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Anticipating the future

This is what CONTROLS has now been doing for almost 50 years. It might seem a long time,
but those years have served to consolidate the companys core values: corporate ethics, accountability,
a service-oriented attitude, continuous innovation and a mutual trust with all those customers and
partners who have joined us on an exciting adventure of people, products and technologies.
Our heritage is founded on these solid bases.
Partnership and innovation have been the cornerstones of a continual process that has seen
CONTROLS become a pioneer and leader in the industry since its inception.
But corporate positioning and strategy need to be constantly re-oriented to anticipate market trends
and meet the increasing needs of customers.

This is why CONTROLS maintains This is why CONTROLS is constantly This is why CONTROLS, with its
a global presence based on a solid investing in R&D, developing pro- strong industrial vocation, vertically
worldwide network carefully struc- prietary technologies and innovative integrates the entire process, from
tured over the years and attentively products, such as the MCC, AUTOMAX product conception to design, and
serving its customers with a team of and PILOT, still today unsurpassed from production to distribution and
skilled and experienced staff regu- benchmarks in the world of compres- service.
larly trained in the factory. sion testing machines.
This is why in early 2015 CON- This is why in 2014 CONTROLS This is why at last the new General
TROLS moved to a new premises of acquired IPC Global Pty Ltd., Aus- Catalogue is here, now in its VIII Edi-
over 8000 m2 to make the entire pro- tralias global leader in dynamic tion, rich and comprehensive, offering
cesses more efficient and enhance pavement testing, recognized for its a range of products and systems un-
the quality standards, to offer new technological excellence. The initia- paralleled in detail and quality. A vast
spaces for products training and to tive complements the Pavelab Sys- range of products and services, from
further strengthen the R&D section. tems range of advanced asphalt and basic equipment, always adhering with-
bitumen testing equipment and con- out compromise to the latest standards
firms the status of CONTROLS Group and safety regulations, all the way up to
as the ideal partner for the world of the most sophisticated machines for the
research and science. world of research and advanced testing.

My sincere thanks go to all those partners and associates who, with their expertise,
commitment and loyalty, have helped over the years to increase and strengthen our position in
the world. Building on the results so far and well aware that there is still a long way to go, we are
committed to carry on with renewed energy and enthusiasm towards new and more exciting targets,
well determined to continue... anticipating the future.

Pasquale Di Iorio
CONTROLS GROUP President
One group:

your partner
CONTROLS Group, with its branch offices and worldwide
network of qualified distributors has been, for almost
50 years, the ideal partner in test equipment for the
construction industry. Worldwide.

CONTROLS Testing CONTROLS Polska


Equipment Ltd, Sp. z o.o.,
since 1983 since 2004
Equipos de Ensayo United Kingdom Poland
CONTROLS S.a., TE CONTROLS Ltd,
since 1989 since 2013
CONTROLS S..r.l., Spain Iraq
since 1993
France
CONTROLS S.r.l.,
since 1966
Italy
Wykeham Farrance Ltd,
Equipos de Ensaye
since 1941 CONTROLS, S.a. de c.v.,
United Kingdom since 1995
Mexico

IPC Global Pty Ltd,


since 1981
Australia
CONTROLS Group works
with four proprietary brands:

Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

In the field

A global presence with a solid distribution network, carefully


structured and attentively serving its customers with a team
of highly skilled, experienced and regularly trained staff.
Anticipating the future:

the real test


The challenges of the future demand solid answers and
CONTROLS is taking action, today for tomorrow.
December 2014
A new site covering over 8000 m2 to make processes
even more efficient and enhance quality, to offer new
spaces for training and to further strengthen R&D.

April 2014

The acquisition of IPC Global, Australia's global leader in


Dynamic Pavement Testing, recognised for its technological
excellence. The initiative complements the PAVELAB SYSTEMS
range of advanced Asphalt and Bitumen testing equipment
and confirms the status of the CONTROLS Group as the ideal
partner for the world of research and science.

March 2014
The Academy Centre is launched, specializing in the training
of laboratory technicians, either at CONTROLS headquarters or
ACADEM Y
CENTRE directly on site throughout the world.
Made in CONTROLS:

total quality
Being a company with a long-standing industrial
tradition, CONTROLS vertically integrates the entire
process, from product conception to design and from
manufacture to distribution and after-sales.
In the new site of over 8000 m2, large-scale production and
economies of scale go hand in hand with craftsmanlike care in
the assembly and calibration of the products, from the simplest
to the most complex and sophisticated.

Uncompromising quality: all equipment strictly complies with product regulations


and EC safety standards and undergoes precision checks and calibrations.
calibrations
Made in CONTROLS:

creative technology
The most comprehensive range of testing equipment
for the construction industry on the market today is
based entirely on advanced proprietary technologies.
For CONTROLS innovation has always been a state of mind,
a mental attitude summed up in this concept:

CUSTOMER VALUE
DRIVES THE INNOVATION

The CVI-tech concept (efficient technology, smart software, industrial design,


modular expandability) delivers the development of new, high-worth
products and services to the customer in terms of:
- Rigorous regulatory compliance.
- Ergonomics and design.
- Value for money.
- Consistent performance even after intensive use.
Test us

for your testing


We dont just sell products. The CONTROLS team
of specialists supports clients in their testing and
follow-on requirements and are always striving to
find ways of improving.
Our specialists provide updated technical and scientific
support for new regulations and on the latest and most
advanced testing technologies at the advisory stage and
during product use.

CONTROLS range of test machines, systems and accessories are able


to provide a complete and satisfactory solution for all testing needs of
construction materials for Q/A and for validation of R/D products.

Concrete: CONTROLS boasts unmatched leadership in the manufacture


of compression machines and test equipment for concrete and cement.

Soil: Wykeham Farrance offers a complete range for static and dynamic
testing for standard applications and research.

Asphalt: Pavelab Systems and IPC Global offer a range of road surface
instrumentation unequalled in their completeness, quality and reliability.
First class after-sales service:

local to our customers


CONTROLS offers a wide range of valuable
services: calibration, technical support, assis-
tance and training. Anywhere in the world.
Highly advanced communication systems allow the CONTROLS
support team to be in constant contact with users, giving
support also from headquarters. Product traceability, original
components, complete and comprehensive support docu-
ments and a certified calibration service complete the offer of
continuity that CONTROLS provides customers: a privilege that
only a modern and efficient organisation can provide.

We believe in testing culture

The sales and service network is constantly updated with training


activities at CONTROLS headquarters and in the field. An important
commitment for superior service.

CONTROLS specialists offer training for laboratory technicians


with tailored courses at the Academy Centre or at the customer's
ACADEM Y
CENTRE premises, wherever they might be in the world.

CONTROLS S.R.L. is accredited as a Calibration Centre N 92 for the


calibration and verification of force transfer on compression and
Calibration Centre LAT N092 tension machines in accordance to UNI CEI EN ISO/IEC 17025 and
Signatory of EA, IAF and ILAC
Mutual Recognition Agreement to the requisites from EA and ILAC.
This catalogue is also available in French, Spanish and Italian
languages. If you wish to get one of those editions please visit
our web site controls-group.com or ask to our offices.
Contents

Section
Page

Drying, Weighing and Grading


10 Drying samples 4
11 Weighing samples 8
15 Sample grading 11

Soil Classification
16 Field classification 24
19 Moisture content 34
22 Laboratory classification 36
24 Chemical tests 41

Soil Mechanics
26 Consolidation 46
27 Direct/Residual shear 53
28 Triaxial testing 66
29 Automatic triaxial testing 96
30 Data acquisition systems 108
31 Dynamic testing systems 114
Compacted Road Base and Subbase Soils
33 Moisture/Density relationship 134
34 CBR California Bearing Ratio 142
35 Field density, Bearing capacity 156
38 Soil permeability 166
45 Rock Mechanics 172
Aggregates
47 Geometrical properties 192
48 Mechanical and physical properties 197
Concrete Testing
50 Compression testing machines, Machine parts, Flexural frames
and accessories, Advanced Testing Systems 214
54 Fresh Concrete Testing 276
55 Hardened concrete testing 286
58 NDT Non destructive testing 306
Cement Testing
62 Physical and chemical properties 336
63 Setting time and consistency 344
64 Building lime, grout and mud testing 350
65 Determination of cement strength 358
70 Universal Testing Machines 376
Asphalt Testing
75 Analysis of Bituminous Mixtures 398
76 Design and Testing of Bituminous Mixtures 418
77 Rheologic Properties of Bituminous Mixtures 454
80 Road Quality testing 468
79 IPC Global Dynamic testing systems 480
81 Bitumen 516
General Equipment
82 Measuring instruments 544
83 Core drilling equipment 558
86 General laboratory apparatus 561
List of Standards 574
Analytical Index 580
Code Index 604
Drying, Weighing and Grading

10 Drying samples
11 Weighing samples
15 Sample grading

Ovens and similar equipment, balances and test sieves with related accessories are common
equipment that are indispensable for all laboratories for construction materials. We propose a wide range
of models which satisfy the requirement of all main International Standards and particularly the EN 932-5
Tests for general properties of aggregates Part 5: Common equipment and calibration.

10 Drying samples
Laboratory ovens 4
Hot plates 5
Muffle furnaces 6
Climatic chambers 7

11 Weighing samples
Top loading electronic balances 9
Moisture determination balance 10
Standard calibration weights 10

15 Sample grading
Testing sieves 11
Sieve shakers 15
Wet washing sieves 20
Ultrasonic cleansing apparatus 20
Riffle boxes (Sample splitters) 21
3
10 DRYING, WEIGHING and GRADING | DRYING SAMPLES

Laboratory ovens main features

> Digital PID temperature control system


Standards > High temperature uniformity and precision
EN 932-5 | EN 1097-5 | > Over-heating protection
ASTM C127 | ASTM D1559 | ASTM D698 | > Stainless steel internal and external linen patterned lining
ASTM D558 | ASTM D1557 | ASTM C136| > Forced convection airflow
ASTM D559 | ASTM D560 |
> 200C maximum temperature
BS 1924:1
Detail of external stainless lining: linen > Supplied complete with three grid shelves
Laboratory ovens patterned resistant to scratches and shocks

10-D1396
Stainless steel, forced convection, digital
laboratory oven, 250 litre capacity 230 V,
50-60 Hz, 1 ph Models 10- D1396 D1397 D1398
10-D1396/Z D1396/Z D1397/Z
As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
10-D1397 Nominal capacity 250 litres 450 litres 780 litres
Stainless steel, forced convection, digital Max. temperature 200C 200C 200C
laboratory oven, 450 litre capacity 230 V,
50-60 Hz, 1 ph Air convection Forced Forced Forced
10-D1397/Z Rated power 2100 W 3100 W 4200 W
As above but 220 V, 60 Hz, 3 ph
10-D1398 Internal dimensions (w x d x h) 540 x 650 x 700 mm 600 x 750 x 1000 mm 810 x 800 x 1200 mm
Stainless steel, forced convection, digital External dimensions (w x d x h) 900 x 1020 x 970 mm 1020 x 1120 x 1270 mm 1235 x 1180 x 1450 mm
laboratory oven, 780 litre capacity (approx.)
380 V, 50 Hz, 3 ph
10-D1398/Z Number of shelves 3 3 3
As above but 220 V, 60 Hz, 3 ph Weight (approx.) 130 kg 157 kg 200 kg

Accessories and spares


10-D1396/1
Spare grid shelves for 10-D1396
10-D1397/1
Spare grid shelves for 10-D1397
10-D1398/1
Spare grid shelves for 10-D1398

4
DRYING, WEIGHING and GRADING | DRYING SAMPLES 10

General purpose drying ovens


m a i n f e at u r e s
> Digital thermo-regulator / indicator
> Forced convection (250 and 400 litre capacity models)
and natural convection (100 litre capacity model)
> Complete with safety thermostat to avoid over-heating
> Supplied with two extractable grid shelves
> Ideal for site laboratories

10-D1390/10 10-D1390/25 10-D1390/40 Accessories and spares


Natural convection oven, 100 litre capacity, Forced convection oven, 250 litre capacity, Forced convection oven, 400 litre capacity, 10-D1390/T10
digital thermo-regulator / indicator 230 V, digital thermo-regulator / indicator 230 V, digital thermo-regulator / indicator 230 V,
Spare grid shelf for 10-D1390/10
50-60 Hz, 1 ph 50-60 Hz, 1 ph 50-60 Hz, 1 ph
10-D1390/10Z 10-D1390/25Z 10-D1390/40Z 10-D1390/T25
As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph As above but 110 V , 60 Hz, 1 ph Spare grid shelf for 10-D1390/25
10-D1390/T40
Models 10- D1390/10 D1390/25 D1390/40 Spare grid shelf for 10-D1390/40
D1390/10Z D1390/25Z D1390/40Z
Nominal capacity 100 litres 250 litres 400 litres
Max. temperature 200 C 200 C 200 C
Air convection Natural Forced Forced
Rated power 1300 W 2000 W 3000 W
Internal dimensions (w x d x h) 440 x 460 x 498 mm 554 x 680 x 663 mm 604 x 790 x 849 mm
External dimensions (w x d x h) 673 x 605 x 765 mm 787 x 908 x 930 mm 1115 x 1018 x 837 mm
(approx.)
Number of shelves 2 2 2
Weight (approx.) 47 kg 52 kg 104 kg

Hot plates
Digital hot plates Technical specifications General utility hot plates Technical specifications
Designed to meet routine heat- Temperature range: ambient to 350 C Used in laboratories for a wide va- Plate diameter: 160 mm
ing requirements of laboratories, Accuracy: 5 C riety of applications, there are two Heating power: 1000 W
this hot plate has a digital tem- Heating area: 300x 400 mm versions of this hot plate available: Overall dimensions:
perature controller and an alu- Heating power: 2000 W 10-D1402 with temperature con- 260 x 260 x 135 mm
minium heating surface. Overall dimensions: trol via a multi-position switch, Weight: 3 kg (approx)
400 x 300 x 150 mm and 10-D1402/A with a bi-metal-
10-D1401/E Weight: 18 kg (approx) lic thermostat. 10-D1402
Digital hot plate, 300 x 400 mm, alumi- Hot plate, 160 mm diameter, multi-
nium alloy/stainless steel plate 230 V, position switch 230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph
50-60 Hz, 1 ph 10-D1402/Z
As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
10-D1402/A
Hot plate, 160 mm diameter, bi-metallic
thermostat 230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph

10-D1401/E 10-D1402, 10-D1402/A

5
10 DRYING, WEIGHING and GRADING | DRYING SAMPLES

Muffle furnaces | Air drier | Microwave oven


Air drier Muffle furnaces
Used to dry small quantities of soil This range of muffle furnaces cov-
and aggregate particles. ers practically all requirements of
Weight: 1.5 kg (approx.) the construction material labo-
ratory, from aggregates to con-
10-D1425 crete/cement and asphalt testing.
Warm-air drier 1000 W, 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph Model 10-D1418/AP is supplied
complete with a programmer for
setting the temperature ramp.

10-D1418
Muffle furnace, 1100 C max temperature
230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph
10-D1418/A
Muffle furnace, 1200 C max temperature
230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph
10-D1418/AZ
As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
10-D1418/AP
Muffle furnace, 1200 C max tempera-
ture, complete with temperature ramp
programmer 230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph
10-D1419
Muffle furnace, 1100 C max temperature,
high capacity, floor mounted model
220-380 V, 50-60 Hz, 3 ph 10-D1419

Models 10- D1418 D1418/A D1418/AP D1419


D1418/AZ
Microwave oven
Max. temp., C 1100 1200 1200 1100
10-D1424 Accuracy, C 4 4 4 4
Microwave oven, 28 litre capacity, Rated power, W 3900 4200 4200 9000
900 W, 230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph Internal dimensions, mm 210 x 320 x 145 210 x 280 x 145 210 x 280 x 145 300 x 220 x 500
External dimensions, mm 510 x 750 x 660 510 x 650 x 650 510 x 650 x 650 750 x 1650 x 1100

Weight, kg (appr.) 89 70 70 400


Reference standards EN 12697-1 EN 196-2 EN 196-2 EN 1367-5
EN 13108 EN 196-1 EN 196-1
EN 459-2 EN 459-2

10-D1418/A, 10-D1418
10-D1418/AP

6
DRYING, WEIGHING and GRADING | DRYING SAMPLES 10

Climatic chambers
Standards Two versions of this advanced climatic chamber are offered:
EN 1367-1 | EN 12390-2 | EN 196-1
10-D1429 - temperature controlled from -25 to +70 C, for testing aggregates in conform-
ance with EN 1367-1 as well as other similar tests on concrete and other construction
materials, and
10-D1429/A - temperature and humidity controlled from -25 to +70 C and 10 to 95% re-
spectively, for aggregates and various other applications such as concrete and cement
specimen curing (EN 12390-2, EN 196-1).
Both models can be upgraded with an internal data recording facility, data output port and dedicated PC softwa-
re See accessory 10-D1429/REC
For the determination of resistance to freezing and thawing of aggregates, the accessory 48-D0457 should be
used See accessories

main features

> Advanced controller with cycle programmer for 50 programs and


1000 segments
> Temperature sensor can be positioned anywhere inside the cabinet or
inside the sample, in conformance with requirements of the Standards
> High accuracy: 1C, 5% RH (RH with 10-D1429/A model only)
> A multipurpose climatic chamber suitable for testing applications in
aggregates, cement, concrete, bricks, blocks, asphalt and other construction
materials
> Optional internal data recording facility, data output port and dedicated PC
software

Technical specifications 10-D1429/A


Capacity: 520 litres Temperature and humidity controlled
Function controller: cycle programmer cabinet, 520 litre capacity, temperature
for 50 programs and 1000 segments range -25 to +70 C, humidity range from
Temperature range / accuracy: 10 to 95% 230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph
Cabinet Control console -25 to +70 C / 1 C 10-D1429/AZ
Constructed from monobloc The front panel includes a large Humidity range / accuracy As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
stainless steel, the cabinet has digital display with switches and (model 10-D1429/A only):
from 10 to 95% / 5%
four shelves supported on stain- alarm LEDs. A multifunction con- Accessories
less steel guides capable of hold- trol unit simultaneously displays Rated power: Cooling system 1000 W,
ing heavy specimens. the set points and absolute out-
Heating system 1500 W 10-D1429/REC
Internal air circulation: 450 m3/hr Upgrade of the cabinet controller with
put values.
Shelf loading capacity: 60 kg each internal data recording facility, data output
Thermostatic unit Internal dimensions: port and dedicated PC software
The CFC free cooling system is de- Temperature sensor 600 x 670 x 1300 mm (w x d x h) Note: This upgrade must be factory
signed to condition the air circu- The PT100 sensor can be moved External dimensions: installed
lating in the cabinet. The cooling within the cabinet area and can 720 x 800 x 2020 mm (w x d x h) 48-D0457
circuit is made entirely of copper also be located inside the test Weight: 180 kg (approx) Metal can, 2000 ml capacity with
and comprises a dewater/receiv- sample, in conformance with spe- removable lid and 1 kg ballast Conforming
er filter, spy glass to verify the cific standard requirements. 10-D1429 to EN 1367-1 Used for determining the
passage of Freon, high pressure resistance to freezing and thawing of
Temperature controlled cabinet, 520 litre
manostat and inlet connectors. Humidity sensor aggregates including lightweight types
capacity, temperature range
The heating element consists of a Allows measurement of humidity -25 to +70 C 230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph Weight: 25 kg (approx)
finned stainless steel tube with a up to RH 100%. 10-D1429/Z
limiting thermostat. As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph

7
11 DRYING, WEIGHING and GRADING | WEIGHING SAMPLES

Balances
Balances are a general purpose laboratory apparatus used either for soil, aggregates, cement, concrete or asphalt testing.
CONTROLS supply a wide range of electronic models suitable for different applications ranging from large central laboratories and
on-site laboratories, to educational facilities. The battery operated models are particularly suitable for use in the field (battery pack
can be provided on request). We also offer a range of accessories and calibration weights for periodically checking the balances.

How to select balances


Where specifications for a balance are Very often a single specification re- its size (UNI 8520 Part 5, BS 812:Part 1,
not stated by the relevant Standard, the quires that the balance has a readabil- BS 598 etc.). The different standards
tables below may be used to select an ity and tolerance of 0.1% of the speci- give practically the same recommen-
appropriate balance that conforms to men mass to be measured and this can dations so we have included this infor-
the general specifications given in the also be used as a choice criteria. mation in a separate table.
ASTM D4753-95, BS 1377:Part 1 and EN Other Standards covering aggregates
932-5. and granular materials in general give
information about the quantity of ag-
gregate to be tested depending upon

Selection guide for weighing in conformance with Minimum mass of sample for sieve
ASTM, BS and EN standards analysis1
Minimum Standards Resolution Minimum Nominal size Minimum mass
sample weight, g (scale interval accuracy of material, mm of sample, kg
or decimal), g (tolerance), g

20 to 200 ASTM C114 00002 00002 63 50


(Cement testing)
50 35
200 ASTM D4753 (GP2) 01 02
BS1377:1 0001 0005 40 15
EN 932-5 0001 0005
28 5
1200 ASTM D4753 (GP2) 01 02
BS1377:1 001 005 20 2
EN 932-5 001 005
14 1
2000 ASTM D4753 (GP5) 1 2
BS1377:1 01 03 10 05
EN 932-5 01 03
6 02
5000 ASTM D4753 (GP10) 5 5
BS1377:1 05 1 5 02
EN 932-5 05 1
3 02
10000 ASTM D4753 (GP10) 5 5
BS1377:1 1 3 <3 01
EN 932-5 1 3
25000 ASTM D4753 (GP10) 5 5 1
BS 812:1
BS1377:1 5 10
EN 932-5 5 10
50000 ASTM D4753 (GP10) 50 50
BS1377:1 10 20
EN 932-5 10 30

8
DRYING, WEIGHING and GRADING | WEIGHING SAMPLES 11

Top loading electronic balances


Standards EN 932-5 | ASTM D4753

Specifications and ordering information

Models 11- Capacity, Resolution Pan dimensions Calibration Power adapter, V Weight, kg m a i n f e at u r e s
g g mm (approx.) > Mains and rechargeable battery
operated (battery pack not
D0630/04 420 0001 80 diameter DKD 230 25 included)
D0630/04Z 420 0001 80 diameter DKD 110 25 > Under balance weighing facility
D0630/06 600 001 130 diameter Traceable 230/110 15 (except for the 150 kg model)
D0630/4 4200 001 150 diameter DKD 230 23 > RS232 serial port
D0630/4Z 4200 001 150 diameter DKD 110 23 > Supplied complete with traceable
D0630/6 6000 01 140 x 150 Traceable 230/110 3 or DKD (DeutscherKalibrierdienst,
D0630/10 10000 01 150 x 170 DKD 230 11 the German Accreditation Authori-
D0630/10Z 10000 01 150 x 170 DKD 110 11 ty calibration certificate
D0630/15 15000 02 225 x 300 Traceable 230/110 51
D0630/16 16000 01 210 x 230 Traceable 230 72
D0630/16Z 16000 01 210 x 230 Traceable 110 72
D0630/24 24100 01 160 x 200 DKD 230 4
D0630/24Z 24000 01 160 x 200 DKD 110 27
D0630/30 30000 05 225 x 300 Traceable 230/110 51
D0630/30A 30000 1 340 x 240 DKD 230 65
D0630/30AZ 30000 1 340 x 240 DKD 110 65
D0630/60 65000 1 340 x 240 DKD 230 65
D0630/60Z 65000 1 340 x 240 DKD 110 65
D0632/30 4500 01
210 x 230 Traceable 230 72
Dual range 32000 1
D0632/30Z 4500 01 11-D0630/04
210 x 230 Traceable 110 72
Dual range 32000 1
D0632/150 60000 2
318 x 308 DKD 230 4
Dual range 150000 5
D0632/150Z 60000 2
318 x 308 DKD 110 4
Dual range 150000 5

11-D0630/24

11-D0630/30A 11-D0630/6, /15, /30 11-D0630/06

11-D0630/150 11-D0630/10 11-D0630/16

9
11 DRYING, WEIGHING and GRADING | WEIGHING SAMPLES

Analytical and moisture determination balances | Standard calibration weights


Analytical balance Specific gravity 11-D0612/B 11-D0703/C
determination
This balance is particularly suit- Specific gravity frame 500 g calibration weight, M1 Class,
able for testing the heat of hydra- Standards 25 mg tolerance
tion of cement, where a high ac- EN 12697, EN 12390-7, EN 1097-6 | 11-D0704/C
curacy is requested. Note
ASTM C127, ASTM C128 | AASHTO T84 | For more details and information see page 204 1 kg calibration weight, M1 Class, 50 mg
BS 812:2, BS 1881:14 tolerance
11-D0705/C
2 kg calibration weight, M1 Class,
100 mg tolerance
11-D0706/C
5 kg calibration weight, M1 Class,
250 mg tolerance
11-D0707/C
10 kg calibration weight, M1 Class,
500 mg tolerance
calibration certificate
11-D0708/C
20 kg cast iron calibration weight, M1
11-D0613/B class, 1 g tolerance
Electronic analytical balance, 11-D0612/B
210 g capacity, 01 mg resolution with balance and
110-230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph accessories

Technical specifications
Capacity: 210 g
Resolution: 01 mg
Accuracy: 03 mg
Tare range: by subtraction up to full
capacity Moisture determination
Display: seven-character LCD balance
Data interface: bi-directional RS 232 11-D0700/C - D0707/C
This model automatically and si-
Pan diameter: 80 mm Standard calibration
multaneously dries and weighs weights M1 Class,
Dimensions: 215 x 345 x 345 mm
solid samples for the determina- 50 g to 20kg Accessories
(w x d x h)
tion of moisture content. With a
Weight: 59 kg (approx) Used for periodic checking of 11-D0708
built-in timer, the balance pro-
vides a continuous direct readout balances. The standard weights Wooden box for single weights up to 500 g
for both weight and percentage 11-D0700/C to 11-D0707/C are
11-D0708/1
moisture loss throughout the en- supplied complete with a manu-
facturers certificate of conform- Wooden box for 1 kg weight
tire cycle.
ity. Calibrated models, with AC- 11-D0708/2
CREDIA certificate also available Wooden box for 2 kg weight
19-D0602/B and are identified adding suffix 1 11-D0708/3
Moisture determination balance, to the code. Ex.: 11-D0700/C1.
160 g capacity, 1 mg resolution Wooden box for 5 kg weight
230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph 11-D0708/4
11-D0700/C Wooden box for 10 kg weight
Specifications
50 g calibration weight, M1 Class, 3 mg
Capacity: 160 g tolerance Set of weights 1mg to 50 g
Resolution: 1 mg 11-D0701/C 11-D0709/C
Timer: 0-99 minutes
19-D0602/B 100 g calibration weight, M1 Class, 5 mg Set of weights, 1 mg to 50 g, 20 pieces
Dimensions: tolerance in total
194 x 340 x 235 mm (w x d x h)
Weight: 115 kg (approx) 11-D0702/C
200 g calibration weight, M1 Class,
10 mg tolerance

10
DRYING, WEIGHING and GRADING | SAMPLE GRADING 15

Testing Sieves
We propose a complete range of full depth testing sieves with 200 mm, 8, 250 mm, 300 mm, 12, 315 mm and
450 mm dia., with woven wire cloth and perforated plate conforming to the different Standards. On request we
can also supply models with round holes perforated plate from 1 to 100 mm dia.
All frames except the 450 mm dia., and wire cloth sieves are manufactured from stainless steel. Perforated plates
are made from tinned steel. Sieves having the same nominal diameter are designed to nest one in each other.
Using 200 mm (8) sieves it is possible to test up to 1000 g of aggregates and 3000 g with 300 mm (12) dia.

Standards

European American Traceable certificate


of calibration
Conforming to the new European EN The sieves are conforming to the fol-
Standards all sieves for the construc- lowing Standards: All sieves can be supplied, on request,
tion industry are specified by the fol- with traceable certificate of calibration.
lowing Standards: In that case just add to the code number
ASTM E11
the suffix C. Example: for an ISO 3310-1
Wire-cloth sieves for testing purposes
EN 933-2 test sieve, 200 mm dia. 1 mm opening,
Test for geometrical properties of aggregates Note. The sieve specifications are clearly marked on the code becomes 15-D2215/JC.
Determination of particle size distribution the label comprising the serial number and other
Test sieves, nominal size of apertures information for the identification and traceability
of the product as requested by the international
ISO 3310-1 specifications
Test sieves of woven wire cloth
ISO 3310-2
Test sieves of perforated metal plate
ISO 565
Nominal size of openings for woven wire and
perforated plate sieves

The most common national Standards


including BS 410, NF X11-504, DIN 4187-
1, UNI 2331 - 2333, UNE 7050 are prac-
tically identical to the ISO 3310-1 and
2, except for some missing openings
which have been included in the list
for those users who prefer to complete
or substitute existing old sets. The new
European Standards also specify that:
Sieves with aperture size of 4
mm and above shall be per-
forated plate square hole
test sieves. Below that
size they shall be woven
wire test sieves.

11
15 DRYING, WEIGHING and GRADING | SAMPLE GRADING

ISO 3310-1* Test sieves of woven cloth


Code Code Code Code Code
Nominal aperture 200 mm dia. 250 mm dia. 300 mm dia. 315 mm dia. 450 mm dia.
20 m 15-D2365/J 15-D2365/F 15-D3365/J 15-D3365/F 15-D4365/J
38 m 15-D2360/J 15-D2360/F 15-D3360/J 15-D3360/F 15-D4360/J
40 m 15-D2355/J 15-D2355/F 15-D3355/J 15-D3355/F 15-D4355/J
45 m 15-D2350/J 15-D2350/F 15-D3350/J 15-D3350/F 15-D4350/J
50 m 15-D2345/J 15-D2345/F 15-D3345/J 15-D3345/F 15-D4345/J
53 m 15-D2340/J 15-D2340/F 15-D3340/J 15-D3340/F 15-D4340/J
63 m 15-D2335/J 15-D2335/F 15-D3335/J 15-D3335/F 15-D4335/J
75 m 15-D2330/J 15-D2330/F 15-D3330/J 15-D3330/F 15-D4330/J
80 m 15-D2325/J 15-D2325/F 15-D3325/J 15-D3325/F 15-D4325/J
90 m 15-D2320/J 15-D2320/F 15-D3320/J 15-D3320/F 15-D4320/J
100 m 15-D2315/J 15-D2315/F 15-D3315/J 15-D3315/F 15-D4315/J
106 m 15-D2310/J 15-D2310/F 15-D3310/J 15-D3310/F 15-D4310/J
125 m 15-D2305/J 15-D2305/F 15-D3305/J 15-D3305/F 15-D4305/J
150 m 15-D2300/J 15-D2300/F 15-D3300/J 15-D3300/F 15-D4300/J
160 m 15-D2295/J 15-D2295/F 15-D3295/J 15-D3295/F 15-D4295/J
180 m 15-D2290/J 15-D2290/F 15-D3290/J 15-D3290/F 15-D4290/J
200 m 15-D2285/J 15-D2285/F 15-D3285/J 15-D3285/F 15-D4285/J
212 m 15-D2280/J 15-D2280/F 15-D3280/J 15-D3280/F 15-D4280/J
250 m 15-D2275/J 15-D2275/F 15-D3275/J 15-D3275/F 15-D4275/J
300 m 15-D2270/J 15-D2270/F 15-D3270/J 15-D3270/F 15-D4270/J
315 m 15-D2265/J 15-D2265/F 15-D3265/J 15-D3265/F 15-D4265/J
355 m 15-D2260/J 15-D2260/F 15-D3260/J 15-D3260/F 15-D4260/J
400 m 15-D2255/J 15-D2255/F 15-D3255/J 15-D3255/F 15-D4255/J
425 m 15-D2250/J 15-D2250/F 15-D3250/J 15-D3250/F 15-D4250/J
500 m 15-D2245/J 15-D2245/F 15-D3245/J 15-D3245/F 15-D4245/J
600 m 15-D2240/J 15-D2240/F 15-D3240/J 15-D3240/F 15-D4240/J
630 m 15-D2235/J 15-D2235/F 15-D3235/J 15-D3235/F 15-D4235/J
710 m 15-D2230/J 15-D2230/F 15-D3230/J 15-D3230/F 15-D4230/J
800 m 15-D2225/J 15-D2225/F 15-D3225/J 15-D3225/F 15-D4225/J
850 m 15-D2220/J 15-D2220/F 15-D3220/J 15-D3220/F 15-D4220/J
1 mm 15-D2215/J 15-D2215/F 15-D3215/J 15-D3215/F 15-D4215/J
1.18 mm 15-D2210/J 15-D2210/F 15-D3210/J 15-D3210/F 15-D4210/J
1.25 mm 15-D2205/J 15-D2205/F 15-D3205/J 15-D3205/F 15-D4205/J
1.4 mm 15-D2200/J 15-D2200/F 15-D3200/J 15-D3200/F 15-D4200/J
1.6 mm 15-D2195/J 15-D2195/F 15-D3195/J 15-D3195/F 15-D4195/J
1.7 mm 15-D2190/J 15-D2190/F 15-D3190/J 15-D3190/F 15-D4190/J
2 mm 15-D2185/J 15-D2185/F 15-D3185/J 15-D3185/F 15-D4185/J
2.36 mm 15-D2180/J 15-D2180/F 15-D3180/J 15-D3180/F 15-D4180/J
2.5 mm 15-D2175/J 15-D2175/F 15-D3175/J 15-D3175/F 15-D4175/J
2.8 mm 15-D2170/J 15-D2170/F 15-D3170/J 15-D3170/F 15-D4170/J
3.15 mm 15-D2165/J 15-D2165/F 15-D3165/J 15-D3165/F 15-D4165/J
3.35 mm 15-D2160/J 15-D2160/F 15-D3160/J 15-D3160/F 15-D4160/J
4 mm 15-D2155/J 15-D2155/F 15-D3155/J 15-D3155/F 15-D4155/J
4.75 mm 15-D2150/J 15-D2150/F 15-D3150/J 15-D3150/F 15-D4150/J
5 mm 15-D2145/J 15-D2145/F 15-D3145/J 15-D3145/F 15-D4145/J
5.6 mm 15-D2140/J 15-D2140/F 15-D3140/J 15-D3140/F 15-D4140/J
6.3 mm 15-D2135/J 15-D2135/F 15-D3135/J 15-D3135/F 15-D4135/J
6.7 mm 15-D2130/J 15-D2130/F 15-D3130/J 15-D3130/F 15-D4130/J
7.1 mm 15-D2128/J 15-D2128/F 15-D2128/J 15-D2128/F 15-D2128/J
8 mm 15-D2125/J 15-D2125/F 15-D3125/J 15-D3125/F 15-D4125/J
9.5 mm 15-D2120/J 15-D2120/F 15-D3120/J 15-D3120/F 15-D4120/J
10 mm 15-D2115/J 15-D2115/F 15-D3115/J 15-D3115/F 15-D4115/J
11.2 mm 15-D2110/J 15-D2110/F 15-D3110/J 15-D3110/F 15-D4110/J
12.5 mm 15-D2105/J 15-D2105/F 15-D3105/J 15-D3105/F 15-D4105/J
13.2 mm 15-D2100/J 15-D2100/F 15-D3100/J 15-D3100/F 15-D4100/J
14 mm* 15-D2096/J 15-D2096/F 15-D3096/J 15-D3096/F 15-D4096/J
16 mm 15-D2095/J 15-D2095/F 15-D3095/J 15-D3095/F 15-D4095/J
18 mm* 15-D2091/J 15-D2091/F 15-D3091/J 15-D3091/F 15-D4091/J
19 mm 15-D2090/J 15-D2090/F 15-D3090/J 15-D3090/F 15-D4090/J
20 mm 15-D2085/J 15-D2085/F 15-D3085/J 15-D3085/F 15-D4085/J
22.4 mm 15-D2080/J 15-D2080/F 15-D3080/J 15-D3080/F 15-D4080/J
25 mm 15-D2075/J 15-D2075/F 15-D3075/J 15-D3075/F 15-D4075/J
26.5 mm 15-D2070/J 15-D2070/F 15-D3070/J 15-D3070/F 15-D4070/J
31.5 mm 15-D2065/J 15-D2065/F 15-D3065/J 15-D3065/F 15-D4065/J
37.5 mm 15-D2060/J 15-D2060/F 15-D3060/J 15-D3060/F 15-D4060/J
40 mm 15-D2055/J 15-D2055/F 15-D3055/J 15-D3055/F 15-D4055/J
45 mm 15-D2050/J 15-D2050/F 15-D3050/J 15-D3050/F 15-D4050/J
50 mm 15-D2045/J 15-D2045/F 15-D3045/J 15-D3045/F 15-D4045/J
53 mm 15-D2040/J 15-D2040/F 15-D3040/J 15-D3040/F 15-D4040/J
56 mm 15-D2035/J 15-D2035/F 15-D3035/J 15-D3035/F 15-D4035/J
63 mm 15-D2030/J 15-D2030/F 15-D3030/J 15-D3030/F 15-D4030/J
75 mm 15-D2025/J 15-D2025/F 15-D3025/J 15-D3025/F 15-D4025/J
80 mm 15-D2020/J 15-D2020/F 15-D3020/J 15-D3020/F 15-D4020/J
90 mm 15-D2015/J 15-D2015/F 15-D3015/J 15-D3015/F 15-D4015/J
100 mm 15-D2010/J 15-D2010/F 15-D3010/J 15-D3010/F 15-D4010/J
125 mm 15-D2005/J 15-D2005/F 15-D3005/J 15-D3005/F 15-D4005/J

Pan and cover 15-D2004/J 15-D2004/F 15-D3004/J 15-D3004/F 15-D4004/J


Pan only 15-D2003/J 15-D2003/F 15-D3003/J 15-D3003/F 15-D4003/J
Cover only 15-D2002/J 15-D2002/F 15-D3002/J 15-D3002/F 15-D4002/J
Frame only 15-D2001/J 15-D2001/F 15-D3001/J 15-D3001/F 15-D4001/J
Receiver/Separator 15-D2000/J 15-D2000/F 15-D3000/J 15-D3000/F 15-D4000/J
* Apertures conforming also to BS, NF, DIN, UNE, UNI Standards See introduction

12
DRYING, WEIGHING and GRADING | SAMPLE GRADING 15
ISO 3310-2* Test sieves of perforated metal plate
Code Code Code Code Code
Nominal aperture 200 mm dia. 250 mm dia. 300 mm dia. 315 mm dia. 450 mm dia.
4 mm 15-D2550/J 15-D2550/F 15-D3550/J 15-D3550/F 15-D4550/J
4.75 mm 15-D2545/J 15-D2545/F 15-D3545/J 15-D3545/F 15-D4545/J
5 mm 15-D2540/J 15-D2540/F 15-D3540/J 15-D3540/F 15-D4540/J
5.6 mm 15-D2535/J 15-D2535/F 15-D3535/J 15-D3535/F 15-D4535/J
6.3 mm 15-D2530/J 15-D2530/F 15-D3530/J 15-D3530/F 15-D4530/J
6.7 mm 15-D2525/J 15-D2525/F 15-D3525/J 15-D3525/F 15-D4525/J
7.1 mm 15-D2520/J 15-D2520/F 15-D3520/J 15-D3520/F 15-D4520/J
8 mm 15-D2515/J 15-D2515/F 15-D3515/J 15-D3515/F 15-D4515/J
9 mm 15-D2514/J 15-D2514/F 15-D3514/J 15-D3514/F 15-D4514/J
9.5 mm 15-D2510/J 15-D2510/F 15-D3510/J 15-D3510/F 15-D4510/J
10 mm 15-D2505/J 15-D2505/F 15-D3505/J 15-D3505/F 15-D4505/J
11.2 mm 15-D2500/J 15-D2500/F 15-D3500/J 15-D3500/F 15-D4500/J
12.5 mm 15-D2495/J 15-D2495/F 15-D3495/J 15-D3495/F 15-D4495/J
13.2 mm 15-D2490/J 15-D2490/F 15-D3490/J 15-D3490/F 15-D4490/J
14 mm 15-D2485/J 15-D2485/F 15-D3485/J 15-D3485/F 15-D4485/J
16 mm 15-D2480/J 15-D2480/F 15-D3480/J 15-D3480/F 15-D4480/J
18 mm* 15-D2479/J 15-D2479/F 15-D3479/J 15-D3479/F 15-D4479/J
19 mm 15-D2475/J 15-D2475/F 15-D3475/J 15-D3475/F 15-D4475/J
20 mm 15-D2470/J 15-D2470/F 15-D3470/J 15-D3470/F 15-D4470/J
22.4 mm 15-D2465/J 15-D2465/F 15-D3465/J 15-D3465/F 15-D4465/J
25 mm 15-D2460/J 15-D2460/F 15-D3460/J 15-D3460/F 15-D4460/J
26.5 mm 15-D2455/J 15-D2455/F 15-D3455/J 15-D3455/F 15-D4455/J
28 mm 15-D2450/J 15-D2450/F 15-D3450/J 15-D3450/F 15-D4450/J
31.5 mm 15-D2445/J 15-D2445/F 15-D3445/J 15-D3445/F 15-D4445/J
37.5 mm 15-D2440/J 15-D2440/F 15-D3440/J 15-D3440/F 15-D4440/J
40 mm 15-D2442/J 15-D2442/F 15-D3442/J 15-D3442/F 15-D4442/J
45 mm 15-D2435/J 15-D2435/F 15-D3435/J 15-D3435/F 15-D4435/J
50 mm 15-D2430/J 15-D2430/F 15-D3430/J 15-D3430/F 15-D4430/J
53 mm 15-D2425/J 15-D2425/F 15-D3425/J 15-D3425/F 15-D4425/J
56 mm 15-D2426/J 15-D2426/F 15-D3426/J 15-D3426/F 15-D4426/J
63 mm 15-D2420/J 15-D2420/F 15-D3420/J 15-D3420/F 15-D4420/J
75 mm 15-D2415/J 15-D2415/F 15-D3415/J 15-D3415/F 15-D4415/J
80 mm 15-D2416/J 15-D2416/F 15-D3416/J 15-D3416/F 15-D4416/J
90 mm 15-D2410/J 15-D2410/F 15-D3410/J 15-D3410/F 15-D4410/J
100 mm 15-D2402/J 15-D2402/F 15-D3402/J 15-D3402/F 15-D4402/J
106 mm 15-D2405/J 15-D2405/F 15-D3405/J 15-D3405/F 15-D4405/J
125 mm 15-D2400/J 15-D2400/F 15-D3400/J 15-D3400/F 15-D4400/J

Pan and cover 15-D2004/J 15-D2004/F 15-D3004/J 15-D3004/F 15-D4004/J


Pan only 15-D2003/J 15-D2003/F 15-D3003/J 15-D3003/F 15-D4003/J
Cover only 15-D2002/J 15-D2002/F 15-D3002/J 15-D3002/F 15-D4002/J
Frame only 15-D2001/J 15-D2001/F 15-D3001/J 15-D3001/F 15-D4001/J
Receiver/Separator 15-D2000/J 15-D2000/F 15-D3000/J 15-D3000/F 15-D4000/J
* Apertures conforming also to BS and DIN Standards See introduction

The new European Standards also specify


that: Sieves with aperture size of 4 mm and
above shall be perforated plate square hole
test sieves. Below that size they shall be wo-
ven wire test sieves.

main features
> Each sieve is supplied complete
with certificate of conformity

Test sieves of perforated metal plate

13
15 DRYING, WEIGHING and GRADING | SAMPLE GRADING

ASTM E11 US Sieve series


Woven wire cloth sieves (coarse) Woven wire cloth sieves (fine)

Aperture Code Code Aperture Code Code


mm/in. 8 dia. 12 dia. mm/in. 8 dia. 12 dia.
100 mm 4 in 15-D0100/2J 15-D0100/3J 335 mm No 6 15-D0124/2J 15-D0124/3J
90 mm 3 in 15-D0101/2J 15-D0101/3J 28 mm No 7 15-D0125/2J 15-D0125/3J
75 mm 3 in 15-D0102/2J 15-D0102/3J 236 mm No 8 15-D0126/2J 15-D0126/3J
63 mm 2 in 15-D0103/2J 15-D0103/3J 2 mm No 10 15-D0127/2J 15-D0127/3J
53 mm 212 in 15-D0104/2J 15-D0104/3J 17 mm No 12 15-D0128/2J 15-D0128/3J
50 mm 2 in 15-D0105/2J 15-D0105/3J 14 mm No 14 15-D0129/2J 15-D0129/3J
45 mm 1 in 15-D0106/2J 15-D0106/3J 118 mm No 16 15-D0130/2J 15-D0130/3J
375 mm 1 in 15-D0107/2J 15-D0107/3J 1 mm No 18 15-D0131/2J 15-D0131/3J
315 mm 1 in 15-D0108/2J 15-D0108/3J 850 m No 20 15-D0132/2J 15-D0132/3J
265 mm 106 in 15-D0109/2J 15-D0109/3J 710 m No 25 15-D0133/2J 15-D0133/3J
250 mm 1 in 15-D0110/2J 15-D0110/3J 600 m No 30 15-D0134/2J 15-D0134/3J
224 mm 7/8 in 15-D0111/2J 15-D0111/3J 500 m No 35 15-D0135/2J 15-D0135/3J
190 mm 3/4 in 15-D0112/2J 15-D0112/3J 425 m No 40 15-D0136/2J 15-D0136/3J
160 mm 5/8 in 15-D0113/2J 15-D0113/3J 355 m No 45 15-D0137/2J 15-D0137/3J
132 mm 530 in 15-D0114/2J 15-D0114/3J 300 m No 50 15-D0138/2J 15-D0138/3J
125 mm in 15-D0115/2J 15-D0115/3J 250 m No 60 15-D0139/2J 15-D0139/3J
112 mm 7/16 in 15-D0116/2J 15-D0116/3J 212 m No 70 15-D0140/2J 15-D0140/3J
95 mm 3/8 in 15-D0117/2J 15-D0117/3J 180 m No 80 15-D0141/2J 15-D0141/3J
80 mm 5/16 in 15-D0118/2J 15-D0118/3J 150 m No 100 15-D0142/2J 15-D0142/3J
67 mm 265 in 15-D0119/2J 15-D0119/3J 125 m No 120 15-D0143/2J 15-D0143/3J
63 mm 1/4 in 15-D0120/2J 15-D0120/3J 106 m No 140 15-D0144/2J 15-D0144/3J
56 mm No 3 15-D0121/2J 15-D0121/3J 90 m No 170 15-D0145/2J 15-D0145/3J
475 mm No 4 15-D0122/2J 15-D0122/3J 75 m No 200 15-D0146/2J 15-D0146/3J
400 mm No 5 15-D0123/2J 15-D0123/3J 63 m No 230 15-D0147/2J 15-D0147/3J
53 m No 270 15-D0148/2J 15-D0148/3J
45 m No 325 15-D0149/2J 15-D0149/3J
38 m No 400 15-D0150/2J 15-D0150/3J

