientific and modern.
Note: Often cited in connection with the Five
TESAP. Teacher Education Strategy 2006-2015 and
Domains of Education or Five Principles of
Action Plan 2006-2010. Education.
TESOL. Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Three Competitions of the Education and Sports
Languages. Sector:
TEVT. Technical education and vocational training. 1. Teach well, learn well;
(See also TVED; VTET; the more commonly used
2. Oppose negative phenomena; and
term internationally is TVET).
3. Create good environment in schools, centers,
TF. 1. Task Force. 2. Trust Fund. 3. Temasek and institutions.
Foundation. (Non-profit foundation; Singapore).
Three Pillars of Education Sector Development.
TFI-SCALE. Temasek Foundation International Pillar 1: Access with Equity;
Specialists' Community Action and Leadership
Exchange [Program]. (Singapore). (See also TF, Pillar 2: Quality and Relevance;
definition 3). Pillar 3: Management and Efficiency.
TFR. Total Fertility Rate. Defined by the United (Not to be confused with the Four Pillars of
Nations Population Division as a synthetic rate Education).
based on the age-specific fertility rates of women Note: The Three Pillars, referenced in virtually all
in child-bearing age, conventionally age 15-44 official education sector development documents
or 15-49. in the early years of the 21 st century, began with
The Education Strategic Vision, published by
TG. Teachers Guide / Teaching Guide.
MOE in October 2000. It was a cross-cutting
Tham script. Script used to read and write sacred alternative to a sub-sectoral approach to sector
palm leaf manuscripts and other Pali texts. development. It appeared as three program
pillars (Access, Quality, and Relevance) resting
Thematic Focal Group. See Focal Group. on a base (Planning and Management). With the
Theravada. Lao: . Pali: Doctrine of the publication of Education Strategic Planning in
August 2001, the Quality and Relevance pillars
Elders. The Buddhist tradition of Laos. Also had been merged into one, and the 3 rd pillar was
referred to as Southern Buddhism or Pali Administration and Management. The 3 rd pillar
Buddhism. has since become Management and Efficiency or
THR. Take Home Ration. sometimes Planning and Management. (Cont.)

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71
Other variants have also appeared from time to TOR. Terms of Reference.
time. The term Three Pillars disappeared with
the publication of ESDP 2016-2020, but the TOT. Training of Trainers. (Compare with TOF).
concepts of the three pillars appear throughout the
document. Total Net Attendance Rate. (TNAR). UIS
Definition: Total number of students who attended
Three Revolutions. [History]. From Theory of the of any level of schooling at any time during the
Three Revolutions, theoretical framework for the reference academic year, expressed as a percentage
socialist revolution in Laos. of the corresponding population. (Compare with
1. Revolution in relations of production; Net Attendance Rate (Adjusted), Net Attendance
2. Revolution in science and technology; and Rate).
3. Revolution in ideology and culture. Total Repetition Rate [in Primary Education].
Note: Abandoned after the introduction of the (TRR [Primary]). UIS Definition: Proportion of
NEM. students enrolled in all primary grades in a given
school year Y who were enrolled in the same
TIC. Training in-Country. grade in the previous school year, Y-1.
TICA. Thailand International Development Note 1: Inasmuch as the TRR compares repetition
Cooperation Agency. over all grades with enrolment over all grades, it
TICW. Trafficking in Children and Women. (ILO; also represents a weighted average repetition rate.
see also IPEC). Note 2: This indicator was approved by UIS in
February 2015 and will be listed in the next issue
TIJ. Training in Japan. (Compare with TIC). of Education Indicators Technical guidelines.
TIMSS. Trends in International Mathematics and
Science Study TPAR. Technical Assistance Performance Audit
Report. (ADB; compare with PPAR).
Tipitaka. Pali: Literally three baskets or collections
TPDN. Teacher Profession Development Network.
of teachings.
TPME. Teacher Performance Monitoring and
TISUP. Teacher in-service upgrading program. (See
also UPSET). Evaluation. (See also TQPM).

TL. Team Leader. TPN. Teacher Professional Network.

TLC. Teaching and Learning Center. TPR. 1. Total Physical Response. (Approach to
second language teaching; compare with CLE,
TLQ. Teaching and Learning Quality. CLT, GTM). 2. Teacher/Pupil Ratio. Note that
TMIS. Teacher Management Information System. the inverse, PTR, is more commonly used and is
(Compare with PMIS). the ratio defined by UIS). 3. Textbook/Pupil
Ratio. (Note: UIS does not define this statistic,
TNA. 1. Training needs analysis [/assessment]. although it does appear in some UNESCO reports).
2. Teacher needs analysis [/assessment].
TPWG. Teacher Policy Working Group (EQIP II).
TNAR. Total Net Attendance Rate.
TQM. Total Quality Management.
TOC. Theory of Change.
TQP. Teacher Quality and Performance.
TOEFL. Test of English as a Foreign Language.
(Developed by ETS). Administered in three TQPM. Teacher Quality and Performance
forms: Monitoring.
1. TOEFL CBT Computer-based Test; TR. Transition Rate.
2. TOEFL iBT Internet-based Test; and Transition - Completion Rate. Also referred to as
3. TOEFL PBT Paper-based Test. Transition/Completion Rate. (Note: UIS does
not define this statistic. When used, it probably
TOEIC. Test of English for International refers simply to the Transition Rate, which
Communication. (Developed by ETS). includes repeaters in the final grade of the lower
TOF. Training of Facilitators. (Compare with TOT). level, as distinguished from the Effective
Transition Rate, which excludes the repeaters).
TOMT. Training of Master [Facilitators/]Trainers.
Transition Curriculum. Specific curriculum which
TOPIK. Test of Proficiency in Korean. continues from a lower level to a higher level of
education or training to facilitate transitioning
between streams or programs by giving credit for
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72
prior learning. (Compare with Continuous TTI. [Formerly]. Teacher Training Institute. (See
Curriculum). TEI; for historical usage, see LTTI).
Transition Rate. (TR). UIS Definition: The TTM. Teacher Training at Masters Degree Project.
number of new entrants into the 1 st grade of a (Project of EDF, definition 2).
higher level of education in a given year Y,
expressed as a percentage of the number of TTS. [Formerly]. Teacher Training School. (For
students enrolled in the final grade of the lower pre-service preparation of pre-school and primary
level of education in the previous year, Y-1. school teachers. See also TTC, TEI).
(Compare with Effective Transition Rate. Com- Note: Although Teacher education represents
pare also with PR, SR, definition 1). more progressive terminology, teacher training
is still widely used in common discourse and in the
Transversal competencies. Competencies that are
official names of teacher education institutions.
beyond subject matter but are useful for occupa-
tional practice, such as teamwork, communication TTSC. Teacher Training Schools and Colleges.
skills, planning and organization, management of (UNESCO). See TEI.
tasks undertaken, creativity, and reasoned
decision-making. TT-TVET. Teacher Training for Technical and
Vocational Education and Training.
TrC. Triangular Cooperation.
TU. Thammasat University. (Bangkok, Thailand).
TRD [PF]. Teacher Recruitment and Deployment
pf

[Policy Framework]. (Initiated under BESDP, TUC. Teacher Upgrading Center. (Province or
resulted in TDMPF). district based; see also ISTTUC; ISTUC; NTUC).