Pan and cover 15-D0151/2J 15-D0151/3J


Pan only 15-D0152/2J 15-D0152/3J
Cover only 15-D0153/2J 15-D0153/3J
Frame only 15-D0154/2J 15-D0154/3J
Receiver/Separator 15-D0155/2J 15-D0155/3J

14
DRYING, WEIGHING and GRADING | SAMPLE GRADING 15

Sieve shakers
Digital Air Jet sieve shaker
Standards EN 933-10

15-D0413
Digital Air Jet sieve shaker
230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph

This apparatus is ideal for dry


sample grading of powders, frag-
ile samples and material with par-
ticle sizes from 5 m to 4 mm that
cannot be wet sieved. The device
achieves highly effective sieving
thanks to the air flow which forces
fine particles to pass through the
sieve by producing a controlled
suction effect.
The Air Jet shaker is manufac- 15-D0413 with sieves
tured from anodized aluminium
with a polyurethane resin shell. Accessories
It has a digital control panel with
Air Jet test sieves, 200 mm diameter:
a timer and vacuum meter and
also features a suction regula- Nylon cloth mesh type Stainless steel mesh type
tion valve so that multiple tests
Model Mesh size Model Mesh size Model Mesh size
can be performed with the same 15-D0413/ 15-D0413/ 15-D0413/
time and suction conditions. The
005 5 m 030 30 m 160 160 m
shaker is supplied with a vacuum
unit capable of producing a nega- 010 10 m 037 37 m 180 180 m
tive pressure of up to -20 kPa. The 015 15 m 041 41 m 200 200 m
special airtight sieves are not in- 020 20 m 048 48 m 212 212 m
cluded and have to be ordered 025 25 m 050 50 m 224 224 m
separately (see accessories). 028 28 m 053 5 3 m 250 250 m
055 55 m 280 280 m
Technical specifications Spares 058 58 m 300 300 m
Sieving range: from 5 m to 4 mm 060 60 m 315 315 m
15-D0413/1
Product motion: airstream 063 63 m 355 355 m
Pack of 5 replacement bags for
Minimum pressure: -20 kPa vacuum unit 065 65 m 400 400 mm
Time display: 1-99 minutes 070 70 m 425 425 m
15-D0413/2
Sieve capacity: One 200 mm diameter 071 71 m 450 450 m
Reusable plastic bag for
Sieve (see accessories) vacuum unit 075 75 m 500 500 m
Power rating: 1200 W (approx) 080 80 m 560 560 m
Voltage*: 230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1ph 090 90 m 600 600 m
Total weight: 25 kg (approx) 100 100 m 630 630 m
*110 V, 60 Hz, available on request 106 106 m 710 710 m
112 112 m 800 800 m
125 125 m 850 850 m
140 140 m 900 900 m
150 150 m 1000 100 mm

15
15 DRYING, WEIGHING and GRADING | SAMPLE GRADING

Sieve shakers
Standards EN 932-5

Electro-mechanical main features


sieve shaker 15-D0410,
15-D0410/A series > Dual effect electro-mechanical
sieving
This new electro-mechanical
shaker combines efficient sieving > High sieve capacity
action with a simple but heavy > Accommodates sieves up to 315
duty design. mm (15-D0410) and 450 mm dia
The shaker must be secured to (15-D410/A)
the base cabinet using the four > Ergonomic and fast clamping
holes in the base. Alternatively, system
if floor-mounting the shaker, it > Timer function included
can be fitted with the Steel base
> Noise reduction cabinet available
plate for better stability. A Noise See accessories
reduction cabinet is also avail-
able for housing the shaker. See > Wet sieving attachments available
See accessories
accessories.
15-D0410 with sieves 15-D0410/A with sieves
Two versions of this shaker are
available:
15-D0410, for sieves up to 315 mm
diameter, and 15-D410/A, for
sieves up to 450 mm diameter.
D0410 D0410/A
Model 15- D0410/Y D0410/AY
Ordering information D0410/Z D0410/AZ
Max no of sieves / diameter, mm 12 / 200 - 203 10 / 200 - 203
15-D0410
10 / 300 - 315 8 / 300 - 315
Electro-mechanical sieve shaker for sieves 6 / 450
up to 315 mm diameter 230 V, 50 Hz, Power, W 200 200
1 ph
Timer scale, minutes 30 30 Detail of the fast clamping system
15-D0410/Y
Dimensions, mm (w x d x h) 660 x 500 x 1510 740 x 640 x 1510
As above but 220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
Weight, kg (approx) 60 70
15-D0410/Z
As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
15-D0410/A Accessories
Electro-mechanical sieve shaker for sieves 15-D0400/CB
up to 450 mm diameter 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph
Noise reduction cabinet for the 15-D0410
15-D0410/AY shaker Ideal for reducing noise in the la-
As above but 220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph boratory and essential for working within
15-D0410/AZ CE limits The cabinet is manufactured
As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph from sheet steel and lined internally with
soundproofing material Detail of the adjustable base for 200 to 450 mm
Overall dimensions: 870 x 672 x 1562 mm diameter sieves
(w x d x h)
Weight: 90 kg (approx)
15-D0410/1
Steel base plate for floor-mounting the
15-D0410 shaker

15-D0410 installed inside the Noise


reduction cabinet 15-D0400/CB
Easy ergonomic double access door and
foldable top cover

16
DRYING, WEIGHING and GRADING | SAMPLE GRADING 15

Electro-mechanical, main features


triple motion sieve shaker > Vertical two way jarring action
15-D0411 series
> Rotational action
This shaker features a unique
combination of jarring and rota- > Quick release clamps
tional action, providing superb > Robust and efficient sieving
sieving and grading perfor- motion
mance. It can be completed with > Timer included
the noise reduction cabinet and
wet sieving accessories. See ac-
cessories.

Technical specifications
Sieve capacity:
up to ten 200 - 203 mm (8) diame-
ter sieves plus pan and cover;
up to six 300 - 315 mm (12) diame- 15-D0411 15-D0407/B
ter sieves plus pan and cover
Maximum sample weight: from 1500
to 4500 g depending on the sieve size
Rotational action: 327 oscillations per Electro-magnetic sieve Accessories Wet sieving attachments
minute (approx) shaker 15-D0407/B series (for all sieve shakers)
Jarring action: 40 vertical blows per 15-D0400/CAB
minute 15-D0407/B Noise reduction cabinet for 15-D0407 and This set comprises a locking lid
Electromagnetic sieve shaker 15-D0411 shakers with a spray nozzle, a stainless
Power: 250 W
230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph Ideal for reducing noise in the laboratory steel base pan with a drainage
Dimensions: 540 x 372 x 1013 mm
(w x d x h) and essential for working within CE limits plate and spout, a location plate
15-D0407/BZ
The cabinet is manufactured from sheet and 10 watertight seals (O-rings).
Weight: 75 kg (approx) As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
steel and is lined internally with soundpro- Three models are available:
ofing material
Ordering information This unit has a vertical sieving mo- 15-D0400/A1
Overall dimensions:
tion provided by a very effective Wet sieving attachment for 200 mm
15-D0411 770 x 772 x 1415 mm (w x d x h)
electro-magnetic unit. diameter sieves Weight 25 kg (approx)
Electro-mechanical, triple motion sieve Weight: 60 kg (approx)
The shaker has a built-in timer, 15-D0400/A2
shaker 230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph
and can be used with the wet Wet sieving attachment for 203 mm (8)
15-D0411/Z sieving attachment for washing diameter sieves Weight 25 kg (approx)
As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph fine materials through the sieves
15-D0400/A3
without any loss of sample. The
noise reduction cabinet is recom- Wet sieving attachment for 300 mm
diameter sieves Weight 5 kg (approx)
mended for use in CE countries.
See accessories.
Technical specifications
Sieve capacity:
up to twelve 203 mm (8) diameter
sieves plus pan and cover;
up to eight 300 - 315 mm (12)
diameter sieves plus pan and cover
Power: 400 W (approx)
Dimensions: 496 x 406 x 946 mm
(w x d x h) 15-D0400
Weight: 30 kg (approx)

17
15 DRYING, WEIGHING and GRADING | SAMPLE GRADING

High capacity Shaker and Screen trays


Standards EN 932-5

High capacity screen shaker


15-D0420/A
High capacity mechanical screen shaker
230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph
15-D0420/AZ
As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph

The screen shaker has a capacity


of about 30 litres (1 ft) of sample
and is ideal for sizing large quanti-
ties of crushed stones, sand, grav-
el, slag, coal, coke, ores, pellets and
similar materials. Able to perform
between two and six separations
simultaneously, the vibrating unit
consists of interlocking sections,
which support and separate the
screen trays. An equal clearance
between trays allows each tray
to be removed independently.
The unit can hold six screen trays
(which are ordered separately
- see Screen trays) of 457 x 660x 15-D0420/A with trays 15-D0420/A fitted with15-D0420/A1 Dust cover
75 mm size, and one dustpan. For
m a i n f e at u r e s
a complete system adhering to
CE country regulations, use of the > Can separate up to 30 litres
soundproof safety cabinet is rec- (1ft) of aggregates (approx 65 kg)
ommended. See accessories. > Also suitable for sizing crushed
stones, slag, coal, coke, ores,
Technical specifications pellets etc
Power: 250/300 W (250 W at 220 V, 60 > Large selection of screen trays
Hz) available, ASTM and EN standards
Overall dimensions: 548 x 787 x 850 See Screen trays
mm (w x d x h)(approx)
Tray dimensions: 457 x 660 x 75 mm Accessories
Sample capacity: up to 30 litres (1ft)
Weight: 170 kg (approx) 15-D0420/A2
Soundproof safety cabinet, manufactured
from sheet steel and lined internally with
soundproofing material to reduce noise
and for protection from dust Complete 15-D0420/A installed inside cabinet
15-D0420/A2
with electrical safety device which
automatically stops the machine when the
door is opened The control panel of the
shaker is mounted inside the cabinet
Overall dimensions:
900 x 900 x 1250 mm (w x d x h)(approx)
Weight approx: 120 kg

15-D0420/A1
Dust cover
15-D0428/10
Tray only, without mesh Used as spacer Screen trays
between trays
15-D0428/09
Dustpan tray

18
DRYING, WEIGHING and GRADING | SAMPLE GRADING 15

Screen trays for use with ISO 3310-1 and 3310-2: woven wire
15-D0420/A Shaker stainless steel mesh and perforated steel
metal plate
Made from steel, the trays are available in
several versions: Tray dimensions:
ASTM E11, woven wire mesh: coarse, 457 x 660 x 75 mm (w x d x h)
intermediate, fine and fine with reinforced Weight: 65 kg (approx)
mesh, made from stainless steel;
Screen trays
conforming to ISO 3310-1
Screen trays conforming to ASTM E11 Woven wire mesh type
Woven wire mesh type 15-D0427 Series
15-D0425 Coarse series 15-D0427 Fine series
Model Mesh opening
Model Mesh opening Model Mesh opening 15-D0427/
15-D0425/ mm inches 15-D0427/ mm US std E02 80 m
01 1016 4 01 1190 No 16 E04 100 m
02 905 3 02 1000 No 18 E08 160 m
03 761 3 03 0841 No 20 E10 200 m
04 640 2 04 0707 No 25 E12 250 m
05 538 212 05 0595 No 30 E14 315 m
06 50.8 () 2 06 0500 No 35 E15 355 m
07 453 1 07 0420 No 40 E16 400 m
08 38.1 () 1 08 0354 No 45 E20 630 m
09 320 1 09 0297 No 50 E22 800 m
10 269 106 10 0250 No 60 E26 125 mm
11 25.4 () 1 11 0210 No 70 E28 160 mm
12 226 7/8 12 0177 No 80 E34 315 mm
13 19.0 () 3/4 13 0149 No 100
14 160 5/8 Screen trays
15 135 530 conforming to ISO 3310-2
15-D0428 Fine series with reinforced mesh
16 12.7 () 1/2 Perforated metal plate type
17 112 7/16 Model Mesh opening
15-D0428/ mm US std 15-D0425 Series
18 951 3/8
19 800 5/16 01 0125 No 120 Nominal
Model aperture
20 673 265 02 0105 No 140
15-D0425/
03 0088 No 170 mm
21 635 1/4
04 0074 No 200 E04 40
mm US Std
E05 56
22 566 No3
E08 71
23 476 No 4
E09 80
() Standard set recommended by ASTM E12 100
15-D0426 Intermediate series E13 112
E14 125
Model Mesh opening
15-D0426/ E16 140
mm US std
E17 160
01 400 No 5
E18 180
02 336 No 6
E19 200
03 283 No 7
E20 224
04 238 No 8
E24 315
05 200 No 10
E26 400
06 168 No 12
E28 500
07 141 No 14
E30 560
E31 630
E33 800

19
15 DRYING, WEIGHING and GRADING | SAMPLE GRADING

Wet washing sieves | Ultrasonic cleansing apparatus | Sieve brushes

Wet washing sieves Ultrasonic cleansing cleaning methods (using brushes


apparatus or knocking the frame). Complete
Standards ASTM E11
with timer, sieve rack and lid.
Used for wet sieving fine granu- 15-D0405 Two models are available:
lar materials, these sieves have a Ultrasonic cleansing apparatus for sieves 15-D0405, suitable for 200 and
stainless steel frame and woven up to 203 mm (8) diameter 230 V, 50- 203 mm (8) diameter sieves and
mesh base and are available in 60 Hz, 1 ph 15-D0405/B suitable for sieves up
200 mm and 203 mm (8) diame- 15-D0405/B to 315 mm diameter.
ter versions, 100 or 200 mm high, Ultrasonic cleansing apparatus for sieves
with75 or 63 m mesh size. up to 315 mm diameter 230 V, 50-60 Hz, Accessories
Weight: 05 kg (100 mm high versions), 1 ph
15-D0405/3
09 kg (200 mm high versions) (approx)
Used to thoroughly clean test Cleaning liquid, 5 litre can
100 mm high versions sieves without causing distortion,
this apparatus is particularly suit-
15-D0160 able for fine mesh sieves which
Wet washing sieve, 203 mm (8) diameter, could be damaged by ordinary
75 m opening
15-D0160/1
As above but 200 mm diameter
15-D0160/2
Wet washing sieve, 200 mm diameter,
63 m opening
200 mm high versions
15-D0160 /A
Wet washing sieve, 203 mm (8) diameter,
75 m opening
15-D0160/A1
As above but 200 mm diameter 15-D0405 15-D0405/B
15-D0160/A2
Wet washing sieve, 200 mm diameter, Models Power, W Internal tank dimensions Weight, kg
63 m opening 15- mm, (diameter x height) (approx.)
D0405 240 245x130 6
D0405/B 500 410x200 10

Sieve Brushes
86-D1672
Soft hair brush, 3 mm diameter (BS 812)
86-D1673/G
Brass sieve brush
86-D1673/G1
Double ended brass/nylon sieve
brush
86-D1675
Round bristle brush, 33 mm
diameter 86-D1685, 86-D1675, 86-D1672, 86-D1673/G1,
86-D1685/G
15-D0160/A, 15-D0160 86-D1685
Nylon sieve brush 33 mm diameter
86-D1685/G
Double ended nylon sieve brush

20
DRYING, WEIGHING AND GRADING | SAMPLE GRADING 15

Riffle boxes (sample splitters)


Standards EN 932-5 | EN 933-5 | ASTM C136 | ASTM C702 | AASHTO T27

Riffle boxes
Used to divide representative dry
samples into the required batch
sizes for testing. Made from sheet
steel and supplied complete with
3 metal pans.

Ordering information
Bar sieves (Grids)
15-D0438
EN riffle box, 7 mm slot width
Standards EN 933-1
15-D0438/A Used to determine the flakiness
EN riffle box, 15 mm slot width index of aggregates.
15-D0438/B Aluminium frame with steel bars.
EN riffle box, 30 mm slot width 15-D0438 to 15-D0438/H
For more information see page 193
15-D0438/C
EN riffle box, 50 mm slot width Model Maximum Slot width, Number of Capacity, Weight,
15-D0438/D 15- particle size, mm slots dm3 kg
mm
EN riffle box, 19 mm slot width
D0438 5 7 12 024 15
15-D0438/F
D0438/A 10 15 12 2 5
EN riffle box, 38 mm slot width
D0438/B 20 30 10 46 19
15-D0438/G D0438/C 40 50 8 14 235
EN riffle box, 64 mm slot width D0438/D 13 19 10 3 55
15-D0438/H D0438/F 25 38 8 96 19
EN riffle box, 45 mm slot width D0438/G 50 64 8 21 27
15-D0431 D0438/H 35 45 8 28 23
Stainless steel sample splitter,sixteen D0431 MINI 3-4 5 16 015 14 Bar sieves
5 mm slots

Large capacity sample


splitter
15-D0430
Large capacity sample splitter

This large sample splitter is de-


signed for reducing large quantities
of sample to a manageable size.

Specifications
Aggregate particle size: up to 150 mm
Adjustable openings: from 125 mm
at 125 mm intervals
15-D0431
Clam shell hopper capacity: 28 dm3 15-D0430
Number of pans: 2
Overall height: 991 mm
Hopper size: 737 x 483 mm (w x d)
Accessories
Weight: 50 kg (approx)
15-D0430/1
Ordering information Spare metal pan
15-D0430
Large capacity sample splitter

21
Soil Classification


16 Field classification
19 Moisture content
22 Laboratory classification
24 Chemical tests

In all sections of civil engineering and in particular in soil mechanics, the engineer during the
design stage must ensure that the analysis of soil properties relates directly to the relevant foundation or
structure. Using procedures involving extracting, examining and testing representative samples the engineer
can compute a model very close to the real situation. In recent years we have seen a significant contribution
to experimental analysis resulting from more sophisticated testing procedures, updating of many Internatio-
nal Standards, and publication of good testing manuals and procedures. We propose a large range of testing
equipment which satisfy all requirements.

16 Field classification
Augers                             24
22 Laboratory classification
Particle density
Penetrometers                      26 and particle size analysis              36
Hand vane testers                   27 Liquid limit penetrometers            38
Water level indicators                27 Casagrande liquid limit devices        39
Dynamic penetrometers              28 Shrinkage limit test set               40
Sample extruders                    30 Plastic limit test set                  40
Laboratory planet mixers             32
Soil lathes/trimmers                 33 24 Chemical tests
Water testing kits                    41
19 Moisture content
Carbide meters                      34
Quantab chloride titrators            
Sulphate test strips                 
41
41
Dessicators                         35 Ion exchange apparatus              41
PH meters                          42
Magnetic stirrers                    42
16 SOIL CLASSIFICATION | FIELD CLASSIFICATION

Augers
Standards ASTM D420 | ASTM D1452 | AASHTO T86 | AASHTO T202

Augers
Augers are used for general ex-
ploration in soil investigation to
obtain samples that are repre-
sentative of each layer of mate-
rial. Made of special plated steel,
they have a T handle with a 1
m shaft which has to be ordered
separately. See accessories, code
16-T0005/1.

16-T0005/A
Hand auger head, 80 mm diameter
Weight 2 kg (approx)
16-T0006/A 16-T0007/A, 16-T0008/A, 16-T0006/A, 16-T0008/C, 16-T0005/A, 16-T0010/6, 16-T0008/B
Hand auger head, 100 mm diameter
Weight 25 kg (approx)
16-T0007/A 16-T0010/G
Hand auger head, 150 mm diameter Soil prospecting kit
Weight 3 kg (approx) Standards
16-T0008/A ASTM D420 | ASTM D1452 |
AASHTO T86 16-T0010/G
Spiral soil auger head, 40 mm diameter
Weight 3 kg (approx)
This set comprises all the most
16-T0008/B popular auger and sampler com-
Dutch soil auger head, Edelman model, ponents, housed in a practical
70 mm diameter, for soft fine soils Weight carrying case. It consists of:
2 kg (approx)
16-T0005/A
16-T0008/C Hand auger head, 80 mm diameter
Gravel auger head,150 mm diameter
Weight 13 kg (approx) 16-T0006/A
Hand auger head, 100 mm diameter
16-T0010/6
16-T0007/A
Stainless steel sample tube, Hand auger head, 150 mm diameter
38 x 230 mm (diameter x length) Weight
03 kg (approx) 16-T0008/A
Spiral soil auger head, 40 mm diameter
16-T0005/1
16-T0008/B T handle with 1 m shaft
Dutch soil auger head, Edelman model,
70 mm diameter
16-T0005/5
Two Stillson wrenches
16-T0008/C
Gravel auger head, 150 mm diameter Case dimensions: 1050 x 480 x 190 mm
Weight: 50 kg (approx)
16-T0010/6
Six stainless steel sample tubes,
38 x 230 mm (diameter x length)
16-T0005/A, T0006/A and T0007/A with
16-T0005/1 T-handle
16-T0010/7
Twelve plastic end caps for sample tubes
Accessories (16-T0010/6)
16-T0005/1 16-T0010/3
Jarring link
T handle with 1 m shaft
16-T0010/8
16-T0005/2 Hand extruder for sample tubes
Shaft extension rod, 1 m long (16-T0010/6)
16-T0005/3 16-T0005/2
Chisel, 300 mm long Six shaft extension rods, 1 m long
Detail of 16-T0010/8, Hand extruder with 16-T0010/6 Sample tube

24
SOIL CLASSIFICATION | FIELD CLASSIFICATION 16

Sampling device Auger power head


This apparatus is designed for The auger head is used in con-
taking undisturbed 38 mm diam- junction with sampling tubes to
eter samples in soft and fine soils. obtain disturbed or undisturbed
Comprises a T handle with shaft, soil samples.
shaft extension rod, jarring link Two models are available:
and a 38 mm diameter, 230 mm 16-T0009/L, 2hp, two-stroke engine,
long stainless steel sample tube. complete with 80 mm diameter auger, dril-
The sample is obtained by per- ling capacity up to 200 mm diameter, and
cussion - the upper assembly is 16-T0009/M, 45hp, four-stroke engine,
lifted with a sliding action inside with reverse gear, drilling capacity up to
the jarring link and then dropped 400 mm diameter Auger to be ordered
down, driving the sample tube separately See accessories
into the soil.

16-T0009/L 16-T0009/M

16-T0009/L
Models 16- T0009/L T0009/M
Auger power head, 2 hp, two-stroke
Piston displacement, cc 449 135 engine, complete with 80 mm diameter
Engine 2 hp, two-stroke 45 hp, four-stroke auger
Fuel Fuel mixture Gasoline 16-T0009/M
Ignition Electronic Electronic Auger power head, 45 hp, four-stroke
Augers 80 x 800 mm Not included - engine, reverse gear Auger not included
(diameter x length) see accessories
16-T0010 included Accessories
Sampling device to take undisturbed Maximum drilling diameter, mm 200 400 Augers and extension rods for 16-T0009/M
38 mm diameter soil samples Weight: Maximum drilling depth, m 14 20 16-T0009/M1
7 kg (approx) Operation One operator Two operators
Auger shaft, 100 mm diameter x 1000 mm
Weight, kg (approx) 105 270 long
Accessories and spares
16-T0009/M2
16-T0010/6 As above but 150 mm diameter
Stainless steel sample tubes, 38 x 230 mm 16-T0009/M3
(diameter x length), 6 pieces As above but 200 mm diamater
16-T0010/7 16-T0009/MEX
Plastic end caps for 16-T0010/6 sample Extension rod 1000 mm long
tubes, 12 pieces
Note: Augers of 100 to 200 mm diameter for
16-T0010/8 16-T0009/L and 250 to 400 mm diameter for
Hand extruder for 38 mm diameter sample 16-T0009/M are also available on request
tubes

25
16 SOIL CLASSIFICATION | FIELD CLASSIFICATION

Penetrometers | Lab vanes | Water level indicators


Pocket penetrometers 16-T0163 Dial penetrometers 16-T0160
Penetrometers are used to quickly Heavy duty pocket We offer a range of three differ- Dial penetrometer, range 0- 6 kgf/cm2
penetrometer ent versions of dial penetrometer (0-588 kPa), plunger diameter 635 mm,
and easily obtain an approximate for soft soil
This penetrometer has a range of that can satisfy any requirement,
measurement of shear strength for
0 to 10 kgf/cm2 (0-980 kPa) and depending upon the application. 16-T0161
cohesive and semi-cohesive soils. They feature a 60 mm diameter
is constructed of stainless steel Geopocket dial penetrometer, dual scale
with three interchangeable tips: dial and a peak hold device with 0- 6 kgf/cm2 (0-588 kPa)and 0 - 11 kgf/
16-T0171 4.5 mm diameter for very hard a zero reset button. The 16-T0161 cm2 (0-1079 kPa), with interchangeable
Standard pocket soil, 6.35 mm for medium and soft version is also used for evaluating plungers 635, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mm
penetrometer soil and 8.98 mm for soft soil. The the angle of internal friction of diameter
With a range of 0 to 5 kgf/cm2 penetration stem allows relatively sandy soils and the cohesion C
in clay soils. Supplied in a plastic 16-T0162
(0-490 kPa), this penetrometer is deep penetration into the soil
(up to 6 cm), reducing errors and case. Dial penetrometer, range 0-14 kgf/cm2
designed for measuring field clas-
(0-1373 kPa), plunger diameter 635 mm,
sification values for cohesive soils uncertainties typical of more shal- Weight: 255 g (approx)
for medium and hard soil
in terms of consistency, shear low measurements.
strength and approximate uncon- Supplied complete with plastic
fined compressive strength. case.

Specifications
Measurement range: 0 - 10 kgf/cm2
(0-980 kPa)
Dimensions (assembled): 20 x 210 mm
(diameter x length) (approx)
16-T0171 Weight: 05 kg (approx)

Specifications
Measurement range: 0 to 5 kgf/cm2 16-T0160
(0-490 kPa)
Dimensions: 20 x 173 mm
(diameter x length)
Weight: 05 kg (approx)

16-T0161

16-T0163

16-T0162

26
SOIL CLASSIFICATION | FIELD CLASSIFICATION 16

Hand vane testers 16-T0174 16-T0174/A Ideal for geo-technicians, geolo-


Field inspection vane tester Field inspection kit gists and agronomists, the instru-
Standards ment is contained in a practical
Field inspection vane tester, This determination refers to ASTM
ASTM D2573 | AASHTO T202 carrying case.
range 0 - 24 N/cm2 (0-240 kPa), D2573 concerning the in-situ de-
with 3 interchangeable vanes termination using field vane ap- Specifications
Two versions of hand vane tester and extension rod paratus.
are offered: Case dimensions: 385 x 290 x 105 mm
This set consists of the 16-T0163 Weight: 2 kg (approx)
16-T0175/A, particularly suitable for field The field inspection vane tester is Heavy duty pocket penetrometer,
use, for taking measurements at the ends designed for taking field surface and the16-T0174 Field inspection
of sample tubes, and and deeper measurements, and vane tester which have been pre-
16-T0174 ,featuring more professional is supplied complete with three viously described.
specifications, recommended for field interchangeable vanes and an
applications where surface and deep extension rod for deeper meas-
measurements are required
urements.
Specially designed to measure
16-T0175/A the undrained shear strength (CU)
Pocket shear vane device of cohesive soils. During opera-
This hand vane includes three tion the vane is driven 5 to 6 cm
vane adaptors: a standard 25 mm into the soil and then turned with
diameter vane, range 0- 10 N/cm2 the handle. Deep measurements
(0-100 kPa);a sensitive vane adap- (e.g. at the top of undisturbed
tor, range 0- 2 N/cm2 (0-20 kPa) samples) can be obtained. Sup-
and a high capacity vane adap- plied complete with plastic case.
tor, range 0- 25 N/cm2 (0-250
kPa). Complete with plastic case. Specifications 16-T0174/A
Weight: 300 g (approx.). Vane dimensions: 32 x 16, 40 x 20,
508 x 254 mm (height x diameter)
Measuring range: Water level indicators
0 - 24 N/cm2 (0 - 240 kPa)
Max torque value: 35 Nm Used for determining the water
Extension rod: 500 mm long level in boreholes, wells and other
Overall dimensions (assembled): open underground structures.
310 x 105 mm Drum mounted, with an ON/OFF
Weight: 13 kg (approx) indicator and audio signal when
the probe touches water. The
Accessories and spares sensing portion of the probe has
a stainless steel tip with plastic
16-T0174/1 shielding to prevent false read-
Extension rod, 500 mm long ings. A probe diameter of 10 mm
16-T0175/A (Additional) allows an easy passage through
tubing. The cable is marked at
1 cm intervals. 16-E0096, /A, /B

Specifications
Battery operated: 9 V DC
Weight: 6 kg (approx)

16-E0096
Water level indicator, 50 m cable
16-E0096/A
As above but 100 m cable
16-T0174 16-E0096/B
As above but 200 m cable

27
16 SOIL CLASSIFICATION | FIELD CLASSIFICATION

Dynamic penetrometers
16-T0012/A
TRL*Dynamic
Cone Penetrometer (DCP)
Standards ASTM D6951
*Manufactured under license of TRL, Transport
Research Laboratory, UK

This apparatus has been designed


for the rapid in-situ measurement
16-T0013 assembled
of the structural properties of
existing road pavements con-
structed with unbound materi-
als. Continuous measurements
can be made down to a depth of
approximately 850 mm or, when 16-T0012/A
extension shafts are used, to a
recommended maximum depth
of 2 m*. Where pavement lay- Accessories and spares
ers have different strengths, the
boundaries can be identified and 16-T0012/1 Spare 60 cone
the thickness of the layers deter- 16-T0012/2 Upper extension shaft
mined. Correlations have been 16-T0012/3 Lower extension shaft
established in earlier work (Van
Vuuren, Klein and Van Herden,
16-T0012/4 Extension rod set
Smith and Pratt) between the TRL 16-T0012/5 Spare anvil coupling
penetrometer and CBR (California 16-T0012/6 Handle guard
Bearing Ratio) so that results can 16-T0012/7 Handle
be interpreted and compared
with CBR specifications. Supplied
16-T0012/8 Hammer shaft 16-T0013
complete with a carrying case. 16-T0012/9 Standard shaft
16-T0012/10 4,6 kg dropping 16-T0013 Accessories and spares

Specifications
weight Lightweight dynamic 16-T0013/8
penetrometer Drive conical point, 500 mm2 area,
The DCP penetrometer consists of:
8 kg dropping weight with a drop of Standards DIN 4094 252 mm diameter, 90 angle
575 mm This penetrometer is used to es- 16-T0013/9
Anvil with driving rod tablish the thickness of different Drive conical point, 1000 mm2 area,
Penetration rod with 60, 20 mm stratifications when investigating 356 mm diameter, 90 angle
diameter cone the suitability of a site for bridge, 16-T0013/4
Spanners, Tommy bar, bottle of adhesive road or other construction works. Sounding rod, 22 mm diameter
Case dimensions: 1200 x 350 x 200 mm 575 575 In general if the ground is not too
(approx)
DROP DROP
compacted, penetration tests with 16-T0013/7
Weight: 30 kg (approx) 1965 1965 this apparatus can be carried out to Threaded nipple to connect sounding rods
depths of about 8 to 12 m. Supplied
complete with a carrying case.
400 400
10 10
Specifications
The apparatus includes:
60 60 1252 1252 Anvil with driving rod
10 kg rammer, rammer fall 50 cm
20 20 32
300 300
32 11 sounding rods
1 grooved rod
*Note: The maximum depth of 2 m 2 drive points, 90, 500 and 1000 mm2
can be obtained adding the following Lifting device for sounding rods
extensions:
No 1 Extensin 16-T0012/2
Couplings
No 1 Extension 16-T0012/3 Standard set Extension set-up Case dimensions: 1160 x 370 x 220 mm
No 3 Extensions 16-T0012/4 Weight: 71 kg (approx)

28
SOIL CLASSIFICATION | FIELD CLASSIFICATION 16

16-T0013/E
Motor operated
20-30 kg drop weight
dynamic penetrometer
Standards DIN 4094
The apparatus comprises: a
four-stroke engine which drives
- through a flexible shaft - the lift-
ing mechanism; a 20 kg weight;
a 10 kg supplementary weight;
10 rods; 5 cones each of 500 and
1000 mm2 sizes and a rod lifting
device. The heaviest part of this
apparatus is the 20 kg dropping
weight so it is very simple to use
and easy to carry on site. The ap-
paratus satisfies DIN 4094 stand-
ards for medium weight test ap-
paratus with 30 kg mass x 20 cm
drop height. We suggest the ac- 16-T0013/E during operation
cessory 16-T0013/E1 to make the
apparatus easier to use.
Supplied complete with carrying
case for sounding rods.

Specifications
Engine: 19 kW, four-stroke
Driving rate: up to 45 blows/min
Drop height: 20 cm
Drop weight: 20 or 20 + 10 kg
Total net weight: 70 kg (approx)
(without sounding rods and accessories)

Accessories and spares


16-T0013/E1
Tripod for hanging the lifting mechanism
16-T0013/8
Drive conical point, 500 mm2 area,
252 mm diameter, 90 angle
16-T0013/9
Drive conical point, 1000 mm2 area,
356 mm diameter, 90 angle 16-T0013/E with 16-T0013/E1

16-T0013/4
Sounding rod, 22 mm diameter

29
16 SOIL CLASSIFICATION | SOIL SAMPLING AND PREPARATION

Sample Extruders
Standards Specifications Accessories
EN 13286-2 | EN13286-47 Power: 750 W 16-T0083/A4
Maximum loading capacity: 60 kN
Adaptor for extruding 1016 mm OD
We offer two models: Maximum ram stroke: 900 mm Shelby tubes
Maximum working ram speed: 6 mm/sec
16-T0082/A, hand operated, 60 kN 16-T0083/A5
Maximum external diameter of sample
capacity, vertical extrusion, suitable for Adaptor for extruding 100 mm OD Shelby
tubes: 160 mm
compacted soil samples, and tubes
230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph
16-T0083/A, motor operated, 60 kN
16-T0083/A6
capacity, horizontal extrusion,900 mm ram
stroke, suitable for extruding soil samples Overall dimensions: Adaptor for extruding 889 mm OD Shelby
at various levels of compactness from Horizontal working position: tubes
Shelby tubes and other samplers It can 2730 x 409 x 1180 mm (wxdxh) 16-T0083/A7
also be set for vertical extrusion Vertical working position: Adaptor for extruding 83 mm OD Shelby
1025 x 409 x 1080 mm (wxdxh) tubes
16-T0083/A Weight: 160 kg (approx)
Motorized soil extruder
16-T0082/A
This extruder features one of the Hand operated vertical soil
largest capacities available on the extruder 16-T0082/A
market (ram stroke 900 mm), and
This hydraulic extruder can accom-
due to the large number of stand- (without accessories)
modate standard U4 tubes and a
ard adaptors, is considered the
range of adaptors to extrude soil Accessories
most versatile extruder, ideal for
samples of 35, 38, 101.6, 106 and
central laboratories. 16-T0082/1
152.4 mm diameter. It can also be
Sampling tubes are held in place used to remove Marshall, Proctor Adaptor for extruding 35, 38, 1016, 106
by an adjustable V shaped bear- and CBR specimens. Appropriate and 1524 mm diameter samples Total
ing which can extrude either in accessories and adaptors are avail- length 280 mm (approx)
a vertical or horizontal position. able and have to be ordered sepa- 16-T0082/3
Both the hydraulic cylinder as- rately. See accessories. Adaptor for extruding 38 mm diameter
sembly and the receiving tray can
samples only
easily be lowered alongside the Specifications
machine to save space when not 16-T0082/4
Maximum loading capacity: Frame and adaptor only for extruding
in use. The machine is supplied
60 kN (6000 kgf) three 38 mm dia tubes from a U4 tube
without tube adaptors which
Maximum ram stroke: 480 mm
have to be ordered separately. 16-T0082/5
Dimensions: 1140 x300 x 370 mm
See accessories. 106 mm adaptor for extruding a soil
Weight: 50 kg (approx)
sample from U4 tubes
16-T0083/A in vertical extrusion position 16-T0082/A16
Extension for extruding samplesup to
450 mm long
16-T0083/A during
operation

16-T0082/A16 Extension fitted onto


the 16-T0082/1
16-T0082/1

30
SOIL CLASSIFICATION | SOIL SAMPLING AND PREPARATION 16

Sample Extruders | Pestle and Mortar | Colour Charts


Universal specimen extruder Melting pot Soil colour charts
Standards Used to melt wax to seal the ends Using Munsell Soil Colour Charts
ASTM D1883 | ASTM D698 | of soil samples and other materi- is an affordable way of evaluat-
BS 1377:4 | BS 1924:2 | BS 598 als, the melting pot can also be ing and classifying soil colour in
used to melt the capping com- the field and in the laboratory.
16-T0080 pound for concrete cylinders, as The soil classification method
Universal specimen extruder, for moulds of specified on page 298 that has been developed around
100 - 1524 mm diameter the Munsell colour system is an
55-D1403 established and accepted way
This extruder is used to remove of building accurate soil descrip-
Melting pot 230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph
101.6 mm (4), 152.4 mm (6), 100 tions. The book of charts is laid
55-D1403/Z
mm and 150 mm diameter speci- As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph out in a way that makes soil col-
mens from Proctor, CBR and Mar- our evaluations quick and easy,
shall moulds. Constructed from Pestle and mortar and using it enables practitioners
Specifications
steel, it has adapters that fit easily Standards from a wide range of professions
Capacity: 5 litres(approx) ASTM D421 | BS 1924:1 | BS 1337:2
within the moulds diameter. to share reliable and consistent
Temperature range: +30 to +130C
Specifications The pestle and mortar are used information about the colour of
Power: 700 W soils at a particular site with col-
Maximum loading capacity: 50 kN Internal dimensions: 200 x 160 mm to gently break down soil sam-
Maximum ram stroke: 197 mm (ram) + ples into individual particles for leagues anywhere around the
(diameter x height)
68 mm (screw) chemical tests. world.
External dimensions: 285 x 275 mm
Weight: 25 kg (approx) high (diameter x height) Specifications
86-D1180/1
Weight: 27 kg (approx) Porcelain mortar, 125 mm Dimensions: 200 x120 x 60 mm
diameter(approx) Weight 700 g(approx) Weight: 500 g (approx)
16-D1179/A
Rubber headed pestle Weight
60 g(approx)

16-D1860/B

16-T0080
55-D1403

31
16 SOIL CLASSIFICATION | SOIL SAMPLING AND PREPARATION

Laboratory planetary mixers

76-B0702, 5L capacity B0075/B 76-B0072

We propose three versions: 5, 10, and 20 litres capacity (respectively models 76-B0702, 76-B0072 and 76-B0075/B).
They all feature a robust construction with a bowl and whisk that are easy to fit and to remove. When lifting the
cover, a safety switch turns the mixer off for operator safety conforming to CE directives. A planetary mixing
action ensures a complete and uniform mixing of the materials. All models are supplied complete with whisk.
For mixing asphalt samples, the mixers have to be fitted with the suitable Isomantle heater (see page 421).

76-B0702/6S, 76-B0072/8, 76-B0075/6

Ordering information Accessories and spares Note: for complete and detailed information
see page 421
76-B0702 76-B0702/9
Laboratory planetary mixer, 5 L capacity, Mixing hook for 76-B0702 mixers
complete with whisk 230 V, 50-60 Hz, 76-B0072/9
1 ph
76-B0704 Mixing hook for 76-B0072 mixers 76-B0072/9, 76-B0075/9
As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph 76-B0075/9
Mixing hook for 16-B0075/B mixers
76-B0072 76-B0702/2
Laboratory planetary mixer, 10 L capacity, Spare bowl for 76-B0702 mixers 16-T0004
complete with whisk 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph
76-B0072/6 Soil cutter
76-B0072/Y
Spare bowl for 76-B0072 mixers Specifications
As above but 220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph Standards NF P94-093
76-B0072/Z 76-B0075/1 Power: 2800 W
Ideal for breaking up lumps of
As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph Spare bowl for 76-B0075/B mixers Capacity: 13 liters
clayto prepare soil specimens for
76-B0702/6S Dimensions: 815 x 590 x 500 (w x d x h)
compaction. Made of anodised
76-B0075/B Spare whisk for 76-B0702 mixers Weight: 110 kg (approx)
aluminium and stainless steel.
Laboratory planetary mixer, 20 L capacity, 400 V, 50 Hz, 3 ph
76-B0072/8
complete with whisk 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph
Spare whisk for 76-B0072 mixers
76-B0075/BY
As above but 220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph 76-B0075/6
76-B0075/BZ Spare whisk for 76-B0075/B mixer
As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph

32
SOIL CLASSIFICATION | SOIL SAMPLING AND PREPARATION 16

Soil Lathes | Trimmers | Cutters and Tools


16-T0028/B Soil die-cutter/sampler Specification
Soil lathe/trimmer and Cutters
16-T0026/A Upper plate size:
extruder for soil samples
from 35 to 110 mm diameter This versatile sampler can be used 120 mm diameter
to prepare soil samples from 35 Maximum vertical clearance:
Soil samples from 35 to 110 mm to 100 mm diameter and up to 620 mm (approx)
diameter can be trimmed and ex- 200 mm high for consolidation, Weight: 22 kg (approx)
truded with this simple yet com- shear, triaxial and other tests. Vari-
plete device. To reduce samples ous circular, cylindrical and square
initially, an open wire saw is re- cutters are available, which are
quired. See accessory 16-D1689. pushed into the sample core and
then extruded with the extrusion
Specifications dolly. See the table for details.
Lathing capacity: from 35 x 70 mm to
100 x 200 mm (diameter x height)
Model Application Type of Sample size, mm
Trimming and extruding capacity: from cutter
35 x 70 mm to 50 x 100 mm (diameter
x height)
Vertical clearance: adjustable up to 240 Consolidation 5047 x 20
26-WF0320/3 Ring
mm (Oedometer) (diameter x height)
Overall dimensions: 16-T0028/B
270 x 320 x 580 mm (w x d x h) Consolidation 635 x 20
26-WF0321/3 Ring
Weight: 12 kg (approx) (Oedometer) (diameter x height)

Accessories Consolidation 714 x 20


26-WF0325/3 Ring
(Oedometer) (diameter x height)
16-D1689 Open wire saw
16-D1690 Wire saw 26-WF0326/3
Consolidation
Ring
75 x 20
16-D1691 Trimming knife (Oedometer) (diameter x height)
16-D1689, 16-D1690, 16-D1691
Consolidation 1128 x 25
26-WF0335/3 Ring
(Oedometer) (diameter x height)

27-WF0215/B7 Shearbox Square 60 x 60 x 20 (w x d x h)

27-WF0216/B7 Shearbox Square 100 x 100 x 20 (w x d x h)

27-WF0217/B7 Shearbox Ring 50 x 20 (diameter x height)

27-WF0218/B7 Shearbox Ring 60 x 20 (diameter x height)

27-WF0219/B7 Shearbox Ring 635 x 20 (diameter x height)

27-WF0222/B7 Shearbox Ring 100 x 20 (diameter x height)

28-WF0420/9 Triaxial Cylinder 35 x 70 (diameter x height)

28-WF4031/G Triaxial Cylinder 38 x 76 (diameter x height)

28-WF4051/G Triaxial Cylinder 50 x 100 (diameter x height)

28-WF4071/G Triaxial Cylinder 70 x 140 (diameter x height)

28-WF4101/G Triaxial Cylinder 100 x 200 (diameter x height)

16-T0026/A with cutter

33
19 SOIL CLASSIFICATION | MOISTURE CONTENT DETERMINATION

Carbide Meters
Moisture determination by Universal Carbide meters
carbide meters 19-T0019 Series
We offer two series of carbide Four versions are available - the
moisture meters: specifications are detailed in the
Universal and Speedy following table
All of the models can be used for
soils, sand and fine aggregates. Accessories
The operating principle is identi- 19-T0019/1
cal for all models: the sample is in-
Moisture tester reagent ampules Pack
troduced into the bottle with the of 100
reagent and the water in the sam-
ple reacts with calcium carbide 19-T0019/2 19-T0019
and produces a gas, the pressure Calibration kit for Universal carbide meters,
of which is indicated on the ma- including manometer and accessories
nometer and easily converted
into the percentage of moisture.