TREE. Training for Rural Economic Empower ment. TUG. Teacher Upgrade Grant.
(ILO). TUP. [Province or district based] Teacher Upgrading
Program.
Triangular Cooperation. South-South Cooperation
supported by bilateral or multilateral development TVE. Technical and Vocational Education. (The
agencies to implement development programs and more commonly used term internationally is
projects. (Compare with SSC and SSTrC). TVET).
TRR. Total Repetition Rate. (Compare with TVED. Technical and Vocational Education
Repetition Rate [by grade]). Department. (See also DVTE). (See Annex
Figure 9).
TS. Technical School. (Compare with TC).
TVET. Technical and vocational education and
TT. 1. Teacher Training. 2. [Historical].
Telegraphic Transfer. training. (See also TEVT).

TTC. 1. Teacher Training Center. (For in-service TVET Center. Institution for creating, developing,
training and upgrading). 2. [Formerly]. Teacher and upgrading vocational or professional
Training College. (For pre-service preparation of knowledge and skill to respond the labor market
demand. Under MOES, MOLSW, other line
secondary school teachers. See also TTS; TEI).
ministries, chambers of commerce and industry,
Note: Although teacher education represents public and private enterprises, or labor units.
more progressive terminology, the term teacher Defined by Article 32 of TVET Law of 2014.
training is still widely used in official documents
and the names of teacher education institutions. TVET Certificate. According to TVET Law,
December 2013, an education and training mode
TTD. [Formerly]. Teacher Training Department following basic education to provide labor-market
(MOES; see also DTT, renamed DTE). (See related knowledge, skills, and attitudes in three
Annex Figure 9). levels (see Annex Table 9):
T-TEP. Toyota Technical Education Program. Certificate [level] 1: Worker with basic vocational
skills, 3-6 months after completion of LS;
TTEP. TVET Teacher Education Program. (GIZ).
Certificate [level] 2: Semi-skilled worker, 1 year
TTEST. Teacher Training Enhancement and Status after LS or Certificate 1 + at least 6 months; and
of Teachers. (EQIP II, parallel co-financed by
Certificate [level] 3: Skilled worker, 2 years after
Sida). (Sometimes incorrectly referred to as
LS or Certificate 2 + at least 1 year.
Teacher Training and Enhancement of the Status
of Teachers because enhancement of the status of TVET Law. Most recent, December 2013.
teachers was one of the aims of the project.)
TVS. Technical [and] Vocational School.

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73
TWG. 1. Technical Working Group. 2. Textbook UNC. UNESCO National Commission. (Hosted
Working Group (EDP II). 3. Trade[s] Working within MOES).
Group. (In NCTS).
UNCDF. United Nations Capital Development Fund.
Two Solidarities, Three Goods, Four Develop-
Uncertified teacher. Teacher lacking a certificate of
ments. Slogan of the LPRYU:
completion of teacher training from a TEI. (See
Two solidarities: External and internal solidarity; also Certified teacher; Unqualified teacher).
Three goods: Good children, good citizens, good
UNCT. United Nations Country Team. (Comprises
successors; and
in Laos some 20 UN agencies working in educa-
Four developments: Self-development, family tion, HRD, and other fields).
development, organization development, national
development. UNDAF. United Nations Development Assistance
Framework.
U UNDCP. United Nations Drug Control Program.
UBE. Universal Basic Education. (See also UPC, Under-age Enrolment Ratio. Enrollment below the
UPE). official age group for a given level of education
Historical Note: The definition of UBE in Laos has expressed as a percentage of the official age
changed over time as the concept of Basic population. (Compare with Over-age Enrollment
Education has changed. (See Historical Note to Ratio, Gross Enrollment Ratio, Net Enrollment
Basic Education). Rate).

UBP. University Bus Pass. (NUOL). Undergraduate Diploma. Qualification below


Bachelors Degree. (Lao: San Kang. Also known
UBRU. Ubon Ratchathani Rajabhat University. as Associate Degree. Compare with Graduate
(Thailand). Diploma).
UC. University Council. Underqualified teacher. A teacher with incomplete
UCL. University Central Library. (NUOL). teacher education qualifications for the level at
which he/she is teaching, e.g., a qualified primary
UCW. Understanding Childrens Work. (Inter- school teacher who has been promoted to be a
agency program initiated by ILO, UNICEF, WB). lower secondary school teacher. (See also
Qualified teacher; Unqualified teacher).
UDX. Oudomxay Province. (Also ODX, OUD).
UNDESD. See DESD, definition 1.
UGRAD. US Global Undergraduate Exchange
Program. (US State Department). UNDG. United Nations Development Group.
UH. [History]. University of Hawaii, USA. UNDP. United Nations Development Program.
(Headquarters in New York City).
UHS. University of Health Sciences. (Vientiane; see
also Phaetsat. See Annex Table 2). UNESCAP. United Nations Economic and Social
Historical Note: Established as School of Commission for Asia and the Pacific. (Bangkok).
Medicine, Sisavangvong University, 1958-1975; UNESCO. United Nations Educational, Scientific,
University of Medicine, under Ministry of Health, and Cultural Organization. (In Paris).
1975-1977; University of Health Science, under
Ministry of Health, 1977-1996; Faculty of Medical Historical Note: Laos became a member in 1951.
Sciences, NUOL, 1996-2007; University of Health UNESCO Bangkok. See PROAP. Can also refer to
Sciences, under Ministry of Health since 2007. [UNESCO] Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for
Education.
UIE. [Formerly]. UNESCO Institute for Education.
(In Hamburg, Germany). (See UIL). UNESCO BKK. See UNESCO Bangkok.
UIL. UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (In UNESS. UNESCO National Education Support
Hamburg, Germany). (Formerly UIE). Strategy.
UIS. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. (In Montreal, UNEVOC. UNESCO International Center for Tech-
Canada). nical and Vocational Education and Training. (In
Bonn, Germany).
ULW. Union of Lao Women. (See LWU).
UMAP. University Mobility in Asia and the Pacific. UNFPA. United Nations Population Fund.
(Formerly UN Fund for Population Activities).

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UNGA. United Nations General Assembly. Upper secondary school. Grades 10 12, alt.
Secondary Grades 5 - 7. (See also Matanyom.
UNGEI. United Nations Girls Education Initiative. Compare with Lower Secondary School,
UNICEF. United Nations Childrens Fund. Secondary School. See Annex Figure 1).
Historical Note: Beginning in the school year
UNIDO. United Nations Industrial Development 2009/10, a 4th year was added to lower secondary
Organization. (Headquarters in Vienna, Austria). school, leading to a 12 year school system.
UniNet. Thailand Education and Research Network. UPSET. Upgrade in-service education and training.
(Serves some 3000 network members, including (See also INSET; PRESET; TISUP)
NUOL; see also LERNET, TEIN).
URAT. [History]. UNESCO Regional Advisory
Union Aid Abroad [APHEDA]. See APHEDA. Team.
UNISDR. United Nations Office for Disaster Risk US. Upper Secondary [Education]. (See USE).
Reduction. (Established in 1999 to facilitate the USAID. United States Agency for International
implementation of the International Strategy for Development.
Disaster Reduction, ISDR).
Note: AID refers to the Agency for International
Universit de lIndochine. [History]. University of Development, with headquarters in Washington,
Indochina. D.C. USAID refers to the field offices abroad,
such as in Vientiane.
Historical Note: Established in Hanoi 1906.
Moved to Saigon and renamed University of Historical Note: USAID operated in Laos from
Saigon 1954. 1961 to 1975, returning around 2000, and returning
to the education sector in Laos in 2014. (See also
UNLD. United Nations Literacy Decade. ICA).
UNODC. United Nations Office on Drugs and USC. University of Southern California.
Crime.
USD. United States Dollar.
UNPAF. UN Partner Agreement Framework. USDA. United States Department of Agriculture.
Unqualified teacher. A teacher lacking any USE. Upper secondary education. (Grades 10 12
completed teacher education. (See also Qualified since 2009/10). (Compare with LSE).
teacher; Underqualified teacher; Uncertified
teacher). USIA. [History]. US Information Agency. (See also
USIS).
UNRC. United Nations Resident Coordinator. Historical Note: In 1999 the non-broadcasting
functions of USIA were transferred to the Under
UNSW. University of New South Wales. (Australia).
Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs.
UOW. University of Wollongong. (Australia). USIS. [History]. United States Information Service.
UPC. Universal Primary [School] Completion. (See (Name applied overseas for the USIA).
also UBE, UPE). USME. Unity School of Management and
Education.
UPCD. University Partnerships in Cooperation and
Development. USOM. [History]. United States Operations
Mission. (See also STEM, definition 2).
UPE. Universal Primary Education. (See also UBE,
Historical Note: The United States established the
UPC).
USOM to the Associated States (Cambodia, Laos,
UPI. [History]. University Pedagogical Institute. and Vietnam), Saigon in 1951. In August, 1955,
Founded 1964. See VPU. the United States elevated its diplomatic mission in
Laos from a Legation to an Embassy and
Upper primary school. [History]. Grades 4 5 or established the United States Operations Mission
4 6. (Compare with Lower primary school, in Laos (USOM/L).
Elementary School).
USPACOM. United States Pacific Command. (In
coordination with the US Embassy, conducts
humanitarian work in education sector and other
sectors in Laos since late 1990s).

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USS. Upper secondary school. (Compare with LSS. VDC. [Formerly]. Village Development Committee.
Also see USE). (Renamed VEDC, definition 1; see also WEDC).
UXO. Unexploded Ordnance. VDCAP. Also VD-CAP. Vientiane Declaration
Country Action Plan.
V VDF. Village Development Fund.
VA. Victim Assistance. VDPCC. Village Disaster Prevention and Control
VAC School Model. Reference to schools in ethnic Committee.
minority areas in Vietnam where schools have a VDPU. Village Disaster Prevention Unit.
small garden, a fishpond, and a stall for raising
small animals. See VAC, definition 2. VE. Vocational Education. See TVET.
Historical Note: A Lao modified version of the VEC. Vocational Education Committee. (In NCTS).
VAC School Model for some rural ethnic VEDC. 1. Village Education Development
communities was considered in early discussions Committee. (See also CCED, EDC; DEDC; VDC;
in connection with education sector development VEF). 2. [Formerly]. Vocational Education
plans. The aim was to link academic activities to Development Center. (See VEDI).
practical life-skills.
VEDI. Vocational Education [Research and]
VAC. 1. Village Administration Committee. (See Development Institute. (Vientiane). (Formerly
also VDC; VEDC, definition 1). 2. Vietnamese VEDC, definition 2).
Acronym for: Garden, Pond, Stall. (Vn, Ao,
Chung). (See VAC School Model). 3. Violence VEF. Village Education Fund. (See also VEDC,
against Children. definition 1).
VALOFRASE. Valorization of French [Language] in VELA. Vocational Education [and Training] in
South-East Asia [Project]. (Valorize = Increase the Laos. (Project with external co-financing by GIZ
value of). and SDC).
Vat. See Wat. VEQS. Vocational Education Quality Standards.
VAT. Value Added Tax. VESD. Vientiane Education and Sports Department.
VAW. Violence against Women. VESL. Village Education in Southern Laos. (VFI
VAWG. Violence against Women and Girls. project).

VC. 1. Vientiane College. 2. Vocational Certificate. VET. Vocational Education and Training. (The
(See TVET Certificate). more commonly used term internationally is
TVET).
VC I Vocational Certificate, Level 1;
VC II Vocational Certificate, Level 2; VETSA. Vocational Education and Training System
VC III Vocational Certificate, Level 3. Advisory [Project]. (External financing by GIZ).

VCAWMC. Vientiane Capital Commission for the VFI. Village Focus International (NGO, USA).
Advancement of Women, Mothers, and Children.
VHS. German: Deutscher Volkshochschul-Verband.
VCCEB. [Formerly]. Vientiane Capital City German Adult Education Association. (NGO,
Education Bureau. (See VCESS). Germany).
VCESS. Vientiane Capital Education & Sports VHV. Village Health Volunteer.
Service. (Formerly [V]CES).
VHW. Village Health Worker.
VD. Vientiane Declaration. See:
Vientiane Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, VI. Visual impairment.
signed in 2006; and
Viang Chan. Lao: . Vientiane.
Vientiane Declaration on Partnership for
Effective Development Cooperation (2016- Note: Vientiane is the more common spelling in
2025), signed in 2015. English and French language documents, but
Viang Chan is phonetically closer to the Lao
VD II. Vientiane Declaration on Partnership for spelling. The romanized spelling, Vientiane,
Effective Development Cooperation (2016-2025). was given by the French to accord with French
pronunciation.