Important note
When the 19-T0019/1 reagent is for
export there are limitations on the method
of transportation The reagent has to
be shipped separately in special packs
according to international regulations for
dangerous materials 19-T0019/F

19-T0019/G
19-T0019/H

Model Description Comprising Sample mass / Case dimensions Weight


19- Moisture range (approx.)
(up to)
Digital balance, 20 carbide
20 g/10%
Classic moisture meter with analogue ampules, hammer,
T0019 50 g/4% 520 x 340 x 140 mm 6 kg
manometer and digital balance chisel,digital timer and
100 g/2%
other accessories
Classic moisture meter, long bottle
T0019/F version, with analogue manometerand As above 20 g/20% 520 x 340 x 140 mm 6 kg
digital balance
Digital moisture meter with 0-3 bar 20 g/10%
T0019/G high-resolution digital manometer and As above 50 g/4% 520 x 340 x 140 mm 6 kg
digital balance 100 g/2%
Digital moisture meter with 0-3 bar
20 g/10%
high-resolution digital manometer,
T0019/H As above, plus log printer 50 g/4% 520 x 340 x 140 mm 8 kg
digital balance and log printer
100 g/2%
forprinting test certificates

34
SOIL CLASSIFICATION | MOISTURE CONTENT DETERMINATION 19

Carbide Meters | Desiccators


Speedy moisture meters Desiccator cabinet
We offer two models: 86-D1113/A
47-T0024/A, 6 g capacity, 0-20% Made from transparent plastic for a clear
humidity measuring range, view of the contents The unit includes
47-T0023/A, 20 g capacity, 0-20% adjustable stainless shelves
humidity measuring range 450 x 480 x 450 mm (w x d x h)
Weight: 30 kg (approx)
Both are supplied complete with
an electronic balance and other Accessories
accessories as shown.
(for glass desiccators and cabinet)
86-D0819
Specifications
Silica gel (desiccator salts), 1000 g bottle
Case dimensions: 510 x 380 x 200 mm
Weight: 55 kg (47-T0024/A) and 6 kg 19-D0602/B
(47-T0023/A)(approx) Moisture determination balance, 160 g
capacity, 1 mg resolution
230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph
47-T0023/A (for more details and information
Speedy moisture tester, 20 g capacity, see page 10)
0-20% humidity range, 02% gauge divi-
sions Complete with electronic balance,
accessories and carrying case
47-T0024/A
As above but 6 g capacity
47-T0024/A with 47-T0021
Accessories and spares
47-T0020/B Desiccators
Speedy calibration kit These desiccators are designed
19-T0019/1 for cooling samples dried in an
oven to avoid absorption of mois-
Moisture tester reagent ampules (pack
ture from the air.
of 100)
as alternative We offer three standard boro-
silicate glass models 86-D1110 to
47-T0021 86-D1111 and, as an alternative
86-D1113/A
Moisture tester reagent powder 04 kg for bigger samples, the Desic-
box cator cabinet 19-D1113/A. Both
versions have to be used with the
86-D0819 desiccator salts. See ac-
cessories.
47-T0023/A and 47-T0021

Glass desiccators
86-D1110
Desiccator, 200 mm diameter, complete
with perforated plate
19-D0602/B
Weight 5 kg approx
86-D1110/A
As above but 250 mm diameter
Weight 55 kg approx
86-D1111
47-T0020/B
As above but 300 mm diameter
Important note
Weight 85 kg approx
When the 47-T0021 reagent is for export there
are limitations on the method of transportation
The reagent has to be shipped separately
in special packs according to international
regulations for dangerous materials 86-D1110

35
22 SOIL CLASSIFICATION | PARTICLE DENSITY AND PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS

Gas Jars | Pyknometers | Hydrometers


Particle density Small pyknometer method Pyknometer method 86-D1110
Both ASTM and BS Standards de- Standards Standards Glass desiccator, 200 mm diameter
scribe different methods and ap- BS 1377:2 | ASTM D854 | BS 177:3 | BS 812 86-D1110/A
paratus for determining particle This method applies to soils con- As above but 250 mm diameter
AASHTO T100 | NF P94 054 86-D1111
density which relate to the type taining particles up to medium
of soil as follows: This method involves determin- As above but 300 mm diameter
gravel size and uses a large pyk-
ing the particle density of soils Weight: 5 to 85 kg (approx)
Gas jar method, BS1377:2, suitable nometer.
consisting of clay, silt and sand-
for most soils including those sized particles (BS 1377:2) and the
containing gravel-sized particles; specific gravity of soils that pass 48-D0441
Small pyknometer method, BS 1377:2 the 4.75 mm sieve (ASTM D854), Large glass pyknometer, 1 liter capacity,
and ASTM D854, suitable for soils using small pyknometers. complete with non-corrodible metal cone
consisting of clay, silt and sand- and rubber seal
sized particles; Weight: 500 g (approx)
Pyknometer method, BS 1377:2, suit-
86-D1125
able for soils containing particles Specific gravity bottle, 25 ml capacity,
up to medium gravel size. complete with capillary vent stopper
86-D1126
The above determinations also As above but 50 ml capacity
require other general laboratory 86-D1127 86-D1112/A, 86-D1110
equipment which are described As above but 100 ml capacity
by the Standards. 86-D1128
As above but 250 ml capacity (as required 86-D1112
Gas jar method ASTM) 200 mm diameter with vacuum
Standards
86-D1112/A
As above but 250 mm diameter
BS 1377:2 86-D1113
This method applies to soils con- 48-D0441
As above but 300 mm diameter
taining up to 10% of particles Weight: 3 to 6 kg(approx)
Accessories
retained on a 37.5 mm sieve and Listed here are some of the items that Safety cage for desiccators
requires a gas jar and shaker. are more commonly required for particle
density / specific gravity determination:
86-D1113/1
Safety cage conforming to BS 1377:2
22-D0445 Weight: 2 kg(approx)
End-over-end shaker, used to rotate two 86-D0819
gas jars(22-D1132) at approximately
50 rpm230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph Silica gel (desiccating salts),
Weight: 20 kg (approx)
86-D1125, 86-D1126, 86-D1127 1000 g bottle
22-D1132 22-D1132
Glass gas jar, 1 liter capacity, supplied
complete with rubber bung and glass
cover
Weight: 13 kg (approx)

22-D0445 with 2
glass jar 22 - D1132

86-D1112/A with two 86-D1126 Pyknometers, Vacuum pump, 86-D1113/1 Safety cage and
accessories

36
SOIL CLASSIFICATION | PARTICLE DENSITY AND PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS 22

Water bath Particle size distribution by


the Hydrometer method.
Standards BS 1337:2
Standards
The water bath is used to maintain ASTM D422 | AASHTO T88
particle density test specimens at
a consistent temperature. It can Hydrometers are used for deter-
be used with the adjustable tray mining the particle size distribu-
and the cover with a cooling coil, tion of very fine materials such as
if required. See accessories. silt and clay.
We offer a complete set contain-
ing all the items required to per-
76-B0066/B form the analysis on six samples,
Digitally-controlled water circulating bath, but each item can also be pur-
temperature range ambient to +60C chased individually.
230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph
The Standards specify that a wa-
76-B0066/BZ 22-T0059/A set
ter bath is not necessary in cases
As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph where the test is performed in
For full description and specifications, see 22-T0059/A 86-D0802 - Sodium hexametaphosphate,
a temperature-controlled envi- 1000 g
page 453 ASTM Hydrometer test set
ronment but our standard set 230 V, 50-60 Hz version 86-D1073 - Beaker, 250 cc
includes a glass water bath with 22-T0059/Z 22-T0060/B* Soil hydrometer, 152 H, 5
Accessories
heater, thermostat and circulating Same as above but 110 V, 60 Hz to 60 g/l is available as an alternative to
76-B0066/1 unit which is suitable for ambient the 22-T0060/A model
Cover with cooling coil, for connection to temperatures of 20C maximum. This set includes: All the above components can be purcha-
mains water 22-D1006/A - Six hydrometer cylinders sed individually
22-T0060/31 - Rubber bung for cylinders
76-B0066/2 22-D1006/A NF-BS hydrometer items (basic
Adjustable tray 22-T0060/A* - Soil hydrometer, 151 H, components)
0995 to 1030 g/ml Standards
82-D1199 - Glass thermometer, 0-50C, NF P94-057 | BS 1377:2
05C divisions
22-T0058/A - Constant temperature 22-D1007/A
glass water bath, completewith heater, Hydrometer cylinder, 2500 cm3 capacity,
thermostat and circulating unit Capacity 85 5 mm diameter, graduated at 500,
up to 6 hydrometer cylinders Dimensions 1500 and 2000 cm3 (only NF P9-057)
600 x 300 x 380 mm (w x d x h) 230 V, Weight: 1 kg(approx)
50-60 Hz, 1 ph, or 22-T0062/A
22-T0058/AZ - Same as above but Soil hydrometer 0995 to 1030 g/ml
110 V, 60 Hz
22-T0060/1 - High speed stirrer, 22-D1007/A1
11000 rpm, with cup and baffle 230 V, Hand stirrer, 600 mm long (only NF
50-60 Hz, 1 ph, or P9-057)
76-B0066/B
22-T0060/1Z Same as above but
110 V, 60 Hz

76-B0066/1 76-B0066/2 with two 86-D1127

22-T0060/1,86-D0802, 22-D1007/A,
22-T0062/A, 22-D1007/A1

37
22 SOIL CLASSIFICATION | PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS AND SOIL INDEX PROPERTIES

Pipettes | Cone penetrometers


Particle size distribution by Soil index properties
the Pipette method
Types of index tests include:
Standards
- Liquid limit
BS 1377:2
Cone penetrometer
Pipettes are used for determining and Casagrande methods
the particle size distribution of - Shrinkage limit and
very fine soils. The following few Linear shrinkage
basic items are required to per- - Plastic limit
form the test.
22-T0062/1 Liquid limit:
Andreasen pipette, 10 ml capacity Cone penetrometer method
Weight: 300 g(approx) Standards
22-T0062/2A BS 1377:2 | NF P94-052-1 | CEN ISO/TS
Pipette stand with scale in millimetres 17892-06 | CEN ISO/TS 17892-12
Weight: 10 kg(approx)
Cone penetrometers
22-T0062/3 22-T0029 series
Sedimentation cylinder, 500 ml capacity, Cone penetrometers are used to
with rubber bung determine the moisture content
Weight: 300 kg (approx) at which clay soils pass from a
22-T0058/A plastic to a liquid state (the liquid 22-T0029/E and 22-T0029/D with accessories
Constant temperature water bath, limit). The result can also be used
complete with heater, thermostat and to evaluate the undrained shear m a i n f e at u r e s
circulating unit strength (CEN ISO/TS 17892-12).
230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph > Cast iron base with levelling feet
Two versions are available:
22-T0058/AZ > 001 mm precision digital penetration measurement gauge
As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph 22-T0029/D > Micrometric vertical adjustment device
22-T0062/5 Digital liquid limit penetrometer with
micrometric vertical adjustment
> Automatic zeroing
Conical beaker 1000 ml
22-T0029/E > Electronic release mechanism (22-T0029/E model only)
Semi-automatic digital liquid limit
penetrometer with vertical micrometric Accessories 22-T0029/5
adjustment and electronic release 22-T0029/1 Cone test gauge for cone 22-T0029/4
mechanism 230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph
22-T0029/EZ Penetration test cone, 30 angle 22-T0029/7
As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph 22-T0029/2 Penetration test cone, 30 angle,
Cone test gauge to check the condition of weight 100 g
Penetration cones and sample cups have the cone 22-T0029/8
to be ordered separately See accessories 22-T0029/3 Penetration test cone, 30 angle
Weight: 85 kg(approx) Penetration sample cup, 55 mm diameter,
50 mm deep
86-D1332
As above but 75 mm diameter
22-T0029/4
Penetration test cone, 60 angle,
weight 60 g

22-T0029/1 22-T0029/4 22-T0029/7 22-T0029/2

22-T0029/8 22-T0029/5

38
SOIL CLASSIFICATION | PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS AND SOIL INDEX PROPERTIES 22

Casagrande apparatus
Liquid limit:
CASAGRANDE method
Standards
ASTM D4318 | AASHTO T89 |
BS 1377:2 | NF P94-051-1 |
CEN ISO/TS 17892-06 & 17892-12 |
UNI 10014 | UNE 7377

Liquid limit devices


22-T0030-31 series
Casagrande apparatus are used,
as an alternative to the cone
penetrometer, to determine the
moisture content at which clay 22-T0030/F 22-T0031/F
soils pass from a plastic to a liquid
state (the liquid limit).
Different versions are available Liquid limit device code
conforming to the various Stand- Standards Grooving tool code
ards. They are identical in shape Standard Motorized
and differ mainly in the type of BS 1377:2 22-T0030/E 22-T0031/E 22-T0032/P
base. Furthermore all models
are available in either manually ASTM D4318 22-T0031/F (230 V, 50 Hz)
AASHTO T89 22-T0030/F 22-T0031/FY (220 V, 60 Hz) 22-T0032/AP
or motor operated versions. The
CEN ISO TS 17892 22-T0031/FZ (110 V, 60 Hz)
grooving tools, which must also
comply with the different Stand- NF P94-051 22-T0030/G 22-T0031/G (230 V, 50 Hz) 22-T0032/A
ards, are not included and have
to be ordered separately. See the UNE 7377 22-T0030/F 22-T0031/F (230 V, 50 Hz) 22-T0032/A
table below.
UNI 10014 22-T0030/F 22-T0031/F (230 V, 50 Hz) 22-T0033
Weights:
Standard versions: 2 kg (approx.)
Motorized versions: 4 kg (approx.) 22-T0031/G
Motorized Casagrande liquid limit device,
NF P94-051 version 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph
22-T0030/E
Accessories and spares
Casagrande liquid limit device,
BS 1377:2 version 22-T0032
22-T0030/F Metal grooving tool, BS version
Casagrande liquid limit device, 22-T0032/P
ASTM D4318, AASHTO T89, CEN ISO TS Plastic grooving tools, BS version Pack
17892-06 & 17892-12, UNE 7377 and of 10
UNI 10014 version
22-T0032/A 22-T0032/AP 22-T0032/P
22-T0030/G Metal grooving tool, ASTM version
Casagrande liquid limit device, NF P94-051
version
22-T0032/AP
Plastic grooving tools, ASTM version Pack
22-T0031/E of 10
Motorized Casagrande liquid limit device,
BS 1377:2 version 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph
22-T0033 22-T0032/A
Grooving tool, UNI version
22-T0031/F
Motorized Casagrande liquid limit device,
22-T0034
ASTM D4318, AASHTO T89, CEN ISO TS Spare brass cup
17892-06 & 17892-12, UNE 7377 and UNI 22-T0034/1
10014 version 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph Spare roughened cup
22-T0031/FZ
As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
22-T0031/FY
As above but 220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
39
22 SOIL CLASSIFICATION | PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS AND SOIL INDEX PROPERTIES

Shrinkage | Plastic limit


Shrinkage limit Plastic limit
Standards Standards
ASTM D427 | AASHTO T92 | ASTM D4318 | AASHTO T90 | BS 1377:2 |
BS 1377:2 |NF P94-060-1 | NF P94-051 | UNE 103-104 | UNI 10014
UNE 103-108 | UNI 10014
22-T0041/A
22-T0035 Plastic limit test set
Shrinkage limit test set, including carrying This test is for determining the
case moisture content of a soil at the
boundary between the plastic
This test is performed to deter- and semi-solid states.
mine the maximum moisture
content at which the soil stops The set comprises:
shrinking when dried. We offer 22-T0040/1
the following test set: Glass plastic limit plate, 300 x 300 mm
22-T0040/2
The set comprises:
Stainless steel rod, 3 mm diameter
22-T0035/1 86-D1171
Two shrinkage dishes, 45 mm diameter x Mixing dish, 120 mm diameter
127 mm high 86-D1630
22-T0035/2 Flexible spatula
Crystallizing dish, 57 mm diameter x 86-D1329/A
31 mm deep Six moisture content tins, 75 mm diameter
22-T0035/3 x 30 mm high
Shrinkage prong plate, manufactured from
transparent acrylic and fitted with 3 metal All contained in a plastic case.
prongs 22-T0035
86-D1171 Linear shrinkage All above items can also be pur-
Evaporating dish Standards chased individually.
86-D1630 BS 1377:2
Flexible spatula Specifications
86-D1001 22-T0037 Case dimensions: 500 x 380 x 125 mm
Graduated cylinder, 25 ml Brass linear shrinkage mould Weight: 2 kg (approx)
Suppliedcomplete with a plastic Internal dimensions: 140 mm long,
carrying case. 125 mm radius
Weight: 300 g (approx)
All the above items can also be
purchased individually. The purpose of this test is to de-
termine the linear shrinkage of
Specifications
the fraction of a soil sample pass-
Case dimensions: 300 x 280 x 120 mm ing a 425 m test sieve by meas-
Weight: 950 g (approx) uring the change in length of the
bar of soil as it dries out.

22-T0037

22-T0041/A

40
SOIL CLASSIFICATION | CHEMICAL TESTS 24

Chemical tests
Water testing kits
24-D1870/A
Acidity test kit
For determining, by titration, the total
acidity of water caused by mineral and
organic acids
Case dimensions: 250 x 120 x 55 mm
Weight: 480 g (approx)
24-D1870/B
Chloride test kit
For determining, by titration, the chloride 24-D1870/B 24-D1870/A 24-D1870/E
content in water and waste water
Case dimensions: 190 x 120 x 60 mm
Weight: 445 g (approx)
24-D1870/C
Hardness test kit
For determining the water total hardness
Case dimensions: 190 x 120 x 60 mm
Weight: 424 g (approx)
24-D1870/E
Alkalinity test kit
For determining the total alkalinity of
water
Weight: 15 kg (approx)
24-D1870/C

Chloride content: Rapid


method Used for determining the sulphate content
Standards Standards BS 1377:3
of ground water and aqueous soil extracts,
BS 812:117 | ASTM C88 | AASHTO T104| 24-D1840 the apparatus consists of an ion exchange
Standards BS 812:117 | BS 1377:3
EN 1367-2 Ion exchange apparatus column 400 mm long and 10 mm dia-
Quantab chloride titrators can be used for
estimating the chloride content of aqueous 24-D0852 meter, a swan-neck outlet and a 1500 ml
solutions Two models are available: round-bottomed flask to give a constant
Sulphate test strips, detection range 200 to head The apparatus is supplied assembled
1600 mg/l Pack of 100 on a stand
48-D0543 Useful for the preliminary assessment of Dimensions: 200 x100 x 600 mm
Quantab chloride titrator, type 1175 sulphate ions in aqueous solutions Weight: 5 kg (approx)
(711195), range 0005% to 01% NaCl Weight: 10 g (approx)
Pack of 40 strips Sulphate content: Accessories
Laboratory method
48-D0543/A
24-D1840/1
Quantab chloride titrator, type 1176
(711196), range 005% to 1% NaCl Pack Ion exchange resin, 500 g
of 40 strips
Weight: 10 g (approx)

Sulphate content: Rapid


method

24-D0852

24-D1840

48-D0543, 48-D0543/A

41
24 SOIL CLASSIFICATION | CHEMICAL TESTS

Chemical tests
pH Meters Accuracy at 20C: +/- 02 pH Magnetic stirrers 24-D0448
Standards pH calibration: manual, 2 points Used for titration and stirring all the mo- Magnetic stirrer, mixing capacity 1 liter
ASTM D1067 | BS 1377:3 Battery life , 3000 hours use approx dels in this range have variable speeds and 230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph
We propose the following different Dimensions: 66 x 50 x25 mm include a magnetic Teflon coated follower 24-D0448/B
models, suitable for field and laboratory Weight approx: 70 g 81-B0145/D version feature a hot
plate which can be useful for particular Magnetic stirrer, mixing capacity 25 liters
use, as follows: 230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph
Accessories applications
24-D1847 81-B0145/D
Pocket digital pH meter, battery operated 24-D1847/7 Hot plate with magnetic stirrer 230 V
Specifications Calibration kit of pH 4 and pH 7, 5 pieces 50-60 Hz, 1 ph
pH range: 000 to 1400 each
Resolution: pH 001 24-D1848 Code 24-D0448 24-D0448/B 81-B0145/D
Rotation speed, rpm 100 to 1200 100 to 1200 100 to 1200
Power, W - - 700
Dimensions, mm 120 x 120 x 45 180 x 180 x 70 170 x 230 x 150
Max temperature, C - - 400
Weight approx kg: 06 16 3

24-D1847

81-B0145/D 24-D0448

Papers
24-D1858/1
pH strips 1 to 11 pH 5 meter dispenser
24-D1858/2
pH indicator papers 0 to 14 pH 5 meter
24-D1848 Complete set
dispenser
Portable digital pH, mV, temperature 24-D1845/3 24-D1859/1
meter, complete with stand for laboratory pH 400 buffer solution, 500 ml Litmus paper red 5 to 8 pH Pack of 100 pH Papers
use Battery and mains operated strips
24-D1845/4
Specifications pH 700 buffer solution, 500 ml
pH range: 000 to 1400, accuracy 24-D1845/5
001 + 1 digit, resolution 001 pH pH 918 buffer solution, 500 ml
mV range: 1999, accuracy
1 + 1 digit, 1 mV
24-D1845/7
24-D1848
temp range: 0-100C, accuracy Electrode storage solution 500 ml
02C + 1 digit, resolution 01C 24-D1845/8
pH calibration: pH 400 700 Electrode cleaning solution 500 ml
9 V battery, and mains adapter 24-D0448
Dimensions: 96 x 120 x 46 mm
Magnetic stirrer
Weight approx: 260 g
Accessories
Note Supplied complete with pH4 and pH7
solutions, combined electrode, 9 V battery,
Pt 100 temperature probe, stand for electrode
and carrying case

42
MEMORANDUM

43
Soil Mechanics


26 Consolidation
27 Direct/Residual shear
28 Triaxial testing 66

29 Automatic triaxial testing 96

30 Data acquisition system 108

31 Dynamic testing system 112

is one of the longest established manufacturing companies in


the world of Geotechnical Testing Systems. It has always been synonymous with high technology and qua-
lity. A close working relationship with several premier Universities in Europe ensures a flow of new ideas
for development of new testing techniques and systems. WYKEHAM FARRANCE was originally formed
in 1941 by Geoff Wykeham and Geoff Farrance. The original company is now part of the CONTROLS
GROUP as the Soil Mechanics Division.
The consolidation test determines the rate and magnitude of consolidation of a soil specimen restrained
laterally and subjected to a number of successive increments of vertical loads. We propose Front loading
oedometers, the ACE, Automatic computerized oedometer and other similar goods.
The Direct/Residual shear test covers the determination of the consolidated drained shear strength of a soil
material in direct shear. Various models are available to satisfy all requirements.

26 Consolidation
Front loading oedometer 46
ACE, Automatic computerized oedometer 48
Hydrocon hydraulic consolidation cells 50
Continuous consolidation apparatus 52

27 Direct/Residual shear
DIGISHEAR, direct/residual digital shear machine 54
AUTOSHEAR, direct/residual shear testing machine, digital control 56
SHEARMATIC, digital automatic direct/residual shear machine 58
SHEARMATIC 300, Large digital shear box apparatus 60
Consolidation bench for shear box 61
Laboratory vane apparatus 61
TORSHEAR, digital ring shear apparatus 62
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

45
26 SOIL MECHANICS | CONSOLIDATION
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Front Loading Oedometer


Standards m a i n f e at u r e s
BS 1377:5 | ASTM D2435 | ASTM D3877| > Rigid aluminium alloy frame
ASTM D4546 | AASHTO T216 | > 3 lever arm position: 9:1, 10:1,
NF P94-090-1 | NF P94-091 | 11:1 Max loading 1848 kg
UNE 103-405 | UNE 103-602 > Can be fitted with traditional dial
gauge or linear transducer for
connection to the Geodatalog data
26-WF0302 acquisition and processing system
Front loading oedometer
The oedometer consolidation test
determines the rate and mag-
nitude of consolidation of a soil
specimen restrained laterally and
subjected to a number of succes-
sive vertical load increments.
The oedometer apparatus has
a rigid aluminium alloy frame
which avoids distortion under
load. The lever arm assembly is
Three oedometers (26-WF0302) complete with cells and electronic displacement transducers (1)
supported in precision self- align- (30-WF6207), mounted on a consolidation bench (26-WF0312) and connected to the Geodatalog
ing bearings. Consolidation cells, and PC (not included)
dial gauge/displacement trans- (1)
As an alternative to the standard dial gauges 26-WF0338/A fitted to the 26-WF0302 with
ducer, weight sets and bench are cell 26-WF0320
not included and have to be or-
dered separately. See Accessories. 26-WF0230/D2 Electronic measuring devices
Weight set, 80 kg in total, comprising: 2 x 30-WF6207 Load pad
025, 3 x 05, 1 x1, 1 x2, 3 x 5 and 6 x 10 kg Linear potentiometric transducer, 10 mm
Technical specifications weights travel
- Max loading (using 11:1 lever arm ratio): Note: in case displacement transducer is
1848 kg, corresponding to 9061 MPa Single slotted weights supplied complete with data acquisition Clamping ring
(9240 kgf/cm2) on a 20 cm2 specimen See pages system, then a traceable calibration
(5047 mm diameter) certificate on request
Upper porous disc
- Overall dimensions: 500 x 200 x 750 mm Mechanical (analogue) Data acquisition and processing Cutter
(height without hanger x width x Measuring device system
length) Fixing ring
- Weight: 21 kg (approx)
30-WF6401 Note For more information on the
Geodatalog, see page Lower porous disc
Dial gauge, 10 mm travel, 0002 mm
resolution 30-WF6016/T1
Wall
Permeability attachment Consolidation Geo-Analysis template
conforming, to BS 1377:5
26-WF0338/A Base
Permeability attachment with 50 ml
30-WF6016/T8
graduated burette Complete with clamps, Consolidation Geo-Analysis template
stand and rubber hose for connection to conforming, to ASTM D2435
the cell Weight 4 kg Exploded view of consolidation cell 26-WF0320

Consolidation bench
26-WF0312
Slotted steel weights
Bench for up to three oedometers
Weight 30 kg
Accessories
Weight sets
26-WF0230/C2
Weight set, 64 kg in total, comprising: 2 x
025, 1 x 05, 1 x 1, 1 x 2, 1 x 4 and 7 x 8 kg
weights

46
SOIL MECHANICS | CONSOLIDATION 26

Consolidation cells and spare parts


Suitable for both fixed ring oedometer consolidation and falling head permeabil-
ity tests. The cell is constructed of aluminium and comes complete with all the
parts illustrated in the exploded view.

Code Specimen Specimen Cell dim. Weight Calibration Upper Lower Cutting
Dimensions area cm2 (dxh) mm kg disc, code porous disc porous disc ring
(dxh) mm 26- code 26- code 26- code 26-
26-WF0320 5047 x 20 2000 139 x74 13 WF0320/9 WF0320/4 WF0325/10 WF0320/3
26-WF0321 6350 x 20 3167 139 x74 13 WF0321/9 WF0321/4 WF0326/10 WF0321/3
26-WF0325 7140 x 20 4000 139 x74 13 WF0325/9 WF0325/4 WF0325/10 WF0325/3
26-WF0326 7500 x 20 4416 139 x74 13 WF0326/9 WF0326/4 WF0326/10 WF0326/3
26-WF0335 11280 x 25 10000 200 x74 30 WF0335/9 WF0335/4 WF0335/10 WF0335/3

Weight application guide


This information is intended to make it easy to select the weight set that is appropriate for the cell size, the
beam ratio and the maximum load applied.

Cell model 26-WF0320 26-WF0321 26-WF0325 26-WF0326 26-WF0335


Beam ratio 1:10 Beam ratio 1:11 Beam ratio 1:10 Beam ratio 1:9 Beam ratio 1:10
For max. pressure 32 kg/cm2 64 kg/cm2 20 t/ft2 40 t/ft2 16 kg/cm2 32 kg/cm2 16 kg/cm2 32 kg/cm2 8 kg/cm2 16 kg/cm2
Weight set 26-WF 0230/C2 0230/C2 0230/C2 0230/C2 0230/C2 0230/C2 0230/D2 0230/D2 0230/D2 0230/D2
Add. weight 27-WF - 8 x 0275/A - 8 x 0275/A - 8 x 0275/A - 8 x 0277/A - 8 x 0277/A
Total weight kg 64 128 64 128 64 128 80 160 80 160

DETERMINATION OF ONE-DIMENSIONAL CONSOLIDATION PROPERTIES OF SOILS USING INCREMENTAL LOADING


Tested in accordance with ASTM Designation: D 2435
Typical consolidation configurations TEST DATA

Standard, with analogue dial gauge


Project location EXAMPLE
Project reference 12345 Specimen number 3A
Code Quantity Description Borehole number BH2 Specimen depth (m) 1.5

26-WF0302 1 Front loading oedometer Increment number 5 - Loading Vertical stress (kPa) 1280 Mass (kg) 25.70

26-WF032 X(1) 1 Consolidation cell 6.500

26-WF0230/C2 1 Weight set, 64 kg in total 6.400 d0; 6.384

30-WF6401 1 Dial gauge, 10 mm x 0002 mm divisions


Transducer reading (mm)

6.300

26-WF0312 1 Consolidation bench for up to 3 oedometers 6.200


t50; 6.2
d50; 6.177
(1)
To be selected 6.100

6.000
With digital data acquisition and processing d100; 5.970

5.900
Code Quantity Description
5.800
0.10 1.00 10.00 100.00 1000.00 10000.00
26-WF0302 1 Front loading oedometer Time (mins)

26-WF032 X(1) 1 Consolidation cell


26-WF0230/C2 1 Weight set, 64 kg in total 6.500

30-WF6207 1 Linear potentiometric transducer, 10 mm travel 6.400


Root t90; 4.4

30-WF6042 1 Transducer extension cable, 6 m long


Transducer reading (mm)

6.300

82-P9008/ELT 1 Set of four cables 6.200

30-WF6008 1 Geodatalog, 8-channel data acquisition system 6.100

30-WF6016/T1 Geo-Analysis template to BS or Geo-Analysis template 6.000


1
30-WF6016/T8 to ASTM 5.900

26-WF0312 1 Consolidation bench for up to 3 oedometers 5.800


0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 20.00
Time (root mins)
(1)
To be selected

5 T8 Example 47
26 SOIL MECHANICS | CONSOLIDATION
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

ACE Automatic Computerized Oedometer


main features
> Fully automatic PC-controlled test execution
> Three conditions for the automatic switch to the next step are available:
time, swelling, rate of secondary consolidation
> Testing can continue 24 hours a day, 7 days a week without interruption
giving greater throughput of tests with a considerable cost decrease
> Automated loading eliminates negative factors such as operator error and
manual handling of dead weights
> 15 kN maximum loading capacity, 10 mm travel displacement transducer
> Real-time data and graph display
> Single ACE software installation controls up to 60 units
> Test management software supplied including calibration facility
> High speed LAN network communication

Templates conforming to BS or
ASTM Standards.
Standards The frame can accept all standard
BS 1377:5 | ASTM D2435 | ASTM D3877| ASTM D4546 | AASHTO T216 | consolidation cells, from 50.47 to
112.80mm diameter.
NF P94-090-1 | NF P94-091 | UNE 103-405 | UNE 103-602
Consolidation cells, Geo-Analysis
templates and test software are
26-WF3120 can be programmed on a time or not included. See Accessories. PC
Automatic Computerized increment basis. The software can is not included.
Oedometer control up to 60 ACE units from
110-240 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph a single PC, giving the operator
the choice of controlling single or
The oedometer consolidation test
multiple units.
is used to determine the rate and Technical specifications
magnitude of consolidation of Once the software is installed
(mandatory) with the first ACE - Maximum vertical force:
a soil specimen restrained later- 15 kN - 30 kN available on request
ally and subjected to a number of unit, it is possible to extend the
- Load cell capacity: 15 kN
successive increments of vertical control of further units just by Detail of load cell and displacement transducer
enabling the communication - Displacement transducer:
load. 10 mm maximum travel
without additional interventions advantage to the users, as:
The ACE (Automatic Computer- - Maximum air pressure supply: 10 bar (If
and costs. An IP address is given - Swelling control: if the
ized oEdometer) consists of a the air pressure source is not available in
to each unit for the LAN com- specimen under test tends to the laboratory, our air compressor model
small and compact load frame
munication: system modularity is expand, a swelling limit can be 86-D2015, 50 l capacity may be used
housing two coaxial pneumatic
ensured for subsequent integra- pre-set: in case the pre set limit - Specimen size: from 5047 to 11280 mm
cylinders: the smaller one for low
tions. is exceeded, the system will diameter using our consolidation cells
loads and the other for higher
ACE software allows to set up, automatically skip to the next See Accessories
loads, with automatic switch-
save and recall different load/un- loading step. - Software: can control up to 60 ACE units
ing from one to the other when
needed. There are two analogue load sequences: for each of them - Secondary consolidation (not included, see Accessories)
channels: one for the displace- applied pressure steps, record- rate control: the system will - PC connection: LAN cable (included)
ment transducer and the other ing mode, time of application, automatically skip to next - Measurement accuracy:
for the load cell with closed-loop swelling control and secondary loading step if the secondary better than 1%
feedback, which controls applica- consolidation rate limit can be consolidation rate is lower - Overall dimensions:
defined by the user. than a pre-set limit. 280 x 300 x 600mm (w x dx h)
tion of the required pressure us-
Besides the traditional time limit Test results are recorded and - Weight approx: 25 kg (approx)
ing a high precision pneumatic
servo-actuator. Test parameters control for transition from one displayed in real time and calcu-
are pre-programmed and saved step of pressure to another, fur- lations are performed automati-
in the ACE software by the opera- ther automatic controls are in- cally. Test data can be processed
tor, including the test end, which cluded in the software with great using the proper Geo-Analysis

48
SOIL MECHANICS | CONSOLIDATION 26

Modularity concept: up to 60 ACE units can be connected to the same PC via LAN and controlled by the same software 26-WF3120/SOF

Accessories
Test software Software:
ACE software operates as interface for all testing processes: the possibility to
26-WF3120/SOF pre-set all test conditions and let each oedometer unit to work independently
ACE automatic computerized oedometer and to perform the whole test automatically is the great advantage of ACE testing
test software system, ensured by the dedicated software developed by the geotechnical experts
Consolidation cells (see page 47) Calibration and verification facilities for force
and displacement transducers are included in the
Permeability accessory (optional) software Txt files are automatically generated for
26-WF0338/B calibration reports Each system is factory calibrated
but verifications have to be ensured by the users at
Permeability attachment with 50 ml least once a year
graduated burette

Geo-Analysis templates
for data processing
30-WF6016/T1
Consolidation Geo-Analysis template
conforming to BS1377:5 Standard
30-WF6016/T8
Consolidation Geo-Analysis template
conforming to ASTM D2435 Standard The screenshot above shows an example of test
sequences setting, where swelling monitoring and
Hub control option is activated

26-WF4645
LAN Hub with 8 ports for Wykeham
Farrance devices LAN cable from hub to PC
is included

Air supply
See page 571

For each step, test data are displayed in real time and
recorded according to the pre-set logging mode
Testing unit status is continuously displayed and time
scale can be switched immediately from linear to
logarithmic and square root

49
26 SOIL MECHANICS | CONSOLIDATION
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Hydraulic Consolidation Cells


Standards BS 1377:6
Dial gauge or transducer
26-WF0345 Top drainage and back pressure

Hydrocon,
hydraulic consolidation cell Hydraulic
for 100 mm diameter samples consolidation

Upper porous disk


Additional
Lower porous disk AUTOTRIAX 2 software
for performing fully
Drainage / Pore water automatic Hydrocon
pressure / Back pressure tests is available on
request.
See section 29

Typical configuration of a complete system


Manual or electronic option, with pore and back pressure facilities
system, water de-airing system Code Description Q.ty
and measuring system (manual,
26-WF0345 Hydrocon, hydraulic consolidation cell 1
or electronic with the Geodatalog
data acquisition system. See the Pressure system
table showing the configuration 28-WF4330 Triaxial panel, two way 1
of a complete system.) 28-WF4330/2 Digital pressure gauge for 28-WF4330 1
The Hydrocon hydraulic consoli-
dation apparatus is used to deter- The Hydrocon is also available for 28-WF4320 Bladder air/water interface 2
mine the magnitudes and rates of testing unsaturated samples. See 28-WF4320/1 Spare bladder for 28-WF4320 1
consolidation of soil specimens of model 26-WF0346.
86-D2015 Laboratory air compressor 1
relatively low permeability by hy- 28-WF2016/2 Air filter for 86-D2015 air compressor 1
draulic pressure. This type of cell Technical specifications
28-WF4191 Nylon tubing, OD 8 mm / ID 6 mm, 10 m coil 1
overcomes the complexity usu- - Manufactured from anodized light alloy,
ally associated with hydraulic oe- complete with three valves, one porous Water de-airing system
dometers and allows more infor- base disc and one top loading porous 28-WF4220/A De-airing tank, 7 l capacity 1
mation to be gathered from the disc Three support legs for stability
86-D2005 Air drying unit 1
soil sample. Pore water pressure is - Suitable for 100 mm diameter soil
samples 86-D0819 Silica gel desiccator, 1 kg bottle 2
measured using a pressure trans- 86-D2001 Vacuum pump 1
ducer and vertical settlement us- - Maximum working pressure: 3500 kPa
- Overall dimensions: 260 x 450 mm 86-D2064 Rubber tubes 2
ing a linear strain transducer (or a
(diameter x height) 28-WF4225 Valve panel for de-airing tank 1
dial gauge). As the Hydrocon is a
confined consolidation system, it - Weight: 10 kg (approx) Measuring system - manual option
is possible to measure both pore 30-WF6401 Dial gauge, 10 mm travel, 0002 mm subdivisions 1
and back pressure during testing. Accessories
See the table configuration of a complete 28-WF6300 Pressure transducer, 0-10 bar 1
The coefficient of consolidatioin
testing system 28-WF6310 De-airing block 1
can be directly computed from
pore pressure dissipation tests. 28-WF4450 Digital readout unit for pore press measurement 1
In addition it is possible to make 28-WF4400 Double burette volume change apparatus 1
an accurate permeability meas- 28-WF4400/1 Red dye hydrocarbon soluble pack for 500 ml 1
urement by generating a vertical Measuring system - electronic option
flow of water through the sample.
30-WF6207 Linear displacement transducer, 10 mm travel 1
The complete test apparatus in-
28-WF6300 Pressure transducer, 0-10 bar 1
cludes the Hydrocon cell, pressure
28-WF6310 De-airing block 1
28-WF4410 Automatic volume change apparatus 1
30-WF6044 Transducer extension cable, 12 m 3
82-P9008/ELT Set of four cables 1
30-WF6008 Geodatalog 8-channel data acquisition unit 1
30-WF6016/T12 Hydrocon consolidation Geo-Analysis template 1
28-WF4330 with 28-WF4330/2

50
SOIL MECHANICS | CONSOLIDATION 26

26-WF0346
Hydrocon SWCC Dial gauge or transducer
consolidation cell Top drainage and back water
for 100 mm diameter unsaturated samples pressure / Back air pressure

Hydraulic
consolidation

Upper porous disk

HAES - High Air Entry Stone

Second port for flushing Drainage / Pore water


under HAES for defused air pressure / Back pressure

As the Hydrocon SWCC is a con- Typical configuration of a complete system


fined consolidation system, it is
possible to measure both pore Code Description Q.ty
and back pressure during testing Hydrocon, SWCC hydraulic consolidation cell with 2 bar
The Hydrocon SWCC consolida- 26-WF0346 1
and to make accurate permeabil- High Air Entry Stone and compensator ring
tion apparatus is used to deter- ity measurements.
mine the magnitude and rate of Pressure system
settlement and pressure of un- For a complete system, see the
28-WF4331 Triaxial panel, three way 1
saturated soil specimens. Because table showing a typical test set
configuration. 28-WF4330/2 Digital pressure gauge for 28-WF4331 1
of the low permeability of some
28-WF4320 Bladder air/water interface, 1000 kPa maximum 2
materials, performing a drying
28-WF4320/1 Spare bladder for 28-WF4320 1
and wetting stage can take sev-
eral weeks. The Hydrocon SWCC Technical specifications 86-D2015 Laboratory air compressor 1
cell is a flexible soil testing appa- - Same as 26-WF0345, but complete 28-WF2016/2 Air filter for 86-D2015 air compressor 1
ratus capable of applying uniaxial with four valves, compensator ring and 28-WF4191 Nylon tubing, OD 8 mm / ID 6 mm, 10 m coil 1
pressures of up to 3500 kPa to a 2 bar High Air Entry Stone sealed on
aluminium ring Water de-airing system
100 mm diameter specimen. Its
base is fitted with a High Air En- same as indicated on page 50
try Stone (HAES) which enables Accessories Measuring system - electronic option
a soil/water characteristic suc-
tion curve to be obtained. This 26-WF0346/1B 30-WF6207 Linear displacement transducer, 10mm travel 1
type of stone allows water to pass 1 bar High Air Entry Stone for 100 mm 28-WF6300 Pressure transducer 0-10 bar 3
through but not air so that the diameter samples 28-WF6310 De-airing block 3
soil matrix potential can be con- 26-WF0346/2B 28-WF4410 Automatic volume change apparatus 1
trolled at various values: 1, 2, 5, 10 2 bar High Air Entry Stone for 100 mm 30-WF6044 Transducer extension cable, 12 m 5
and 15 bar. During a test it is pos- diameter samples
sible to load the soil specimen in 82-P9008/ELT Set of four cables 2
26-WF0346/5B 30-WF6008 Geodatalog 8, data acquisition unit 1
such a way that the overburden
pressure in the field is recreated, 5 bar High Air Entry Stone for 100 mm 30-WF6016/T13 Hydrocon SWCC Geo-Analysis Template 1
diameter samples
whilst measuring the chamber
26-WF0346/10B Alternative Pressure system for pressures up to 3500 kPa
and pore water pressure using a
pressure transducer and the verti- 10 bar High Air Entry Stone for 100 mm 28-WF4312 Oil and water constant pressure system, 3500 kPa 1
cal settlement using a linear strain diameter samples 28-WF4302/1 High viscosity oil, 5 kg 1
transducer. 26-WF0346/15B 28-WF4191 Nylon tubing, OD 8 mm / ID 6 mm, 10 m coil 1
15 bar High Air Entry Stone for 100 mm 28-WF4050/1 Normal action coupling for fitting lines to cell 1
diameter samples 28-WF6302 Pressure transducer 0-35 bar 3

51
26 SOIL MECHANICS | CONSOLIDATION
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Continuous consolidation cell


Standards ASTM D4186
ONEDIMENSIONALCONSOLIDATIONPROPERTIESOFSOILSUSINGCONTROLLEDSTRAINLOADING
TestedinaccordancewithASTMDesignationD4186
TESTREPORT

Projectlocation

26-WF0360 Projectreference
Boreholenumber
Samplenumber
Sampledepth(m)
Sampletype
Specimenorientation

Continuous consolidation cell (CRS) 1.050


Initialvoidsratio

main features 1.000

> Continuous monitoring of 0.950

test data (vertical load, pore 0.900

pressure, vertical compression)

Voidssratio()
Additional
and detailed plotting of the 0.850 AUTOTRIAX 2 software
consolidation curve for performing
0.800
fully automatic CRS
> Relatively short time to per- (constant rate of strain)
form the test: less than half the 0.750
tests is available on
time of an incremental loading request.
consolidation test
0.700
10 100 1,000
Averageeffectiveverticalstress(kPa)
10,000
See section 29
> More accurate and reliable Tested
Date
Checked
Date
Approved
Date

evaluation of consolidation and


compressibility parameters Technical specifications Accessories
> Particularly suitable for cohesi- - Specimen size: 635 x 254 mm See table for Configuration of a complete
ve saturated soils (diameter x height) test system
- Maximum working pressure: 800 kPa
- Maximum vertical load: 50 kN
- Overall dimensions: 240 x 410 mm
(approx) (diameter x height)
- Weight: 10 kg (approx)
Typical Configuration of a complete system
The purpose of the Constant Rate
of Strain (CRS) oedometer test Code Description Q.ty
is to determine the magnitude 26-WF0360 Continuous consolidation cell 1
and rate of consolidation of a soil 26-WF0360/1 Cutting ring 1
restrained laterally, drained axi- 28-WF0490 Nylon tubing,OD 6 mm / ID4 mm, 20 m coil 1
ally from the top and subjected to 28-WF0490/1 Flaring tool 1
controlled-strain loading.
28-WF4330 Triaxial panel, two way 1
The 26-WF0360 continuous con- 28-WF4330/2 Digital pressure gauge for 28-WF4330 1
solidation cell is used to perform
28-WF4320 Bladder air/water interface 2
this test, with other equipment
such as a triaxial load frame, pres- 28-WF4320/1 Spare bladder for 28-WF4320 1
sure system, data acquisition and 28-WF4005 Triaxial load frame, 50 kN capacity 1
processing components and oth- 30-WF4459 De-airing block 1
er accessories required to com- 28-WF6301 Pressure transducer, 0-20 bar 1
plete the system. See configura- 30-WF6207 Linear transducer, 10 mm travel 1
tion of a complete system. 30-WF0375/T Load cell, 50 kN capacity 1
The cell features a double cham- 28-WF4220/A De-airing tank, 7 l capacity 1
ber for two different and inde- 86-D2001 Vacuum pump 1
pendent water pressure systems,
86-D2064 Rubber tubes 2
with pore pressure measured at
the base of the specimen by a 86-D2005 Air drying unit 1
pressure transducer and drain- 86-D0819 Silica gel desiccator, 1 kg bottle 2
age connected to the top of the 28-WF4225 Valve panel for de-airing tank 1
specimen. 86-D2015 Laboratory air compressor 1
28-WF2016/2 Air filter for 86-D2015 air compressor 1
28-WF4191 Nylon tubing, OD 8 mm/ID 6 mm, 10 m 1
82-P9008/ELT Set of four cables 1
30-WF6008 Geodatalog, 8-channels data acquisition unit 1
30-WF6016/T6 CRS Geo-Analysis template 1
30-WF6044 Transducer extension cable, 12 m 3

52
SOIL MECHANICS | DIRECT/RESIDUAL SHEAR 27

Direct/residual shear testing machines


Standards

ASTM D3080 | AASHTO T236 | BS 1377:7 | NF P94 071-1/2 | CEN-ISO/TS 7982-10 Both tests can be performed, at different level of automation, with all our
Shear testing machines:
If a failure occurs in the ground (for example for deep excavations per-
formed without retaining structures), a slip circle surface is generally cre-
ated within the soil. After a first immediate general failure, the soil will sta-
27-WF2060 DIGISHEAR,
bilize, since the soil can still offer a residual strength. Different laboratory
with digital control and display of speed (see page 54)
testing methods have been developed and standardized:

27-WF2160 AUTOSHEAR,
Direct shear tests with digital speed control and data acquisition control system (see page 56)
In the traditional direct shear test the soil specimen (either undisturbed,
remoulded or compacted) is placed in a rigid metal box and subjected
to a normal constant stress. The metal box consists of two halves that 27-WF2180 SHEARMATIC,
can slide horizontally each other and will apply an increasing horizontal digital automatic version with pneumatic automatic loading by a closed-loop control
force to the lower part of the specimen while the upper part is reacting system (see page 58)
against the shearing action. From the measurement of this shearing ac-
tion the shear strength of the soil is calculated.
300
27-WF2304 SHEARMATIC 300
digital automatic version 100 kN cap with shear box assembly for 300 mm square samples
(see page 60)

Residual shear tests by the ring shear apparatus


Standards

ASTM D6467 | BS 1377:7

The ring shear apparatus, also known as Bromhead Apparatus, has been
developed to overcome the main disadvantage of the multi-reversal
shear test, where the shearing action is reversed, causing the continu-
Direct/residual shear test with cycles ous re-orientation of the soil particles.
(forward & reverse)
In the ring shear apparatus the specimen is annular shaped and subject-
The main limitation of the conventional shear box is that it is not ed to an unlimited rotational displacement from the lower part, while
possible to apply the shearing action for large displacement of the the upper part is reacting against a couple of load rings or load cells. The
soil specimen by repeating several time the shearing action on the main advantages of this test is that large displacements make reliable
same surface of the specimen already subjected to the shearing ac- the measurement of the residual strength of a soil specimen, where the
tion of the traditional direct shear test. This type of test is standard- area of contact on the shear plane is maintained constant. The disadvan-
ized as multi-reversal direct shear. tage is that the specimen is tested only under remoulded conditions.