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76
ViCAED. Vientiane initiatives on Cooperation for South-South Cooperation, Triangular
Adult Education and Development. Cooperation, and Knowledge Sharing; and
Vice Minister. Senior official serving directly under Business as a Partner in Development,
the Minister. (Also Deputy Minister; compare (See details in Annex Box 2: Vientiane
with Assistant Minister). Declaration on Partnership for Effective
Note: The titles Deputy Minister and Vice Minister Development Cooperation, 2016-2025).
are synonymous, but Vice Minister is the more Vientiane MCPT. See Vientiane Municipality.
commonly used term.
Vientiane Municipality. Note: In common writing,
Vichittakam. Lao:
. School of Visual the terms Vientiane Municipality, Vientiane
Arts. Capital, and Vientiane Prefecture are often used
synonymously, but the term Prefecture is
Vientiane Capital. Comprises Vientiane [Capital]
obsolete in the Lao context, and the current official
City plus the following districts: Mayparkngum,
names are Vientiane Capital and Vientiane
Naxaithong, Sangthong, and Xaythany.
[Capital] City.
Vientiane [Capital] City. Comprises the following Vientiane Prefecture. [Formerly]. Vientiane
districts: Chanthabouly, Hadxaifong, Naxaithong, Capital. (See Vientiane Municipality, Vientiane
Pak Ngeum, Sangthong, Saythany, Sikhottabong, Capital and Vientiane [Capital] City).
Sisattanak, Xaysetha.
Vihara. Pali: Literally abode, where monks live,
Vientiane Declaration [on Aid Effectiveness]. usually within a wat. Buddhist monastery.
Declaration signed by Laos and DPs at 9th RTM in
November 2006 as the Lao adaptation or Village school. A school, typically (but not always)
localization of the Paris Declaration on Aid in a rural or remote area and offering only 1, 2, or
Effectiveness. Main features include: 3 grades. (See also Incomplete school, School
cluster).
Ownership: Laos sets its own strategies for
poverty reduction, improves its institutions, and Village teacher. See Community teacher.
tackles corruption; Vinaya [Pitaka]. Pali: [literally Education Basket,
Alignment: DPs align behind these objectives or Discipline Basket, hence collection of rules
and use local systems in their support programs; for education]. The regulatory framework for the
Harmonization: DPs coordinate their programs, Sangha. (See also Tipitaka).
simplify procedures, and share information to Vipassana. Pali: Insight, intuitive understanding,
avoid duplication; gained through meditation.
Results: Laos and DPs focus on development
VIS. Vientiane International School. (Private;
results and measurement of the results; and
International Baccalaureate World School).
Mutual accountability: Laos and DPs are
mutually accountable for development results. Vision 2020. 1. ASEAN Vision for the Year 2020.
(Adopted 1997). 2. 2020 Goal.
Note: In 2015 an enhanced declaration was
prepared under the title Vientiane Declaration on Vision 2030. Development policy vision for Year
Partnership for Effective Development Coopera- 2030 adopted by the 10 th Party Congress and
tion (2016-2025). It is sometimes referred to as expressed in the 8th NSEDP.
VDI. Note: A major component of Vision 2030 is for
Vientiane Declaration [on Partnership for Laos to rank as an upper-middle income develop-
Effective Development Cooperation, 2016- ing country by 2030.
2025]. (Referred to as VDII. Signed November VITA [Park]. Vientiane Industrial and Trade Area.
2015. Compare with Vientiane Declaration [on (An SEZ, definition 1).
Aid Effectiveness]). Main features include:
VLE. Virtual Learning Environment. (See also
Ownership; CMS, LMS).
Alignment;
VM. Vice Minister.
Harmonization and simplification;
VMG. Vision, Mission, Goals.
Inclusive partnership for development results;
Transparency, Predictability and Mutual VND. Vietnamese Dong. (Currency).
Accountability; VO. Village Organization. (See VDC, VEDC).
Domestic Resource Mobilization;

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Vocational center. Also Vocational Training Center. VTED. Vocational Teacher Education Department.
Generic term for place in which basic vocational (Faculty of Engineering, NUOL). (Formerly
training is conducted. VTTD).
Vocational Diploma. Diploma awarded on VTET. See TVET.
completion of a TVET 12+3 year program.
VTI. Vocational and technical institution. (Generic.
(Compare with Technician Diploma).
See VTC, VTS).
VOCTECH. SEAMEO Regional Center for
VTM. Vientiane Municipality. (Renamed Vientiane
Vocational and Technical Education and Training.
Capital City. See VTE).
(In Brunei Darussalam).
VTP. 1. Vocational Training Program. 2. Vientiane
Volunteer teacher. 1. Teacher who is a recent TEI
Province. (Not to be confused with Vientiane
graduate awaiting a quota assignment, often
Capital City, see VTE)
serving without regular pay. (Compare with Quota
teacher). 2. See also Community teacher. VTS. Vocational and Technical School. (Compare
with VTC).
VPA. Voluntary partnership agreement.
VTTD. [Formerly]. Vocational Teacher Training
VPES. Vientiane Provincial Education Services.
Division. (Faculty of Engineering, NUOL). (See
VPS. Vientiane Patthana School. (Private school, VTED).
Vientiane).
VWU. Village Womens Union.
VPU. [History]. Vientiane Pedagogical University.
VYDA. Vulnerable [Lao] Youth Development
(Merged in 1996 with other institutions to become
Association. (Lao NPA, definition 2).
NUOL; see PERP).
VQF. Vocational Qualification[s] Framework. Also W
LNVQF, NQF, NVQF.
Comprises 5 levels according to the TVET Law of W/A. Withdrawal Application.
2014: WA. Withdrawal Application. (ADB, WB).
Level 1: Basic vocational training;
Wapikhamthong Province. [History]. Created as a
Level 2: Semi-skilled worker; province carved out of eastern Saravane province
Level 3: Skilled worker; in 1962 and restored to Saravane province at the
Level 4: Technician; and end of 1975. (See also Sam Neua Province).
Level 5: Higher Technician. WASH. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene. (UNICEF).
Note: These vocational qualifications in detail are Wat . Lao: . Buddhist temple complex, including
specified in the National Qualification[s]
Framework (NQF). (See also Annex Table 9). a temple, other religious and residential buildings
enclosed by a wall with gateways. (Also Vat).
VS. Village Science. (NGO, USA). (See also Vihara).
VSA. Volunteer Service Abroad. (NGO, New Wat school. See Temple school. See also Pali
Zealand). school.
VSDC. Vocational Skills Development Center. WATSAN. Water and Sanitation.
(Under MOLSW).
WAU. World Around Us. (Primary school curricula
VSO. Voluntary Service Overseas. INGO. and textbooks in social studies).
VT. Variable tranche. (E.g., with EC budget WB. World Bank.
support; compare with FT).
WBG. World Bank Group.
VTC. 1. Vocational and Technical College.
(Compare with VTS). 2. Vocational Training WBI. World Bank Institute.
Center. (Compare with VSDC). WCS. Wildlife Conservation Society. (NGO, USA).
VTE. 1. Vientiane [Capital City]. (Not to be WD [&]R. World Development & Relief. (INGO).
&r

confused with Vientiane Province). 2. Vocational


Teacher Education. WDI. World Development Indicators. (WB).
WE [/ Consortium]. [Formerly] World Education /
Consortium in the Lao PDR. (NGO, Laos). (See
WEL).

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78
WE/C. Also WEC. See WE / Consortium. World Education. (NGO, USA). (See WEL).
Wearing white. Reference to a lay person (i.e., not WPE. Work Plan on Education. (ASEAN).
ordained into the Buddhist monkhood). (See also
WR. World Renew. (INGO, Christian Reformed
White robe).
Church in North America). (Formerly CRWRC).
WEDC. Womens Education Development Center.
WS. Workshop.
(Compare with EDC, VEDI, DEDC).
WSIS. World Summit on the Information Society.
WEDGE. Womens Entrepreneurship Development
and Gender Equality. (ILO). WTO. World Trade Organization.
WEF. World Education Forum. Historical Note: Laos joined WTO in February
2013.
WEI. World Education International. (INGO, see
WEI / Consortium). WV[L]. World Vision [in Lao PDR]. (INGO.
l

Christian humanitarian organization).