This test can be performed with the following machine:

27-WF2202 TORSHEAR
Bromhead ring shear apparatus (see page 62)

53
27 SOIL MECHANICS | DIRECT/RESIDUAL SHEAR
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Direct/residual Shear Machine


Standards

ASTM D3080 | AASHTO T236 | BS 1377:7 |


NF P094 071-1/2 | CEN-ISO/TS 7982-10

27-WF2060
DIGISHEAR, direct/residual
shear machine
Digital control and display of speed main features
110-240 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph
> Reversible stepping motor
The DIGISHEAR machine, with for residual strength testing
digital control and display of > Infinitely variable speed drive
speed, is driven by a high resolu- from 000001 to 999999 mm/
tion stepper motor and worm min
reduction unit and can accommo- > Compact ergonomic design
date all standard-sized specimens
up to 10 cm square and 10 cm > Safety device to prevent
diameter. Vertical load is applied overload and overtravel
directly to the specimen via a > Can be fitted with
loading yoke and weight hanger, mechanical(analogue)
and can be increased by using the measuring equipment,or
counterbalanced lever-arm load- electronic with data acquisition
and processing
ing hanger which amplifies the
load by a factor of 10. The load-
ing yoke can hold up to 50 kg of
weights so that the total load on
the specimen can reach 500 N, or
5000 N when the lever-arm hang-
er is used.
The machine is supplied without Technical specifications
a shear box assembly, slotted - Speed range: adjustable from 000001 to
steel weights and load/displace- 999999 mm/min (preset via firmware)
ment measurement apparatus, - Maximum shear force: 5000 N
which can be analogue (load ring - Maximum vertical load: 500 N or 5000 N
and dial gauges), or electronic using 10:1 lever-arm device
with data acquisition and pro- - Speed drive ratio: stepper motor
cessing (load cell, displacement 1/10000 resolution
transducers and data acquisition - Horizontal travel: preset via firmware up
system). All these items have to to 20 mm
be selected and ordered sepa- - Displacement limits: controlled by
rately - see Accessories. optical safety switch
- Digital display: 4-row / 20-character
LCD Easy to operate with the membrane
keyboard
- Specimen sizes: 60 and 100 mm square;
50, 60, 635 and 100 mm diameter
Shear box
- Overall dimensions: 953 x 387 x
1180 mm (w x d x h)
- Weight: 120 kg (approx)

54
SOIL MECHANICS | DIRECT/RESIDUAL SHEAR 27

Accessories Accessories for shear box assemblies


Shear box assemblies
These shear box assemblies are designed Box code, 27- WF0215/B WF0216/B WF0217/B WF0218/B WF0219/B WF0222/B
to be used with our 27-WF2060 Digishear, Sample cutter* WF0215/B7 WF0216/B7 WF0217/B7 WF0218/B7 WF0219/B7 WF0222/B7
27-WF2160 Autoshear and 27-WF2180
Shearmatic shear testing machines Extrusion dolly* WF0215/8 WF0216/8 WF0217/8 WF0218/8 WF0219/8 WF0222/8
The box is manufactured from brass and is
designed to confine the specimen whilst Spare parts for shear box assemblies
permitting free drainage of the surroun-
ding water The complete assembly con- Box code, 27- WF0215/B WF0216/B WF0217/B WF0218/B WF0219/B WF0222/B
sists of a square box with a rigid-walled
round or square hole, with a loading pad, Loading pad WF0215/B2 WF0216/B2 WF0217/B2 WF0218/B2 WF0219/B2 WF0222/B2
base plate, 2 plain grid plates, 2 perforated
grid plates and 2 porous plates
Base plate WF0215/B3 WF0216/B3 WF0217/B3 WF0218/B3 WF0219/B3 WF0222/B3
Weight: from 25 to 4 kg (approx)
Porous plate** WF0215/4 WF0216/4 WF0217/4 WF0218/4 WF0219/4 WF0222/4
27-WF0215/B
Shear box assembly for 60 mm square Plain grid plate** WF0215/B5 WF0216/B5 WF0217/B5 WF0218/B5 WF0219/B5 WF0222/B5
specimens
Perforated grid
27-WF0216/B WF0215/B6 WF0216/B6 WF0217/B6 WF0218/B6 WF0219/B6 WF0222/B6
plate**
Shear box assembly for 100 mm square * Not supplied with the shear box They must be order separately ** Two pieces are supplied with each shear box
specimens
27-WF0217/B
Shear box assembly for 50 mm diameter 27-WF1003/ST Data acquisition 27-WF0273/A
specimens and processing system
Load ring, 5000 N capacity, with adapter Slotted steel weight, 2 kg 5 g
Note For more information on the
27-WF0218/B 30-WF6401 Geodatalog, see page 108 27-WF0274/A
Shear box assembly for 60 mm diameter Dial gauge for measuring vertical Slotted steel weight, 4 kg 5 g
specimens deformation, 10 mm travel, 0002 mm 30-WF6016/T2 27-WF0275/A
27-WF0219/B resolution
Direct and residual shear Geo-Analysis Slotted steel weight, 8 kg 10 g
Shear box assembly for 635 mm diameter 30-WF6402 template BS
specimens
27-WF0276/A
Dial gauge for measuring horizontal 30-WF6016/T9
deformation, 30 mm travel, 001 mm Slotted steel weight, 5 kg 5 g
27-WF0222/B Direct and residual shear Geo-Analysis
Shear box assembly for 100 mm diameter
resolution 27-WF0277/A
template ASTM
specimens Slotted steel weight,10 kg 10 g
Electronic measuring devices Weight sets
27-WF0377/ST 27-WF0230/C3
Mechanical (analogue)
measuring devices Load cell, 5 kN cap, complete with Weight set, 375 kg in total, comprising:
adapters 2 x 025, 2 x 05, 2 x 1, 3 x 2, 3 x 4 and 2 x 8 kg
27-WF1002/ST weights
Load ring, 2000 N capacity, with adapter, 30-WF6207
or, alternatively: Linear potentiometric transducer, 10 mm 27-WF0230/C4
travel, for vertical deformation, complete Weight set, 34 kg in total, comprising: 2 x
with mounting block 1, 1 x 2 and 3 x10 kg weights (additional)
30-WF6208 Single slotted weights
Linear potentiometric transducer, 25
27-WF0270/A
mm travel, for horizontal displacement,
complete with mounting block Slotted steel weight, 025 kg 3 g
27-WF0271/A
Note: in case displacement transducers Slotted steel weight 05 kg 3 g Slotted steel weights
and load cell are supplied complete with
data acquisition system, then a traceable
27-WF0272/A
calibration certificate is available on request Slotted steel weight, 1 kg 5 g
27-WF1002/ST
Load ring with adapter

55
27 SOIL MECHANICS | DIRECT/RESIDUAL SHEAR
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Direct/residual Shear Machine

main features
> Microprocessor-controlled drive system
> Large 240 x 128-pixel display
> Test speed, direction and cycles (up to 10) programmable using the
keyboard
> Rapid approach and automatic positioning
> Infinitely variable speed from 000001 to 1100000 mm/min
> Possibility to set different speed and direction (forward and reverse)
in the residual shear test
> Three analogue channels: one for load cell, and two for displacement
transducers, 130,000-point resolution
> Different protocols for downloading data to PC through
RS-232 serial port
> Standard load ring and dial gauges also compatible for
manual recording

Standards

ASTM D3080 | AASHTO T236 | BS 1377:7 | NF P094 071-1/2 | CEN-ISO/TS 7982-10

27-WF2160
AUTOSHEAR, direct/residual shear machine
digital control of speed and data acquisition control system
110-240 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph

The AUTOSHEAR machine is controlled by a microprocessor system


which reads and processes horizontal force and displacement readings
and manages the motor and safety limits via a closed-loop control sys-
tem.The unit provides the following important features:

- Automatic running of tests - Maximum horizontal displacement limit


- Closed-loop control of test speed (20 mm) controlled by mechanical and
optical safety switch
- Large, monochromatic, 240 x 128-pixel
graphic display for viewing and recor- - Different recording modes, including
Detail of shear box carriage made of high resistance techno-polymeric material
ding data in real time linear, exponential (square root) and
logarithmic
- Different calibration functions (linear
and polynomial) - High capacity data memory (up to 1000
lines of data)
- Language selection
- RAM memory with battery back-up with
- Travel and cycles programmable using
clock/calendar, operative even when the
a 10 button membrane keyboard
unit is switched off
with 4 specific interactive icons
- Continuous monitoring and display of
horizontal force, vertical and horizontal
displacement

56
SOIL MECHANICS | DIRECT/RESIDUAL SHEAR 27

The design of the horizontal Technical specifications Data processing software Shear box assemblies
loading system provides rigid lin- - Speed range: 000001 1100000 mm 30-WF6016/T2 For a general description and related
ear alignment of the loading ram, (preset via firmware) accessories and spares, see page 55
Direct and residual shear Geo-Analysis
shear box and force measure- - Maximum shear force: 5000 N templates conforming to BS 1377:7 Weight set
ment system, ensuring that the - Maximum vertical load: 500 N or 5000 N
30-WF6016/T9 See page 55
horizontal shearing force is trans- using 10:1 lever-arm device
mitted along the shearing plane - Speed drive ratio: stepper motor Direct shear Geo-Analysis template
Mechanical (analogue)
1/10000 resolution conforming to ASTM D3080
of the specimen. measuring devices
Techno-polymeric material of - Horizontal travel: preset via firmware up See page 55
excellent quality and high resist- to 20 mm
ance has been used for the car- - Displacement limits: controlled by
riage of the shear box. It offers optical safety switch
excellent resistance to corrosion - Maximum shear cycles: up to 10 DETERMINATIONOFSHEARSTRENGTHBYDIRECTSHEAR(inthesmallshearboxapparatus)
SetofsinglestageteststestedinaccordancewithBS1377:1990:Part7:Clause4(procedure4.5.4)
(forward and reverse)
and wear and tear, and it is resist- TESTREPORTSHEARING

ant to all chemicals found in soil - Digital: large 240 x 128 pixel display
Projectlocation EXAMPLE

specimens. The carriage is light- - Specimen sizes: 60 and 100 mm square; Projectreference 12345 Sampledepth 0.50
50, 60, 635 and 100 mm diameter Boreholenumber BH1 Sampletype Compactedcohesionless
weight and easy to clean. Samplenumber 2A Specimenorientation N/A
- Overall dimensions: 953 x 387 x 1180
The machine is supplied without mm (w x d x h) 80
load cell, transducers for hori- - Weight: 120 kg (approx) 70
zontal and vertical displacement, 60
shear box assembly and weights.
Shearstress(kPa)

50
Accessories
All these items have to be ordered 40
separately - see Accessories. Electronic measuring devices
30

The machine can also be fit- 27-WF0377/ST 20 Specimen1

ted with mechanical (analogue) Load cell, 5 kN capacity, complete with 10


Specimen2
Specimen3
measuring devices. adapters 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
The microprocessor control sys- Horizontaldisplacement(mm)

tem allows the machine to work


as an automatic stand-alone unit: 0

the test measurements (force 0.05


Changeinspecimenheight(mm)

and displacement) are directly


0.1
displayed and stored in the unit
memory according to pre-set 0.15

recording modes. The PC is only 0.2


required once the test is complet- Specimen1

ed, to download the test data via 30-WF6207 0.25 Specimen2


Specimen3
the RS-232 port. The data can be Linear potentiometric transducer, 10 mm 0.3

processed using the Direct and travel for vertical deformation, complete 0 2 4 6
Horizontaldisplacement(mm)
8 10 12

residual shear Geo-Analysis tem- with mounting block


plates - see Accessories. Tested JKW Checked Approved
Date 30/01/2013 Date Date

Example of a direct shear test processed with the 30-WF6016/T2 Geo-Analysis template (BS
standard): the top plot shows shear stress versus horizontal displacement; the bottom plot shows
change in specimen height versus horizontal displacement

30-WF6208
Linear potentiometric transducer, 25 mm
travel for horizontal displacement, comple-
te with mounting block

Note: Traceable calibration certificate is


available on request

57
27 SOIL MECHANICS | DIRECT/RESIDUAL SHEAR
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Direct/residual Shear Machine


main features
> Automatic pneumatic application of pre-set consolidation steps
(up to 50)
> Automatic test management from consolidation to failure
> No dead weights or lever-arm required
> Infinitely variable speed from 000001 to 1100000 mm/min
> Linear connection between shear box, drive unit and load cell for
transmission of the horizontal force along the shearing plane, instead
of the classic swan neck
> High-resistance techno-polymeric carriage
> Possibility to set different speeds and travel (forward and reverse) in
the residual shear tests
> Each single step of vertical pressure can be applied instantaneously or
by means of a linear ramp over a pre-set time interval

Standards

ASTM D3080 | AASHTO T236 | BS 1377:7 | NF P094 071-1/2 | CEN-ISO/TS 7982-10 The Shearmatic unit, along with the ACE Automatic oedometer and
Autotriax 2, Automatic Triaxial test system, makes up a unique equip-
27-WF2180 ment for providing complete automation of a Consolidation, Shear and
SHEARMATIC Automatic direct/residual shear machine Triaxial Soil Mechanic laboratory.
with programmable pneumatic loading 110-240 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph The unit provides the following important features:
This microprocessor-based advanced model is a stand-alone machine,
Automatic test termination: Data recording:
driven by a high-resolution stepper motor with epicyclical reduction - When a pre-set horizontal load or - Consolidation stage: vertical pressure
gear with reduced backlash. A pneumatic closed-loop system with a displacement is reached and displacement
high-performance pressure regulator is incorporated for the automatic - After a pre-set duration of the shear - Shear stage: horizontal force and
application of vertical pressure, with the main advantage that manual stage (from 1 minute to about 7 days) displacement; vertical pressure and
loading of dead weights is eliminated. displacement
Safety micro switch:
Techno-polymeric material of high quality and resistance has been - Optical for zero and end of travel Recording mode:
used for the carriage of the shear box. It offers excellent resistance to - Linear, exponential (square root) and
- Mechanical for maximum horizontal
corrosion and wear and tear, and it is resistant to all chemicals found displacement logarithmic
in soil specimens. The carriage is light-weight and easy to clean. The - At pre-set intervals of recorded data
microprocessor system reads and processes the force, vertical pressure Application of vertical load:
- Pneumatic piston with a high-resolution Recorded data capacity:
and displacement readings, and manages the motor, the pressure valve,
regulator, motor-driven via Automax - 2000 lines of data
the safety system and the test steps through the closed-loop system.
electronic board with closed-loop Blocks of memory:
It has a scratchproof membrane keyboard and a large monochromatic control via a 10 bar pressure transducer
graphic display. - Up to 25
Input channels: Communication protocol:
The machine is supplied complete with the following electronic trans-
- One for a load cell transducer with - Selectable via RS-232 serial port:
ducers: 130,000-point resolution
- 5 kN capacity load cell, bi-directional type (compression and tension), nominal - ASCII for use with Windows Hyper
- Two for potentiometric displacement Terminal or CONTROLS for use with
sensitivity 2 mV/V, accuracy 003% transducers
- 10 mm displacement transducer, 1 kOhm nominal resistance, 82-Q0800/TRM
025% linearity, 0002 mm repeatability 3 calibration modes for transducers:
- 25 mm displacement transducer, 1 kOhm nominal resistance, - 1st step linear
025% linearity, 0002 mm repeatability - 2nd degree polynomial
- 1000 kPa pressure transducer, 01 kPa accuracy, nominal sensitivity 2 mV/V - Up to 10 steps linearization

Note The Shear box assemblies have to be selected and ordered separately
The machine requires a compressed air supply of 10 bar maximum pressure
For a suitable air compressor, laboratory model, see Accessories

58
SOIL MECHANICS | DIRECT/RESIDUAL SHEAR 27

Shearmatic layout
Set up of the consolidation steps
Each row of this table represents a
pressure step which is defined by:
- Initial pressure (set point) that
is equal to the pressure of the
previous step
- Final pressure (target) will be rea-
ched automatically at a constant rate
- Pre-set time to pass from initial to final pressure
For example, rows 3 and 4 of this table mean that:
- The pressure will be increased instantaneously (time = 0) from 100 to 300 kPa
- The pressure of 300 kPa will be maintained for the time of consolidation (in this case
500 minutes)

1 Stepper motor 7 Vertical displacement transducer


2 Horizontal loading assembly 8 Horizontal displacement transducer Direct shear test
3 Compressed air supply 9 Shear box This screen shows the status of and
4 Proportional valve to control the 10 Load cell information about the test, and
vertical load 11 Machine frame displays real-time values of:
5 Vertical loading assembly 12 Control console - Horizontal force
6 Vertical load air pressure transducer - Vertical pressure (maintained
constant)
- Horizontal displacement
- Vertical displacement
Technical specifications 28-WF2016/2
- Motor: high-accuracy stepper motor Air filter/water trap for air compressor
1/10000 resolution

- Test speed: infinitely variable from Data processing software    
000001 to 1100000 mm/min 30-WF6016/T2 d^dZWKZd

- Maximum horizontal force: 5 kN Direct and residual shear Geo-Analysis 


- Maximum vertical force: 8 kN = 800 kPa templates conforming to BS 1377:7

 

  

on a 100 x100 mm square specimen
- Maximum shear cycles: 10 (forward and
30-WF6016/T9

reverse) Direct shear Geo-Analysis template 

- Maximum travel: 20 mm conforming to ASTM D3080 



- Maximum air pressure supply: 10 bar
s

Serial comunication box


- Maximum working air pressure: 8 bar
- RS-232 serial port
27-WF2180/LINK

- Overall dimensions: 973 x 421 x 427 mm 4 channels serial communication box (4

(wxdxh) input and 1 output) for the multi-connec-


tion of up to 4 shear testing machine to PC
- Weight: 100 kg (approx)
for data downloading

Note: its required when more than one unit



are connected to a single PC
d
Accessories
Shear box assemblies
See page 55


Air compressors
86-D2015
^W

Laboratory air compressor, 10 bar maxi-

mum pressure, 50 litre capacity, 230 V,


50 Hz, 1 ph Example of a direct shear test
86-D2015/Z processed with the 30-WF6016/T9

As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph Geo-Analysis template (ASTM standard):


86-D2015/Y the top plot shows the consolidation 


(vertical deformation versus time);
As above but 220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph the bottom plot shows the shearing (shear


stress versus relative lateral displacement) Z

59
27 SOIL MECHANICS | DIRECT/RESIDUAL SHEAR
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

300
Large Shear testing machine
main features
> Ideal for testing shale, industrial slag, brick rubble, and colliery
spoils
> Sample size 150 and 300 mm square
> 100 kN vertical pressure and horizontal force
> Infinitely variable speed control from 000001 to 1100000 mm/min
> Automatic hydraulic application of pre-set consolidation steps (up to 50)
> Automatic test management from consolidation to failure
> Linear connection between shear box, drive unit and load cell for
transmission of the horizontal force along the shearing plane
> Possibility to set different speeds and travel (forward and reverse) in
the residual shear tests
> Each single step of axial force can be applied instantaneously or by
means of a linear ramp over a pre-set time interval

Standards

ASTM D3080 | AASHTO T236 | BS 1377:7 | NF P094 071-1/2 | By using a large sample it is pos-
CEN-ISO/TS 7982-10 sible to gain a more representa-
tive indication of shear strength.
27-WF2304 Furthermore, the large shear box
SHEARMATIC 300, large automatic shear box apparatus can be used to obtain the angle
100 kN capacity, with shear box assembly for 300 mm square samples 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph of friction between many materi-
27-WF2304/Z als. Particular applications include
As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph the construction of earth dams
and other embankment work.
The SHEARMATIC 300 automatic machine is ideal for soil and other ma- The machine includes a shear box, one 100 kN load cell and two lin-
terials that contain large particles of up to 20 mm largest dimension. ear potentiometric transducers, 100 and 50 mm travel, with mounting
Sample sizes up to 300 mm square can be tested, with inserts also al- brackets.
lowing the testing of smaller sample sizes
Vertical pressure for consolidating the sample is applied and controlled
by an automatically programmable closed-loop hydraulic system and Technical specifications Accessories
horizontal deformation is driven by a high-resolution stepper motor. - Sample size: up to 300 mm square 27-WF2304/1
The machine is entirely managed by the software of a microprocessor Can be reduced to 150 mm using
27-WF2304/1 150 mm sample insert 150 mm square sample insert for
unit that reads and processes the force, vertical pressure and displace- 300 mm shearbox
See Accessories
ment readings, and manages the motor, the vertical hydraulic loading
system and the test steps, through closed-loop systems. The user inter- - Shear and vertical force: 100 kN Data processing software
face is a ten-key scratchproof membrane keyboard with large mono- - Speed range: infinitely variable from
000001 to 1100000 mm/min 30-WF6016/T2
chromatic graphic display. Direct and residual shear Geo-
- Maximum travel: 75 mm
The machine works as an automatic stand-alone unit: the test meas- - Consolidation steps: up to 50 Analysis templates conforming to BS
urements (horizontal and vertical force and displacement) are directly 1377:7
- Data acquisition: RS-232 serial port
displayed and stored in the units memory according to the pre-set re- for use with Direct and residual Geo-
cording modes. The PC is only required once the test is completed, to Analysis templates (see Accessories) 30-WF6016/T9
download the test data via the RS-232 port. The data can be processed - Power rating: 2000 W Direct shear Geo-Analysis template
using the 30-WF6016/T2 or 30-WF6016/T9 Direct and residual shear - Overall dimensions: 1470 x 758 x conforming to ASTM D3080
Geo-Analysis templates - see Accessories. 1570 mm approx (w x d x h)
- Weight: 800 kg (approx)

60
SOIL MECHANICS | DIRECT/RESIDUAL SHEAR 27

Consolidation bench Laboratory Vane Apparatus


27-WF0226 Standards
Consolidation bench ASTM D4648 | BS 1377:7
for shear boxes
Where only one direct shear machine is available, this bench can be 27-WF1730
used to maintain constant loads on up to three shear box specimens, Laboratory vane apparatus
in order to reduce the testing time when more than one sample has to The laboratory vane apparatus is
be tested. based on an original concept of
It consists of a steel frame with three locating plates, three loading yokes the Transport and Road Research
and weight hangers, and three lever-arm loading hangers which can Laboratory of the United King-
be used to extend the range of applied pressure by 10:1. The frame dom. It can be used with a wide
can hold up to 3 shear boxes and requires displacement transducers range of vane sizes, although
or dial gauges to measure the settlement and a set of weights to ap- as standard, it is sold with the
ply the load. It is suitable for all standard shear boxes, 27-WF0215/B to 12.7 mm square vane and a set
27-WF0222/B (not included). of four calibrated springs. The test
can be performed directly on the m a i n f e at u r e s
sample or on a sample contained
in a sampling tube. In this case > Manual or motorized versions
available
the 27-WF1736 attachment for 38
and 100 mm diameter sampling > Lightweight, compact and
tubes should be used - see Acces- portable, ideal for site or main
sories. laboratory
> Convenient and rapid method of
- A motorizing unit is also available determining shear strength of soft
- Weight: 11 kg (approx) soils

Accessories
Alternative vanes
27-WF1732
Vane 254 x 254 mm
27-WF1733
Technical specifications Accessories
Vane 127 x 254 mm
- 3 loading yokes and hangers Mechanical (analogue) 27-WF1734
- 3 lever-arm loading devices with a load measuring devices Vane 127 x 190 mm
amplification ratio of 10:1 30-WF6401
Sampling tube holding attachment.
- Holds up to 3 shear boxes Dial gauge,10 mm travel, 0002 mm
27-WF1736 27-WF1730/2
- Dimensions: 2310 x 500 x 1215 mm resolution:
(w x d x h) Attachment to hold sample tubes of 38
Electronic measuring devices
27-WF1730/3
- Weight: 120 kg (approx) and 100 mm diameter
Motorizing attachment to convert
30-WF6207 27-WF1730 apparatus, including drive
Linear potentiometric transducer, 10 mm belt, pulley set and fixing studs Testing
travel speed 60 to 90/min, conforming to ASTM
D4648 240 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph
Data acquisition 27-WF1730/3Y
and processing system As above but 220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
27-WF1736 27-WF1730/4
Note For more information on the
Geodatalog and Geo-Analysis templates, see Motorizing attachments As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
page 108
27-WF1730/2 Spares
Motorizing attachment to convert 27-
Weight sets/Slotted steel weights WF1730 apparatus, including drive belt, 27-WF1731
See page 55 pulley set and fixing studs Testing speed Spare vane 127 x 127 mm
6 to 12/min, conforming to BS 1377:7 27-WF1735
240 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph
Spare set of four calibrated springs
27-WF1730/2Y
As above but 220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph

61
27 SOIL MECHANICS | DIRECT/RESIDUAL SHEAR
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Ring Shear Apparatus


main features
> Microprocessor controlled
drive system
> Speed range adjustable from
0001 to 180/min
> Rapid approach without any
limit of rotation
> Two measurement options:
mechanical with load rings and
dial gauge, and electronic with
data acquisition, using load
cells, displacement transducer
and Geodatalog data acquisi-
tion system

27-WF2202 with accessories


for electronic measurement option

Standards ASTM D6467 | BS 1377:7

27-WF2202
TORSHEAR, Bromhead ring shear apparatus.
110-240V, 50-60Hz, 1ph

The TORSHEAR machine is dedicated to the determination of the residual shear strength. The
residual shear strength of soils is sometimes also termed the ultimate shear strength. This is the
strength of soil when it is sheared to large displacements, for example along the failure plane
of a landslide or in a fault zone.
A remoulded specimen is used to determine the residual shear properties of the soil. A slip sur-
face is formed in the test specimen as part of the test procedure. It can also be useful to know
what sort of value the residual shear strength of an intact soil can have, because this (when
taken in conjunction with the peak shear strength of the same soil) indicates its brittleness or
susceptibility to progressive failure. Soils with high brittleness need to be used with caution,
in engineering works such as embankments, or if they cannot be removed, for example in a
natural slope. In the unfortunate event of a slope failure occurring, the general scale of dis-
placement will depend on the magnitude of the brittleness.

62
SOIL MECHANICS | DIRECT/RESIDUAL SHEAR 27

Typical arrangement of ring shear apparatus

Ring shear (operating principle) Vertical force


Loading pad
Porous plate with
Section view Water bath rough surface
Fixed upper
ring Rotation continues until the
Lower part of cell Sample
Annular resistance value remains
Rotating sample constant Porous plate with
lower ring Ball race rough surface
Driving gear to
rotate lower
Plan view cell
Resistance

Torsion beam
Torque reaction

Torque reaction
Measurement
Resistance
L

The TORSHEAR apparatus tests Technical specifications 30-WF6016/T16


the residual shear strength of re- - Speed range: 0001 to 180/min Ring shear Geo-Analysis template
moulded soil samples. The main - Maximum shear stress: 500 kPa conforming to ASTM 6467
advantage of this method, when
- Maximum vertical stress:
compared to using a shearbox 1000 kPa (lever ratio 10:1) Mechanical (analogue)
apparatus, is that the shearing is - Specimen dimensions: area 40 cm2 measuring devices
continuous with a constant area. (internal diameter 70 mm, external 27-WF2202/1
This method allows the field diameter 100 mm), thickness 5 mm Pair of matched load rings, 1 kN capacity
conditions to be recreated in the - Power rating: 570 W
laboratory, giving very accurate 30-WF6401
- Overall dimensions: 770 x 400 x 750 mm
residual shear strength values. Detail of linear potentiometric transducer with (excluding lever) (w x d x h) Dial gauge 10 mm travel, 0002 mm
mounting block resolution
The sample is loaded vertically - Weight: 725 kg (approx)
between two porous stones by a Weights for vertical load
counterbalanced lever arm load-
can be connected to the GEODA- Accessories 27-WF2202/2
ing system with a ratio of 10:1.
The base of the cell and lower TALOG for data acquisition and Electronic measuring devices Set of slotted steel weights, total 50 kg
platen are rotated by means of a processing See Accessories. 27-WF2202/3 Stand (optional)
variable speed motor, while rota- Using the waterproof membrane Pair of load cells, 1 kN capacity, with
tion of the upper part of the cell keyboard and the LCD 4-row / 27-WF2202/4
adapters
is restrained by a pair of match- 20-character display, it is possible Metal stand for 27-WF2202 apparatus
ing load rings or load cells which to set the speed in degrees/min 30-WF6207
measure the torque transmitted and position the sample using Spares
Linear potentiometric transducer, 10 mm
to the sample. the fast approach function. The travel, complete with mounting block 27-WF2202/5
The settlement of the upper test can be stopped using the Pair of porous stones
Note: in case displacement transducers
platen during consolidation and keyboard or by setting a time or and load cell are supplied complete with
shear can be monitored using rotation limit. data acquisition system, then a traceable
a sensitive dial gauge or linear Dial gauges or linear transducers, calibration certificate is available on request
transducer mounted on the top load rings or cells and weights are Data acquisition and processing
of the loading yoke. A linear trans- not included and have to be or- system
ducer and strain gauge load cells dered separately - see Accessories. Note For more information on the
Geodatalog, see page 108

30-WF6016/T3
Ring shear Geo-Analysis template
conforming to BS 1377:7

63
Soil Mechanics


28 Triaxial testing
29 Automatic triaxial testing
30 Data acquisition system
26 Consolidation 44

27 Direct/residual shear 56

31 Dynamic testing systems 112

The triaxial tests are performed to determine the stress-strain relation of a soil specimen subjected
to different strain levels and drainage conditions. We propose various models of triaxial load frames, triaxial
cells and all related accessories. Section 29 concerns the AUTOTRIAX 2, Automatic triaxial system, the
advanced apparatus to control up to six independent systems and the section 30 concerns the Data acquisi-
tion systems for geotechnical tests.

28 Triaxial testing
Introduction 66
29 Introduction
AUTOTRIAX 2
96
Types of triaxial test: test description 68 Data acquisition and control unit 98
Triaxial load frame 70 Pressure and volume controller 100
Banded triaxial cell and accessories 75 Air pressure controller and water volume
Standard triaxial cell and accessories 78 change for unsaturated testing 101
Double-Wall triaxial cell for unsaturated 80 Triaxial test automatic control
Pressure system 82 and processing software 102
De-Airing water system 84 Typical configurations 106
Analogue measurement for triaxial system 86
Electronic measurement for traixial system 88
Bender elements 90 30 GEODATALOG
Data acquisition system
8, Data acquisition system 108
Local strain transducers 92
Calibration equipment 110
Specimen consolidation 93
Determination of permeability of normal
and contaminated soil sample 94
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

65
28 SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Introduction
Investigation of stress-strain relationships in soil is usually carried This section contains descriptions of different testing solutions and
out with triaxial tests where undisturbed, remoulded or compact- details of the equipment required to carry out the various types of
ed specimens are subjected to different stress level sand drainage triaxial test in manual, semi-automatic or automatic mode.
conditions to simulate as closely as possible the different situa- A summary table is presented below in order to help the user to
tions that can occur in the subsoil on site and the possible effects select the right equipment, from basic manual systems up to fully
of construction, excavations, embankments, landslides, etc. automatic advanced solutions.

Test mode Applications Standards Test equipment required


Manual with analogue Total stress: UU (Unconsolidated Undrained) ASTM 2850 / 4767 / D7181 / D5084 Triaxial load frame
measurement system Analogue measuring system:
Effective stress: CU, CD (Consolidated - Axial strain dial gauge
Undrained, Consolidated Drained) BS 1377:6 / 7 / 8 - Load measuring ring
- Pore water pressure
Permeability
CEN-ISO/TSI 17892-8 / 9 / 11 - Double burette measuring volume change
Triaxial cell with accessories (standard or banded)
Pressure system
NF P94 070 /P94 074 De-airing system
Geo-Analysis processing templates

Manual with electronic As above plus: ASTM 2850 / 4767 / D7181 / D5084 Triaxial load frame
measurement system Unsaturated Electronic measuring system:
- Displacement transducer
BS 1377:6 / 7 / 8 - External / submersible load cell
- Pore pressure transducer
CEN-ISO/TSI 17892-8 / 9 / 11 - Volume change device
Triaxial cell with accessories (standard, banded
or double-wall unsaturated cell)
NF P94 070 /P94 074 Pressure system
De-airing system
Data acquisition system
Geo-Analysis processing templates

Automatic (PC- controlled) As above plus: ASTM 2850 / 4767 / D7181 / D5084 Triaxial load frame
with digital measurement Stress path Digital measuring system:
system AUTOTRIAX-2 - Displacement transducer
BS 1377:6 / 7 / 8 - External / submersible load cell
- Pore pressure transducer
CEN-ISO/TSI 17892-8 / 9 / 11 Triaxial cell with accessories (standard, banded
or double-wallunsaturated cell)
Pressure/volume controller
NF P94 070 /P94 074 De-airing system
Data acquisition and control units
Triaxial test automatic control
and processing software

66
SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING 28

Page General system layout schematic


70 De-Aired Water
86 Compressed Air
00 kPa

De-Aired Water
Load Ring Compressed Air
Transducer
Dial Gauge connections
Pore Pressure
Double Panel Measurement

78/80
82
84 Double Burette Pressure
109 Transducer

Load Frame

Bladder

70 De-Aired Water
Compressed Air
88 00 kPa

De-Aired Water
Volume change External
load cell Compressed Air
Transducer
connections
Displacement LAN
Double Panel
transducer

78/80/84 BY PASS

82 Pressure
Transducer
84
108
109
GEODATALOG 8

Load Frame

Bladder

70 De-Aired Water

88
De-Aired Water
Displacement Compressed Air
transducer Transducer
connections
LAN
Submersible
load cell
78/80/84
100
84 Pressure
Transducer
98
102 Data acquisition
and control unit

AUTOTRIAX2
Pressure/volume controller Pressure/volume controller
Load Frame
HUB

67
28 SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Types of triaxial test: test descriptions


Total stress - Unconsolidated Undrained (UU) test
a = porous stone
ASTM D2850, BS 1377:7, CEN-1SO/TS17892-8, NF P94 070, NF P94 074 b = rubber membrane
c = cell fluid
With this method the shear strength is measured in terms of total stress. Piston
The soil specimen is not allowed to consolidate and maintains its origi-
nal structure and water content, so that its compressive strength de-
pends only on the level of geostatic stress in the field.
Tests are often carried out on three specimens from the same sample, Lateral pressure
each subjected to a different confining pressure. Provided that the soil
SOIL
is fully saturated, the shear strength will be the same for each test and is
known as "undrained shear strength".

Effective stress - Consolidated Undrained (CU) test


ASTM D4767, BS 1377:8, CEN-1SO/TS17892-9, NF P94 070, NF P94 074
Piston
With this test method the shear strength is measured in terms of effec-
tive stress. The specimen is saturated and allowed to consolidate (i.e.
to change its structure and water content) at the required confining
pressure. At the end of consolidation, the specimen is subjected to a
controlled application of load, during which no drainage is allowed and Lateral pressure
pore pressure is measured. The effective stresses are calculated as the
difference between the total stress and the pore pressure. SOIL

Since the shear strength is affected by the effective stresses, by testing


No drainage
a set of three specimens at different confining pressures, it is possible to
define the failure envelope according to Coulombs model and define
the parameters c and . Pore pressure (transducer)

Effective stress- Consolidated Drained (CD) test


ASTM D7181, BS 1377:8, CEN-1SO/TS17892-9, NF P94 070, NF P94 074 Piston
This test method is the same as the CU test except that the failure stage is
carried out very slowly to prevent any change in the pore pressure inside
the specimen, which is allowed to drain. Calculation of the total and effec-
tive stresses and failure envelope are also the same as for the CU. Lateral pressure

SOIL

Drainage

Pore pressure (transducer)

Stress path test q Unloading Loading

Events on site such as excavation, construction or natural oc- -dsr +dsa


currences can produce changes in the magnitude and ratio of
the principal stresses (major and minor). In a stress path test the
horizontal and vertical pressures applied to the specimen are Active wall
Foundation

managed independently, which allows the behaviour of a soil Compression


subjected to anisotropic loading and unloading to be replicated p
Extension
and measured in the laboratory. Excavation

This test can only be accurately and reliably performed with an Passive wall

automatic servo-controlled closed-loop system.


-dsa +dsr

-q

68
SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING 28

Permeability test in a triaxial cell


ASTM D5084, BS 1377:6,CEN-ISO/TS17892-11
Piston
The triaxial permeability test involves saturating and consolidating the
specimen to the required effective stress in the same way as for a CD or
CU test, but instead of a failure stage, water is allowed to flow through
the specimen under a pre-defined difference of pressure and the rate
of flow is measured. From this measurement the soil permeability is
Lateral pressure
calculated.
Three independent pressure systems are used for the test; for the con- SOIL
fining pressure, the drainage line to the top of the specimen and the
drainage line to the base of the specimen. Upper drainage

Pore pressure
Lower drainage (transducer)

Unsaturated soil test


An unsaturated testing system is used when effective stress testing is
required that recreates in-situ conditions of specimens that exist in a
naturally unsaturated state (for example soil that is higher than the wa-
ter table). Inner cell
In an unsaturated soil, the voids between soil particles are filled with

SAMPLE
both air and water, and surface tension forces create a negative pore
water pressure (or suction) which pulls the soil particles together and
External cell
increases the strength of the soil. Saturating the soil (replacing the air
in the voids with water) results in a positive pore water pressure which
pushes the soil particles apart and reduces the overall strength. Because
of this, it is not desirable to saturate unsaturated or partially saturated
material, but neither can it be tested using conventional triaxial systems High Air Entry
Stone
because the negative suction causes problems with the equipment.
The solution to this problem is to use what is known as the axis transla-
tion method, which involves applying an air pressure via the top cap (in Air Pressure
the same way as a water back pressure in a saturated test). This raises
the pressure inside the sample to a positive value which, in turn, applies
a positive pressure to the porous stone and to the pore water pressure
transducer.
A special triaxial cell is used for the test, with a double wall which allows
the total change in sample volume to be measured, and a high air entry
stone in the base pedestal that allows water to pass but not air.
Using the axis translation method with the double-wall cell allows effec-
Volume change Volume change
tive stress testing to be carried out on unsaturated material.
measurement measurement

Cell Pressure Pore Pressure Back Pressure

69
28 SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Triaxial load frames


common main features
28-WF4005, 28-WF4005/4C,
28-WF4010 and 28-WF4010/4C
> Designed for soil testing laboratories to
perform UU, CU, CD and stress path*
(compression/extension) tests
> Suitable for automatic PC-controlled
triaxial testing (see AUTORIAX 2 system)*
> Allows dynamic tests to be performed
when fitted with a suitable actuator (see
Dynatriax system)*
> Maximum compression capacity: 50 kN
or 100 kN
> Speed range from 000001 to 9999999
mm/min
> Maximum sample diameter (for triaxial
testing): 150 mm
> The quality of the design avoids vibrations
that may affect the specimen or measure-
ments accuracy
> Ideal solution for advanced and research
laboratories that require high productivity
and high quality testing
> High-contrast 4 x 20-character display
with 6-key membrane keyboard*
> Very wide variable speed range suitable
to perform also unconfined, CBR and
Marshall tests
28-WF4005 28-WF4010
* Only for model without built in data acquisition

Standards

BS 598 | BS 1377: 4 | BS 1377:7 | BS 1377:8 | ASTM D1559 | ASTM D1883 | ASTM 28-WF4005 and 28-WF4010, en through the RS 232 serial port,
D2166 | ASTM D2850 | ASTM D4767 | ASTM D5581 | ASTM D6927 | ASTM D7181| NF 50 and 100 kN cap. in order to operate under load or
P94 070 | NF P94 074 | NF P94-078 | NF P98-251 | CEN- ISO/TS 17892-9 | CEN- ISO/ The models 28-WF4005 - 50 kN displacement closed loop control.
TS 17892-8 | EN 12697-34 | EN 13286-47 capacity and 28-WF4010 - 100 These two models can also be
kN capacity can be used either equipped with a pneumatic ac-
as parts of a computer-controlled tuator to perform both static and
WYKEHAM FARRANCEs electro-mechanical TRITECH machines are the
automatic testing system or as dynamic testing.
original high-performance load frames for triaxial tests. Introduced by the high-performance units under
company over 50 years ago, they have undergone continuous develop- manual control with an external
ment and are the ideal solution for advanced and research laboratories data acquisition. In manual mode
that want to perform high quality tests at high levels of productivity. the user-friendly keyboard on the
Based on heavy duty triaxial load frames, with advanced electronics and front panel allows to manage all
the frames functions, including
high quality components, these frames are the top of the range currently
rapid approach facility that reduc-
available for triaxial testing on soils. The load frames are built around a es test set-up time. For efficient
robust twin chromed-column structure, ensuring extremely high rigidity. use the last settings are stored
The loading platen is made from stainless steel. and automatically recalled after
Four models are available depending on the max capacity and if equipped switch on and micro switches
or not with a built-in data acquisition. prevent over-travel problems.
In the Automatic PC-controlled
triaxial systems the frame is driv-

70
SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING 28

additional features
28-WF4005/4C and 28-WF4010/4C
(models with 4 built-in channels data acquisition)

> Data acquisition by 4 in-built channels


> Double control mode including machine
and data acquisition via local touch screen
display or from remote PC (not included)
and software (included)
> USB port to connect a memory stick
(included with the machine) for test data
storage
> Effective sampling rate up to 50 / sec
> LAN communication
> Automatic test start and stop according
preset conditions
> Wide 57'' waterproof touch screen color
graphic display allowing machine control,
live on screen data plot and tabulation
> Local and remote transducers calibration
through the dedicated software
> Graphical and Numerical display of
readings

28-WF4005/4C 28-WF4010/4C

28-WF4005/4C, The touch screen display is ex-


28-WF4010/4C, tremely versatile to start, pause
50 and 100 kN cap., and stop the test, to set up data
4 channels built-in data recording mode, to show live
acquisition. readings of the transducers in real
The models 28-WF 4005/4C 50 time and to perform calibrations.
kN capacity and 28-WF4010/4C In addition a LAN connection and
100 kN capacity are fitted with 4 a dedicated software (included
built-in channels and data acqui- with the machine) allows remote
sition, to be used either in stand- control from the PC.
alone mode or connected to a PC. In remote control mode the soft-
These load frames are equipped ware allows the user to control
with a wide user friendly touch the main functions via PC as well
screen display, side mounted and as to calibrate the channels with
very ergonomic allowing local linear, polynomial and multi-co- Detail of the Tritech legendary gearbox The system is designed to minimize the vibration and allow
efficient calibration mode, and to smooth transmission
control of the main functions and
data acquisition. display the readings (figures and
In each model the panel and dis- plots).
play are protected from water and
dust by a waterproof membrane.

71
28 SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Triaxial load frames (continued)


Models 28-WF4005 28-WF4010 28-WF4005/4C 28-WF4010/4C
4 built-in channels - -
Maximum sample diameter, mm 150 150 150 150
Minimum testing speed, mm/min 000001 000001 000001 000001
Maximum testing speed, mm/min 9999999 9999999 9999999 9999999
Maximum compression force, kN 50 100 50 100
Maximum tensile force, kN 5 5 5 5
Minimum vertical clearance, mm 335 390 335 390
Maximum vertical clearance, mm 1100 1140 1100 1140
Horizontal clearance, mm 364 498 364 498
Platen diameter, mm 158 158 158 158
Platen travel, mm 100 100 100 100
Dimensions, mm (h x w x d) (approx) 1460 x 505 x 380 1830 x 600 x 520 1460 x 655 x 380 1830 x 750 x 520
Power, W 600 680 600 680
Weight, kg (approx) 98 120 98 120

Ordering information Accessories


28-WF4005 A complete range of parts and accessories
is available from WYKEHAM FARRANCE to
TRITECH50, Triaxial load frame 50 kN, configure these machines for any typical
220-110 V / 50-60 Hz / 1 ph triaxial soil testing application

28-WF4010 Triaxial cells see page 75, 78


Measurement instruments see page 86, 88
TRITECH100, Triaxial load frame 100 kN, Pressure systems see page 82
220-110 V / 50-60 Hz / 1 ph Water de-airing system see page 84
Data acquisition
and processing see pag 108
28-WF4005/4C
TRITECH50 4 channels, Triaxial load fra-
me 50 kN with 4 built-in data acquisition Note: see our web site for the list of
channels, 220-110 V / 50-60 Hz / 1 ph accessories to perform CBR, Marshall and
Unconfined tests with TRITECH

28-WF4010/4C
TRITECH100 4 channels, Triaxial load
frame 100 kN with 4 built-in
Detail of the adjustable 57 touchscreen color graphic display data acquisition channels, 220-110 V /
50-60 Hz / 1 ph

The touchscreen controller is


Load frame case
mounted on an ergonomic,
multi-jointed support that allows
Platen its position to be adjusted in four
Column a different ways:
- changing the height of the
support
- rotating the support (a)
- swiveling the touchscreen (b)
c - tilting the touchscreen (c)

72
SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING 28

Triaxial Load frames


common main features
28-WF 4001 and 28-WF4001/4C models

> Designed for soil testing laboratories to perform


UU, CU and CD triaxial tests on samples from 38
to 70 mm dia.
> Also suitable for a wide range of other tests such
as unconfined, CBR and Marshall tests
> Maximum load frame capacity: 50 kN
> Speed range from 0.00001 to 50.8 mm/min
> Large High-contrast 4 x 20-character display
and 6-keys membrane keyboard*
> Maximum sample diameter (for triaxial testing):
70 mm
> Ideal solution for small laboratories that need
a very versatile machine suitable to perform a
wide range of tests
* Only for model without built in data acquisition

additional features
28-WF4001/4C
(model with 4 built-in channels data acquisition)

> Double control mode including machine and


data acquisition via local touch screen display
or from remote PC (not included) and software
(included)
28-WF4001 28-WF4001/4C > USB port to connect a memory stick (included
with the machine) for test data storage
> Effective sampling rate up to 50 / sec
Standards
> LAN communication
BS 598 | BS 1377: 4 | BS 1377:7 | BS 1377:8 | ASTM D1559 | ASTM D1883 | ASTM D2166 | ASTM D2850 |
> Automatic test start and stop according preset
conditions
ASTM D4767 | ASTM D5581 | ASTM D6927 | ASTM D7181| NF P94 070 | NF P94 074 | NF P94-078 | NF P98-251 |
CEN- ISO/TS 17892-9 | CEN- ISO/TS 17892-8 | EN 12697-34 | EN 13286-47 > Wide 5.7'' waterproof touch screen color
graphic display allowing machine control, live
on screen data plot and tabulation
WYKEHAM FARRANCEs electro-mechanical TRIAX machines have been specifically designed for
triaxial applications and are ideal for commercial laboratories that need a versatile machine ca- > Local and remote transducers calibration throu-
gh the dedicated software
pable of performing a wide range of tests. The load frame is built around a robust twin chromed-
> Graphical and Numerical display of readings.
column structure, ensuring extremely high rigidity up to 50 kN.

Two versions are available: both panel allows to manage all 28-WF4001/4C tions and data acquisition.
50 kN capacity, with or without the frames functions, includ- The model 28-WF4001/4C The panel and display are pro-
built-in data acquisition: ing rapid approach facility that is fitted with 4 built-in chan- tected from water and dust by
28-WF4001 reduces test set-up time. For nels and data acquisition, to a waterproof membrane
The model 28-WF4001 re- efficient use the last settings be used either in stand-alone The touch screen display is
quires an external data ac- are stored and automatically mode or connected to a PC. identical to that one fitted to
quisition unit or can be fitted recalled after switch on and This load frame is equipped the 28-WF4005/4C model.
with analogical measurement micro switches prevent over- with a wide user friendly touch
system. travel problems screen display, side mounted
In manual mode, the user- and very ergonomic allowing
friendly keyboard on the front local control of the main func-
73
28 SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Triaxial Load frames (continued)


Model 28-WF4001 28-WF4001/4C
4 built-in channels
Maximum sample diameter, mm 70 70
Minimum testing speed, mm/min 000001 000001
Maximum testing speed, mm/min 508 508
Maximum load frame capacity, kN 50 50
Minimum vertical clearance, mm 390 390
Maximum vertical clearance, mm 725 725
Horizontal clearance, mm 380 380
Platen diameter, mm 158 158
Platen travel, mm 100 100
Dimensions, mm ( h x w x d) (approx) 1250 x 495 x 495 1250 x 645 x 495
Power, W 600 600
Weight, kg (approx) 90 90

Ordering information

28-WF4001
TRIAX, Triaxial load frame 50 kN, 220-110
V / 50-60 Hz / 1 ph

28-WF4001/4C
TRIAX 4 channels, Triaxial load frame 50
kN, 220-110 V / 50-60 Hz / 1 ph

Accessories
A complete range of parts and accessories
is available from WYKEHAM FARRANCE to
configure these machines for any typical
triaxial soil testing application

Triaxial cells see page 75, 78


Measurement instruments see page 86, 88
Pressure system see page 82
Water de-airing systems see page 84
Data acquisition
and processing see page 108

Note: see our web site for the list of


accessories to perform CBR, Marshall and
Unconfined tests with TRIAX

74
SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING 28

Banded triaxial cells and accessories


Standards

ASTM D2850 | ASTM D4767 | ASTM 7181 | BS 1377:8 | BS 1377:9 | CEN-ISO/TS 17892-8-9 | NF P94 070 | NF P94 074

The cell essentially consists of a transparent chamber which is banded to prevent excessive expansion during - Maximum working pressure of 2000 kPa
the test. or 3500 kPa (28-WF4070 model only)
- Separate cell chamber clamping
The design of the cell ensures vertical alignment of the loading ram by clamping the Perspex wall separately prevents over stressing chamber and
from the cell top. ensures correct alignment
The cell has to be completed with a pedestal, top cap (standard or vacuum) and other accessories conforming - Light alloy construction with stainless
to the specimen size. The cells can be fitted not only with accessories of the nominal size, but also with those of steel ram and O-ring seal
smaller sizes (e.g. the 28-WF4070 70 mm cell can be adapted to test specimens with diameters of 38 and 50 mm). - Built-in ram clamp
- Includes rod and rest for strain dial
28-WF4070 to 28-WF4150 cells can be fitted with an upgrading kit so that tests can be performed using local gauge or displacement transducer
strain transducers and bender elements. - Five on/off no-volume-change valves
See Upgrading options. fitted as standard
- For samples with diameters of 38, 50,
70, 100 and 150 mm
- Chamber height is suitable for submersi-
Specifications ble load cells
- Rapid assembly design
Product code 28- WF4050 WF4070 WF4100 WF4150
- Designed to accommodate a specimen
Nominal sample diameter, mm 50 70 100 150 with a height twice its diameter
Sample diameter range, mm 38 to 50 38 to 70 38 to100 38 to150 - Models 28-WF4070, 28-WF4100 and
Maximum working pressure, kPa 2000 3500 2000 2000 28-WF4150 can be used to perform
stress path and dynamic testing, using a
Maximum cell height, mm 410 550 600 710 vacuum attachment with the appropria-
Cell diameter, mm (inc. valves) 350 400 440 520 te pedestal and top cap
Weight, kg (approx.) 7 18 21 40 - Models 28-WF4070, 28-WF4100 and
28-WF4150 can be upgraded with an
No. of inlet points 5 (for top drainage/back pressure, cell pressure and base drainage/pore pressure) advanced kit to make them compatible
Attachment for vacuum top cap for _ with local strain transducers and bender
extension tests elements

Upgrading option for use of local strain _ Ordering information


transducers and bender elements 28-WF 28-WF 28-WF
4070/ADV 4100/ADV 4150/ADV 28-WF4050
Effective stress/Total stress testing Banded triaxial cell for samples up to 50
Stress path testing _ mm diameter

Dynamic testing _
28-WF4070
Banded triaxial cell for samples up to 70
mm diameter
28-WF4100
Banded triaxial cell for samples up to 100
mm diameter
28-WF4150
Banded triaxial cell for samples up to 150
mm diameter

Note: Pedestals, top caps, porous discs,


rubber membranes, O-rings etc are not
included - see Accessories

28-WF4150, 28-WF4100, 28-WF4070 and 28-WF4050

75
28 SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Accessories
Triaxial cell pedestals
Each cell has to be fitted with a pedestal corresponding to the size of the specimens to
be tested Using specific adaptive pedestals it is possible to test specimens with different
diameters in the same triaxial cell - see the table below

Banded triaxial cell product code


Diameter, mm 28-WF4050 28-WF4070 28-WF4100 28-WF4150

38 28-WF4031/5 28-WF4031/7 28-WF4031/10 28-WF4031/15


50 28-WF4051/5 28-WF4051/7 28-WF4051/10 28-WF4051/15
70 - 28-WF4071/7 28-WF4071/10 28-WF4071/15
100 - - 28-WF4101/10 28-WF4101/15
150 - - - 28-WF4151/15

Triaxial cell and sample accessories

Diameter, mm 38 50 70 100 150

Top cap 28-WF4032/A 28-WF4052/A 28-WF4072/A 28-WF4102/A 28-WF4152/A


Vacuum top cap 28-WF4032/AV 28-WF4052/AV 28-WF4072/AV 28-WF4102/AV 28-WF4152/AV
Base disc 28-WF4033 28-WF4053 28-WF4073 28-WF4103 28-WF4153
Porous discs (2) 28-WF4034 28-WF4054 28-WF4074 28-WF4104 28-WF4154
Membranes (pack of 10) 28-WF4035 28-WF4055 28-WF4075 28-WF4105 28-WF4155
O-rings (pack of 10) 28-WF4036 28-WF4056 28-WF4076 28-WF4106 28-WF4156
Membrane stretcher 28-WF4031/A 28-WF4051/A 28-WF4071/A 28-WF4101/A 28-WF4151/A
O-ring placing tool 28-WF4031/B 28-WF4051/B 28-WF4071/B 28-WF4101/B 28-WF4151/B
Two-part split former 28-WF4031/C 28-WF4051/C 28-WF4071/C 28-WF4101/C 28-WF4151/C
Two-part split mould 28-WF4031/D 28-WF4051/D 28-WF4071/D 28-WF4101/D 28-WF4151/D
Lateral filter drains (pack of 50) 28-WF4031/E 28-WF4051/E 28-WF4071/E 28-WF4101/E 28-WF4151/E
Filter discs(pack of 100) 28-WF4031/F 28-WF4051/F 28-WF4071/F 28-WF4101/F 28-WF4151/F
Hand sampler 28-WF4031/G 28-WF4051/G 28-WF4071/G 28-WF4101/G -
Two-part split former with
28-WF4031/H 28-WF4051/H 28-WF4071/H 28-WF4101/H 28-WF4151/H
vacuum attachment
28-WF4005/E
Extension test accessory for connecting the load cell ram to the cross bar of the load frame
This accessory must be used with a submersible load cell and a vacuum top cap

Pedestals 28-WF4071/7, 28-WF4051/7 and 28-WF4031/7 Triaxial cell and sample preparation accessories

76
SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING 28

Upgrading kits 28-WF4150/ADV, 28-WF4100/ADV, 28-WF4070/ADV


Two-part split mould with vacuum attachment
28-WF4101/H

Upgrading options
Upgrading kits are available that allow
local strain transducers and bender
elements to be used inside the banded
cells An access ring is provided that fits
between the cell base and the cell body
with holes for the cables to go through
Watertight plugs are included to seal the
unused holes

28-WF4070/ADV
Advanced upgrading kit for triaxial cell
WF4070 allowing use of local strain
transducers and bender elements

28-WF4100/ADV
As above but for triaxial cell WF4100
Banded triaxial cells fitted with upgrading kits for using local strain transducers and bender elements

28-WF4150/ADV
As above but for triaxial cell WF4150
Triaxial sample

O-rings
Top cap
Porous disc

Sample

Lateral lter
drainage
Chamber

Membrane

Porous disc

Pedestal

Cell pressure Upper Drainage


Upper Drainage
Pore Water Lower Drainage
Pressure

77
28 SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Standard triaxial cells and accessories


These cells essentially consist of a transparent polycarbonate chamber
which has a top plate with a piston assembly fitted into it and a double
flange base fitted to the bottom. Three (or six) simple thumbscrews are
used to clamp the upper part of the cell to the base, which makes assem-
bly and disassembly a very quick and simple operation. The base of the
cell has four inlet points for top drainage/back pressure, cell pressure and
base drainage/pore water pressure. Two of these are supplied with special
no-volume-change valves.
Pedestals, top caps, porous discs, rubber membranes and O-rings are not
included and have to be ordered separately - see Accessories.

28-WF0416/A, 28-WF0411/A, 28-WF0410/A


Specifications
Product code 28-WF0410/A 28-WF0411/A 28-WF0416/A 12
8
10
Nominal sample
50 70 100
diameter, mm 6

Sample diameter
35 to 50 35 to 70 70 to100
range, mm 1
Maximum working 3
1700 1700 1700
pressure, kPa 2
9
Maximum cell height,
450 500 560
mm
Cell diameter, mm (inc.
270 310 340 7
valves)
5
Weight, kg (approx.) 5 8 15
4* (for top drainage/back pressure, cell pressure and base
No. of inlet points 4
drainage/pore pressure)
11
Effective stress/Total
stress testing
* Two valves are already included, the other two must be ordered separately Legend
1. Pedestal Used to adapt the triaxial cell base for different sample sizes Supplied complete with a solid disc
for tests without drainage
2. Top cap Used to spread the load evenly over the whole cross-sectional area of the sample when drainage
to the top of the sample is required Includes a nylon tube and connector for the drainage line
3. Porous disc Acts as a filter ensuring that the passage of water into and out of the sample is evenly spread
over the whole cross-sectional area Two are required - one for the top of the sample and one for the base
Ordering information
4. Rubber membrane Provides a protective waterproof barrier around the sample Made of rubber latex
28-WF0410/A and supplied in packs of 10
5. O-rings Used to seal the membrane against the pedestal and the top cap at either end of the sample
Standard triaxial cell for 35, 38 and 50 mm Supplied in packs of 10
diameter samples 6. Membrane stretcher Used to the membrane open so it can be easily placed over the specimen without
any disturbance
28-WF0411/A 7. Filter paper drains Used as side drains when specimens have low permeability They are particularly
Standard triaxial cell for 35, 38, 50 and 70 useful when saturating clays before consolidation and shearing Pack of 50
8. Split sand former A specially designed piece of equipment for use when preparing non-cohesive soils
mm diameter samples which otherwise could not be mounted in a triaxial cell
28-WF0416/A 9. Drainage burette 10 ml capacity burette used to prepare non-cohesive specimens by applying a
negative pressure to the base of the specimen and for measuring drainage into and out of the specimen
Standard triaxial cell for 70 and 100 mm when testing with the specimen open to the atmosphere Supplied with connections for triaxial cell
diameter samples 10. O-ring placing tool Used for applying the O-rings with the minimum disturbance to the sample
11. No-volume-change valve Identical to the two valves supplied with the triaxial cells and used for
opening and closing the base drainage line whenmeasuring pore pressure or fitting the drainage burette
12. Split mould Used for trimming the ends of undisturbed soil specimens
1 Base adapter
2 Porous top cap
3 Porous disc
4 Rubber membrane
5 Sealing rings
6 No-volume change valve

78
SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING 28

Triaxial cell pedestals


Each cell has to be fitted with a pedestal corresponding to the size of the specimens to be tested Using specific
adaptive pedestals it is possible to test specimens with different diameters in the same triaxial cell - see the
table below All pedestals are permeable, with holes for base drainage/pore pressure measurement, and are
supplied complete with a solid disc for use in undrained tests

Standard triaxial cell product code


Diameter, mm 28-WF0410/A 28-WF0411/A 28-WF0416/A

35 28-WF0410/A1 28-WF0411/A1 -
38 28-WF0410/A2 28-WF0411/A2 -
50 28-WF0410/A3 28-WF0411/A3 -
70 - 28-WF0411/A4 28-WF0416/A1
Hand sampler comprising cutter, wooden dolly and receiver
100 - - 28-WF0416/A2

Triaxial cell and sample accessories


Other accessories
Diameter, mm 35 38 50 70 100
28-WF4005/39
Top cap 28-WF0420/A3 28-WF0422/A3 28-WF0425/A3 28-WF0428/A3 28-WF0432/A3 Platen adapter to fit standard triaxial cell
Porous discs (2) 28-WF0420/A4 28-WF4034 28-WF4054 28-WF4074 28-WF4104 onto TRITECH50 and TRITECH100 frames
86-D0845
Membranes (pack of 10) 28-WF0420/A5 28-WF4035 28-WF4055 28-WF4075 28-WF4105 Water-repellent grease, 1 kg box
O-rings (pack of 10) 28-WF0420/7 28-WF4036 28-WF4056 28-WF4076 28-WF4106 28-WF0420/15
Greaser for triaxial cells
Membrane stretcher 28-WF0420/8 28-WF4031/A 28-WF4051/A 28-WF4071/A 28-WF4101/A
28-WF0490/1
O-ring placing tool 28-WF0420/10 28-WF4031/B 28-WF4051/B 28-WF4071/B 28-WF4101/B Flaring tool
Two-part split former 28-WF0420/A6 28-WF0422/A6 28-WF0425/A6 28-WF0428/A6 28-WF0432/A6 28-WF0490
Nylon tubing, OD6 mm x ID 4 mm, 20 m
Two-part split mould 28-WF0420/13 28-WF4031/D 28-WF4051/D 28-WF4071/D 28-WF4101/D
28-WF0420/12
Lateral filter drains (pack of 50) 28-WF0420/A9 28-WF4031/E 28-WF4051/E 28-WF4071/E 28-WF4101/E No-volume-change valve
Drainage burette 28-WF0420/11 28-WF0420/11 28-WF0420/11 28-WF0420/11 28-WF0432/111
Filter discs (pack of 100) - 28-WF4031/F 28-WF4051/F 28-WF4071/F 28-WF4101/F
Hand sampler 28-WF0420/9 28-WF4031/G 28-WF4051/G 28-WF4071/G 28-WF4101/G
1
50 ml model

79
28 SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Double-wall triaxial cells for unsaturated tests


In traditional triaxial systems, where saturated samples are tested, the
change in specimen volume is measured simply by monitoring how
much water enters or leaves the sample using a volume change trans-
ducer. When testing unsaturated samples however, this is not possible
since volume change measurements are complicated by the compress-
ibility of the air in the voids.
If an increase of confining pressure is applied to an unsaturated sample, a
movement of water out of the sample will occur but an additional change
in size will result from the compression of the air in the voids.
Correct determination of volume change requires both the volume of
water leaving the sample and the total volume change of the sample to
be measured.
For detailed information visit our web site

Beside is shown the double-wall triaxial cell, with inner wall made from
glass, complete with access ring for transducer cables. The cell has to be
completed with a base pedestal with High-Air Entry Stone.

Two models are available: 28-WF 4170

Product code 28-WF4170 28-WF4171


Ordering information
Nominal sample diameter, mm 70 100
28-WF4170 28-WF4171
Sample diameter range, mm 50 to 70 50 to100
Double-wall triaxial cell for unsaturated Double-wall triaxial cell for unsaturated
Maximum working pressure, kPa 2000 2000 tests on 70 mm diameter soil samples, tests on 100 mm diameter soil samples,
Maximum cell height [mm] 690 795 complete with 6 ports for transducer complete with 6 ports for transducer
cables cables
Cell diameter, mm (inc. valves) 478 535
Weight, kg (approx.) 30 50
5 (for top drainage/back pressure, cell pressure
No. of inlet points
and base drainage/pore pressure)
Attachment for vacuum top cap for
Included
extension tests
Tubing outlet for
vacuum when filling
of inner cell and
using vacuum top
Axis translation method
with High Air Entry Stone (HAES): operating principle.
Inner Cell an inte-
One of the problems with testing a sample with high suction (negative pore water gral part of the
triaxial cell top
pressure) is that it will suck the water from the porous stone on the base pedestal and
cause cavitation in the pore water pressure measuring system
To prevent this happening the porous disc has been replaced with a high air entry
stone These stones allow water to pass through but air at pressures below the rating
Triaxial cell has its
of the stone cannot pass For example, a 5 bar stone will not allow air at pressures own pedestal which
fits the load frame.
under 5 bar to pass through The stone is cemented into an anodised aluminium ring This allows the
through pedestal to
which fits into a recess in the pedestal with an o-ring seal to prevent water passing be used
Access ring for transducer
around the outside of the stone cables to exit the triaxial cell

80
SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING 28

Accessories Typical configuration of a system to perform triaxial tests on unsaturated


Double-wall triaxial cell unsaturated pedestal samples 70 mm dia. with the axis translation method with the double
Pedestal set for unsaturated cell, comprising pedestal, 2 bar High Air Entry Stone sealed wall cell 28-WF4170
into an aluminium ring and a height compensation ring Using specific adaptive pedestals
it is possible to test specimens with different diameters in the same triaxial cell - see the Product code Description Q.ty
table below
28-WF4170 Double-wall triaxial cell for 70 mm diameter samples 1
Double-wall triaxial cell product code 28-WF4170/70 Pedestal with HAES for 70 mm diameter samples 1
Diameter, mm 28-WF4170 28-WF4171 28-WF4072/A Top cap for 70 mm diameter samples 1
50 28-WF4170/50 28-WF4171/50 28-WF4005 Tritech triaxial testing machine, 50 kN capacity 1
70 28-WF4170/70 28-WF4171/70 86-D2015 Air compressor, 50 L 1
100 - 28-WF4171/100 28-WF2016/2 Air filter/water trap for air compressor 1

High Air Entry Stones (HAES) 28-WF4220/A De-airing tank, 7 L 1


A 2 bar capacity HAES is included with the pedestals as standard but it can be easily
86-D2001 Vacuum pump 1
replaced with stones of other capacities for 50, 70 and100 mm diameter pedestals - see
the table below 86-D2005 Air drying unit 1
Pedestal diameter 86-D2064 Rubber tube for vacuum 2
Maximum air pressure 50 mm 70 mm 100 mm 86-D0819 Silica gel dessicant with indicator 1
1 bar 28-WF4150/1B 28-WF4170/1B 28-WF4171/1B 28-WF4225 Valve panel for de-airing tank 1
2 bar 28-WF4150/2B 28-WF4170/2B 28-WF4171/2B 28-WF4331 Pressure control panel, 3 lines 1
5 bar 28-WF4150/5B 28-WF4170/5B 28-WF4171/5B 28-WF4330/2 Digital gauge for 28-WF4331 1
10 bar 28-WF4150/10B 28-WF4170/10B 28-WF4171/10B 28-WF4320 Bladder air/water cylinder 2
15 bar 28-WF4150/15B 28-WF4170/15B 28-WF4171/15B 28-WF4191 Nylon tubing 6x 8 mm diameter, 10 m 2
For top cap and accessories see page 76 28-WF6353 Submersible load cell, 5 kN capacity 1
Spare parts 30-WF6208 Displacement transducer, 25 mm travel 1
Pedestal diameter, mm 50 70 100 28-WF6221 Mounting bracket for 25 mm diameter cell ram 1
Aluminium plate for
28-WF4150/3 28-WF4170/3 28-WF4171/3 28-WF6300 Pressure transducers, 10 bar 2
testing saturated samples
Aluminium retaining ring 28-WF4150/4 28-WF4170/4 28-WF4171/4 28-WF6310 De-airing block 2

Base pedestal 28-WF4150/5 28-WF4170/5 28-WF4171/5 28-WF4410 Automatic volume change apparatus 2
30-WF6008 Geodatalog 8-channels datalogger 1
82-P9008/ELT Set of four cables 2
30-WF6042 Transducer extension cables 6
Components of pedestal set
for unsaturated cell 1
1 Pedestal set for unsaturated test
2 High air Entry stone ( HEAS) sealed on aluminium ring 4
3 Aluminium compensation ring
4 Aluminium plate for saturated soil test
5 Porous stone for saturated soil test
3

5
2
81
28 SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Pressure systems
We produce three different systems for providing water at controlled Ordering information Accessories and spares
pressures to triaxial systems: 28-WF4302 28-WF4334
Oil/Water pressure apparatus, Oil and water constant pressure apparatus Three-line water distribution panel for
for pressures up to 1700 kPa 230 V, 50 - 60 triaxial systems
suitable for pressures up to 1700 kPa and 3500 kPa Hz, 1 ph Dimensions: 520 x 400 x 100 mm
Air/Water pressure system, 28-WF4304 Weight: 35 kg (approx)
As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph 28-WF4302/1
consisting essentially of a distribution panel with air/water bladder
cylinders and an air compressor, suitable for pressures up to 1000 kPa 28-WF4312 High viscosity oil, 5 kg
Oil and water constant pressure apparatus 28-WF4191
Hydromatic for pressures up to 3500 kPa 230 V, 50 - 60
Nylon tubing ID 6 mm x OD 8 mm, 10 m
stand-alone pressure/volume controller Hz, 1 ph
length
28-WF4314
Each system has to be completed with the De-airing water system See page 84
As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph

Oil/Water pressure apparatus Hydromatic stand-alone pressure/volume controller


main features main features
> Generates and auto- > Application of pressure up to 3500 kPa for triaxial or permeability
matically controls the set tests
pressure up to a maximum
of 3500 kPa (500 psi) > Recording and display of pressure and volume change measurements
within 05 % in real time
> Very stable over long > Temporary or continuous connection to PC for data downloading with
periods different protocols through RS 232
> Required pressure set using > Possibility to set pressure ramp and cycles
precision hand wheel > Easy connection to any kind of system
control
> Stepless pressure increments
> No weights or calibration
required

This apparatus provides an infinitely variable constant pressure using


an adjustable spring type dead weight pressure feedback system con-
nected in-line with a pump and an oil/water interchange vessel.
The apparatus comprises: hydraulic pump, honed piston/spring assem-
bly, cylindrical oil/water interchange vessel, pressure gauge, valves and
2 kg of oil.
The 28-WF4334 water distribution panel can be used to simplify the pro-
cess of refilling the water in the vessel - see Accessories.
Technical specifications Ordering information
Two versions are available: - Output pressure: up to 3500 kPa 28-WF4300/A
28-WF4302 / 28-WF4304 for pressures up to 1700 kPa - Pressure accuracy: 01% of full scale
Hydromatic stand-alone pressure/volume
- Volume accuracy: 01 cm3 controller 110-240 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph
28-WF4312 / 28-WF4314 for pressures up to 3500 kPa
- Resolution: 131000 divisions
Dimensions: 310 x 300 x 400 mm
- Volumetric capacity: 250 cm3 Accessories
Weight: 16 kg (approx)
- Data downloading: via RS 232
28-WF4334
- Overall dimensions: 250 x 220 x 150 mm
- Weight: 7 kg (approx) Three-line water distribution panel for
triaxial systems
Dimensions: 520 x 400 x 100 mm
Weight: 35 kg (approx)

82
SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING 28

Air/Water pressure system The cell, made of a transparent Ordering information Accessories and spares
This system basically comprises acrylic tube flanged between
28-WF4330 28-WF4330/2
a distribution panel, air/water two light alloy disc swith a rub-
Two-line pressure distribution panel, Digital pressure gauge, 1 kPa resolution
bladder cylinders (one per re- ber membrane fitted inside, can
complete with air regulators and pressure 28-WF4330/2C
quired pressure line) and an air operate continuously at pressures outlets
up to 1000 kPa. The unit acts as As above but, with traceable calibration
compressor. 28-WF4331 certificate
a reservoir/interface between the
compressed air (used as a pres- Three-line pressure distribution panel, 28-WF4330/3
Pressure distribution panels sure source) and the water (used complete with air regulators and pressure Spare air pressure regulator, 150 psi (1000
Two models are available: 28- as the pressurizing medium in the outlets kPa), with fittings for OD 8 mm tubing
WF4330 for two pressure lines triaxial cell). The cylinders have 28-WF4320 28-WF4191
and 28-WF4331 for three pressure to be used with a 28-WF4330 or Air/water pressure bladder cylinder Nylon tubing, ID 6 mm x OD 8 mm, 10 m
lines. They include precision air 28-WF4331 two or three line dis- 86-D2015 length
regulators, pressure outlets and tribution panel depending on the
quick release fittings.
Laboratory air compressor, 10 bar 28-WF0490
application. maximum pressure, 50 L capacity230 V, Nylon tubing, ID 4 mm x OD 6 mm, 20 m
They have to be fitted with a digi- Dimensions: 178 mm diameter x 410 mm 50 Hz, 1 ph length
tal gauge (see Accessories, model height 86-D2015/Y
28-WF4330/2). Weight: 58 kg (approx) As above but 220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph 28-WF4320/1
Dimensions/weight: 86-D2015/Z Spare rubber membrane for 28-WF4320
28-WF4330: 510 x 454 x 184 mm /10 kg Air compressor As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph air/water bladder cylinder
(approx) The air compressor requires air fil- 28-WF2016 /2
28-WF4331: 690 x 454 x 184 mm /15 kg ter/water trap and has the follow-
Water trap for air compressor
(approx) ing specifications:
- Max. pressure: 1000 kPa
Air/water bladder cylinder
- Continuous working pressure:
The air/water bladder cylinders 800 kPa
are used to deliver pressurized
- Reservoir capacity: 50 liters
water up to 1000 kPa to triaxial
cells via the pressure distribution - Max air delivery: 234 L/min
panels. The main advantages of - Power rating: 1500 W
using this apparatus are: Dimensions: 985 x 395 x 820 mm (w x dxh)
- High degree of accuracy Weight: 62 kg (approx)
- Extremely simple to operate
- Future expansion of system
very easy and relatively low
cost
- Bladder enables the use of de-
aired water 28-WF4330 with digital pressure gauge 28-WF4330/2
- Large reservoir to cope with
long term tests and large
samples

28-WF4331 with digital pressure gauge 28-WF4330/2 28-WF4320 86-D2015

83
28 SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Water de-airing system


De-airing the water, that will be used to fill triaxial cells, pressure systems and volume change measurement
apparatus, is essential for properly saturating soil specimens.
The system comprises the following:
- A de-airing tank (two versions are available with 7 or 23 L capacity)
- Vacuum pump with air drying unit
- Valve panel
- Tubing and accessories
During operation, the vacuum pump is connected to the air outlet of the tank the vacuum draws the air
out of the water.

De-airing tanks Two models are available:


The tanks consist of a transparent 28-WF4220/A, 7 litre capacity
acrylic cylinder fitted with a water
Overall dimensions: 579 x 200 x 209 mm
spray inlet, an air outlet, a water Weight: 64 kg (approx)
outlet and a metal stand which
can be wall-mounted at a suit- 28-WF4221/A, 23 litre capacity
able level to fill the triaxial system Overall dimensions: 619 x 320 x 311 mm
by gravity. Weight: 12 kg (approx)

28-WF4220/A

84
SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING 28

Vacuum pump, air drying unit and accessories Valve panel


Our vacuum pump 86-D2001 has to be used with the air drying unit For connecting the de-airing tank to the vacuum pump. Includes water
(86-D2005) filled with silica gel desiccant (86-D0819). This is recom- tap connection and two de-aired water outlets.
mended to avoid/limit water vapour mixing with the oil in the pump, Dimensions: 510 x 200 x 30 mm
which, in significant concentrations, may cause serious damage to the Weight: 3 kg (approx)
pump. When the pump will be used intensively, use of the outlet mist
filter (86-D2001/3) is also recommended, which collects any oil vapour
issuing from the oil reservoir during operation.

Specifications
86-D2001 Vacuum pump 86-D2005 Air drying unit
- Free air displacement: 75 L/min - Plastic frame with acrylic cylinder
- Ultimate vacuum: 01 mbar - Dessicant capacity: 500 g (approx)
- Power: 180 W - Overall dimensions: 185 mm diameter
- Dimensions: 300 x 150 x 240 mm x 300 mm
(approx) - Weight: 1 kg (empty, approx)
- Weight: 85 kg (approx) 28-WF4225
86-D2001/3 Outlet mist filter (optional)
- Weight: 07 kg (approx)

Ordering information
28-WF4220/A
De-airing tank, 7 litre capacity
28-WF4221/A
De-airing tank, 23 litre capacity
86-D2001
Vacuum pump 230 V, 50 - 60 Hz, 1 ph
86-D2064
Rubber tube for vacuum pump
86-D2005
Air drying unit
86-D2001 Vacuum pump with 86-D2005 Air drying unit filled with 86-D0819 Silica gel desiccant
86-D0819
Silica gel desiccant, 1 kg
28-WF4225
Valve panel

Vacuum pump 86-D2001 fitted with outlet mist filter 86-D2001/3

85
28 SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Analogue measurement for triaxial systems


Load rings for triaxial frames Double burette volume change apparatus
Load rings can be directly connected to the adapter fitted to the cross- This apparatus has two measurement tubes consisting of a 25 ml bu-
head of triaxial frames. Using the 28-WF1049 connector (see Accesso- rette mounted internally and an acrylic tube externally. The burette
ries) they can be adapted for use with our complete range of triaxial tubes are connected directly to a reversing valve system, which is used
cells. Supplied complete with calibration chart. to reverse the direction of travel of the interface in the measurement
tubes without affecting the direction of flow of water to or from the
triaxial cell. The unit also includes a by-pass valve system when volume
Specifications Accessories
change measurement is not required. Burettes are calibrated to Class A.
- High resolution dial gauge, 0001 mm 28-WF1049 Dimensions: 130 x 682 x 87 mm
- Dimensions: Weight: 3 kg (approx)
Connector for triaxial cells
182 mm diameter x 214 mm height
- Weight: 12 to 22 kg (approx) 28-WF1048
Adaptor to connect load rings to the
Ordering information cross beam of WF loaf frame to CBR and
Marshall test
28-WF6450
82-T1000/9
Load ring, 1 kN capacity
Adpator has to be used to connect WF load
28-WF6451 ring with Multispeed
Load ring, 2 kN capacity
28-WF6452
Load ring, 5 kN capacity
28-WF6453
Load ring, 10 kN capacity

Load ring with 28-WF1049 connector


(fitted to the lower end)

Axial strain dial indicators


50 mm dial diameter, clockwise rotation. Supplied complete with rear
mounts for connection to load rings. Two models are available: 30 and
50 mm travel.
Weight: 200 g (approx) 28-WF4400

Ordering information
Specifications
- High resolution dial gauge, 001 mm 28-WF4400
- Accuracy: 1% Double burette volume change apparatus
- Dimensions: 182 mm diameter x 214
Accessories
mm height
- Weight: 12 to 22 kg (approx) 28-WF4400/1
Red dye hydrocarbon soluble pack for 500 ml
Ordering information
29-WF6402
Dial gauge, 30 mm travel, 001 mm
subdivisions
29-WF6403
Dial gauge, 50 mm travel, 001 mm
subdivisions

28-WF6402

86
SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING 28

Pore water pressure measurement Pressure transducers


Used for the measurement of pore pressure in conventional testing
Pore pressure can be precisely measured using a pressure transducer con- systems and also cell and back pressure in the automatic and dynamic
nected to the triaxial cell via a de-airing block (28-WF6310 for the banded testing systems.
triaxial cells or 28-WF4459 for the standard triaxial cells). For triaxial tests
with manual data recording, the transducer (e.g. our model 28-WF6300)
can be plugged into the 28-WF4450 readout unit, eliminating the need
for a data acquisition system.

Triple channel digital readout unit for pore pressure measurement


This digital pressure gauge consists of a long-term steady analogue
section and a 16-bit A/D converter which guarantees 65,000 internal
divisions. The unit has internal batteries, which is assisted by the AUTO-
POWER-OFF function that activates if no change in readings is detected
during any 30 minute period. The unit is fitted with a multiplexer selec-
tor switch.

Pressure transducer 28-WF6300 connected to the de-airing block


28-WF4459 for standard triaxial cells
main features
> Programmable in Imperial or metric units
> Battery powered
> Peak function (positive and negative)

Pressure transducer 28-WF6300 connected to the de-airing block


28-WF6310 for banded triaxial cells

Technical specifications Ordering information


- Input voltage: 0-10 V DC 28-WF6300
- Output voltage: 100 mV to full scale
Pressure tranducer, 1000 kPa
- Nominal sensitivity: 15 to 3 mV/V
- Resolution: infinite 28-WF6301
- Accuracy: better than 01 kPa Pressure tranducer, 2000 kPa
- Weight: 150 g (approx) 28-WF6302
Note: the transducers have to be connected Pressure tranducer, 3500 kPa
to triaxial cells usinga suitable de-airing
block - see Accessories
Technical specifications Ordering information Accessories
- Display: 4 x 20 characters 28-WF4450 28-WF6310
- Measuring units (programmable): mbar,
Triple channel digital readout unit for pore De-airing block for connecting a pressure
bar, MPa, kPa, psi
pressure measurement Battery powered transducer to a banded triaxial cell
- Accuracy: 02 % full scale 110 - 220, 50 - 60 Hz, 1 ph
- Scanning rate: 50 readings per second 28-WF4459
- Dimensions: De-airing block for connecting a pressure
120 x 130 x 75 mm (w x d x h) transducer to a standard triaxial cell
- Weight: 1 kg (approx)

87
28 SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Electronic measurement for triaxial systems


External load cells Submersible load cells
Used to measure the axial force Submersible (internal) load cells
applied to a specimen in a triaxial have been designed to work in-
cell. Supplied complete with a side the triaxial cells. They have
connector for attaching to the a low hysteresis and very good
crosshead of our triaxial load linearity together with a substan-
frames. tial overload safety feature and
are supplied complete with rams
to suit Banded triaxial cells 28-
WF4050 to 28-WF4150 (Load cells Submersible load cell
with a 15.5 mm diameter ram fit
the 28-WF4050 cell, whilst the 25
mm diameter ram fits all the other The table below shows which triaxial cells the different models of sub-
cell models). mersible load cells are compatible with and the diameters of the fitted
Different models are produced for rams.
dynamic testing which are practi- Load cell Capacity Compatible triaxial cells Ram diameter
cally identical to the standard product code (kN) (mm)
External load cell models except for the way they
connect to the triaxial system. 28-WF6350 10

Technical specifications
28-WF6352 50 28-WF4050 155
- Nominal sensitivity: 2mV/V 28-WF6354 100
- Accuracy: better than 02% 28-WF6351 10
- Dimensions (cell only)
Technical specifications 28-WF6353 50 28-WF4070, 28-WF4100,
3.5, 10, 25, 50 kN models 28-WF4150 250
57 mm diameter x 80 mm height - Overload capacity: 200%
28-WF6355 100 28-WF4170, 28-WF4171
100 kN model 82 mm diameter x 110 - Rate output: 2mV/V
mm height - Excitation voltage: 10 V DC 28-WF6356 250
- Weight (approx): - Non linearity: 005% full scale
3.5, 10, 25, 50 kN models 2 kg approx - Hysteresis: 005% full scale
100 kN models: 5 kg approx - Deflection at full load: 005 mm
Ordering information 28-WF6354
- Connecting thread: - Maximum side force without effect: 28-WF6350 Submersible load cell, 10 kN capacity,
3.5, 10, 25, 50 kN models female M20 x 15 50% full scale complete with 155 mm diameter ram and
Submersible load cell, 1 kN capacity,
100 kN model female M30 x 2 - Compensated temperature range: extension kit for small samples
complete with 155 mm diameter ram and
0 to 50C extension kit for small samples 28-WF6355
Ordering information - Diameter: 75 mm As above but with 25 mm diameter ram
28-WF6351
28-WF0370/T - Height (excluding ram): 50 mm As above but with 25 mm diameter ram 28-WF6356
External load cell, 35 kN capacity - Weight 28-WF6352 Submersible load cell, 25 kN capacity,
(excluding ram and extension kit): 850 g complete with 25 mm diameter ram and
28-WF0373/T Submersible load cell, 5 kN capacity,
extension kit for small samples
External load cell, 10 kN capacity complete with 155 mm diameter ram and
extension kit for small samples Note: in case the submersible is supplied
28-WF0374/T complete with data acquisition system,
28-WF6353
External load cell, 25 kN capacity As above but with 25 mm diameter ram
then a traceable calibration certificate is
available on request For ordering, add the
28-WF0375/T suffix C to the relevant product code(eg
External load cell, 50 kN capacity 28-WF6350/C)
28-WF0376/T
External load cell, 100 kN capacity

Note: in case the load cell is supplied


complete with data acquisition system, then
a traceable calibration certificate is available
on request For ordering info, add suffix C to
the relevant product code ( eg 28-WF0370/ For data acquisition see our data logger
TC) see page 108

88
SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING 28

Axial displacement transducers and mounting brackets Volume change apparatus


Linear potentiometric transducers are used with various types of This apparatus, when connected to a suitable display or data acquisition
testing equipment, such as consolidation apparatus, shear testing system, measures change in sample volume by providing an electrical
machines and conventional triaxial testing systems, to measure signal directly proportional to the volume of water flowing through the
sample deformation. unit. The apparatus comprises a piston connected to a 25 mm linear
potentiometric transducer, sealed against a precision-machined calibra-
tion chamber so that the linear movement of the piston is exactly pro-
portional to the volume of water in the calibration chamber. The appa-
ratus has a front control panel with a reversing valve system to measure
the water flow in both directions.