WEL. World Education Laos. (NGO, Lao field
office for World Education, Boston. Engaged in WWF. World Wildlife Fund. (INGO).
agriculture, education, health care, income
generation, UXO, people with disabilities. In Laos X Y Z
since 1992.)
XAI. Xayaboury Province. (Also XYB).
WES. Water and Environmental Sanitation.
XIA. Xiengkhuang Province. (Also XK, XKG,
WFCL. Worst Forms of Child Labor. (ILO XKH).
convention, No. 182, 1999, to which Laos is a
Xiosane Avouso Teacher. Lao:
.
signatory).
st
Senior Expert Teacher. [Title, 1 Rank]. (See also
WFFC. World Fit for Children. Pasopkane Teacher; Samnanekane Teacher;
WFP. World Food Program. (UN). Xiosane Teacher).

WG. Working Group. Xiosane Teacher. Lao: .


Expert Teacher.
nd
[Title, 2 Rank]. (See also Pasopkane Teacher;
WGHRD. Working Group on Human Resource
Development. (GMS Economic Cooperation Samnanekane Teacher; and Xiosane Avouso
Program) Teacher).
XK. Xiengkhuang Province. (Also XIA, XKG,
WHE. [Young People's] World Heritage Education
XKH).
[Project]. (UNESCO project launched 1994 as:
Young Peoples Participation in World Heritage XKG. Xiengkhuang Province. (Also XIA, XK,
Preservation and Promotion). XKH).
WHH. See DWHH. XKH. Xiengkhuang Province. (Also XIA, XK,
XKG).
White robe. Reference to either: (a) The robe of a
candidate for ordination as a Buddhist novice XYB. Xayaboury Province. (Also XAI).
monk; or (b) The robe of a Buddhist nun (Lao:
Mae Khao). (See also Wearing white). . Japanese Yen.
Historical Note: In some historical documents the YB. [Statistical] Yearbook.
term white-robed priests is used disparagingly to
YDI. Youth Development Index.
refer to Christian missionaries (i.e., not ordained
into the Buddhist Sangha, hence wearing white YEAL. Youth Entrepreneur Association of Laos.
instead of saffron robes).
YES. [Honda] Young Engineers and Scientists.
WHO. World Health Organization. (Independent program supported by Honda
Foundation).
WID. [Formerly]. Women in Development. (See
GDA). YESS. Young Entrepreneurs Strategies for Success.
WIDE. World Inequality Database on Education. YF. Youth Forum.
(UNESCO).
YGMS. Young GMS Professional Program.
WinS. WASH in Schools. (Mekong Institute).
World Concern. (NGO, USA).

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79
YICMG. Youth Innovation Competition on
Lancang-Mekong Regions Governance and
Development.
YLP. Yong Leaders Program. (Japanese
Government. See also JDS).
YMCA. Young Mens Christian Association.
(Compare with YWCA).
Young Pioneers. Organization for age children, 9-14
years old; under LPRYU. (Compare with
Juveniles).
Note: Sometimes translated as Scouts (see
Scouts, Historical Note), but that misses the
political dimension of the Young Pioneers, which
is organized under the leadership of LPRYU, a
Mass Organization, itself under the leadership of
the Party.
YOY. Also YoY, y-o-y. Year-on-year [growth rate],
for example of enrollment, population, GDP;
GDP/c. (Contrast with Average Annual Growth
Rate).
Note: For any extended period of time, the
Average Annual Growth Rate is preferred because
the YOY growth rate becomes increasingly
misleading as the number of periods increases.
YSEALI. Young Southeast Asian Leaders Initiative.
(Professional development exchange program, US
Mission to ASEAN).
YWCA. Young Womens Christian Association.
(Compare with YMCA).
ZOA. Dutch: Zuidoost-Azi. [Southeast Asia].
(NGO, Netherlands; best known internationally
simply as ZOA).
Zomia. Geographic term (somewhat contentious)
referring to the highlands of northern peninsular
Southeast Asia (Laos, northern Vietnam and
Thailand, the Shan Hills of northern Burma) and
the mountains of Southwest China. Often used in
discussions concerning ethnic minority commun-
ities living in the highlands and mountainous areas.
Zone of Proximal Development. (ZPD). The
difference between what learners can do without
help and what they can do with help.
Note: Concept introduced by and associated with
Lev Vygotsky.
ZOPP. German: Zielorientierte Projektplanung.
Objectives-Oriented Project Planning. Author
trans. (See also OOPP).
ZPD. Zone of Proximal Development.
ZSKF. Zsigmond Kirly Flskola. [Hungarian].
King Sigismund Business School. (Budapest,
Hungary)

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80
ANNEX

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81
Annex Figures

Figure 1: School System Structure as of School Year 2015/2016

Notes:
1. The UNESCO International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED 2011) codes are shown.
2. In School Year 2009/10 the three-year lower secondary school was replaced by a four-year lower
secondary school, changing the 11-year 5+3+3 system to a 12-year 5+4+3 system. See Figure 2.
3. Grades 6-9 are often referred to as Secondary Grades 1-4, and Grades 10-12 are often referred to
as Secondary Grades 5-7. See M1-M4, M5-M7, Matanyom.

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82
Source: MOES Annual School Census for SY 2007/08 to 2011/12, published 2008 to 2012

Figure 2: System Reform Period Enrollment in Lower & Upper Secondary School

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83
Figure 3: Alternate School Forms as of School Year 2015/2016
Notes: 1. For Multi-grade School, 1-teacher model, see Figure 4 below.
2. Over the past decade approximately 28 % of Primary classrooms have been multi-grade.

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84
Figure 4: Double Cohort, Alternate Year Intake Multi-Grade Form

Note: This one-teacher, five-grade school approach is allowed for small, remote communities where
only one teacher is available. It enables the provision of complete primary schooling (five grades) for
all children in the community, while the teacher handles only two or three grade levels each year. It is
allowed but seldom used because it is considered too difficult to manage.

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85
Figure 5: Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) Forms

Figure 6: Typical Primary School Cluster: Core School and Satellite Schools

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86
Figure 7: Implementation Plan for Teacher Education 2010/10 to 2014/15

Notes:
1. The curriculum
and teaching and
learning methods in
Lao TVET are in a
state of transforma-
tion. Many TVET
institutions are intro-
ducing competency
based training.

2. The Diploma and


Higher Diploma
earned in the regular
TVET stream and the
IVET continuing
stream are formally
equivalent.