Technical specifications Ordering information


- Basic capacity: 100 cm3 28-WF4410
- Transducer input: up to 12 V DC
Automatic volume change apparatus
- Accuracy: 01 ml
- Dimensions: 260 x 280 x 400 (w x d x h) Note: in case the volume change is supplied
- Weight: 5 kg (approx) complete with data acquisition system,
then a traceable calibration certificate is
available on request For ordering, add the
30-WF6209 suffix C to the relevant product code (eg
28-WF4410/C)
Technical specifications Accessories
- Potentiometric transducers 28-WF6220
- Input voltage: 10 V DC
Mounting bracket to fit 28-WF4050 ban-
- Output: from 0 to 10 V DC ded triaxial cell (155 mm ram diameter)
- Repeatability: better than 0002 mm
- Accuracy: better than 0002 mm
28-WF6221
- Connector: 6 pin Mounting bracket to fit 28-WF4070, 28-
WF4100 and 28-WF4150 banded triaxial
cells (25 mm ram diameter)
All the above transducers are supplied
with a mounting block but have to be 28-WF1048/T
completed with the appropriate mounting Mounting bracket to fit 28-WF0410/A,
bracket for connection to triaxial cells See 28-WF0411/A and 28-WF0416/A
Accessories standard triaxial cells

Ordering information
30-WF6207
Linear potentiometric transducer, 10 mm
travel
30-WF6208
Linear potentiometric transducer, 25 mm 28-WF4410
travel
30-WF6209
30-WF6221
Linear potentiometric transducer, 50 mm Pressure transducers
travel See pag 87
30-WF6210 Note: in case pressure transducer is supplied
Linear potentiometric transducer, 100 mm complete with data acquisition system,
travel then a traceable calibration certificate is
available on request For ordering, add the
suffix C to the relevant product code (eg
Note: in case the displacement transducer is
28-WF6300/C)
supplied complete with data acquisition system,
then a traceable calibration certificate is available
on request For ordering, add the suffix Cto the
relevant product code (eg 30-WF6208/C)

30-WF1048/T

89
28 SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Measurement of the maximum shear modulus (Gmax)


Bender elements In the soil application the bender The travel time of the shear wave
Bender elements allow to meas- elements are encapsulated and from the transmitter to the re-
ure the maximum shear modulus mounted into inserts, which are ceiver is determined via a specific
(Gmax) of a soil sample and from fixed into the pedestal and top software that allows the user to
this data to evaluate the stiffness cap of a triaxial cell. They protrude quickly and easily calculate the
of a soil. Gmax is generally as- edge-first into the soil specimen shear wave velocity.
sociated with shear strain levels as cantilevered. When excited the The complete power and measur-
of about 0.001% and is a key pa- bender element bends from side ing system 28-WF4190 includes:
rameter in small strain dynamic to side pushing the soil in a direc- - Wareform generator
analyses, such as those to predict tion perpendicular to the length
- Analogic PC interface with virtual
soil behavior or soil structure in- of the element and thus having oscilloscope software
teraction during earthquakes, a large coupling factor with the - Connecting cables
explosion or machine and traffic soil. This produces a shear wave, - Personal Computer is not included
vibrations. which propagates parallel to the
length of the element into the soil
The piezoceramic bender ele- sample. On the other end of the
ment is an electro-mechanical soil sample another bender ele-
transducer, which is capable of ment is forced to bend and pro-
converting mechanical energy duces an electrical signal that can
(movement) either to or from be measured.
electrical energy. The single
bender element consists of two Theory on shear wave propaga-
thin piezoceramic plates, which tion in an elastic body tells us that
are rigidly bonded together with the value of the shear modulus
conducting surfaces between Gmax of the soil from measure-
them and on the outsides. ment of shear wave velocity Vs is
given by:
The polarization of the ceramic
material in each plate and the Gmax = (Vs)2
electrical connections are such where is the mass density of the
that when a driving voltage is ap- soil sample. The system consists
plied to the element, one plate of a transmitter, which is ener-
elongates and the other short- gized to produce the shear waves
ens. The net result is a bending through the soil sample, and the
displacement, which is greater receiver that receive the electrical
in magnitude than the length signal. Bender element with vacuum top cap and base pedestal
change in either of the two layers.
On the other hand, when the Operating principle
bender element is forced to bend,
one layer will go into tension and
the other into compression: this
will result in an electrical signal,
which can be measured.

Gmax = Vs2 .
Where Vs = Velocity and = density

90
SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING 28

Ordering information Models for extension


Models for compression testing and compression testing
only (vacuum type)
28-WF4057/B 28-WF4058/B
Bender elements, 50 mm top cap and base Bender element, 50 mm vacuum top cap
pedestal, for 70 mm diameter cell and base pedestal for 70 mm diameter
cell
28-WF4077/B
28-WF4078/B
Bender elements, 70 mm top cap and base
pedestal, for 70 mm diameter cell Bender element, 70 mm vacuum top cap
and base pedestal, for 70 mm diameter
28-WF4077/B1 cell
Bender elements, 70 mm top cap and base
28-WF4078/B1
pedestal, for 100 mm diameter cell
Bender element, 70 mm vacuum top cap
28-WF4107/B and base pedestal, for 100 mm diameter
Bender elements, 100 mm top cap and cell
base pedestal, for 100 mm diameter cell
28-WF4108/B Bender elements test results on clay Frequency set at 3 kHz
28-WF4157/B Bender element, 100 mm vacuum top cap
Bender elements, 150 mm top cap and and base pedestal, for 100 mm diameter
base pedestal, for 150 mm diameter cell cell
28-WF4158/B
Bender element, 150 mm vacuum top cap
and base pedestal, for 150 mm diameter
cell

Accessories
28-WF4190
Power and measuring system110-230 V,
50-60 Hz, 1 ph
The bender elements have to be powered
by a wave form signal generator The
output signal is converted into digital and
transmitted to a PC via an interface and
processed with the virtual oscilloscope
software The complete system includes Frequency set at 3 kHz
waveform generator, analogic-PC interface
with virtual oscilloscope software and
connecting cables PC not included

28-WF4190
Banded triaxial cell 28-WF4070 fitted with
upgrading kit 28-WF4070/ADV for using
bender element and local strain transducers

91
28 SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Local strain measurement in triaxial testing


main features
> Suitable for specimen diameters from 38 to 150 mm
> Maximum working pressure of 3500 kPa
> Light and compact construction with reduced dimensions IB
Vh = *
> For use with Banded triaxial cells fitted with suitable upgrading kits n*e*t

and Double-wall triaxial cells


+ I - V
> Vertical and radial deformation measured directly on the triaxial test Hall element
h
specimen t

> Suitable for static and dynamic data acquisition by triaxial systems
Magnetic Field (B)

Transducers mounted on a sample Vh: Hall voltage; B: Magnetic field; I: current


across the plate length; e: elementary charge; t:
thickness of the plate; n: charge carrier density
Technical specifications
- Input voltage: 10 V
- Output voltage (ratiometric):
350mV (radial); 950mV (vertical)
- Accuracy (average):
better than 05% FRO
- Temperature coefficient: 002/FRO/C
- Weight: from 9 to 95 g (approx)

Ordering information
Models for static testing Models for dynamic testing (in the
Dynamic triaxial system)
28-WF4039/KM
Local strain transducer kit for 38 mm 28-WF4039/KN
diameter samples with two vertical and Local strain transducer kit for 38 mm
one radial miniature on-specimen diameter samples with two vertical and
transducers, radial belt, axial fixing pads one radial miniature on-specimen
and plugs transducers, radial belt, axial fixing pads
and plugs
28-WF4059/KM
As above but for 50 mm diameter samples 28-WF4059/KN
Local strain transducers
As above but for 50 mm diameter samples
In conventional triaxial testing the stiffness of a soil specimen is deter- 28-WF4079/KM
As above but for 70 mm diameter samples 28-WF4079/KN
mined by external measurement of displacement. Such measurements
As above but for 70 mm diameter samples
are subject to errors caused by deflections of the loading system and 28-WF4109/KM
bedding of the porous stone onto the ends of the specimen. As above but for 100 mm diameter 28-WF4109/KN
Local vertical and radial strain transducers avoid these problems by pro- samples As above but for 100 mm diameter
viding the opportunity to measure the deformation, with high accuracy, samples
28-WF4159/KM
directly on the triaxial test specimen. As above but for 150 mm diameter 28-WF4159/KN
Local strain transducers are supplied in a kit which includes one radial samples As above but for 150 mm diameter
and two vertical transducers suitable for 38, 50, 70, 100 and 150 mm samples
specimen diameters. Mounting accessories such as radial belt, mount-
Note: all the transducers mentioned above
ing brackets and jig are also included. can be supplied, on request, with a traceable
All the models are supplied with dedicated in-line interface suitable for calibration certificate For ordering, add the
static or dynamic test, see the ordering information. suffix C to the relevant product code (eg
28-WF4039/KMC)

For more detailed information concerning the operating principle visit our web site Calibration device for On-sample transdu-
cers (see page 111)

92
SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING 28

Specimen consolidation
main features Accessories
Slotted weights Dial gauges and displacement
> Allows simultaneous anisotropic consolidation of three triaxial transducers for measuring axial
specimens 28-WF0493/1 displacement
> Reduces the testing time when only one triaxial compression machine Set of weights for specimens from 35 to 70 These devices should be selected according
is available mm diameter to the specimen size and type of measu-
Each set, suitable for a single frame with rement system: either analogue with dial
> Fits triaxial cells for specimens up to 100 mm diameter a Beam loading device 28-WF0493/3, gauges or electronic with displacement
> Ergonomic design for better use of space in the laboratory comprises: transducers connected to suitable data
4 x 250 g Slotted steel weights acquisition equipment
> Suitable for other makes of triaxial cell (with little adjustment) 4 x 500 g Slotted steel weights
4 x 1 kg Slotted steel weights 30-WF6402
4 x 2 kg Slotted steel weights
4 x 4 kg Slotted steel weights Dial gauge, 30x001 mm
30-WF6403
28-WF0493/2 Dial gauge, 50x001 mm
Additional set of weights for specimens up 30-WF6208
to 100 mm diameter Vertical displacement transducer, 25 mm
Each set, suitable for a single frame with a travel
Beam loading device 28-WF0493/3, can
be used in addition to the 28-WF0493/1 30-WF6209
weight set for anisotropic consolidation of Vertical displacement transducer, 50 mm
large specimens The set consists of four 8 travel
kg slotted steel weights 30-WF1048/T
Beam loading device
Mounting bracket for dial gauges and
displacement transducers
28-WF0493/3
Beam loading device, 10:1 ratio Locking device
Used to amplify the vertical load to be ap- 28-WF0410/A4
plied to the specimen The lever is supplied
Piston locking device to hold the piston
with a screw jack support with handle
and top cap in place on the specimen
Three units must be ordered for one
Only for triaxial cells 28-WF0410/A,
28-WF0493
28-WF0493 with triaxial cells, dial gauges, 28-WF0411/A and 28-WF0416/A - the
beam loading devices and weights device is not necessary with the other
triaxal cells
Standards

ASTM D4767 | D7181 | BS 1377:8 | CEN-ISO/TS 17892-9

28-WF0493
Three-place consolidation bench for triaxial cells.

This apparatus has been designed to reduce the testing time for triaxial
tests when only one compression machine is available. With this equip-
ment it is possible to perform the consolidation stage of three triaxial
specimens at the same time for CU and CD tests under anisotropic con-
ditions. The apparatus consists of a steel bench complete with three
load frames and centering platens, which fit any of our triaxial cells for
specimens from 35 to 100 mm diameter. Each consolidation frame
can be equipped with a beam loading device to reduce the number of
dead weights required for anisotropic consolidation (see Accessories).
Weights can be placed on both the centre hanger and on the lever Detail of the 28-WF0493/3 beam loading device and slotted
hanger. steel weights
The apparatus has to be completed with vertical displacement gauges
or transducers (which connect to data acquisition and processing sys-
tems for soil mechanics), and slotted weights and pressure system for 28-WF0493 Detail of the upper frame with the top screw for
cell and back pressure. levelling and adjusting the position of the cross head to fit
different triaxial cells
Overall dimensions: 1300 x 800 x 970 mm (w x d x h)
Weight: 145 kg (approx)
93
28 SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Determination of permeability of normal and contaminated soil samples


Standards Permeability testing system for water-saturated porous
ASTM D5084 | BS 1377:6 | CEN-ISO/TS 17892:11 materials
The system consists of a number of standard testing items which are
The permeability test is designed for measuring the hydraulic conduc- listed in the following table and described else where in this catalogue.
tivity (coefficient of permeability) of water saturated porous materials. The table below gives a typical list of the parts and accessories required for a system
It can be performed using any of our triaxial cells, using the accessories performing triaxial permeability tests on 70 mm diameter samples*
described in the configuration table below. In cases where soil samples
are contaminated, the special stainless steel cell 28-WF0194/B with toxic
interface chamber 28-WF0194/3 should be used instead of triaxial cell.
Code Description Q.ty

28-WF4070 Banded triaxial cell for 70 mm diameter samples 1


28-WF4071/7 Pedestal for 70 mm diameter samples 1
Permeability tests in triaxial cell
Top cap for 70 mm diameter samples, with drainage
28-WF4072/A 1
leads
De-Aired Water De-Aired Water
Compressed Air Triaxial Cell Compressed Air 28-WF4074 Pair of porous discs for 70 mm diameter samples 1
00 kPa
Panel Rubber membranes (10 pieces)for 70 mm diameter
28-WF4075 1
samples
28-WF4076 O-rings (10 pieces ) for 70 mm diameter samples 1
28-WF4071/A Membrane stretcher for 70 mm diameter samples 1
28-WF4071/B O-ring placing too l for 70 mm diameter samples 1
28-WF4071/C Two-part split mould for 70 mm diameter samples 1
28-WF4071/D Two-part split former for 70 mm diameter samples 1
28-WF4071/F Filter discs (100 pieces) for 70 mm diameter samples 1
28-WF4071/G Hand samplerfor 70 mm diameter samples 1
28-WF6300 Pressure transducer, 1000 kPa 2

Bladder Double Burette


28-WF6310 De-airing block 2
28-WF6008 Geodatalog 8, data acquisition unit 1
82-P9008/ELT Set of four cables 1
28-WF4331 Triaxial panel for three pressure lines 1
Permeability tests in triaxial cell with data acquisition
28-WF4330/2 Digital pressure gauge 1
De-Aired Water De-Aired Water
Compressed Air Triaxial Cell Compressed Air 28-WF4320 Air/water bladder cylinder 3
00kPa
00 kPa
Transducer Connections
Panel 28-WF4410 Volume change apparatus 2
28-WF4221/A De-airing tank, 23 litre capacity 1
Transducer
Connections BY PASS
28-WF2001 Vacuum pump 1
86-D2005 Air drying unit 1
Data
acquisition GEODATALOG8 86-D0819 Silica gel with indicator, 1000 g 1
86-D2064 Rubber tube for vacuum 2
28-WF4225 Valve panel for de-airing tank 1
86-D2015 Air compressor 1
BY PASS

28-WF2016/2 Water trap for air compressor 1


Volume Change
Bladder
28-WF4191 Nylon tube ID 6 x OD 8 mm, 20 m 2
* Obviously the test can be performed with other sample diameters by substituting the items that are sample
size dependent with those of the required size

94
SOIL MECHANICS | TRIAXIAL TESTING 28

Permeability cell for contaminated soil samples Ordering information


This model is used for contaminated soil samples. Made entirely of stain- 28-WF0194/B
less steel, it has to be used with the toxic interface chamber to avoid Permeability cell with stainless steel valves
toxic permeants from entering the control panel. This also prevents con- for use with contaminated soils
tact of air with the permeant so that no toxic or corrosive vapors can Dimensions: 300 mm diameter x 355 mm
escape into the laboratory. height(approx)
Weight: 5 kg (approx)
The cell can be fitted with accessories for 70 and 100 mm diameter
samples. 28-WF0194/3
Toxic interface chamber
Weight: 3 kg (approx)

Toxic interface 28-WF0194/3

Accessories
Top caps, base pedestals and sample accessories

Diameter sample 70 mm 100 mm


Top cap and base pedestal for
28-WF0194/B1 28-WF0194/B2
contaminated materials
Porous discs 28-WF4074 28-WF4104
Membranes 28-WF4075 28-WF4105
O-rings 28-WF4076 28-WF4106
O-ring placing tool 28-WF4071/B 28-WF4101/B
Membrane stretcher 28-WF4071/A 28-WF4101/A
Two part split former 28-WF4071/D 28-WF4101/D
28-WF0194/B Hand sampler 28-WF4071/G 28-WF4101/G

Permeability tests in triaxial cell with contaminated water

De-Aired Water De-Aired Water


Compressed Air Compressed Air
00 kPa
Contaminated Water
Panel Permeability Cell

Toxic Water Interface

Contaminated

Drainage

Contaminated

Bladder Double Burette Drainage

95
29 SOIL MECHANICS | AUTOTRIAX 2
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Automatic triaxial tests system


main features
> Automatic execution of up to 6 inde-
pendent triaxial tests from start to finish
with only one PC
> Type of tests: total and effective stress, stress
path, K0 , permeability and unsaturated soils
> High-speed PC closed loop control for
continuous monitoring and instantaneous
reaction of systems components
> User-friendly software for remote control and
test procedure
> Ideal solution for high demands laborato-
ries which requires high productivity and
reliability
> Space efficiency design
> No need of air compressor
(with exception of unsaturated soils tests)

Typical AUTOTRIAX 2 configuration for effective stress and


stress path

The optimization of advanced technologies for high efficiency triaxial tests

Standards

BS 1377:7 | ASTM D2850 | ASTM D4767 | BS 1377:8 | BS 1377:6 | ASTM D7181

The AUTOTRIAX 2 is an advanced triaxial testing system that can auto- AUTOTRIAX 2 can perform different kinds of triaxial tests such as:
matically perform up to 6 entire and independent tests at the same time, - Total and effective stress tests:
from start to finish, without any human intervention. UU (unconsolidated undrained) BS and ASTM standards
CU (consolidated undrained) BS and ASTM standards
CD (consolidated drained) BS and ASTM standards
- Stress path tests following MIT and Cambridge methods;
- K0 anisotropic volume controlled tests;
- Permeability tests in triaxial cells according to BS and ASTM standards
- Unsaturated soil testing with control of matric suction using the axis
translation method.

96
AUTOMATIC TRIAXIAL SYSTEM | AUTOTRIAX 2 29

A typical automatic triaxial con- The AUTOTRIAX 2 configurations


figuration comprises: can be extended and expanded
in subsequent steps in order to
- Load frame and triaxial cell control further tests by adding
with accessories: a suitable the relevant components. These
model can be selected from operations can be easily made
our range (see triaxial load on site by simply configuring the
frames and triaxial cells user-friendly software, like a plug-
banded or standard) or, and-play system.
alternatively, existing machines
and cells can be used, after The closed-loop feedback control
compatibility check with our system monitors the component
specialists; status continously in order to re-
- Data acquisition and control act to any change in the param-
unit connected to a PC (using eters pre-set for each test stage.
a LAN network);
- Hydromatic 2 pressure/volume More than 30 system configura-
controllers with automatic tions are available. A practical
open/close valves: the pressure guide for the most typical and
controllers can reach up to common configurations limited
3500 kPa and have a volume to the part required for the main
capacity of 250 cc; components is shown at pag 107
- Triaxial test automatic control
and processing software.

Control system Data acquisition system


for closed loop feedback: for measurement of: 5
1. Hydromatic 2 for cell pressure 4. Axial force
2. Hydromatic 2 for back pressure 5. Axial displacement
3. Tritech triaxial load frame 6. Cell pressure 4
7. Back pressure
8. Volume change by Hydromatic 2 7
9. Pore water pressure
9 6

8
3

1 2

97
29 AUTOMATIC TRIAXIAL SYSTEM | AUTOTRIAX 2
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Data acquisition and Control Unit


main features

> It manages pressure/volume controller, load frames,


cell and back pressures, solenoid valves and transducers
> Transmits data and information between the software
and all the active components
> Calibration data of connected transducers are saved in
the fi rmware of the units
> Four different versions are available to offer maximum
flexibility
> Can be stacked vertically reducing the footprint on the
work bench
> The modular design concept allows easy extension of
the system

These are the brains of the AUTOTRIAX 2 system, transmitting data and information between the software and
all the active components such as the pressure controllers and Tritech triaxial load frame. The units are produced
in four different versions to offer maximum flexibility. They can be stacked vertically, making them very space-
efficient, and power connectors of multiple units can be daisy-chained together, allowing them all to be run from
a single mains socket. Transducer calibrations are saved directly in the firmware of the units.

29-WFD1A2 29-WFD0A1 29-WFD0A3 29-WFD0A1/UNS


Master unit Pressure extension unit Triple pressure extension Pressure extension unit
unit for unsaturated test module
A Master unit is always required, Used in addition to a Master unit,
only
whatever combination of systems this extension unit provides con- Used in addition to a Master unit,
you want to put together. It has trol for one extra pressure system, this extension unit provides con- Used in addition to a Master unit,
four active control channels for with connections for a pressure trol for three extra pressure sys- this extension unit provides con-
connecting the transducers that transducer, solenoid valve and tems, with connections for three trol for one air pressure system,
are needed for feedback to the Hydromatic 2 pressure/volume pressure transducers, solenoid with connections for a pressure
software (for controlling vertical controller, plus three spare pas- valves and Hydromatic 2 pres- transducer, solenoid valve and
load or displacement and cell sive transducer channels. It could sure/volume controllers, plus Servoflow Air pressure controller.
and back pressure) and eight be used, for example, in a system nine spare passive transducer There is also a connection for an
passive channels for connecting running permeability tests where channels. Automatic Volume Change de-
a pore pressure transducer plus three controlled pressures are re- Connections: vice to measure the change in
any other additional transducers, quired. - 3 Hydromatic pressure/volume cell volume, plus two spare pas-
including local strain measuring Connections: controllers sive transducer channels.
devices. The Tritech compression - 1 Hydromatic pressure/volume controller - 12 transducers Connections:
frame, Hydromatic 2 pressure/ - 4 transducers - 3 solenoid valves - 1 Servoflow
volume controllers and solenoid - 1 solenoid valve - 4 transducers
valves (for opening and closing - 1 solenoid valve
the pressure lines) also connect to - 1 Automatic Volume Change device
the unit.
One Master unit is all that is need-
ed for a single standard effective
stress system.
Connections:
- 2 Hydromatic pressure/volume
controllers
- 1 Tritech compression frame
- 12 transducers
- 2 solenoid valves

98
AUTOMATIC TRIAXIAL SYSTEM | AUTOTRIAX 2 29

Master unit 29-WFD1A2 rear panel 29-WFD1A2 + 29-WFD0A1 stacked vertically reducing the footprint on the work bench

Specifications Ordering information Accessories


- Analogue/digital converter: 16-bit 29-WFD1A2 29-WF4645/COMP
- Additional transducer gain ranges: +/-
AUTOTRIAX 2 Data acquisition and control High specification desktop PC with LCD
20 mV and +/-10 V
unit: Master unit monitor Operating system MS Windows
- Ethernet connection to PC: 100 Mb preinstalled 8 port LAN HUB converter for
- Dimensions: WFD1A2 or WFD0A3: 29-WFD0A3
AUTOTRIAX 2 connection 110-240V/50-
W 330 x D 240 x H 144 mm, WFD0A1 or AUTOTRIAX 2 Data acquisition and control 60Hz/1Ph
WFD0A1/UNS W 330 x D 240 x H 70mm unit: Triple pressure extension unit
26-WF4645
- Weight: 6 kg (29-WFD1A2/29-WFD0A3) 29-WFD0A1
4 kg (29-WFD1A1/29-WFD0A1/UNS) LAN Hub with 8 ports for Wykeham
AUTOTRIAX 2 Data acquisition Farrance devices
- Power supply: 110-240 V 50/60 Hz, 1ph and control unit: Pressure extension unit
29-WFD0A1/UNS
Note: the sensors connected to these units
can be supplied, on request, complete with a AUTOTRIAX 2 Data acquisition and control
traceable calibration certificate unit: Air pressure extension unit for
unsaturated testing

29-WFD0A1/UNS Pressure extension unit for unsaturated test

99
29 AUTOMATIC TRIAXIAL SYSTEM | AUTOTRIAX 2
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Pressure and volume controller


main features

> Generates water pressure regulated


under closed-loop control
> Measures the volume change, by
counting the steps of the stepper motor
> High-resolution measurement of
pressure and volume change
> High volume capacity
> Lightweight and with a small footprint
> No air compressor is required

29-WF4502/B
Hydromatic 2 pressure/volume controller

Hydromatic 2 is used to generate water pressure in and around the test Specifications Accessories
specimen. It is driven by a stepper motor, which enables the unit to meas- - Output pressure: 3500 kPa 29-WF4334
ure volume change. The unit consists of a hydraulic piston, driven by a - Volume capacity: 250 cc
Water distribution panel for automatic
ball-screw and gearbox, mounted on a ball-slide, and is managed under - Pressure resolution: 01 kPa triaxial testing
- Volume resolution: 0001 cc
closed-loop control by the Data acquisition and control unit. A 3500 kPa 29-WF4191
- Pressure accuracy: 01% of full scale
capacity pressure transducer and its de airing block are included. The sta- - Closed-loop control of pressure: regula- Nylon tubing 6 mm bore x 8 mm outside
tus of the unit is monitored by the AUTOTRIAX 2 software and safety mi- ted to 01 kPa diameter, 10 m length
croswitches are installed to prevent over-travel beyond mechanical limits - Closed-loop control of volume: regulated 29-WF6302/A
or capacity. to 0001 cc Pressure transducer 3500 kPa capacity for
- Dimensions: W 740 x D 140 x H 160 mm pore water pressure
Each Hydromatic 2, also includes a solenoid valve which is installed on the
- Weight: 5 kg 29-WF6310
triaxial cell base to open and close the pressure lines. They are powered
- Power supply: 110-240 V 50/60 Hz, 1 ph De- airing block for connecting a pressure
and controlled by the Data acquisition and control units. - Solenoid valve speed: <10 mm/s transducer to a banded triaxial cell
For a standard effective stress system, two Hydromatic 2 units are required
one for cell pressure and one for back pressure.

Hydromatic 2 29-WF4502/B includes pressure Water distribution panel 29-WF4334


transducer, de-airing block and on/off valve

100
AUTOMATIC TRIAXIAL SYSTEM | AUTOTRIAX 2 29

Air pressure controller and water volume change for unsaturated testing
29-WF4511 29-WF4412
Servoflow air pressure Automatic Volume Change
controller apparatus
(for unsaturated testing module only) measuring the volume change of an
unsaturated soil sample in the double wall
triaxial cell
(for unsaturated test module only)

The device is used for unsaturated


soils testing with the double wall
triaxial cell to measure the vol-
ume change of the soil sample.
The design is based on the stand-
ard volume change device with
integral solenoid valves that al- Volume change apparatus for unsaturated
testing 29-WF4412
Servoflow for unsaturated testing 29-WF4511 low the flow direction and bypass
functions to be controlled by the
pressure extension unit - unsatu-
Specifications
rated. The device has a physical
The Servoflow is an electro- Specifications Automatic Volume Change
capacity of 100 cc but due to the - Capacity: 100 cc
pneumatic pressure controller Servoflow air pressure controller
automatic switching, it can meas-
that generates air pressures of up - Output pressure: 1000 kPa - Accuracy: 01 cc
ure volume change continuously.
to 1000 kPa for one pressure line. - Pressure resolution: 01 kPa - Maximum operating pressure: 2000 kPa
It is powered directly by the pres-
Managed under closed-loop con- - Pressure accuracy: 01% of full scale - Dimensions: W 280 x H 400 x D 260 mm
sure extension unit - unsaturated
trol by the Data acquisition and - Closed-loop control of pressure: regula- - Weight: 9 kg
and has LEDs on the front panel
control unit that it is connected ted to 01 kPa - Power supply: 24 V DC direct from the
to show the flow status.
to, it consists of a chassis hous- - Dimensions: W 225 x D 210 x H 140 mm pressure expansion unit - unsaturated
ing an electronic pressure regu- - Weight: 5 kg
lator. The regulator reduces the - Power supply: 110-240 V, 50/60 Hz, 1ph
supply air pressure to a regulated
output which is directly propor-
tional to an electrical input signal
received from the control unit. In
the AUTOTRIAX 2, the Servoflow
is used to provide air pressure to
the sample for unsaturated soils
testing systems, based on the axis
translation method. Inner cell
SAMPLE

External cell

High Air Entry Air Pressure


Stone

Back Pressure

Cell Pressure
Volume change Pore Pressure
measurement

AUTOTRIAX 2 Schematic layout for unsaturated test using axis translation method

101
29 AUTOMATIC TRIAXIAL SYSTEM | AUTOTRIAX 2
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Triaxial test automatic control and processing software


main features

> Comprehensive and user-friendly interface


between the operator and the testing systems
> Up to 6 independent triaxial systems can be run at
the same time from a single computer or multiple
computers
> Real-time display of all the transducers and calcula-
ted data for all live tests, with plots of measured and
calculated data, selectable by the user
> Automatic control in real time of standard and non-
standard tests (eg stress path tests)
> Calibration and verification procedures for all the
transducers
> User-defined range limits and limit alarms for all the
sensors and controllers
> Data processing and reporting facility with customi-
sable language

The AUTOTRIAX 2 software is a Device Management Software


comprehensive and user-friendly - This base software is supplied as stan-
interface between the operator dard with the AUTOTRIAX 2 system
and the testing system. Installed - Designed for setting up the configura-
on a PC communicating with tion and allocation of the components of
the system over a fast Ethernet each triaxial system
connection, the software can be - Up to 11 points of calibration can be
used to configure the system(s), recorded with automatic polynomial
calibrate transducers, specify test best fitting (up to 7th order)
parameters, set system limits and - The calibration data of different transdu-
control the system during a test, cers can be stored for the same channel
either manually or automatically. and easily recalled when connected
Due to the flexibility of the soft- - Full scale limits can be set for all the
transducers and pressure/volume
ware, each triaxial system can ei-
controllers to prevent over-travel and
ther have its own, dedicated PC, possible damage
or multiple systems can be run
- Management of Hydromatic 2 pressure/ System Select panel showing two triaxial systems are available, with one
from one PC. volume controllers and Tritech compres- shared Tritech compression frame, one system is suitable for permeability test
Three different software are avail- sion frames outside of testing procedures
able: (eg controller tuning, water refilling of
pressure controllers)
- Device Management Software
- Test software
- Template for data processing

102
AUTOMATIC TRIAXIAL SYSTEM | AUTOTRIAX 2 29

Test software EFFECTIVE and TOTAL STRESS CU/CD test monotonic shear
Test software comprehends different This software module, supplied as (ASTM D4767, ASTM D7181, BS
standard, includes manual or automatic 1377:Part 8)
modules
All the test modules include the following control of saturation, consolidation and Automatic or manual shear stage (drained
basic features: shear stage, according to ASTM and BS / undrained) using calculated or user-
- Input of project, sample and test details Standards: defined rate of strain and failure criteria in
and parameters compression or extension (2)
Saturation Data monitoring and processing consists of:
- Set up of test sequences, including (ASTM D4767, ASTM D7181, - Multiple plot options including: deviator
selection of automatic or manual control BS 1377:Part 8) stress, volume change, pore pressure vs
- Real-time data for all transducers are Under manual control, three different axial strain; MIT or Cambridge stress path
displayed throughout the test, as well options for running the stage are available:
as all calculated stresses, strains, ratios, - Increments of cell pressure only UU test monotonic shear
volume change etc Updated specimen - Increments of cell and back pressure (ASTM D2850, BS 1377:Part 7)
dimensions are displayed at the end of Automatic or manual undrained shear
- Simultaneous ramps of cell and back
each stage stage in compression, with rate of strain
pressure
- Graphical test data can be displayed on and cell pressure input
Alternatively, automatic control can be se-
four separate user-definable graphs,
lected to run the complete stage according
each with up to six data series
to BS1377:8 Clause 53, BS1377:8 Clause
- Manual control panel to control the 54 or ASTM 4767/7181
solenoid valves, Hydromatic 2 and Tritech Data monitoring and processing consists of:
units before starting the test - Multiple plot options including: cell
- Transducer readings and zero-set options pressure vs pore pressure / B values; cell,
displayed in large font on a separate back and pore pressure vs time; volume
panel, enabling the user to easily view change vs time
the readings from a distance - Summary table and plot of all the
- Review option to look at data and graphs saturation steps performed
for tests already completed during a
live test Consolidation
- Data processing and reporting (ASTM D4767, ASTM D7181, BS
conforming to the relevant standards by 1377:Part 8)
quickly and easily importing test data Automatic or manual isotropic consolida-
into the Microsoft Excel AUTOTRIAX 2 tion with cell and back pressure targets set
triaxial template by the user
- Test pause option (automatic or by Data monitoring and processing consists of:
the user) for conditioning/refilling - Multiple plot options including: volume
the Hydromatic 2 pressure/volume change and pore pressure dissipation
controllers vs time
- Simultaneous and independent control - Graphical fitting methods, according
of axial stress (displacement or load to the relevant standards, for the
controlled), cell pressure, back pressure, evaluation of the end of consolidation
base pressure (in the Permeability - Data processing of T50/T100 to
Module) and air pressure (in the Unsatu- calculate speed for monotonic as for
rated Soils Module) BS / ASTM
- Alarm display when travel or capacity
limits of the system components are
reached
- Set up of additional limits to stop or to
hold the stress/strain conditions during
the test

Device Settings screenshot for Hydromatic 2


pressure/volume data acquisition and control device
showing settings for the four channels

103
29 AUTOMATIC TRIAXIAL SYSTEM | AUTOTRIAX 2
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Triaxial test automatic control and processing software (continued)


STRESS PATH MODULE (1) (2)
PERMEABILITY MODULE (1)
This optional software module is for the This optional software module is for the
automatic or manual control of stress path automatic or manual control of triaxial
stages, with independent control of axial permeability stages in accordance with
and radial stresses The module can be BS1377:Part 6 and ASTM DS5084-10
used together with the standard stages methods A and D The module is used
of saturation, isotropic consolidation and together with the standard test stages of
monotonic shear provided by the Effective saturation and isotropic consolidation pro-
Stress Test Module to carry out what is vided by the Effective Stress Test Module
generally known as stress path testing to carry out triaxial permeability tests This
This package includes the following: package includes the following:
- Total stress ramps - control and measurement of base
- Back pressure ramps pressure
- MIT stress ramps to target values of s - measurement of permeability under a
and t constant hydraulic gradient
- Cambridge stress ramps to target values - measurement of permeability under a
Deviator and shear stress plotted against axial strain during a monotonic shear
of p and q constant rate of flow stage
- Ramps to target change in axial displa- Data monitoring and processing consists of:
cement/strain - Multiple plot options including: change
- Ramps to target volume change of volume / mean flow rate vs time
- User-defined independent ramps / hold - Evaluation tools to calculate in real time
of deviator stress, cell pressure and back the permeability from the mean flow
pressure plot
Data monitoring and processing consists of:
- Multiple plot options including: total
and effective stress, volume change, UNSATURATED SOIL MODULE (1)
pore pressure vs axial strain; MIT or This optional software module is for the
Cambridge stress path automatic or manual control of specific
stages for unsaturated soils
The module is used together with the
standard test stages of saturation, isotropic
K0 MODULE (1) (2)
consolidation and monotonic shear provi-
This optional software module is for
ded by the Effective Stress Test Module to
the automatic or manual control of K0
carry triaxial testing on unsaturated soils
stages, with closed-loop control of the
Stress path stages can also be performed
cross-sectional area of the soil sample A saturation cell pressure increment with the graph showing the pore water pressure
when the Stress Path Module has been responding as the cell pressure is increased to the target.
The module can be used together with the
purchased This package includes the
standard test stages of saturation, isotropic
following:
consolidation and monotonic shear provi-
- control and measurement of air pressure
ded by the Effective Stress Test Module
This package includes the following: - control of matric suction during con-
- Axial stress ramps with closed-loop solidation, monotonic shear and stress
control of radial stress to maintain the K0 path stages
conditions - measurement of pore pressure using the
- Radial stress ramps with closed-loop axis translation method
control of axial stress to maintain the K0 - SWCC (soil water characteristics curve)
conditions test stage
- K0 conditions, controlled via the conti- Data monitoring and processing consists of:
nuous monitoring of volumetric strain - Multiple plot options including: matric
and axial strain suction/pressures vs strain; matric
- K0 conditions, controlled via the suction vs moisture content
continuous direct measurement of the - Display of all unsaturated related stresses
sample diameter by a local radial strain throughout the test
on-sample transducer
(1)
An additional license must be purchased An isotropic consolidation stage in progress with volume change plotted against
to unlock this module square root time on the graph
(2)
A vacuum top cap and submersible load
cell must be used for tests with stages in
extension

104
AUTOMATIC TRIAXIAL SYSTEM | AUTOTRIAX 2 29

Template For Data Processing


The Triaxial Template is Excel-based data
processing software that has been special-
ly designed for the AUTOTRIAX 2 testing
system Data for the entire test is imported
at the click of a button, with individual
worksheets created and completed auto-
matically for each stage of the test Test
reports are generated conforming to the
selected standard and can be printed

- Automatic data importing


- Processing and reporting of results to BS
or ASTM standards
- Includes presentation of Mohr circles and
failure envelope with manipulation tools
- Triaxial permeability results can be post-
processed to calculate the permeability
value
- Possibility to plot a combined stress path
graph of total and effective Cambridge
and MIT stress path parameters over the
whole test
- Can process multiple types of test*:
- Unconsolidated Undrained (UU) triaxial -
single, set of 3 or multistage
- Consolidated Undrained triaxial (CU) -
single, set of 3 or multistage
- Consolidated Drained triaxial (CD) -
single, set of 3 or multistage
- Triaxial permeability
- CU and CD tests with any type of stage
can be processed:
- Saturation
- Isotropic consolidation
- Monotonic shear
- Unsaturated (soil/water curve) Typical data processing using template for AUTOTRIAX 2
- Stress path
- K0
*The types of test that can be processed
depend on which modules of the AUTOTRIAX 2 Ordering Information
software are licensed 29-WFD1A2/SW4
29-WFD1A2/SW1
Automatic CRS
Effective stress (CU / CD / UU) base test Activation code for Unsaturated test and Hydrocon
software with manual and automatic module including manual and automatic
Additional Autotriax 2 software for
performance of saturation, consolidation modes for testing using the axis translation
performing CRS ( Constant Rate of
and shear stages to ASTM and BS method
Strain) and Hydraulic consolidation
29-WFD1A2/SW2 29-WFD1A2/SW5 are available on request
Activation code for Stress path test module Activation code for Permeability test
with manual and automatic performance module with manual and automatic
of stress path stages performance of constant rate of flow and
29-WFD1A2/SW3 constant hydraulic gradient permeability
stages
Activation code for K0 test module with
manual and automatic performance of 29-WFD1A2/TM
K0 stages Triaxial Excel Template for data processing
software that has been specially designed
for the AUTOTRIAX 2 testing system

105
29 AUTOMATIC TRIAXIAL SYSTEM | AUTOTRIAX 2
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Typical configurations

Automatic triaxial system to perform


Effective stress - Stress path - K0 tests

Automatic triaxial system to perform


Effective stress - Stress path - K0 - Permeability tests

Automatic triaxial system to perform


Unsaturated tests

106
DATA AQUISITION SYSTEM FOR SOIL MECHANICS | AUTOTRIAX 2 29

Typical configurations (continued)


The following summary table is intended that will be managed simultaneously; The system shall be completed with the - De-airing water system see page 84
as a practical guide for the most typical then continue on the same row to find the following components: If additional measurements are required,
and common configurations, limited to the main hardware components and software - Triaxial load frame, see TRITECH model the system can be upgraded with the
part required for the main components, to packages If a single frame is dedicated page 70 following:
cover different type of triaxial tests to a single triaxial cell, the test can be - Banded triaxial cells and accessories, - Local strain measurements see page 92
However, due to the high flexibility of the controlled automatically from start to end see page 75 - Bender elements see page 90
system, many other configurations not If a single frame is shared with several - Sensors: Displacement transducer,
included in the table here below, can be triaxial cells, the system can manage pressure transducers, load cells,
managed, according to the requirements automatically saturation and isotropic see page 87, 89
of the user consolidation simultaneously on the - Pressure system and water distribution
To use the table below, first select the type different triaxial cells panel see page 82
of test starting from the left, then select
the number of frames and triaxial cells

TX
Test Frame Software
cell

E S K0 P U WFD1A2 WFD0A1 WFD0A3 WFD0A1/ WF4502/B WF4511 WF4412 SW1 SW2 SW3 SW 4 SW5
UNS

1 1 1 2
1 1 1 2
1 1 1 1 3
1 1 1 1 2 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1
1* 3 1 1 1 6
1* 3 1 2 1 7
1* 6 1 1 3 12
1* 6 1 2 3 13
3 3 3 6
3 3 3 1 7
6 6 6 12
6 6 6 1 13

6 6 6 1 12 1 1

Key:
E: Total/effective stress according to BS and ASTM standards S: Stress path (vacuum top cap and submersible load cell are required for tests with stages in extension)
K0: K0 consolidation (vacuum top cap and submersible load cell are required for tests with stages in extensions) P: Permeability (the items indicated in the table are intended to perform permeability tests in one cell)
U: Unsaturated (the test requires the double-wall triaxial cell; the items indicated in the table are intended to perform unsaturated test in one cell)

*Note: in these configurations it is not possible to follow strictly the ASTM standards in the consolidation stage, where the axial compression of the specimen should be recorded continuously
(ref ASTM D4767 point 834) To perform this measurement in a fully automatic mode, a dedicated load frame for each triaxial cell fitted with submersible load cell and vacuum top cap is required

Up to 6 independent systems
are controller by the same PC

107
30 GEOTECHNICAL | DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

main features
> 8 independent input channels
> Up to 8 instruments can work in a network creating a modular system with
up to 64 independent channels
> LAN / Ethernet connection to PC via dedicated software
> Compatible with load cells, pressure transducers, strain gauges,
LDT / LVDT / potentiometric displacement transducers
> Effective resolution: 131000 points
> Sampling rate up to 500 readings per second per channel
> Numerical and graphical display of readings via PC software
> The transducers can be grouped and combined by the user for matching
different applications
> Possibility to perform various tests (eg shear, consolidation, triaxial, )
in parallel, each one having independent clock, channels and logging
mode

30-WF6008
Geodatalog 8
Multipurpose datalogger, with dedicated software

GEODATALOG 8 is a multipurpose data logger which works directly


connected to a PC. Data are automatically transferred to PC in real time
for live monitoring of the tests.
GEODATALOG 8 records and monitors in real time the measurements
requested for Soil Mechanics testing, in particular:
Consolidation - Shear - Triaxial - Many others
It is compatible gauge load cells, pressure transducers, linear LDT trans-
ducers, LVDT conditioned transducers, with strain, potentiometric dis-
placement transducers.
GEODATALOG 8 is conceived with a modular and flexible concept: up
to 8 instruments can form a network (using a hub model 26-WF4645)
and then create a modular system with up to 64 independent channels.
It is supplied complete with general purpose DATACOMM 2 PC soft-
ware allowing remote calibration of the channels, and fully comprehen- HUB
Geodatalog 8
sive data management. network mode:
GEODATALOG 8 should be always proposed complete with at least one- up to 8 units
set of 4 Lumberg-to-PS2 adaptor cables (see model 82-P9008/ELT).

Technical specification
- Requires connected PC - Excitation (VEXC): from 1 V to 10 V for
- Number of channels: 8 each couple of channels (up to 4)
- Network mode: Up to 8 units - Datalogger input: 0-10 V; 0-20 mA
- Sampling rate: Up to 500 readings/ - Software: Included, DATACOMM 2
second per channel - Dimensions approx lxdxh [mm]:
- Effective resolution:131000 points - 290 x 195 x 61
- Communication port: LAN / Ethernet - Weight approx [kg]: 16 kg
- Power supply: 110-220V,50-60 Hz, 1ph

108
GEOTECHNICAL | DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM 30

DATACOMM 2 software combines the active channels into customiz-


able groups by the operator. Data acquisition for each group is an inde-
pendent task which can be started / stopped automatically with specific
acquisition and logging mode.
ASCII format data export is available for combination with our Geo-
Analysis-Templates suitable for post-processing and printout of test cer-
tificates according to the most important international Standards . See
data processing

Accessories
Electronic measurement device
See pag 88

Cable DATACOMM 2 - Channels configuration The transducers can be grouped and combined by the user
for matching different applications
82-P9008/ELT Geo-Analysis Templates
Set of four cables for connetting sensors to
DATALOG8 (82-P9008) and GEODATALOG8 Test Standard Ordering information
(30-WF6008)
Incremental loading BS 1377:5, 30-WF6016/T1
Extension cable
ASTM D2435 30-WF6016/T8
30-WF6042
Consolidation CRS ASTM D4186 30-WF6016/T6
Transducer extension cable, 6 m length
30-WF6044 Hydraulic consolidation BS 1377:6 30-WF6016/T12
Transducer extension cable, 12 m length
SWCC -Hydraulic consolidation - 30-WF6016/T13
Lan Hub
26-WF4645 Direct/residual BS 1377:7 30-WF6016/T2
LAN Hub with 8 ports for Wykeham ASTM D3080 30-WF6016/T9
Farrance devices Shear
Ring BS 1377:7 30-WF6016/T3
Data processing: Geo-Analysis ASTM D6467 30-WF6016/T16
Templates
Sixteen templates for different Effective stress BS 1377:8 30-WF6016/T4
tests and Standards have been ASTM D4767 - D7181 30-WF6016/T11
developed specifically for pro- Triaxial
cessing test data recorded by Total stress BS 1377:7 30-WF6016/T5
the DATACOMM 2 software. The ASTM D2850 30-WF6016/T10
templates are MS Excel based
programs with easy-to-use func- Permeability BS 1377:6 30-WF6016/T14
tions for importing data files, cal- Other tests CBR BS 1377:4 30-WF6016/T7
culating results, producing test
reports that conforms to the rel- Unconfined ASTM D2166 30-WF6016/T15
evant international Standards.
Other templates are available for processing data gathered with different type of tests

109
30 GEOTECHNICAL | DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Calibration equipment for the geotechnical laboratory


Any laboratory needs to verify periodically the calibrations of their electronic measuring systems, in order to pro-
duce reliable and accurate results. Equipment for calibrating force, displacement, volume change and pressure
measuring devices are described in this section.