Figure 8: General, TVET, and IVET Streams after Lower Secondary Education

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87
Figure 9: MOES Organization Chart (September, 2014)

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88
Annex Tables
Table 1: PESS and DESB Organization
PESS DESB
Director Director
Deputy Directors Deputy Directors
Administration Administration
Organization and Personnel Organization and Personnel
Statistics and Planning Statistics and Planning
Pre-school and Primary Education Pre-school and Primary Education
Secondary Education
TVET
Non-formal Education and Basic Skill Training Non-formal Education and Basic Skill Training
Arts and Physical Education Arts and Physical Education
Teacher Development
Community Sport Sport Exercise
Elite Sports
Inspection and Evaluation Inspection and Evaluation
Pedagogical Advisors

Table 2: Universities and Faculties


Universities under MOES
Champasack University (CU), Pakse. Established 2002. Faculties: Agriculture, Economic and
Business Administration, Education.
National University of Laos (NUOL), Vientiane. Established 1995. Faculties: Agriculture,
Architecture, Economics and Business Administration, Education, Engineering, Forestry,
Law and Political Science, Letters, Medical Sciences, [Natural] Sciences, Social Sciences,
Water Resources.
Savannakhet University (SKU), Savannakhet. Established 2009. Faculties: Agriculture and
Environmental Sciences, Business Administration, Education, Food Science, Linguistics and
Humanities.
Souphanouvong University (SU), Luang Prabang. Established 2003. Faculties: Agriculture,
Economics and Business Administration, Education.
Universities under Other Ministries
University of Health Sciences (UHS), Vientiane. Established under MOH in 2007. Faculties:
Basic Science, Dentistry, Medical Technology, Medicine, Nursing, Pharmacy, Post Graduate
Studies and Research.
Notes:
1. MOES has broad oversight responsibility for all education development, but CU, SKU, and SU have
autonomous administrative authority. NUOL has more autonomy.
2. The University of Health Sciences was established in 1958 as the Royal School of Medicine and has been
renamed several times since then. It has been managed alternately under the Ministry of Education and the
Ministry of Health. In 2007 it was renamed University of Health Sciences and placed under the Ministry of
Health.

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89
Table 3: Teacher Education Institutions
TEIs Location
8 Provincial & Regional TTCs

Luangnamtha TTC Namtha District, Luang Namtha Province

Luangprabang TTC Luang Prabang District, Luang Prabang Province

Phone Savan, Capital of Pek District, Xieng Khuang


Khangkhai TTC (KKTTC)
Province

Bankeun TTC (BTTC) Thoulakhom District, Vientiane Province

Savannakhet TTC (STTC) Kaisone Phomvihan District, Savannakhet Province

Saravane TTC Saravane District, Saravane Province

Pakse TTC Pakse District, Champasack Province

Dongkhamxang TTC Hadsaifong District, Vientiane Capital

4 Specialized TTCs

National Art Education Teacher Training School Vientiane Capital

National Physical Education Teacher Training Ban Thongpong, Sikhottabong District, Vientiane
College Capital

Wat Ongtue TTC Vientiane Capital

Wat Thahin TTC Pakse, Champasack Province

Vocational Education Development Institute


Ban Watnak, Sisattanak District, Vientiane Capital
(VEDI)

4 University Faculties of Education

Champasack University (CU) Pakse

National University of Laos (NUOL) * Vientiane

Savannakhet University (SKU) Savannakhet

Souphanouvong University (SU) Luang Prabang

* The Faculty of Engineering includes a Vocational Teacher Education Department (VTED).

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Table 4: Ethno-Linguistic Groups and their Population Distribution, 2015

No. Ethnic group % No. Ethnic group %


Lao-Tai Linguistic Sub-group Mon-Khmer Sub-group Continued
1 Lao 53.2 30 Cheng 0.1
2 Tai 3.1 31 Sedang 0.0
3 Phoutai 3.4 32 Suay 0.8
4 Lue 2.0 33 Nya Heun 0.1
5 Nyouan 0.4 34 Lavi 0.0
6 Yang 0.1 35 Pacoh 0.4
7 Xaek 0.1 36 Khmer 0.1
8 Tai Neua 0.2 37 Toum 0.1
Total 62.5 38 Ngouan 0.0
39 Moy 0.0
Mon-Khmer Linguistic Sub-group 40 Kri 0.0
9 Khmou 11.0 Total 23.7
10 Phai 0.4
11 Xing Moul 0.2 Tibeto-Burman Linguistic Sub-group
12 Phong 0.5 41 Ahka 1.8
13 Thaen 0.0 42 Phunoi (Singsily) 0.6
14 Oedou 0.0 43 Lahou 0.3
15 Bit 0.0 44 Sila 0.0
16 Lamet 0.3 45 Hanyi 0.0
17 Samtao 0.1 46 Lolo 0.0
18 Katang 2.2 47 Ho 0.2
19 Makong 2.5 Total 2.9
20 Tri 0.6
21 Yrou 0.9 Hmong-Yao Linguistic sub-group
22 Tariang 0.6 48 Hmong 9.2
23 Ta Oy 0.7 49 Iu Mien Yao 0.5
24 Yaeh 0.2 Total 9.7
25 Brao 0.4
26 Katou 0.4 Other / No answer
27 Halak 0.4 50 Other & Not Stated 1.2
28 Oy 0.4
29 Kriang 0.3
(Continued) National Population Total 100.0
Source: MPI 2015, Table P2.7, pp. 121-122.

Historical Note: The RLG classified the multi-ethnic population of Laos into three groups (Lao Loum, Lao
Soung, and Lao Theung) based on the assumed topographical distribution, with little regard to ethno-linguistic
characteristics. The 1992 Central Party Resolution on Ethnic Minorities recommended that this classification no
longer be used. The National Edification Committee of the Lao National Ethnic Classification Conference in
August 2000 agreed on a two tiered system comprising 49 ethnic groups (as shown above) and 160 sub-groups.
As of the school year 2007/08 the ethnicity data collected by MOES is based on the ethno-linguistic
classifications, not the topographical classification.

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Table 5: EFA National Plan of Action (EFA-NPA) - Objectives, Targets, Activities
Objec- Activ-
Program tives Targets ities
Pillar 1: Access and Participation 22 30 139
1 Access and Participation in ECCD 4 4 17
2 Access and Participation in Formal Primary Education 5 21 32
3 Access and Participation in Lower Secondary Education 4 2 19
4 Youth and Adult Literacy 7 2 53
5 Skills Development Program for Disadvantaged Groups 2 1 18

Pillar 2: Quality and Relevance 13 6 110


Quality and Relevance in Formal Primary and Lower
6 13 6 110
Secondary Education

Pillar 3: Management 7 8 26
7 Education Administration and Management 7 8 26

Total 42 44 275
Source: Ministry of Education (MOE). (2005). Education for All National Plan of Action 2003-
2015. Vientiane: MOE. Pp. 41-65.

Table 6: Lao National Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for Education


Target
No. Indicator (%)
MDG 2: Ensure that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be
able to complete a full course of primary schooling.
6 Primary Net Enrollment Rate 98
7 Primary school Survival Rate 95
8 Literacy rate in age range 15-24 99

MDG 3: Eliminate gender disparity at all levels by 2015.


9 Gender Ratio for enrollment at all levels 100
10 Gender Ratio for literacy in age range 15-24 100
Note: Only those MDGs and indicators directly and specifically related to the education sector are listed
here. For a complete listing the reader is referred to the relevant official documentation, e.g., Government of
Lao PDR and United Nations. (2004). Millennium Development Goals Progress Report Lao PDR.
Vientiane and New York: GOL and UN.

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Table 7: Lao Adaptation of Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG4) for 2030

Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and quality education for all and promote lifelong learning
Key outcomes extracted Indicative programmatic areas for the further development of
from SDG 4 interventions and indicators:
(i) Free, equitable, and Universal access to primary education, improved retention &
quality primary and graduation;
secondary education Secondary education: improved access, retention and graduation;
Improved quality of primary & secondary education, relevant and
effective learning outcomes;
Knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development
(see target 4.7 for complete list, Table 4.2);
Gender equality in all of the above;
Child, disability, and gender sensitive quality education facilities.