Force Measurement Digital readout unit Pressure Measurement Volume Change


For calibration of force measuring Pressure calibrations are per- Calibration of the volume change
devices we propose the following 30-WF6601 formed with a digital pressure apparatus can be simply per-
load cells fitted with digital read- Digital readout unit for load cells** gauge, similar to model 30- formed by weighing the water
out unit, supplied complete with WF6601, supplied complete with coming out of the device, us-
ACCREDIA calibration certificate ACCREDIA calibration certificate. ing any digital balance with
according to EN ISO 376. 0.01 g resolution, e.g. model 11-
30-WF6305/SIT D0630/06
Load cells
50 bar digital pressure gauge complete
30-WF0372/SIT with ACCREDIA calibration certificate
5 kN load cell complete with ACCREDIA
calibration certificate* and stainless steel Technical specifications
loading seat - Linearity and hysteresis: 005%
- Internal resolution: 65000 div
- Zero and peak function
- Auto power off function
30-WF6601 digital readout unit - Supplied with four 15 V AA size alkaline
batteries
Technical specifications
- Accuracy: 002%
- Standard resolution:
(2mV/V) 25000 div
- Internal resolution: 32000 div
30-WF0372/SIT or - Zero and peak functions
30-WF0373/SIT - Auto power off function
with stainless steel
- Supplied with four 15 V AA size alkaline
loading seat
batteries
- Typical battery life 1 year

** One digital readout unit can be used for


both load cells

30-WF6305/SIT digital pressure gauge

30-WF0373/SIT
50 kN load cell complete with ACCREDIA
calibration certificate* and stainless steel
loading seat

* In order to issue the calibration


certificate, the load cells must be ordered
complete with the digital readout unit

Technical specifications
- Linearity: 003%
- Hysteresis: 003%
- Repeatability: 001%

110
GEOTECHNICAL | DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM 30

Displacement Measurement Local Strain Measurement


Calibration of displacement measuring devices can be performed with These transducers are used to
either the analogue or digital micrometer 25 and 50 mm travel respec- measure local strain in triaxial
tively, 0.001 mm resolution. They are both available, optionally, with a testing. The calibration is per-
traceable calibration certificate. formed with a special device that
can also be used for standard line-
Both types of micrometer basically consist of a stainless steel frame with ar displacement transducers with
two brackets: one for the transducer and the other for the micrometer up to 50 mm travel.
gauge head. The bracket can hold transducers with nominal diameters The set includes:
of 8, 12, 19 and 22 mm, or 18 mm square. - Frame capable of positioning
the micrometer horizontally
and vertically
30-WF0653/K
- Adaptors for both vertical and
Technical specification radial local strain transducers
Product code 30-WF0652 30-WF0653 - Holders for transducers with
Type Analogue/mechanical Digital nominal diameters of 8, 12, 19
Maximum travel, mm 25 50 and 22 mm, or 18 mm square.
Resolution, mm 0001 0001
Technical specifications
Dimensions, mm (w x d x h) 260 x 60 x 100 300 x 60 x 107
Weight, kg (approx.) 06 15 - Max travel: 50 mm
- Resolution: 0,001 mm
- Dimensions: 260 x 60 x 100 mm
30-WF0652 (w x d x h)
Analogue micrometer, 25 mm travel x - Weight: 15 kg (approx)
0001 mm resolution
30-WF0652/C
As above with traceable certificate

30-WF0653 30-WF0653/K
Digital micrometer, 50 mm travel x 0001 Calibration device for local strain transdu-
mm resolution cers and standard linear displacement
30-WF0653/C transducers up to 50 mm travel
As above with ACCREDIA certificate 30-WF0653/KC
As above with ACCREDIA certificate

30-WF0652 analogue micrometer 30-WF0653 digital micrometer

111
Soil Mechanics


31 Dynamic testing systems

26 Consolidation 44

27 Direct/Residual shear 56

28 Triaxial testing 66

29 AUTOTRIAX 2, Automatic triaxial testing 96

30 Data acquisition system 108

The response of soils to cyclic loading is determined mostly by the mechanical properties of the
soil. There are several types of geotechnical engineering problems associated with dynamic loading, some
examples include: wave propagation, machine vibrations, seismic loading, liquefaction and transient cyclic
loading. We can provide several different systems to investigate these events: Dynamic triaxial, FACT, Re-
sonant column/torsional shear and Cyclic simple shear.

31 Dynamic testing systems


Introduction 114
DYNATRIAX, dynamic triaxial 118
IPC GLOBAL FACT, dynamic triaxial 124
RESONANT COLUMN 126
CYCLIC SIMPLE SHEAR 129
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

113
31 SOIL MECHANICS | DYNAMIC TESTING SYSTEMS
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Dynamic testing systems


The various advanced systems proposed are intended to reproduce in the laboratory the same vibration, shock
and cyclic forces to the soil sample, to give engineers a better understanding of how a soil material behaves
under these unique situations.

114 Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING


SOIL MECHANICS | DYNAMIC TESTING SYSTEMS 31

The DYNATRIAX Dynamic Triaxial, FACT, Resonant Column/Torsional Shear and Cyclic Simple Shear systems
can replicate unusual in-situ events in the laboratory:

Construction Liquefaction The phenomena and problems Blasting


The preservation of archaeologi- Liquefaction is a phenomenon associated with liquefaction most What effect does blasting have
cal sediments and artefacts dur- that occurs in saturated soils, in commonly occur in saturated co- on structures in the areas sur-
ing construction. To establish the which the space between in- hesionless soils, even if they contain rounding a quarry or blast site?
effects of past stress regimes on dividual particles is completely a considerable amount of fines. In How are the foundations of these
archaeological remains seen in filled with water. This water exerts recent years particular attention has structures affected? The blasting
their contemporary, in-situ con- a pressure on the soil particles been focused on sloping ground signature can be used for testing
text. that influences how tightly the conditions where, although there the foundation material.
To maximize site stability and in- particles themselves are pressed might be no risk of earthquake
tegrity, thereby enhancing the together. When there is no dy- loading, a flow failure would have Rail track
future preservation of archaeo- namic activity, the water pressure catastrophic consequences. What effect do vibrations have on
logical remains. Laboratory stud- is relatively low. However, during buildings close to railway tracks?
ies will simulate past loading re- an earthquake, the shaking can Offshore Trains are becoming faster, creat-
gimes as a consequence of the cause the water pressure to in- Investigating the effect of waves ing vibrations of greater frequen-
historic accumulation of debris crease to the point where the soil on offshore structures, waterside cy which are transmitted into the
and sediment and future loading particles can readily move with buildings, harbours and pipelines. surrounding ground. Cyclic tests
based on a range of construction respect to each other and the soil Wave effect and pipeline vibra- on the track subbase material can
scenario. begins to behave as a liquid. tions can be recreated. be performed.

Ocean Waves

Wind

Earthquake

Earthquake

Rail track
Rail track

Blasting
Blasting

Traffic

Construction

115
31 SOIL MECHANICS | DYNAMIC TESTING SYSTEMS
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Dynamic Triaxial-Resonant Column/Torsional Shear-Cyclic simple shear


Dynamic properties of soils such structural system of the whole
System Applications Standards
as stress-strain characteristics building, including foundations.
have been recognized a very im- Stiffness modules for very small DYNATRIAX Dynamic triaxial ASTM D5311
portant part of many aspects of deformations are now recognized Dynamic Triaxial ASTM D3999
construction design as maritime, as fundamental properties of the - Static triaxial:
FACT Total stress (Unconsolidated ASTM D2850
seismic engineering, placement soil. For this reason, in geotech- Undrained) ASTM D4767
of foundations of machines or nical engineering we commonly Effective stress: (Consolidated ASTM D7181
structures subjected to different use information obtained from Undrained, Consolidated Drained)
dynamic interactions. The cor- laboratory and field dynamic and Stress path BS 1377:7
rect description of the soil be- seismic tests to solve also con- BS 1377:8
havior within the range of small ventional problems of interaction
deformations is also an extremely between the building and the
important element in the predic- subsoil.
tion of the movement of struc- Different systems are available to
tures cooperating with subsoil, cover the wide range of deforma-
and thus has a great impact on tions due to different causes.
the quality of the actual map-
A summary table is presented
ping of the internal forces in the
here beside in order to show the
different system and schematic
representations of the different
types of stresses.

Resonant Resonant Column ASTM D4015


Column Torsional Shear

Cyclic Static and Cyclic Simple Shear ASTM D6528


Simple Shear

116
MECANIQUE DES SOLS | SYSTEMES DESSAIS DYNAMIQUES 31

Principe de lessai Configuration systme Page

118

126

129

117
31 SOIL MECHANICS | DYNAMIC TESTING SYSTEMS
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Dynamic triaxial systems


Standards

ASTM D7181 | ASTM D2850 | ASTM D3999 |


ASTM D4767 | ASTM D5311 |
BS 1377:7 | BS 1377:8 | AASHTO T307

main features

> Capability to perform Static (effective stress > Upgrade for bender elements testing and local
and stress path), Dynamic and Unsaturated soil strain measurements
triaxial tests > Standard and user-defined wave shapes,
> Three axis closed loop control for axial load or including those derived from in situ measure-
displacement, cell and back pressure ments (from violent earthquakes to sedate ocean
> Automatic compensation of cell/back pressure waves)
during dynamic stage > Management of transducer calibration and
> Operating frequency up to 10 Hz depending on verification by software
test and sample conditions > Test set-up by unique programmable multi stage
> Complete automation of all test stages using an test procedure: the test structure and parameters
high sensitivity closed loop PID feedback control can be edited during the test according to the
response of the soil specimen
> Two dynamic load/displacement options: Up to
25 mm with 5kN double effect actuator > Manual and automatic emergency air shut-off
or Up to 15 mm with 14kN double effect function
actuator

118
SOIL MECHANICS | DYNAMIC TESTING SYSTEMS 31

The DYNATRIAX is a computer Data Acquisition, process & control PID control that the required peak and val-
controlled servo-pneumatic sys- system An extremely efficient algorithm ley levels are consistently main-
tem designed to perform the The CDC Compact Dynamic with larger gain ranges gives en- tained.
static and dynamic stages of a Controller is a compact self con- hanced sensitivity, making it easi- The tuning panel, with its user-
triaxial test. tained unit that manages the er to tune the system and achiev- friendly interface, provides all
three axis (vertical load/displace- ing a more accurate wave-shape.
The system manages three axis the tools necessary to optimize
ment, cell and back pressure) The system includes manual and
with closed loop control: system control during static and
with a control loop rate of 10 kHz. automatic amplitude controls
- Vertical load/displacement up cyclic test stages.
It provides the automatic control which compensate for small
to 25 mm ( 5 kN double of the system and drives the servo
effect actuator) or up to 15 changes that may occur in the
valve units of the three axis and system during cycling, ensuring
mm ( 14 kN double effect two on/off valves, one connected
actuator) to the drainage line and one con-
- Cell pressure up to 1000 kPa nected to the air main supply of
- Back pressure up to 1000 kPa the system.
The CDC communicates with the
The base system includes: PC through an Ethernet com-
munication link (100 Mbit/s). The
Tritech 50 or Tritech 100 load controller has sixteen transducers
machines
input channels, 16 bits ADC.
The TRITECH digital loading ma-
chine is a microprocessor con-
trolled drive system:
- Static load capacity: 50 kN or
100 kN
- Static vertical displacement up
to 100 mm (machine travel)

Actuator
The double acting pneumatic ac-
tuator is digitally controlled and
includes an integrated LVDT dis- The pneumatic actuator applies the
placement transducer to control vertical cyclic load/displacement
the position and the movement according to the set wave shape
of the piston during the test. Tritech50 load frame fitted
- Dynamic load capacity: with actuator and Banded
Servo valve for the vertical triaxial cell with advanced ring
5 kN or 14 kN load control
- Dynamic vertical displacement
with travel up to 25 mm or
15 mm The actuator locking system
allows the user to easily skip Submersible load cell,
- Operating frequency up to 10
from dynamic to static testing not affected by the friction
Hz (depending on test and of the ram and the cell
sample conditions)
- Min. air supply: 800 kPa
- Max. servo valve frequency: The air reservoir with two Dynatriax includes PC and
70 Hz. servo valves for cell and software that provides the
back pressure control control of test stages in
automatic mode

CDC Compact Dynamic Automatic volume change


Controller with manual apparatus
emergency shut-off switch
On/off valve

119
31 SOIL MECHANICS | DYNAMIC TESTING SYSTEMS
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Software Monotonic shear stage


Multitasking, user-friendly, Win- Strain-controlled, drained or undrained
static shear stage, in compression or transducer verification
dows-based software is pre-in-
stalled on the computer supplied extension, using either the actuator or the
with the system. The software load frame platen
provides control of the following
Note: any or all of the above stages can be
test stages and utilities of a cyclic performed in Automatic mode where the
triaxial test: test parameters are entered at the start of
the test or stage and the software takes
Saturation stage over, controlling the stages according to the
pre-defined criteria
Different methods of saturation can be
performed, according to the relevant Cyclic shear stage
standards, through the application A cyclic shear method can be selected
of incremental steps of cell and back from the following options:
pressure, with B value and volume change - ASTM D5311 Load Controlled Cyclic The graph on the saturation panel can display cell, back, pore pressure and volume change vs time
monitoring and summary table Applica- Strength (Liquefaction Potential)
tion of cell and back pressure ramps is also
available - ASTM D3999 Load Controlled Modulus &
Damping Properties
Isotropic consolidation stage - ASTM D3999 Displacement Controlled
Consolidation according to the relevant Modulus & Damping Properties
standards with continuous monitoring of - Non Standard: single or multi cycle test
volume change, pore pressure and degree - User defined or imported wave shape
of consolidation - Pre-definable stage parameters include:
- Wave shape: sinusoidal, triangle,
K0 consolidation stage square, user-defined
Application of axial stress at a constant rate
- Frequency
of strain, with control of sample diameter
using either: - Peak to peak amplitude
- Direct measurement by radial belt with a - Type of control (stress, strain, load,
local strain transducer displacement)
- Indirect measurement with continuous - End test conditions: number of cycles,
monitoring of axial and volumetric pore pressure ratio, strain limits
strains The graph on the stress path panel displays calculated stresses and strains vs time
Transducer limits
Stress path stage The air shut-off valve can be programmed
Drained or undrained load-controlled to be activated using defined channel
ramping to targets of: limits
- Total horizontal and vertical stress
Calibration
- s & t (average stress and shear stress)
Digital calibration with linear, polynomial
- p & q (mean normal stress and deviator or linearization fit methods and optional
stress)
- Vertical stress at a specified rate of strain

120
SOIL MECHANICS | DYNAMIC TESTING SYSTEMS 31

Cyclic stage setup panel showing parameters for a non-standard test method Transducer calibration Calibrations can be recalled and verified

Stress-controlled cyclic shear stage Real time measurements, compression/extension and Resilient modulus software package: live monitoring of the compression of the sample during
amplitude values are displayed the application of the pulse sequence

Youngs and shear modulus are monitored during the cyclic stage

SWCC (soil-water characteristic curve) stage

121
31 SOIL MECHANICS | DYNAMIC TESTING SYSTEMS
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Accessories Sensors
Triaxial cell and accessories Submersible load cell
Banded triaxial cell 31-WF7117
See pag 75 Submersible load cell 5 kN
31-WF7118
Submersible load cell 10 kN
31-WF7119
Submersible load cell 25 kN

- Overload capacity: 200%


- Nominal sensitivity: 2mV/V
- Excitation voltage: 10 V DC
- Non linearity: 005% full scale
- Hysteresis: 005% full scale
Ordering information Upgrading options - Deflection at full load: 005 mm
- Maximum side force without effect:
31-WF7005 31-WF7000/UNS 50% full scale
DYNATRIAX 50/5, PC controlled automatic Unsaturated soil testing package - Compensated temperature range: 0 to 50C
dynamic triaxial system, including 5kN The package includes an additional servo- - Diameter: 75 mm
double acting pneumatic actuator, 50kN valve for air pressure control, a pressure 28-WF4070 Banded triaxial cell
- Height (excluding ram): 50 mm
cap load triaxial frame, CDC Compact transducer, and the software to automati-
Dynamic Controller 16 channels cap, cally perform the test stages using the axis - Weight (excluding ram and extension
Double wall triaxial cell kit): 850 g
testing software and PC 110-240 V, 50-60 translation method:
See pag 80
Hz, 1 ph - Simultaneous and independent control
of air pressure, cell pressure, back pressu-
re and axial load/displacement 31-WF7119
31-WF7006
- Performance of soil water characteristic
DYNATRIAX 50/14, PC controlled auto-
curve stage in addition to all the stages
matic dynamic triaxial system, including
offered by the standard software
14kN double acting pneumatic actuator,
50kN cap load triaxial frame, CDC Compact - Matrix suction and change in air, water
Dynamic Controller 16 channels cap, and cell volume calculated for each stage
testing software and PC 110-240 V, 50-60
Hz, 1 ph 31-WF7000/RES
Resilient modulus determination on
31-WF7010 compacted samples
DYNATRIAX 100/5, PC controlled auto- This package provides software for
matic dynamic triaxial system, including performing the test according to AASHTO
5kN double acting pneumatic actuator, T307 standard, two 10 mm displacement
100kN cap load triaxial frame, CDC transducers, and mounting brackets to
Compact Dynamic Controller 16 channels fit the transducers to the piston of the 31-WF7121
cap, testing software and PC 110-240 V, triaxial cell Axial displacement LVDT
50-60 Hz, 1 ph The software includes: transducers
- Two standard sequences of dynamic Capacity: 25 mm
cyclic stress and static confining stress Input voltage: 10 V DC
31-WF7015 for subgrade soils and base/sub-base 28-WF4170 Double wall triaxial cell for
unsaturated test Nominal sensitivity: 165 mV/mm
DYNATRIAX 100/14, PC controlled auto- materials Linearity: 050%
matic dynamic triaxial system, including - The possibility to set up customized Connector: Lumberg type, 6-pin male
14kN double acting pneumatic actuator, sequences that the user can save and
100kN cap load triaxial frame, CDC replicate automatically
Compact Dynamic Controller 16 channels - Continuous monitoring in real time of
cap, testing software and PC 110-240 V, recorded and processed data of each
50-60 Hz, 1 ph single sequence

31-WF7121

122
SOIL MECHANICS | DYNAMIC TESTING SYSTEMS 31

Pressure transducers with Pressure system Air compressor De airing water system
de-airing block See pag 84
Water distribution panel 86-D2015/A
28-WF6300 Used to supply the dynamic triaxial system
31-WF4335
Pressure transducers 1000 kPa and the air/water pressure system with Upgrading accessories
Two pressure lines, complete with
28-WF6310 digital gauge and hand pump to build-up compressed air Bender elements
pressure* - Maximum pressure: 10 bar See pag 90
De airing block for pressure tranducer, for
banded triaxial cell - Dimensions: 605 x 270 x 500 mm - Maximum pressure (continuous use):
8 bar Local strain transducers
See pag 87 (w x d x h) See pag 92
- Weight: 85 kg (approx) - Tank capacity: 200 l
- Air flow: 334 m3/h Note: local strain transducers and bender
*If the laboratory is already equipped with a elements require advanced kit to be fitted to
pressure system, the model 28-WF4334 may - Power rating: 4 kW
the triaxial cells see pag 77
be used as an alternative - Power supply: 400 V, 50 Hz, 3 ph (for
220 V, 60 Hz, 3 ph ask for 86-D2015/
See page 100
AZ model)
- Overall dimensions:
1600 x 500 x 1050 mm (wxdxh)
- Weight: 125 kg (approx)
28-WF6300 with 28-WF6310

Air treatment unit

Volume change
86-D2019
Using this dryer ensures the production
29-WF4412 of clean and dry, high quality air, which is
Automatic volume change device with essential for preserving the testing system
remotely controlled flow inversion 31-WF4335
It can be used for different applications,
- Capacity: 100 cc either as an independent unit or connected
- Accuracy: 01 cc to the air compressor
- Maximum operating pressure: 2000 kPa Bladder Air/water interface Supplied complete with particle filter 5m
- Dimensions: W280 x H400 x D260 mm 28-WF4320 and two oil filters 1 and 0,1 m
- Weight: 9 kg - Power rating: 190 W
Air/water interface up to 1000 kPa
See pag 83 - Power supply: 230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph (for
110 V, 60 Hz, ask for 86-D2019/Z model)
- Capacity: 900 l/min
- Pressure: 16 bar
- Overall dimensions:
220 x 560 x 460 mm(wxdxh)
- Weight: 24 kg (approx)

29-WF4412

28-WF4320 Air/water interface


Note: the sensors are supplied with proper
in-line conditioning unit; additional sensors
require new in-line conditioning unit
available on request

123
31 SOIL MECHANICS | DYNAMIC TESTING SYSTEMS
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

FACT: Fully-Automated Cyclic Triaxial


main features
> Easy installation: assembled and ready to go all-in-one, stream-
lined instrument thats easy to install
> Easy testing: fast and reliable results
> Precision engineered, integrated load frame for excellent sample
alignment
> Excellent waveform fidelity from the integrated acquisition and control
functions
> Measure and controlaxial displacement, axial load, confining pressu-
re, back pressure, pore pressure, volume change
> Zero friction and no need for shaft bushes because the shaft is integra-
ted into the cell
> Lightweight acrylic cell wall for improved specimen loading, less
specimen disturbance and provides unobstructed specimen viewing
and safe management of cell pressure
> Overload shut-off and protection switches that safeguard your
equipment
> 4x over-sampled data acquisition for highly accurate test data
> Flash based firmware allows field updates of all modules
> Communicate via Ethernet or USB
> Optional: on-specimen axial displacement x2, on-specimen circumfe-
rential, mid-height pore pressure

Standards FACT includes: - Cabinet assembly c/w water/


ASTM D5311 | ASTM D3999 | ASTM D4746 | ASTHOO T0307 | BS 1377:8 - Integrated Control & Data vacuum distribution panel
Acquisition System (IMACS) - Vacuum platen kit
FACT - Fully Automated Cyclic Triax - Integrated Reaction Frame - Compressed air gun cleaning
- Lightweight acrylic triaxial cell assembly
FACT is an all-in-one, streamlined instrument thats easy to install: - UTS software
- 11kN Servo-pneumatic
Totally integrated system, ready to install straightout of the box actuator assembly
Delivered fully plumbed and therefore easy to set-up, clean and - Pneumatic reservoir assembly
service
- Submersible Load cell (12kN)
Internal vacuum generator for ease and simplicity w/ In-Line Conditioner (ILC) &
Computer is conveniently pre-loaded with software applications Shaft
Compact design, on wheels, for easy positioning in your laboratory - Vertical LVDT (25mm) w/ In-
Controlling FACT is IPC Globals Integrated Multi-Axis Control System Line Conditioner (ILC)
(IMACS). IMACS delivers leading edge performance, unparalleled con- - Pressure Transducer (1000kPa)
trol and the ultimate in flexible data acquisition. - Control Panel Assembly
For servo-controlled testing machines, the IMACS provides excellent - Combined pressure/volume-
waveform fidelity from integrated channel acquisition and control func- change apparatus
tions simultaneously on all channels.

124
SOIL MECHANICS | DYNAMIC TESTING SYSTEMS 31

Software

IPC Globals UTS software is purpose built and draws upon over 30 years of advanced
materials testing experience
IPC Globals test and control software (UTS) is known for its simplicity in use, clarity
of results and analytical power UTS allows for real time graphing of results and
configurable real time transducer levels screen, as well as customizable test templates
to streamline the testing process

TUNING PARAMETERS Easy to navigate menus to allow you to set up your test parameters with
minimal hassle

Technical specification APPLY SIGNATURE AS CYCLIC SHEAR PARAMETERS simulate real world events from violent
earth-quakes to sedate ocean waves
- Maximum axial loading: 11 kN*
- Load Cell: 25 kN Submersible
- Ram Displacement: 50 mm
- Cell Dimensions:
240 mm ID x 415 mm High
- Specimen sizes: 38/50/70/100 mm
diameter (Other sizes available)
- Maximum test application frequency
Typically 5 Hz
- Maximum dynamic cell pressure
frequency 1 Hz Floating Ram
- Cell Pressure up to 1000 kPa*
- Back Pressure up to 1000 kPa*
- Control Modes Force/Stress/Displace-
ment & Strain For more details
about technical features
- Reaction Frame 3 Integrated internal
and ordering information
columns
contact Controls Group
- Dimensions: 1370 x 630 x 1140 mm
(h x d x w)
- Weight: 165 kg
- Power supply:
110 V/240 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph
- Operating Environment 5 C to 30 C

* Load and pressure achievable with 10 bar


compressed air supply

125
31 SOIL MECHANICS | DYNAMIC TESTING SYSTEMS
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

RESONANT COLUMN

main features
> Combined Resonant Column (RC)/ Torsional Shear (TS)
device
> Pneumatically operated, confining pressure up to 1 MPa
> Automatic detection of fundamental frequency
> RC: damping ratio from half-power bandwidth and from free-
vibration decay
> TS: damping ratio from hysteresis loops
> Internal floating frame for large angular and axial deformation
> Suitable for 50 mm diameter specimens (or 38 mm on request)
> Integrated data acquisition generation and elaboration

Standards ASTM D4015 resonant frequency, shear wave


velocity and shear wave modu-
31-WF8500 lus are calculated using elasticity
Resonant column, combined theory. The corresponding shear
resonant column/torsional strain is evaluated from the mo-
shear device tion amplitude. Material damp-
for the automatic determination of dam- ing can be determined from the
ping ratio from half power bandwith and half-power bandwidth or from a
free vibration decay method 110-220V, 50- free-vibration decay curve, which
60 Hz, 1 ph is generated by shutting off the
driving power.
Resonant Column combines the In the Torsional Shear test the soil
features of both resonant column specimen is deformed cyclically
and torsional shear into a single at a low frequency (a maximum of
unit, including a current-driven 10 Hz), whilst continuously moni-
motor to apply torsional load to toring torque and deformation.
the sample, a series of transduc- From the torque-deformation
ers with signal conditioning, a curves, a relationship between
cell and back pressure electro- average shear stress and average
pneumatic control system and a shear strain is obtained, which in
data logger. turn provides the shear modulus
In the Resonant Column test a and the damping ratio. Schematic layout of Resonant column
cylindrical soil specimen is re-
strained at the bottom and dy-
namically excited at the top. The
torsional force at the top is gen-
erated using an electrical motor
constituting eight drive coils en-
circling four magnets attached
to a drive plate. The generated
frequency is up to 300 Hz. The
fundamental mode of vibration
is determined from the maximum
amplitude of motion; from the

Detail of electric motor, coils and magnets

126
SOIL MECHANICS | DYNAMIC TESTING SYSTEMS 31

Saturation stage and measuring changes in pore response of the soil specimen Torsional Shear test (TS)
During the saturation stage, small water pressure. (half-power bandwidth); A sinusoidal current is applied to
amounts of cell and back pressure - in the domain of time, from a the coils in a quasi-static condi-
are applied in steps, causing the Resonant Column test (RC) free-vibration decay curve that tion and the motion of the top of
air in the pore spaces to dissolve. A signal generator supplies a si- is generated by shutting off the specimen is monitored using
A control system generates both nusoidal voltage to the driving the driving power (logarithmic the proximity displacement trans-
cell and back pressures using air/ amplifier and a proportional cur- decrement method). ducers. The input current (propor-
water interfaces. Cell, back and rent to the coils attached to the tional to the shear stress) and the
The half-power bandwidth is de-
pore pressures are measured by cell body. The magnetic field in corresponding torsional rotation
fined as the width of the peak,
1000 kPa capacity pressure trans- the coils interacts with the mag- (proportional to the shear strain)
where the magnitude of the fre-
ducers to an accuracy of 0.1 kPa. nets attached to the driving plate are simultaneously recorded. The
quency response function is 1/2
Volume change is measured by a which, in turn, conveys a torsional shear modulus of the soil is de-
times the peak value. In the loga-
high-sensitivity volume change oscillation to the top of the speci- termined from the average slope
rithmic decrement method, the
apparatus that consists of a pis- men. As the frequency of the of the stress-strain loops, while
free vibration displacement am-
ton connected to a 12.5 mm input signal varies, the dynamic material damping is related to the
plitude history of the soil speci-
LVDT transducer sealed against response of the specimen results area of the hysteresis loop.
men to an impulse is measured
a precision-machined calibration in a varying motion amplitude. At a given effective stress, TS
and recorded. A typical free decay
chamber with 40 cc capacity and The amplitude is captured either tests are repeated several times,
curve is shown below. Logarith-
0.2% accuracy. by an accelerometer attached to progressively increasing the am-
mic decrement is the natural log-
the driving plate or by proximity arithmic value of the ratio of two plitude of the input voltage, thus
Consolidation stage displacement transducers meas- adjacent values. obtaining the secant shear modu-
The sample is subjected to the uring the movement of the driv- lus and the damping ratio corre-
At a given effective stress, RC
same back pressure used during ing plate relative to the coils. sponding to increasing values of
tests are repeated several times,
the last saturation step while the The frequency that maximizes the shear strain.
progressively increasing the am-
cell pressure depends on the ef- the motion of the top of the plitude of the input voltage, thus
fective stress required for the next specimen is associated with the obtaining the secant shear mod-
stage. The consolidation stage first-mode resonance and is de- ulus and the damping ratio cor-
is considered completed when termined by applying an input responding to increasing shear
pore water pressure is completely signal with a frequency sweep. strain values.
dissipated and volume change is The secant shear modulus of the
negligible. During this stage the soil can be evaluated from the
axial compression is measured us- resonant frequency.
ing a LVDT transducer with 12.5
The damping ratio can be evalu-
mm travel.
ated by two methods:
RC and TS tests are usually per-
- in the domain of frequency,
formed under undrained condi-
from the complete frequency
tions, closing the drainage lines

RC: Resonant column test Torsional Shear: determination of shear modulus (G) and damping ratio (D)

127
31 SOIL MECHANICS | DYNAMIC TESTING SYSTEMS
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Software

Resonant Column steady-state

RC / TS: strain level and mechanical behaviour of the soil specimen

The system consists of the follow- Technical specification


ing components: - Maximum torque: 12 Nm
- Maximum angular deformation: 10
Triaxial cell - Maximum cell and back pressure: 1 MPa
Aluminum cell with stainless steel - 8 channels signal conditioning unit
columns and acrylic transparent - USB data acquisition and signal genera-
cylinder with 170 mm int. dia. x tion board
200 mm ext. dia., including chan- - Two electro-pneumatic converters for
nels for bottom drainage; internal cell and back pressure
floating frame for assembling the - Excitation frequency: Dynamic (RC)
electrical motor that applies the 1-300 Hz; Cyclic (TS) from 0 to 50 Hz Resonant Column free decay
torsional loads; this motor has maximum
four NeFeB 10 x 25 x 40 mm mag- - Dimension: Control Box 51x45 x 35 cm
nets and eight coils. (h x w x d); Cell 55 cm x 27 cm
Test accessories for 50 mm (or (h x diam)
38 mm available on request) dia. - Weight: approx 50 kg
specimens
Accessories
n2 calibration bars kit + n1 cali-
bration weight. 28-WF4051/A
Membrane stretcher for 50 mm diameter
Main control box, samples
PC and software 28-WF4051/B
Compact unit connected to PC
O-ring placing tool for 50 mm diameter
contains all control, power sup-
samples
ply and electrical and pneumatic Torsional Shear: application of the cyclic torque
devices. This system contains also 28-WF4055
the air actuators (I/P converters) Rubber membranes for 50 mm diameter
and the amplification equipment. samples (pack of 10)
28-WF4056
Air compressor De-airing water system
Sensor kit containing: O-ring for 50 mm diameter samples
See pag 84
Axial LVDT transducer, volume 28-WF4051/E 28-WF2016/A
change apparatus, three Pressure Air compressor, 10 bar maximum working
Lateral filter drains (pack of 50)
transducers, two Eddy current pressure ( 8 bar continuous) , output 234
displacement sensors (with min- 31-WF4051/H1 l/min, 100 L receiver 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph
iaturized driving system), MEMS Two-part split former for 50 mm diameter (110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph ; 220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
accelerator. samples with vacuum attachment models are available on request)
28-WF4051/G
Hand sampler complete of cutter, wooden 28-WF2016/2
dolly and receiver for 50 mm samples Air filter/water trap for air compressor

128
SOIL MECHANICS | DYNAMIC TESTING SYSTEMS 31

Cyclic simple shear


main features
> Constant diameter test performance
> The system enables performance of cyclic and monotonic
simple shear tests: at constant volume with strain control,
at constant vertical stress with control of shear strain, at
constant vertical stress with load control and with any
superimposed static shear stress
> Operating frequency up to 10 Hz (depending on test and
sample conditions)
> 5kN lateral (horizontal) and axial (vertical) actuators
> 5kN load cells fitted in-line with actuators, 1 N accuracy

Cyclic simple shear 31-WF7500

31-WF7500 top platen. and secured with O-rings. To


The system is designed to allow maintain a constant diameter (K0
Cyclic Simple Shear machine
a sample to be consolidated and conditions) the sample is laterally
PC controlled, with IMACS, fitted in cabi- confined by a series of brass rings.
net, including adapters for 70mm samples sheared under drained condi-
110-220 V 50-60 Hz 1ph tions.
Shear stage
The cyclic simple shear apparatus Sample During shear the rings slide across
is generally used for research as The standard sample is 70 mm each other as shown below.
it can quite easily simulate many diameter. The test can also be When the shear stage is running,
different field loading conditions performed on 50mm diameter the vertical height of the sample
in order to investigate the dynam- samples using the conversion kit can be maintained constant by
ic behaviour of soils, such as: 31-WF7500/1. the vertical actuator in a closed
- Stability during seismic events The sample is positioned on a loop control. Constant volume
of submerged slopes on the pedestal with a top cap the same tests can therefore be performed
continental shelf characterized as a triaxial sample, and covered on either dry or saturated samples,
by layered clays by a rubber membrane placed maintaining drained conditions.
- Degradation of shear stress
in cohesive soils under cyclic
loading
Vertical Stress Brass Rings
- Evaluation of the liquefaction Top Cap
parameters of non-cohesive
soils under cyclic loading
The cyclic simple shear is a plane
strain device. The shear strain is
induced by lateral (horizontal)
movement at the bottom of the
sample relative to the top. The
diameter of the sample remains
Shear Stress
constant, therefore any change in Base Pedestal
volume can only be as a result of
axial (vertical) movement of the Stress conditions of the sample in the cyclic simple shear machine 31-WF7500

129
31 SOIL MECHANICS | DYNAMIC TESTING SYSTEMS
Since 1941

PIONEERS IN ADVANCED SOIL TESTING

Cyclic simple shear


Here below a general descrip- Integrated Multi-Axis Control Displacement transducer Accessories
tion of main components of the System (IMACS) A transducer with 25 mm trav-
The IMACS is a compact self- 31-WF7500/1
system: el is built into each actuator to
contained unit that provides all measure the actuator position 50mm diameter sample accessories
critical control, timing and data including pedestal and top cap
Simple shear machine and provide feedback control.
acquisition functions for the test The vertical displacement trans-
The base machine consists of a 86-D2015/A
and the transducers. duceris calibrated over 2.5 mm
simple shear load frame, an air
The data acquisition module for controlling and maintaining Air compressor, 10 bar maximum pressure,
receiver with axial (vertical) and
has six normalized (10 V range) 200 L capacity, 55 kW 400 V, 50 Hz, 3 ph
lateral (horizontal) loading con- the sample height. Accurate to
trol valves and two 5 kN actuators, transducer input channels. These 1 m.
built into a specially designed channels are digitized by ac- 86-D2019
floor-mounted cabinet, which curate, high speed 20-bit (A/D) Air treatment unit for the production of
In-line signal conditioning pods
also houses the IMACS and the converters for data analysis and clean and dry, high quality air, comprising:
These units normalize all the particle filter 5m and two oil filters 1 and
PC. The axial and lateral actuators presentation.
transducer outputs, allowing 0,1 m 230 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph
are fixed to the load frame, which The control module has four transducers to be moved from
supplies the reaction to the forces channels for feedback control. channel to channel without the
applied. Each actuator has an in- Two are dedicated to the actua- need to be recalibrate.
ternal displacement transducer, tor for axial load/displacement,
which relays the actuator piston the other two are dedicated to
In summary, the system compris-
position back to the computer. the application of the lateral load/
es the following:
This is very important when set- displacement.
ting up a sample; it allows you - Cyclic simple shear machine
Both modules have their own
to set enough travel for the test with 5kN capacity lateral and
dedicated high speed USB 10 b/s
duration. axial actuators
or RS232 interface. This allows un-
The top half of the area where interrupted, simultaneous com- - Accessories for sample
the sample is set up is rigidly munication, enabling increased preparation
fixed and houses a 50 mm diam- speed of cooperation and flex- - Load and displacement
eter vertical ram in a linear bear- ibility. transducers
ing to allow axial movement but Supervised by the PC, the IM- - Control and data acquisition
prevent lateral movement. The ACS automatically controls the system
bottom half is mounted on roller loading operation for individual - Software and PC
bearings in the same way as in a types of test. The IMACS directly
standard shear box apparatus. controls the servo-valve to ap-
ply the requested loading rate or Technical specifications
waveform. While the specimen is - Simple shear machine: floor mounted,
being subjected to loading forces, steel box frame including integral
the IMACS captures data from the double-acting lateral and axial pneuma-
transducers and transfers these, tic actuators, each with a 25 mm inter-
via the USB or RS232 link, to the nal displacement transducer (accuracy:
PC for processing, display and 001 mm) The top cap is fixed and the
storage. pedestal is mounted on roller bearings
- Sample size: 70 mm diameter (50 mm
with conversion kit)
Load cells - Maximum load: 5 kN axial and lateral
Two 5 kN load cells are assembled - Operating frequency: up to 10 Hz (de-
in-line with the axial and lateral pending on test and sample conditions)
actuators. They are fitted with a - Overall dimensions: 1500 x 700 x 1200
signal conditioning pod, allowing mm (w x d x h)
the transducers to be changed or - Power supply: 240 or 110 V, 50-60 Hz,
moved within the data acquisi- 1 ph
tion system without the need to - Weight: 350 kg (approx)
be recalibrated. Accurate to 1N.

130
SOIL MECHANICS | DYNAMIC TESTING SYSTEMS 31

SOFTWARE Linear displacement shear stage


The linear displacement shear
Consolidation stage stage of the test applies a rate of
The consolidation stage is sim- lateral shear displacementto the
ply the application of a static specimen. Both axial, lateral load
axial loading (normal) stress to and specimen displacement, to-
the specimen while the lateral gether with shear induced pore
loading (shear) axis is held sta- pressure* are measured for each
tionary. Axial stress and specimen loading cycle. Measured data is
displacement (axial and lateral) displayed to the operator in the
data are measured over time and form of graphs and tables and
logged by the system. Logged also logged by the system to an
data is also displayed to the op- archive data file.
erator in the form of graphs and
Set up parameters
tables as the test stage proceeds.
The consolidation stage is manu- General test setup
ally terminated by the operator The setup stage of the software
once consolidation of the speci- allows you to select the type of
men is determined to be com- test parameters you wish to use,
plete. for example: consolidation stage
axial stress; shear stage under axial
Cyclic simple shear stage stress or constant height control;
This stage of the test applies a cyclic shear stage lateral axis un-
lateral cyclic shear force, or op- der load or displacement control
tionally a displacement, to the with choice of wave shape; rate
specimen, while the axial axis is of shear; test termination on cycle
either maintained at the speci- counts or percent axial strain.
fied stress, or optionally, the Consolidation stage The graph can display axial stress, induced pore pressure,
specimen height is maintained. *Since the pore pressure is zerothrough shear, axial load and lateral load vs time
Both axial lateral load and speci- the shear induced pore pressure is calculated
using the assumption that: the change
men displacement together with in normal stress is equal to the change in
shear induced pore pressure* are effective stress and assumed to be equal to
measured for each loading cycle. the change in pore water pressure that would
Measured data is obtained from occur in a sealed specimen confined by a
constant total stress
50 sample points captured over
the cycle period. This data is dis-
played to the operator in the form
of wave shapes, graphs and tables
and also logged by the system to
an archive data file. The loading
cycle shape is operator- selecta-
ble from pre-defined functions Cyclic shear stage The graph can display axial stress, induced pore pressure,
but may also be a user-generated axial load and lateral load vs time or cycles
shape.

Linear displacement shear stage The graph can display axial stress, induced
pore pressure, axial load andlateral load vs time

131
Compacted road base
and subbase soils


33 Moisture/Density relationship
34 CBR California Bearing Ratio
35 Field density, Bearing capacity
38 Soil permeability

When highway or railway earthworks, bases, subbases and dams are constructed and subgrades
are prepared, it is necessary to compact the material mechanically, to confer a high degree of density. This
procedure increases the shear strength, reduces the permeability and water absorption, and reduces the
tendency to settle under repeated loading. Compaction is therefore defined as the process of increasing the
density of a material by mechanical means. To simulate the procedure adopted in the earthworks to obtain
a defined level of compaction in the field, several laboratory tests have been developed over the years; they
only differ for the different level of energy applied to the soil sample.

The equipment proposed in section 33 concern mainly Proctor moulds and compactors.
Section 34 refers mainly to the CBR equipment and various models of loading presses.
The equipment shown in section 35 concerns mainly all devices for determining the in situ density and
various models of plate bearing test apparatus.
Section 38 propose various apparatus for determining the permeability of soil.

33 Moisture/Density relationship
Proctor moulds and rammers          134
35 Field density, Bearing capacity
Sand density cone apparatus          156
Automatic Proctor/CBR compactors    136 Balloon density apparatus            158
Vibrating compaction hammer        139 Surface soil samplers                 159
Proctor penetrometer                140 Plate bearing test apparatus           160
Compressive strength                140 Lightweight deflectometer            165
Load ring penetrometer              140
Moisture condition apparatus         141
Relative density test sets              141 38 Soil permeability
Constant and falling head permeability
apparatus                          166
34 CBR California Bearing Ratio
CBR moulds and accessories           142
De-airing and vacuum systems        167
Compaction mould permeameter      168
Swell test apparatus                 145 Pinhole test apparatus                169
Field CBR test set                    145
CBR specific load frame and presses    146
MULTISPEED loading presses          148
Impact soil tester                    155
133
33 COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | MOISTURE / DENSITY RELATIONSHIP

Proctor moulds and rammers


Proctor moulds and rammers conforming to EN
Standards EN 13286-2

Moulds
Used for determining the rela- Code Internal diameter (mm) Body height (mm) Approx. weight (kg)
tionship between the moisture 33-T0070/EN 100 1 120 1 50
content and density of compact- 33-T0070/ENS* 100 1 120 1 50
ed soil. The moulds include collar, 33-T0071/EN 150 1 120 1 89
mould body and base plate.
33-T0071/ENS* 150 1 120 1 89
The rammer construction in- 33-T0074/E 250 1 200 1 32
cludes a guide sleeve with vent
holes. Different versions are avail- *Split version
able that conform to the various Steel plates
commonly used standards. They
Code Diameter (mm) Thickness (mm) Approx. weight
are all made of plated steel and
are identical in shape, only dif- 33-T0070/E1 995 10 06
fering slightly in diameter and 33-T0071/E1 1495 10 13
capacity. For the extrusion of soil 33-T0074/E1 2495 20 76
specimens from the mould, the
Universal specimen extruder may Rammers
be used. See Accessories. Code Rammer Free fall height Rammer weight Approx. Weight
An alternative (and preferable) diameter (mm) (mm) (kg) (kg)
method of compacting is to use 33-T0075/E 50 05 305 3 249 30
an automatic compactor. For 33-T0076/E 50 05 457 3 454 53
more information, see AUTO- 33-T0077/E* 125 05 600 3 150 23
PROCTOR, the automatic Proctor-
CBR compactor, pages 136-138. *A semi-automatic high energy compactor is available on request

Proctor moulds and rammers conforming Proctor moulds and rammers conforming to BS
to ASTM, AASHTO and CNR Standards BS 1377:4, 1924:2
Standards
Moulds
ASTM D558, D698, D1557 | AASHTO T99, T134, T180 | CNR N69
Code Volume Internal Body height Approx.
Moulds (cm) diameter (mm) weight
Code Volume Internal diameter Body height Approx. weight (mm) (kg)
(cm3) (mm) (mm) (kg) 33-T0070/BS 1000 1050 1155 70
33-T0070/A 944 1016 1164 70 Rammer
33-T0071/A 2124 1524 1164 90 Code Rammer Free fall Rammer weight Weight
33-T0072/A 944 1016 1164 75 diameter height (kg) (kg)
33-T0073/A 2124 1524 1164 95 (mm) (mm)
33-T0075/B 50 300 25 30
Rammers
33-T0076/B 50 450 45 53
Code Rammer Free fall height Rammer Approx. weight
diameter (mm) weight (kg) (kg)
33-T0075 508 3050 249 30
16-T0080
33-T0076 508 4572 454 53

Accessories (for all moulds)


16-T0080
Universal extruder
Used to remove 4(1016 mm), 6(1524 mm), 100 mm and 150 mm diameter specimens
from Proctor, CBR and Marshall moulds Constructed of steel, with adapters that corre-
spond to the diameter of the moulds and can easily be fitted
Capacity: 50 kN, Ram travel: 197 mm (ram) + 68 mm (screw) , Weight: 25 kg (approx)

134
COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | MOISTURE / DENSITY RELATIONSHIP 33

Proctor moulds and rammers conforming to NF


Standards NF P94-078,P94-93, P98-231-1
Moulds
Code Volume Internal diameter Body height Approx. Weight
(cm3) (mm) (mm) (kg)
33-T0070/NF 944 1016 1164 70
33-T0072/NF* 944 1016 1164 75
33-T0089/NF 2758 1520 1520 90
33-T0089/NFS* 2758 1520 1520 100
*Split versions

Rammer
Code Rammer Free fall height Rammer Weight Proctor moulds and rammers conforming to NLT and UNE
diameter (mm) (mm) weight (kg) (kg) Standards NLT-108/91, UNE 103-500
33-T0075 508 305 249 30 Moulds
33-T0076 508 457 4535 53 Code Volume Internal Body height Approx.
(cm3) diameter (mm) Weight
(mm) (kg)
33-T0070/C 1000 1020 1224 70
33-T0070/C3* 1000 1020 1224 70
33-T0071/C 2320 1524 1270 100
33-T0071/C3* 2320 1524 1270 100
*Split versions

Rammer
Code Rammer Free fall Rammer Weight
diameter height weight (kg)
(mm) (mm) (kg)
33-T0075 508 305 249 30
33-T0076 508 457 4535 53

EN compaction equipment
Compaction equipment

135
33 COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | MOISTURE / DENSITY RELATIONSHIP

Universal Proctor/CBR automatic compactors | T3500 series


Standards

EN 13286-2 | EN 13286-47 | ASTM D698 | ASTM D1557 | ASTM D1883 | AASHTO T99 |
AASHTO T180 | AASHTO T193 | BS 1377:4 | NF P94-093 | NF P94-066 | UNE 103-500 Mould 100/4" Mould 150/6"

Model 33-T3512 Detail of blow distribution,


evidencing the central blow on 150-152 mm
dia specimens

main features
> Universal application: one model only Ordering information
One model only
to satisfy all Standard to satisfy all Standard requirements, 33-T3512
requirements including central blow
(ASTM/AASHTO/EN/
Universal Fully Automatic Programmable,
NF/BS/UNE etc.),
> Fully automatic programmable micro- Proctor/CBR automatic compactor for
including the
processor controlled specimens from 100 to 1524 mm dia,
central blow > User friendly selection of Standards conforming to EN, ASTM, AASHTO, BS, NF,
UNE and major international Standards
User friendly selection > The rammer is included The face dia Rammer kit included 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph
of Standards and weight can be easily set conforming
33-T3513
Possibility to program to the selected Standards
Same as above but 220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
up to 15 user defined > User defined compaction sequences, 33-T3514
compaction cycles and ideal for research purposes Same as above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
sequences
> Lateral trasparent panel to follow the
compaction evolution and to make
easier the removal of the mould at the
test end
> Protection guards for operator safety
> Noise reduction cabinet available
> Unique hammer lifting device to
guarantee correct drop height

Conforming to all the above Standards, designed for moulds 100 to 102
Models 33-T3512, 33-T3513, 33-T3514
and 150 to 152.4mm diameter, this programmable,microprocessor-con-
trolled model is particularly suitable for research purposes as it is pos- Mould/specimen dia. 100 to 1524 mm (4 and 6)
sible to program a user-defined compaction sequence and a sequence Rammer face dia.
conforming to standards. A sophisticated compaction technique per- (interchangeable conforming 50 and 508 mm
to Standards, see table below)
mits the central blow required for the 150-152.4 mm diameter moulds.
The end of each layer compaction is indicated by a visual and acoustic Rammer weight
(interchangeable conforming 249-250-450-453 kg
signal. The machine is supplied complete with compaction hammer to Standards, see table below)
which can be easily set conforming to the Standard in use as specified Rammer drop
in the table. (interchangeable conforming 300, 305, 450, 457 mm
All models can be supplied complete with noise reduction cabinet. to Standards, see table below)
See page 139. Blow rate 25 blows/min, approx
CE protection Included
Power rating 650 W approx
Overall dimensions (wxdxh) 460 x 460 x 1390 mm
Weight approx.: 140 kg

136
COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | MOISTURE / DENSITY RELATIONSHIP 33

Rammer application guide.