(ii) Improved access to Access to ECD and pre-primary education;


quality early childhood Quality of ECD and pre-primary education services and facilities;
development, care and
pre-primary education Gender equality in all of the above.

(iii) Increased skills for Affordable and quality tertiary education;


employment, decent jobs Affordable and quality TVET, reform and modernization of the
and entrepreneurship TVET system;
Knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development
(see target 4.7);
Disability and gender sensitive quality education facilities;
Gender equality in all of the above.

(iv) Universal literacy Youth literacy (15-24 years )


among youth Adult literacy (age 15 and above)

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Table 8: Official Student/Teacher Ratio Targets by Level of Educational Institution
Target Ratios
Education Sector Teacher Education
Type of Institution Development Plan Action Plan 2011 PMO Decree 2012
Pre-school 20:1 20:1 15:1
Primary School 31:1 30:1 34:1
Lower secondary school 25:1 25:1 30:1
Upper secondary school 20:1 20:1 25:1
Vocational school n.a. n.a. 20:1
Teacher Education Institutions n.a. 25:1 n.a.
University n.a. 30:1 30:1
Sources:
Education Sector Development Plan (MOES 2011b);
Teacher Education Action Plan 2011-2015 (MOES 2011c);
Decree on Teacher Civil Servants. (PMO 2012).
Note: The PMO Decree covers public schools only.

Table 9: National Qualification Framework Standards for Vocational Teacher


Higher Education and Skill Training
Qualification Level Sport (MOES) TVET (MOES) (MOLSW)
Doctors Degree
Specialist 2
7
Masters Degree
(professional)
Specialist 1
Graduate Diploma
6 Bachelors Degree Bachelors Degree
Associate Degree Higher Diploma / Foreman / Supervisor /
5
Higher Technician Skill Level 4
Diploma 2 / Technician Tradesman / Skilled
4
Level 3
Diploma 1/ Certificate Skilled Laborer / Skill
3
4 / Skilled Worker Level 2
Certificate 3 / Semi- Semi Skilled Laborer /
2
Skilled Worker Skill Level 1
Certificate 2 / Practical Award
Skills
1
Certificate 1 / Basic Award
Skills
Source: NUOL. (2014). Development of Standards for Vocational Teachers at Bachelors level in
Lao PDR. Faculty of Engineering, National University of Laos. P. 26.

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Table 10: TVET Institutions under MOES Supervision, with Enrollments, 2011/12

Fem. as %
Institution Total Female Total
Dongkhamxang Agricultural Technical School 434 181 42
Integrated Vocational School, Saravane Province 215 37 17
Integrated Vocational School, Sekong Province 147 44 30
IVET School, Huaphanh Province 204 62 30
IVET School, Luangnamtha Province 501 156 31
IVET School, Oudomxay Province 376 55 15
IVET School, Phongsaly Province 278 126 45
IVET School, Xayabury Province 786 272 35
IVET School, Xiengkhuang Province 359 97 27
VTS, Khammuane Province 1,086 430 40
VTS, Luangprabang 1,156 375 32
VTS, Savannakhet Province 618 167 27
VTS, Attapeu Province 251 56 22
VTS, Bokeo Province 412 115 28
VTS, Borikhamxay Province 92 50 54
Lao-German Technical School, Vientiane 602 12 2
Pakpasak Technical College, Vientiane 4,665 2,825 61
Polytechnic College, Vientiane 2,387 433 18
Technical College, Vientiane Province 1,604 651 41
Vientiane-Hanoi Friendship Vocational School 1,281 554 43
Vocational & Technical College, Champasack Province 1,031 316 31
Vocational Education Development Institute 126 22 17

Total Enrolment 18,611 7,036 38


Note: The Vocational Education Development Institute (VEDI) is also referred to as the Vocational
Education Research and Development Institute.

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Table 11: Public TVET Delivery System under Other Ministries and Organizations

Entity TVET Institutions Number of Trainees Content of Courses


Ministry of Health University of Health In 2008/09: 13
Science and 12 Nursing Masters degrees, 52
schools specialists, 308
Bachelors degrees,
227 higher diplomas,
90 diplomas, 638
nursing certificates
Ministry of Finance 3 training institutes In 2008/09 4,500 Finance, banking,
trainees in certificate accounting
and diploma courses
Ministry of Agriculture 5 specialist training In 2009: 448 students Crop production,
and Forestry institutes graduated livestock, fisheries,
forestry, irrigation
Ministry of Information 5 training institutes
and Culture
Ministry of Justice 3 training institutes
Bank of Lao 1 training institute
Lao Womens Union 3 training centers In 2008/09 440 trainees Cookery, garment
in non-formal courses making, hairdressing,
beautician
Lao Revolutionary Youth 10 training centers In 2008/09 900 trainees Languages, beauty,
Federation tailoring, computing
Community Learning 321 centers across the 1,608 trainees in Literacy, equivalency
Centers country 2008/09 and short basic
vocational skills
Source: UNESCO. (2013). Policy Review of TVET in Lao PDR. Paris: UNESCO. P. 26.

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Table 12: Official Names of Lao Government Structure, as of July 2014

Sometimes found in current writings


Official Name & Standard Abbreviation but out of date or incorrect
Ministries
Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry (MAF) Ministry of Agriculture

Ministry of Education & Sports (MOES) Ministry of Education

Ministry of Energy & Mines (MEM) Ministry of Energy & Mining

Ministry of Finance (MOF)

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA)

Ministry of Health (MOH) Ministry of Public Health

Ministry of Home Affairs (MOHA)

Ministry of Industry & Commerce (MIC) Ministry of Industry & Handicraft

Ministry of Information, Culture, & Tourism (MICT) Ministry of Information & Culture

Ministry of the Interior

Ministry of Justice (MOJ)

Ministry of Labor & Social Welfare (MOLSW)

Ministry of National Defense (MND) Ministry of Public Defense

Ministry of Natural Resources & Environment (MONRE)

Ministry of Planning & Investment (MOPI or MPI)

Ministry of Post & Telecommunications (MPT) Ministry of Post, Telecom, & Communications

Ministry of Public Security (MPS) Ministry of National Security

Ministry of Public Works & Transport (MPWT)

Ministry of Science & Technology (MOST)

Ministry-equivalent Organizations
Bank of the Lao PDR

Government Inspection Authority

Government Office. (Also known as Prime Ministers


Office, PMO)
Note: This list is provided here because references in English language literature, including official
translations of GOL documents, often give out-of-date names or home-made translations. Here we list the
official names as provided on the official websites. Sometimes variants can be found on the same official
website. In such cases we have listed here the most common variants found in authoritative and well-written
documents.

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Table 13: Spelling of Administrative Divisions and Common Place Names

HASC &
Code Administrative Units Common Abbreviations ISO
1 Attapeu Province ATP, ATT AT
2 Bokeo Province BKO, BOK BK
3 Borikhamxay Province BKX, BOL BL
4 Champasack Province CHA, CPS CH
5 Huaphanh Province HOU, HPH HO
6 Khammuane Province KHA, KHM, KMN KH
7 Luangnamtha Province LN, LNA, LNT LM
8 Luangprabang Province LPB LP
9 Oudomxay Province ODX, OUD, UDX OU
10 Phongsaly Province PHO, PLS PH
11 Saravane Province SAR, SRV SL
12 Savannakhet Province SAV, SKT, SVK SV
17 Sekong (or Xkong) Province SEK, SKN XE
13 Vientiane Province VTP VI
14 Vientiane Capital City VTE VT
15 Xayabury Province XAI, XYB XA
16 Xaysomboon Province (See Notes 2 & 3 below) XN
18 Xiengkhuang Province XIA, XK, XKG XI
Notes:
1. There is no official spelling in English for names of provinces. The spellings given here are those used in
the statistical reports issued by the Lao Statistics Bureau. The spelling of other common place names follows
the most authoritative sources.
2. The districts of Xaysomboon Special Region were transferred in 2006 to Xiengkhuang and Vientiane
Provinces and restored as Xaysomboon Province December 31, 2013.
3. The Code is the province number commonly used in official reports. Note that the Code given here follows
alphabetical order of province name if Sekong is spelled Xkong, but Sekong is the more common spelling in
English language documents. In the 2005 Census report and other official publications the Codes followed a
north-to-south order. The Codes given above are taken 2015-06-07 from: http://www.statoids.com/ula.html
4. Vientiane Capital City (or simply Vientiane Capital) is on the same administrative level as a province but is
not formally a province. It is sometimes called Vientiane Municipality or Vientiane Prefecture.
5. HASC: Hierarchical administrative subdivision codes. For full identification in a global context, prefix
LA. is added. ISO: Province codes from ISO 3166-2. For full identification in a global context, prefix
LA- is added.

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Annex Boxes

Box 1: Summary Timeline for Major Education Policy Development, from 1990
1990 (March). Laos signs World Declaration on Education for All (EFA) in Jomtien, Thailand.
1991 (May). Laos accedes to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CORC), assuring the rights of
every child, irrespective of gender, language, religion, ethnicity, disability, or other status.
1996 (August). Prime Minister signs Decree on Compulsory Education.
1996. Gender and Ethnic Minority Education Unit (GEMEU) established under the Department of General
Education.
2000 (April). Education Law 2000 mandates free and compulsory primary education.
2000 (September). Laos commits to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) at the Millennium Summit
at the UN headquarters in New York.
2000 (October). MOE publishes The Education Strategic Vision up to the Year 2020 for presentation at 7 th
Round Table Meeting.
2001 (March). Seventh Congress of the Lao Peoples Revolutionary Party (LPRP) presents a 5-, 10-, and 20-
year development strategy and endorses the 5 th National Socio-Economic Development Plan (NSEDP5)
(2001-2005).
2001 (August). MOE publishes The Education Strategic Planning, 20 Years (2001-2020), 10 Years (2001-
2010), and 5 Years Development Plan for Education at the 5 th Plenary Session (2001-2005).
2005 (March). Education for All National Plan of Action 2003-2015 (EFA NPA) is approved by the Prime
Minister, committing Laos to national EFA goals and targets in accordance with the Framework for
Action adopted at the World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000.
2006 (March). Eighth Party Congress endorses 6 th NSEDP (2006-2010), which promotes economic
development, with human resource development as a key instrument.
2006 (November). At the 9 th Round Table Meeting, Vientiane Declaration (VD) on Aid Effectiveness is
signed.
2007 (July). The National Assembly approves the Revised Education Law 2007, stipulating extension of
lower secondary schooling to four years and promotes private education sector investment.
2008 (April). National Education System Reform Strategy (NESRS) 2006-2015 is promulgated.*
2009 (January). Development Partners endorse draft Education Sector Development Framework 2009-2015
(ESDF) as common framework for support to government for education sector development and
recommends Lao PDR accession to Fast Track Initiative (FTI) Partnership.
2009 (April). Education Sector Development Framework 2009-2015 (ESDF) is promulgated.
2010 (January). PMO promulgates Decree on TVET and Skills Development.
2010 (March). Lao PDR successfully secures USD30 million from FTICatalytic Fund to support
implementation of the sector plan.
2011 (September). Education Sector Development Plan 2011-2015 (ESDP 2011-2015) is promulgated.
2011 (September). In accordance with directions in the 7 th NSEDP, and after merger with Lao National
Sports Committee, Ministry of Education (MOE) is reorganized and re-named Ministry of Education and
Sports (MOES).
2011 (October). The 7 th NSEDP (2011-2015) is approved.
2013 (July). MOES approves the implementation of Minimum Education Standards of Higher Education
Institutions.
2014 (January). TVET Law and Labor Law are approved.
2015 (June). Decree on Higher Education (No. 177), probably the most significant and comprehensive legal
document ever written about higher education in Laos.
2015 (August). The National Assembly approves the Revised Education Law 2015.

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2015 (September). Laos commits to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at the Sustainable
Development Summit at the UN headquarters in New York.
2015 (September). National Qualifications Framework (NQF) is approved.
2015 (December). Education and Sports Sector Development Plan 2016-2020 (ESDP 2016-2020) is
promulgated.
2016 (June). Eighth 8 th NSEDP (2016-2020) is approved.
* Although the NESRS was promulgated after the promulgation of the Education Law (Revised 2007), the
Law is based on the preparatory work by the National Education System Reform Committee (NESRC)
during Phase I (2006-2008) of the reform strategy. The Education Law (Revised 2007) provides the
juridical basis for the system reform, as required by the NESRC. (See NESRS, Section VIII).

Box 2: Vientiane Declaration on Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation,


2016-2025
Ownership: DPs will support GOL leadership in policy, program, operation, monitoring, and evaluation, and
GOL will integrate ODA into mainstream financing and budget frameworks and will lead in identifying
capacity development needs;
Alignment: GOL and DPs use mutually agreed diagnostic tools, risk assessments, and mitigation measures on
the basis of comprehensive and transparent national budget information;
Harmonization and simplification: GOL and DPs will jointly plan, review, monitor, and evaluate priority
development effectiveness issues to support the national development agenda;
Inclusive partnership for development results: GOL and DPs form an inclusive development process, with
multiple actors (including civil society, private sector, and south-south and triangular cooperation) aligned
with the national development goals;
Transparency, Predictability and Mutual Accountability: GOL will produce transparent and accountable
national budgets and financial reports to enable assessment of development results, and GOL and DPs will
jointly conduct annual reviews reflecting the indicators defined in the Global Partnership Monitoring
Framework;
Domestic Resource Mobilization: GOL will increase mobilization of public and private domestic resources for
development, improve the DP GOL balance in co-financing priority development programs, increase
expenditure on vital social services, and broaden the tax base;
South-South Cooperation, Triangular Cooperation, and Knowledge Sharing: GOL will develop south-south
cooperation and triangular cooperation at strategic, policy, and project levels, and will promote integration
of south-south cooperation partners in the RTP and SWGs; and
Business as a Partner in Development: GOL will engage with business associations, trade unions, and others
to improve the legal, regulatory, and administrative environment for mobilization of private investment in
development activities, taking into account social and environmental safeguards and encouraging CSR.

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