The Universal Automatic Compaction Hammer series 33-T3500 as spec-
ified, can be easily set with the different rammer face diameter, rammer
and drop weight.
The following table summarizes all the Standard requirements. This
model can surely satisfy other National Standards too.

Standards Rammer face dia. Rammer weight Rammer drop height


ASTM 698 508 mm 249 kg 305 mm
457 mm
ASTM D1557 508 mm 453 kg 305 mm
457 mm
ASTM D1883 508 mm 249 kg 305 mm
453 kg 457 mm
AASHTO T99 508 mm 249 kg 305 mm
AASHTO T180 453 kg 457 mm
AASHTO T193
EN 13286-2 50 mm 250 kg 305 mm
EN 13286-47 450 kg 457 mm
BS 1377:4 50 mm 250 kg 300 mm
450 kg 450 mm
NF P94-093 50 mm 249 kg 305 mm
NF P94-066 453 kg 457 mm
UNE 103-500 508 mm 249 kg 305 mm
453 kg 457 mm

33-T3512 View with open doors The transparent right panel permit the visual control of the
compaction and, at the end, the easy removal of the mould

33-T3512 Detail of lifting mechanism User definited video


The system feature a unique device which
automatically compensates the backlash and
the mechanical wear for long durability and
maintaining constant the rammer drop

137
33 COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | MOISTURE / DENSITY RELATIONSHIP

Proctor/CBR ASTM automatic compactors | T3600 series


main features
> Automatic programmable compactor to Ordering information
Standards ASTM and AASHTO
33-T3612
> Graphic display showing test progress
in real time Automatic Proctor/CBR compactor for 4
and 6 dia moulds, conforming to ASTM/
> Possibility to program up to 3 user defi- AASHTO Standards Rammer kit included
ned compaction cycles and sequences 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph
> Rammer with both head and weights 33-T3613
included Same as above but 220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
> Unique rammer lifting device to guaran- 33-T3614
tee correct and longlife drop height Same as above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
> All safety features as protection guards
and emergency button included as
standard
> Lateral trasparent panel ensures free
The automatic view on the compaction evolution
compactor provides
a fully automatic and > Double doors for free access to wide
uniform compaction test area
of specified effort, thus > Noise reduction cabinet is available
ensuring repeatable (see accessories)
test results and
eliminating
any operator fatigue
during the tests.

Models 33-T3612, 33-T3613, 33-T3614


Standards ASTM
Standards
AASHTO
ASTM D698 | ASTM D1863 | ASTM D1557 | AASHTO T99 | AASHTO T180 | AASHTO T193
Mould/specimen dia. 4 and 6
Conforming to ASTM and AASHTO Standards, this microprocessor-con- (101.6 to 152.4 mm)
trolled soil compaction tester is designed for 4" and 6" moulds. The end Rammer (s) Included: circular 4(50.8 mm) head and
of each layer compaction is indicated by a visual and acoustic signal. The sector face for 6 specim.
machine is supplied complete with all relevant accessories as: 50.8 mm Rammer weight Adjustable: 2495/4535 g
circular face for 4" diameter specimen and interchangeable sector face
for 6" diameter specimens, and a rammer weights (2495/4353 g) that are Rammer drop (adjustable) 305 and 457 mm
easily interchangeable according to the reference standard. Blow rate 25 blows/min approx.
The wide control display and panel are connected with a shock absorb- CE protection Included
er system and can be tilted according to user comfort. Power rating 650 W approx.
The software gives the possibility to program customized sequences al- Overall dimensions (wxdxh) 457 x 455 x 1390 mm
lowing the user to set the rotation angle from 5 to 90 with 5 steps
between two subsequent blows, granting a precise and uniform blows Weight approx.: 130 kg
distribution.
NOTE ASTM/AASHTO compactor can be
The rotating base has screw clamping system for the moulds locking. easily converted to compact 100 mm dia
Two doors, one blind frontal and one transparent lateral, ensure com- specimens conforming to EN using a 50 mm
dia tamping face available on request and
fortable access to a wide test area ad gives free view during test running.
adjusting the weight and the drop height of
The soil automatic compactor can be supplied with noise reduction the hammer
cabinet (see accessories).
See page 139. 33-T3612 ASTM/AASHTO automatic compactor
Detail of the rammer sector face with the
interchangeable sector face to compact 6dia
specimens

138
COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | MOISTURE / DENSITY RELATIONSHIP 33

33-T3000/CB main features


Noise reduction cabinet
for CBR-Proctor automatic > Large lateral space permitting the total opening
compactors of the compactor door and consequent easy filling
and removal of moulds
The cabinet is manufactured > The top of the cabinet can be opened for easy
from sheet steel and lined removal of the rammer in case of routine
internally with soundproofing maintenance
material to considerably reduce > Possibility to fit the control panel to the external
the noise. wall without electrical disconnection
This cabinet is essential for use
in laboratories that adhere to CE
safety standards. The control pan-
el of the automatic compactor
can be easily removed from the
machine and placed externally
on the cabinet wall as shown.
The cabinet is designed to make
the operator access very easy as
the compactor front protection
door can be completely opened
for filling and moulds removal.
-Overall dimensions:
(wxdxh). 850 x 672 x 1562 mm 33-T3512 installed inside the Noise reduction cabinet 33-T3500/CB
-Weight (cabinet only): Double access door and top door to make easy all load and unload operations
90 kg approx

Vibrating compaction hammer


Standards - Power: 950 W Accessories
- Length: 433 mm 33-T0087/B
EN 12697-9 | EN 12697-10 |
- Weight approx: 64 kg
EN 12697-32 | EN 13266-4 | BS 1377:4| Supporting frame for vibrating hammer,
weight 70 kg (approx)
BS 1924:2
33-T0087/6
Vibrating hammer. Ordering information Small tamping foot, 102 mm diameter,
230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph 33-T8702 head only
Vibrating hammer 240 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph 33-T0087/7
Used for compacting asphalt in 33-T8703 Large tamping foot, 146 mm diameter,
the percentage refusal density As above but 220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph head only
test and for the compaction of 33-T0087/8A
33-T8704
Proctor and CBR soil specimens Shank, 300 mm long
As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
(for more information see page
443). Using the appropriate tamp-
ing foot it can also be used for
compacting concrete cube or 33-T8702 with Supporting frame 33-T0087/B,
beam specimens. Large tamping foot 33-T0087/7 and Shank
33-T0087/8A
The hammer is supplied without
support frame and tamper which
have to be ordered separately

139
33 COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | MOISTURE / DENSITY RELATIONSHIP

Compaction 33-T0166
Load ring penetrometer
Compressive strength of
penetrometers Used for measuring the bearing
Unbound and Hydraulically bound mixtures
Standards strength and degree of com- Standards
ASTM D1558 paction of soils. The apparatus
consists of a T-shaped handle EN 12390-4 | EN 13286-41
33-T0165 connected to a 1 kN (100 kgf ) ca-
Proctor penetrometer pacity load ring with a maximum This Multipurpose compression
load pointer, and an extension tester can be suitable used for ap-
Used for establishing the
rod with five 100 mm gradua- plying static compaction to CBR
moisture content/penetration
tions. The 30 end cone has an samples or for 10% Fines/ACV on
resistance relationship of fine-
area of 645 mm2 (1in2). Supplied aggregates.
grained soils. It consists of a
complete with calibration chart. For more information see page 366
special spring dynamometer with
a pressure-indicating scale on Weight: 4 kg (approx.)
the stem of the handle. A sliding Ordering information
ring on the stem indicates the 50-C92C02
maximum pressure obtained in
PILOT Automatic COMPACT-Line compres-
the test.
sion tester, 600 kN capacity, load measu-
Supplied in a carrying case. rement by pressure transducer 230 V, 50-
60 Hz, 1 ph
Specifications 50-C92C04
- Load scale: 0 to 55 kg, 1 kg subdivisions As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
with maximum load indicator
- Diameter of interchangeable needles:
2855, 2479, 2022, 1654, 1283, 907,
640, 523 and 452 mm
- Weight: 35 kg (approx)

140
COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | RELATIVE DENSITY OF COHESIONLESS SOIL 33
DETERMINATION OF COMPACTION

Determination of Relative density of cohesionless soil


compactability Standards
Moisture Condition Value (MCV) and
Chalk Crushing Value (CCV) EN 13286-5 | ASTM D4253 |
ASTM D4254
Standards

EN 13286-46, BS 1377:4, This method, in the EN standard,


Manufactured under license from TRL-UK covers the determination of the
maximum dry density and water
33-T0064 content of cohesionless materials
when compacted using a vibrat-
Moisture condition
apparatus ing table. Materials for which this
method is applicable may con-
Used in the assessment of earthworks for tain up to 12% fines (<0.063 mm)
construction by comparing compaction
by mass. The maximum particle
characteristics at various moisture contents
in order to determine theMoisture Condi- size of the material to be tested
tion Valueand Chalk Crushing ValueThis is 80 mm. This method applies to
robust apparatus is designed for use in the mixtures to be used in road con-
construction laboratory and incorporates a struction.
rammer, scale, counter, and mould The ASTM also specifies that the Specifications Ordering information
method is used for the determi- Both 33-T0063/A (EN) and 33-T0063
Weight: 55 kg (approx) nation of the relative density of
33-T0063/A
(ASTM) test sets include:
cohesionless soil for which im- EN Relative density test set
33-T0063/3: 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph
pact compaction will not pro- 14200 cm3 (05 ft3) mould set
duce a well-defined moisture/ 33-T0063
33-T0064/4:
density relationship curve and ASTM Relative density test set 230 V,
Relative density gauge set
where the maximum density of 50 Hz, 1 ph
the impact method will gener- 33-T0063/1: Vibrating table 33-T0063/Y
ally be less than by the vibratory (33-T0063/1 Y for 220 V, 60 Hz or As above but 220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
33-T0063/1 Z for 110 V, 60 Hz) with the 33-T0063/Z
method.
following specifications: As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
Two versions of test set are avail- - Vibration frequency: 3600 rpm
able: 33-T0063/A conforming to - Amplitude range: 005 to 064 mm Accessories
EN and 33-T0063 conforming to - Vibrator type: electromagnetic
ASTM. They are practically iden- - Separate amplitude control panel
tical except for the 0.1 ft3 mould 33-T0063/7
- Table dimensions: 762 x 762 mm
which is included with 33-T0063. - Table capacity: 250 kg 125 and 25 mm diameter pouring
devices

The 33-T0063 (ASTM) version also


includes:
33-T0063/2:
01 ft3 relative density mould set
- Overall weight: 33-T0063/A, 289 kg;
Accessories 33-T0063, 310 kg (approx)
33-T0063/7
33-T0064/1 Note Each part can be ordered individually
Moisture condition mould
33-T0064/2
Fibre discs, pack of 6

141
34 COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | CBR (CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO)

CBR (California Bearing Ratio), IBI (Immediate Bearing Index)


This method is used for the laboratory evaluation of subgrade and subbase coarse materials in road construction.
The apparatus comprises moulds with accessories, compaction rammers (the automatic models are the same as
those used for the compaction of Proctor moulds - see pages 136-138), load testing machines with accessories,
etc. Different models are available that conform to the various relevant specifications. Please note that very fre-
quently, some of the items (e.g. Swell plate, Tripod etc.) are common to more than one standard test set.

ASTM,AASHTO, UNE, UNI CBR equipment


Standards ASTM D1883 |AASHTO T193 | UNE 103-502 | CNR UNI 10009

Ordering information and specifications

Code Description Specifications Approx.


34-T0090/A
weight, 34-T0091
kg 34-T0098
With collar and perforated base 78
plate - Plated steel
34-T0090/A CBR mould
6 (1524 mm) diameter, -
7 (1778 mm) body height
Same as T0090/A, split longitu- 85 34-T0094
34-T0090/A1 Split CBR mould
dinally on one side
Stainless steel woven mesh, 005
34-T0090/3 Filter screen No100 (150 m), 144 mm
diameter
2 (508 mm) diameter rammer 53
33-T0076 Compaction rammer face, 4572 mm fall, 454 kg
weight
Sliding weight rammer 2 (508 mm) diameter rammer 8 34-T0097/A 34-T0095
33-T0096 (as alternative to face, 4572 mm fall, 454 kg 34-T0099
33-T0076) weight
ASTM, AASHTO, UNE, CNR test set (partial)
515/16 (1508 mm) diameter x 75
Spacer disc with T
34-T0091 2416 (614 mm) high Plated
handle
steel
34-T0091/1 UNE Spacer disc Plated steel 75
34-T0094 Annular surcharge Plated steel, 227 kg 227
34-T0095 Slotted surcharge Plated steel, 227 kg 227
34-T0098 Cutting edge Plated steel 05
34-T0099 Straight edge 3 x 30 x 300 mm 03
34-T0097/A Solid CBR base Plated steel 10
No1 x 150 mm diameter Pack 03
86-D1800 Filter paper
of 100
34-T0092 Swell plate With adjustable stem 10
34-T0093 Gauge tripod Non-corrodible alloy 03
10 mm travel, 001 mm 01
82-D1255 Dial gauge
divisions
For 100 to 1524 mm diameter 25
16-T0080 Universal extruder
samples
Plastic, 680 x 490 x 540 mm 91
34-T0100/B Soaking tank 33-T0076 34-T0096
(internal dimensions)

142
COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | CBR (CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO) 34

BS CBR equipment NF CBR equipment


Standards BS 1377:4 | BS 1924:2 Standards NF P94-078 | NF P94-093 | NF P98-231-1
Ordering information and specifications Ordering information and specifications

Code Description Specifications Approx. Code Description Specifications Approx.


weight, weight,
kg kg
34-T0090/BS1 CBR mould body Plated steel with both ends th- 30 34-T0089/NF NF CBR mould Complete with collar and 90
readed to fit the base or collar perforated base plate
152 mm internal diameter x Plated steel 152 mm diameter
127 mm high x 152 mm body height
34-T0090/BS2 Extension collar 152 mm internal diameter x 10 34-T0089/NFS Split NF CBR mould Same as T0089/NF, split 90
50 mm high longitudinally on one side
34-T0090/BS3 Perforated base plate Plated steel 18 34-T0076/F Modified compac- 51 mm diameter rammer face, 53
34-T0090/BS4 Solid base/top plate Plated steel 18 tion hammer 4572 mm fall, 454 kg weight
34-T0090/BS5 Cutting collar Plated steel 10 86-D1800 Filter paper No1 x 150 mm diameter Pack 03
34-T0090/B6 C spanner To tighten / loosen the collar 10 of 100
from the mould body Two 34-T0091/F Spacer disc Plated steel, 254 mm high 38
required 34-T0091/1 Spacer disc Plated steel, 36 mm high 45
34-T0090/B7 Tool for base plate To tighten / loosen the solid 10 34-T0094/F Annular surcharge Plated steel, 23 kg 23
or perforated base plate from weight
the mould 34-T0095/F Split surcharge Plated steel, 23 kg 23
34-T0091/B Compaction plug with 150 mm diameter x 50 mm 72 weight
handle high 34-T0098 Cutting edge Plated steel 05
33-T0076/B Compaction rammer 50 mm diameter rammer face, 53 34-T0099 Straightedge 3 x 30 x 300 mm 03
450 mm fall, 45 kg weight 34-T0092/F Swell plate Plastic with 3 mm diameter 03
34-T0094/B Annular weight Plated steel, 2 kg 20 holes
34-T0095/B Split weight Plated steel, 2 kg 20 82-D1257 Dial gauge 30 mm travel, 001 mm 01
34-T0095/C Tamping bar 127 mm dia x 380 mm long divisions
34-T0099 Straight edge 3 x 30 x 300 mm 03 34-T0093 Gauge tripod Non-corrodible alloy 03
82-D1694 Steel rule 500 mm long 01 34-T0100/B Soaking tank Plastic, 680 x 490 x 540 mm 91
86-D1800 Filter paper No1 x 150 mm diameter 03 (internal dimensions)
Pack of 100 16-T0080 Universal extruder For 100 to 1524 mm diameter 25
34-T0092 Swell plate With adjustable stem 10 samples
34-T0093 Gauge tripod Non-corrodible alloy 03
82-D1257 Dial gauge 25 mm travel, 001 mm 01
divisions
16-T0080 Universal extruder For 100 to 1524 mm diameter 25 34-T0089/NF 34-T0089/NFS 34-T0091/F
samples
34-T0100/B Soaking tank Plastic, 680 x 490 x 540 mm 91
(internal dimensions)

34-T0090/BS1 34-T0091/B 34-T0090/BS2


34-T0076/F
34-T0090/BS5

86-TD1800
34-T0090/BS3
34-T0090/BS4
34-T0094/B

34-T0090/B7 34-T0094/F
34-T0090/B6 34-T0099
34-T0095/B 34-T0095/F 34-T0098
BS test set (partial) NF test set (partial)

143
34 COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | CBR (CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO)

EN CBR equipment
Standards EN 13286-47

Ordering information and specifications

Code Description Specifications Approx.weight, kg


33-T0071/EN Proctor/CBR mould With collar and solid base plate Plated steel 150 mm diameter, 120 mm height 89
33-T0071/ENS Proctor/CBR mould split version With collar and solid base plate Plated steel 150 mm diameter, 120 mm height 89
33-T071/EB1 Perforated base plate Plated steel 10
34-T0090/3 Filter screen Stainless steel woven mesh, No100 (150 m), 144 mm diameter 005
33-T0076/E Compaction rammer 50 mm diameter rammer face, 457 mm fall, 450 kg weight 53
34-T0091/E Spacer disc with T handle 1495 mm diameter, 36 mm high Plated steel 50
34-T0094/B Annular surcharge Plated steel, 2 kg 20
34-T0095/B Split surcharge Plated steel, 2 kg 20
34-T0099 Straight edge 3 x 30 x 300 mm 03
86-D1800 Filter paper No1 x 150 mm diameter Pack of 100 03
34-T0092/E Swell plate Aluminium perforated with adjustable stem 10
34-T0093 Gauge tripod Non-corrodible alloy 03
82-D1257 Dial gauge 30 mm travel, 001 mm divisions 01
16-T0080 Universal extruder For 100 to 1524 mm diameter samples 25
34-T0100/B Soaking tank Plastic, 680 x 490 x 540 mm (internal dimensions) 91

33-T0091/E
33-T0071/EN 33-T0071/EB1

33-T0046/E

33-T0094/B
386-D1800

33-T0099
34-T0095/B 33-T0099

144
COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | CBR (CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO) 34

Expansion (Swell) test apparatus Field CBR apparatus


Standards

34-T0093 ASTM D4429 | BS 1377:7 | BS 1924:2 |


Dial gauge tripod UNI 10009
Used to support the dial gauge for monitoring the swelling of CBR samples Made from a
special non-corrodible alloy Weight: 03 kg (approx) 34-T0115/A
82-D1255 Field CBR test set
Dial gauge, 10 x 001 mm
Description
as alternative:
82-D1257 Used for the in-situ determina-
tion of the bearing capacity of
Dial gauge, 30 x 001 mm
soils used in road construction.
The complete set is housed in a
34-T0092 (T0092/E) with
Tripod 34-T0093 and Dial
strong carrying case and includes:
gauge 82-D1257 34-T0112*
50 kN capacity mechanical jack
Weight 85 kg
34-T0114 with items*
34-T0092 34-T0112/1*
ASTM Perforated plate with adjustable Ball seating for 34-T0112 Weight 1 kg
stem (Swell plate)  Plated steel 82-T1008* 34-T0115/7
-Weight: 1 kg approx 40 kN capacity load ring Weight 4 kg 45 kg annular surcharge weight
34-T0103/1* *Items for use with the 34-T0114 to create a
34-T0092/F Adjustable CBR penetration piston hand operated CBR laboratory loading press
NF Perforated plate with adjustable stem Weight 22 kg
(Swell plate) Plastic Total weight: 70 kg (approx)
-Weight: 03 kg approx
34-T0104/7*
Adjustable dial gauge holder Note: all above items can also be purchased
34-T0115/3 individually
34-T0092/E
EN Perforated plate with adjustable stem Set of 3 extension rods and adapters Accessories
(Swell plate)  Aluminium Weight 33 kg
-Weight: 03 kg approx 34-T0115/41 34-T0114
34-T0092/F Datum bar assembly including two tripod Conversion frame to convert the
stands and a 1220 mm long aluminium 34-T0115/A test set into a hand operated
bar Weight 7 kg CBR loading press for laboratory use
34-T0100/B Total weight (including parts identified
Large soaking tank 82-D1257* with the *in the 34-T0115/A set): 55 kg
Penetration dial gauge, 30 mm travel, (approx)
The CBR moulds are immersed in this 001 mm divisions
plastic water tank during the swelling test 34-T0115/5
Supplied complete with supporting base,
9 kg slotted surcharge weight
which allows free water circulation
Capacity: 6 CBR moulds 34-T0115/6
Dimensions: Extruder 16-T0080 Detailed information on 45 kg slotted surcharge weight
External: 800 x 600 x 550 mm; page 31
Internal: 680 x 490 x 540mm;
Weight: 91 kg (approx)

34-T0100/B with CBR moulds 34-T0115/A

145
34 COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | CBR (CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO), PENETRATION TEST

CBR (California Bearing Ratio), Penetration test


CBR Loading frames and presses
Standards EN 13286-47 | ASTM D1883 | AASHTO T193 | BS 1377:4 | NF P94-078 | UNI CNR 10009

The CBR penetration test can be performed with a number of loading presses, some of them specifically de-
signed for CBR tests, and others with multiple applications (Universal models), at different levels of sophistication.
A concise presentation is given below to expedite your selection.

34-T0106 and 34-T0102 series 50 kN capacity

main features Ordering information

> Adjustable penetration 34-T0106/A


piston CBR motorized loading press, 50 kN
capacity, complete with 50 kN load ring,
> Load ring fitted with 0001 adjustable penetration piston and dial
mm div gauge to fulfill the gauge 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph
Standard requirements
34-T0106/AY
As above but 220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
34-T0106/AZ
As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph

34-T0102/A
CBR Specific loading presses CBR mechanical loading press, 50 kN ca-
34-T0106/A pacity, manually/hand operated, complete
with CBR accessories
Motor operated
This machine features a rigid two-column
frame with an upper crossbeam which
can be adjusted in height and locked in
position with locknuts The drive force is
provided by a mechanical jack housed in
the base cabinet which also houses the
motor and the electric panel The machine
includes a precision 50kN capacity load
ring, an adjustable penetration piston and
a dial gauge
A version without accessories is also
available: model 34-T0106, which can be 34-T0102/A
completed with other accessories (eg Hand operated
34-T0106/A with mould digital configuration)See Accessories This machine features a rigid two-column
frame with an upper crossbeam which
Note: 82-T1009/C load ring 50 kN cap fitted can be adjusted in height and locked in
with gauge 001 mm resolution available on position with locknuts The drive force is
request provided by a mechanical jack housed in
the base cabinet The machine includes a
precision 50kN capacity load ring, penetra-
Models 34-T0106/A 34-T0102/A tion piston and dial gauge
Maximum load 50 kN 50 kN
Test speed 127 mm/min Manually Controlled
Maximum ram travel 120 mm 120 mm
Horizontal span 270 mm 270 mm
Load ring capacity 50 kN, 0,001 mm div incl 50 kN, 0,001 mm div incl
Dial gauge 30 x 001 mm, included 30 x 001 mm, included
Penetration piston Adjustable,included Included
Power rating 300W -
Overall dimensions 392 x 495 x 1194 mm 300 x 410 x 1140 mm
Weight (approx.) 78 kg 75 kg

146
COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | CBR (CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO), PENETRATION TEST 34

34-T0106 CBR Accessories for performing


CBR motorized loading press Frame only the test in digital mode
230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph The 34-T0106 frame can be
34-T0106/Y equipped in digital mode, as
As above but 220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph shown, with the following acces-
34-T0106/Z sories.
As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
34-T0102
CBR Hand operated press Frame only 34-V0107/CBR
Test set to perform the CBR test in digital
mode, including:
CBR parts for 34-T0106 and
34-T0102. Frames only 82-P0375
Load cell, 50 kN capacity
The above frame can be completed 82-P0375/C
with the standard parts mounted in the Adapter to fit load cell (two pieces)
34-T0106/A version (34-T0103/3 and 82-P0322
82-T1009) Displacement transducer, 25 mm travel
34-T0104/81
Accessories
Adjustable transducer holder
34-T0103/3 34-T0103/1
Adjustable penetration piston complete Adjustable CBR penetration piston
with dial holder and dial gauge 30 x 001
mm div Also required:

82-T1009 82-P60R02
Load ring 50 kN cap, fitted with dial gauge DIGIMAX TS, Touchscreen, 4-channel
0001 mm div readout and processing unit for load and
displacement sensors Suitable for CBR,
Note: As alternative, with the 34-T0103/3C
Marshall, Indirect tensile and general
assembly and the 82-T1009/C load ring purpose tests
110-240 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph

82-SW/CMU
PC software for CBR, Marshall, Indirect
34-T0106 with 34-V0107/CBR and 82-P60R02 with mould tensile and general purpose tests

Note: for more details and information on the


DIGIMAX TS and Software, see page 154
Spare parts
34-T0103/1
Adjustable penetration piston

82-D1257
Dial gauge 30 mm travel, 001 mm
divisions

34-T0104/7
Dial gauge holder

147
34 COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | CBR (CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO), PENETRATION TEST

Multiple application models


main features
MULTISPEED Automatic 34-V1172
> Closed-loop speed control
> CBR and MARSHALL test speed can be selected by default
> Other testing speeds (custom) between 005 and 51mm/min, can be easily set
> Selection of maximum platen displacement with automatic stop
A unique fully automatic tester > Rapid approach and return function, to reduce the testing time
to perform with high accuracy, > Speed calibration function by firmware
all the most important road
> CE Emergency stop button
strength tests
> Stand-alone automatic digital load frame
> Four channel on board data acquisition
> Integrated transducer calibration facility
> Infinitely variable speed from 005 to 51 mm/min
34-V1172 with CBR accessories
> Large touchscreen display for viewing real-time graph and test data

Application of MULTISPEED
and MULTISPEED Automatic testers
These models represent the ideal solution for major laboratories per-
forming tests requiring displacement control, such as CBR, Marshall, In-
direct tensile, Unconfined compression, Quick triaxial etc. The MULTISPEED
standard version 34-V1072 (see page 150) is usually equipped with ana-
logue measurement system but could also accept digital accessories,
while MULTISPEED Automatic 34-V1172 is fitted with digital system only,
as required by all EN Standards. The various test accessories and relevant
Standards, are shown and listed on page 152,153.

34-V1172 with
Marshall accessories

148
COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | CBR (CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO) 34

MULTISPEED 34-V1172 Data acquisition and processing system


Automatic series Example of screenshots
The MULTISPEED Automatic, features
automatic control of the test speed/
travel by microprocessor Prior to the
test, the operator can set travel limits for
automatically ending the test No external
transducer is required for displacement
measurement The firmware allows
transducer calibrations and setting of up
to 10 test profiles, saving data onboard
A real-time test graph and transducer
data are displayed on the user interface Main menu Saving data screenshot
touchscreen which is supplied complete
with a stylus pen

The machine has built-in data acquisition


with four channels: two dedicated to strain
gauge load cells and two for potentiome-
tric linear transducers - one of each can be
used during the test An important feature
is provided by the processing unit that
manages the speed through closed-loop
control, avoiding speed calibrations and Test set parameters Test set parameters
voltage fluctuation effects The front panel
is fitted with an emergency button for
prompt stopping of the machine
Test data can be stored on a USB pen drive
or downloaded through a LAN communi-
cation port in Controls, txt or ASCII format
All the accessories have to be ordered
separately

CBR graph Marshall graph

Technical specifications Ordering information


Models 34-V1172 MULTISPEED AUTOMATIC
34-V1173 34-V1172
34-V1174
34-V1172
Maximum capacity 50 kN
MULTISPEED Automatic, automatic com-
Testing speed, adjustable from 005 to 51 mm/min
pression tester, 50 kN capacity, 4-channel
Power rating DC motor 750 W built-in data acquisition and variable
Data download By LAN port, ASCII, speed from 005 to 51 mm/min 230 V,
50 Hz, 1 ph
USB port For USB memory stick data storage
Resolution 132000 divisions 34-V1173
As above but 220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
Display Touchscreen graphic 240 x128 pixel
34-V1174
34-V1172 Multispeed Automatic Detail of the Sampling frequency 50 Hz As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph
connection socket panel: Power, USB port, LAN
Horizontal clearance 270 mm
port for PC connection and four connectors for
Load cells and displacement transducers Maximum vertical clearance 730 mm
(without accessories) Test accessories
Overall dimensions (lxwxh) 392 x 495 x 1213 mm See pages 152, 153

Weight (approx.) 65 kg

149
34 COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | CBR (CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO), PENETRATION TEST

Multiple application models

34-V1072 with CBR 34-V1072 with Marshall


accessories (analogic) accessories (analogic)

General descriptions
MULTISPEED 34-V1072
series Ordering information CBR Accessories Marshall accessories
The MULTISPEED tester features a rigid Standards Standards
two-column structure with an upper cross MULTISPEED 34-V1072 EN 12697-34* | ASTM D1559 | ASTM D5581
EN 13286-47 | ASTM D1883 | AASHTO
beam which can be set at various heights | ASTM 6927-06 | AASHTO T245 | BS 598-
T193 | BS 1377:4 | NF P94-078 | UNI
The load jack, DC motor and controls 34-V1072 107 | NF P98-0251-2 | DIN 1996 | CNR 30
are housed in a specially designed base CNR 10009
MULTISPEED, digital compression tester, Note: The EN Standard specifies that Marshall
cabinet 50 kN capacity, testing speed steplessly 34-T0103/3 Testers must be used in digital mode with a
When fitted in digital mode,test data are adjustable from 02 to 51 mm/min recording unit
Adjustable penetration piston complete
acquired and processed by a Digimax or 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 ph with dial holder and dial gauge 30 x 001 82-T1009/F
other similar device
34-V1073 mm div Load ring, 50 kN capacity, with stembrake
One of the main features of the new
MULTISPEED is the control of test speed As above but 220 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph 82-T1009 Or as alternative:
which is easily set and then shown on the 34-V1074 Load ring 50 kN cap, fitted with dial gauge
As above but 110 V, 60 Hz, 1 ph 82-T1007/F
display Furthermore, the test stroke can 0001 mm div
be set at the beginning of the test with an Load ring, 30 kN capacity, with stembrake
automatic stop, avoiding overloading the Accessories for performing
34-T0104/10
machine and the specimen, thus assuring CBR and Marshall tests Compression device
operator safety This important feature also in analogue mode
permits a calibration of machine speed to 76-B0034
(For use with the Multispeed 34-V1072
be performed, with micrometric manual series only) Flow meter
adjustments made by the operator 76-B0033
The display shows the travel direction of Stability mould
the lower platen and the front panel is
fitted with an emergency button and two
operating LEDs indicating machine on/off
and travel direction
This model is normally equipped in the
analogical mode, but, using the Digimax
TS Data acquisition system and relevant
PC software (see page 154), can also
be equipped in the digital mode (see
accessories)

Note: to perform the above tests in the


CBR accessories (analogue mode) digital mode see page 152 Marshall accessories (analogue mode)

150
COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | CBR (CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO) 34

main features
MULTISPEED 34-V1072 series
> Closed-loop speed control
> CBR and MARSHALL test speed can be selected by default
> Other testing speeds (custom) between 02 and 51mm/min, can be
easily set
> Selection of maximum platen displacement with automatic stop
> Rapid approach and return function, to reduce the testing time
> Speed calibration function by firmware
> CE Emergency stop button

34-V1072 with Marshall accessories to test 6 up to dia samples in the


digital mode and Digimax TS 82-P60R02 touch screen data acquisition
system See page 154

Technical specifications

Models 34-V1072
34-V1073
34-V1074
Maximum capacity 50 kN
Testing speed, adjustable from 02 to 51 mm/min
Power rating DC motor 750 W
Display Alphanumeric 2 x16 characters
Horizontal clearance 270 mm
Maximum vertical clearance (without accessories) 730 mm
Overall dimensions (lxwxh) 392 x 495 x 1213 mm
Weight (approx.) 65 kg

151
34 COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | MULTISPEED ACCESSORIES

Multiple application models

Accessories for 34-V1072 and 34-V1172 models


All the above MULTISPEED and MULTISPEED Automatic testers, with the
appropriate accessories, are frequently used for road testing (CBR, Mar-
shall, and Indirect tensile etc.) which are illustrated on this page.
For all other applications, see page 153
*Accessories to perform the CBR abd Marshall test in digital mode

CBR, conforming to: Marshall, conforming to: CBR and Marshall,


Standards Standards conforming to the standards speci-
fied above
EN 13286-47 | ASTM D1883 | AASHTO EN 12697-34* | ASTM D1559 | ASTM D5581
T193 | BS 1377:4 | NF P94-078 | UNI | ASTM 6927-06 | AASHTO T245 | BS 598- (To avoid duplications when both test have
to be performed)
CNR 10009 107 | NF P98-0251-2 | DIN 1996 | CNR 30

34-V0107/CM
Test set for performing CBR and Marshall
tests in digital mode, including:
82-P0375
Load cell, 50 kN capacity
82-P0375/C
Adapter to fit load cell (two pieces)
82-P0322
Displacement transducer, 25 mm travel
34-T0104/81
Adjustable transducer holder
34-T0103/1
Adjustable CBR penetration piston
34-V0107/CBR Test set with CBR mould 34-V0107/MAR Test set 34-T0104/13
Compression device extension
34-T0104/10
34-V0107/CBR 34-V0107/MAR Compression device
Test set for performing CBR tests in digital Test set for performing Marshall tests in 76-B0033
mode, including: digital mode, including: Stability mould 4"
82-P0375 82-P0375
Note: Stability mould for 6" specimen
Load cell, 50 kN capacity Load cell, 50 kN capacity
avaiable on request-see 76-B0033/C
82-P0375/C 82-P0375/C
Adapter to fit load cell (two pieces) Adapter to fit load cell (two pieces)
82-P0322 82-P0322
Displacement transducer, 25 mm travel Displacement transducer, 25 mm travel
34-T0104/81 34-T0104/81
Adjustable transducer holder Adjustable transducer holder
34-T0103/1 34-T0104/13
Adjustable CBR penetration piston Compression device extension
All above items can be ordered individually 34-T0104/10, Compression device
Note: The MULTISPEED 34-V1072 Series also 76-B0033, Stability mould 4"
require data acquisition system See DIGIMAX
TS 82-P60R02 on page 154
* The EN Standard specifies that Marshall
Testers must be used in digital mode with a
recording unit

152
COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | MULTISPEED ACCESSORIES 34

Other tests can be performed with the MULTISPEED and MULTISPEED AUTOMATIC testers,
using the following accessories:

Indirect tensile on bituminous Unconfined compression (soil) Quick triaxial (soil)


mixtures
Standards Standards
Standards ASTM D2850 | BS 1377:7
EN 12697-12 | EN 12697-23 |
EN 12697-12 | EN 12697-23 | ASTM D4123 | CNR 34 Accessories
ASTM D4123 | CNR 34
82-P0375
Load cell, 50 kN capacity
82-P0375/C
Adapter to fit load cell (two pieces)
For triaxial cells and related accessories
see page 75, 79

Universal models

For performing tests under speed/displacement and load control, including all road
tests (CBR, Marshall, Indirect tensile etc.), concrete, cement and natural building
Machine fitted with accessories for IDT Machine fitted with accessories stone flexural testing under load control, triaxial testing etc. See page 388, 392

Accessories Accessories main features


82-P0375 82-P0370 > Stand-alone automatic
Load cell, 50kN capacity Load cell,25kN capacity digital load frame
82-P0375/C 82-P0375/C > Automatic failure detection
Adapter to fit load cell (two pieces) Adapter to fit load cell (two pieces) > Universal machine suitable for
82-P0322 82-P0322 a wide range of tests
Displacement transducer, 25mm travel Displacement transducer, 25mm travel > Closed-loop speed/load control
34-T0104/81 34-T0104/81 > Four channel onboard data
Adjustable transducer holder Adjustable transducer holder acquisition
34-T0104/13 70-T0108/5 > CBR and Marshall test automa-
Compression device extension Load cell extension tic control facility
34-T0104/10 34-T0104/4 > Integrated transducer calibra-
tion facility
Compression device Platens for unconfined compression
> Infinitely variable speed from
76-B0078/B 82-P60R02* 005 to 51 mm/min
Tensile splitting device or, alternatively, DIGIMAX TS Data acquisition system
> Large touchscreen display for
76-B0078/C UNIFRAME 70-T1082 with viewing real-time graph and
*For use with Multispeed 34-V1072 series only CBR accessories Other versions also
82-P60R02* available: 70-T1182 with increased
test data
DIGIMAX TS Data acquisition system Punching test on clay block for
testing space and > Rapid approach and return
70-T1092, 100 kN cap functions ensure test time
flooring For complete information see
*For use with Multispeed 34-V1072 series only (see page) savings
page 388
> CE emergency stop button

153
34 COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | DIGIMAX TS

DIGIMAX TS, Touch Screen data acquisition system


main features
> Large size touchscreen display
> Very easy to use menus with intuitive selections, self-explanatory
icons, optimized test procedures
> PC connection via LAN port allowing faster communication, better
stability and longer cable lengths compared to an RS232 serial
connection
> Advanced calibration menus with linearization functions, firmware-
driven procedures, secure file storage
> Unlimited data storage on USB pen drives

Note: For Multispeed 34-V1072 series only


The Multispeed Automatic 34-V1172 Series incorporates a data acquisition
system

Based on the latest electronic technology, this modern readout unit of- Technical specifications is designed specifically to be used
fers advanced performance and outstanding electronic features, including - 240 x 128 pixel touchscreen graphic with new Digimax 82-P60 R02
excellent effective resolution, sampling rate, accuracy and stability of read- display showing numerical and graphical and with 76-B3812, 34-V1172,
data 70-T1082, 70-T1182 and 70-T1192
ings, superb calibration functions, touchscreen sensitivity and reaction - Total of four channels: two dedicated testing machines.
times, and fast network communication. to load sensors and two for displace- Minimum PC requirements
Our long-standing experience and tradition in the production and design ment transducers A maximum of two
channels (one load and one displace- - Pentium 4 CPU 3 GHz
of testing systems, and in particular digital units,has enabled us to create - 1 GB of free hard disk space
ment, selected by the user) can be used
an extraordinarily optimized user interface with efficient working proce- simultaneously - Microsoft Windows XP or higher
dures, resulting in a unit that is faster and easier to use, combined, as al- - Effective sampling rate up to 50/sec operating system
ways, with Class 1 accuracy and total reliability. - Effective resolution 17 bit - RAM memory:
- Data storage on USB pen drive for Windows XP or Vista: minimum
(included) 1 GB; recommended 2 GB
- Connection to PC via LAN port (basic for Windows 7: minimum 2 GB;
82-P60R02
communication software is included) recommended 4 GB
DIGIMAX TS, Touchscreen four-channel readout and processing unit for load and displa- - Multiple selection of language and units
cement sensors Suitable for CBR, Marshall, Indirect tensile and general purpose tests - CD-ROM drive
- Real-time clock and date - One free RJ45 network port
110-240 V, 50-60 Hz, 1 ph
- Overall dimensions (w x d x h): 290 x - Screen resolution of 1024 x 768 pixels
220 x 130 mm with color quality set to 32 bit
- Weight: 34 kg (approx) - MS Excel 2003 or higher (optional)

Ordering information
PC software for CBR, 82-SW/CMU
Marshall, Indirect tensile PC software for CBR, Marshall, Indirect
and general purpose tests tensile and universal tests
Standards

EN 12697-34 | ASTM D1559 | ASTM


D1883 | ASTM D5581 |ASTM D6927 |
AASHTO T245 | EN 12697-12 |
EN 12697-23 |BS 1377:4 | NF P94-078 |
AASHTO T193 |
EN 13286-47 | UNI 10009

This program is written to run in


DIGIMAX TS MS Windows for data acquisition
82-P60R02
Few examples of test
and processing of CBR, Marshall,
menu Indirect tensile and general load/
displacement tests. The software

154
COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | STRENGTH OF STABILIZED SOIL, IMPACT TESTER 34

Strength of stabilized soil 34-T0124/B


Standards EN/BS stabilized soil set for fine and
medium grained soils specimen size
EN 13286-53 | BS 1924:2 | NF P 94-100
100 x 200 mm (diameter x height)
| NF P98-230-2 EN 13286-53 and BS 1924:2
These tests are performed to All above sets include a mould, set of 2
determine the unconfined com- end plugs, set of 2 plug displacing collars
with 3 different heights, one demoulding
pressive strength of fine and me-
plunger and specimen collector
dium grained soils. All components can be purchased
82-SW/CMU test
data screenshot Two versions with different sizes separately
are available that conform to: Approx weight: 10 kg (34-T0123/A),
EN 13286-53 and BS 1924:2 12 kg (34-T0123/B), 20 kg (34-T0124/A)
and 53 kg (34-T0124/B)
NF P 94-100

EN 13286-53 and BS 1924:2 NF P 94-100 test set


test sets 34-T0123/S
34-T0123/A NF stabilized soil set for fine and medium
Impact soil tester EN/BS stabilized soil set for fine and grained soils specimen size 50 x 50
medium grained soils specimen size mm (diameter x height) according to
34-T0168/B 50 x 50 mm (diameter x height) NF P94-100
EN 13286-53 and BS 1924:2 This set includes a mould, 5 stainless
Used to obtain an indication of the degree of compaction of soil in road steel casing, 2 compaction plugs, set of
construction. Results can be directly correlated to the CBR test. The unique plug displacing collars, one demoulding
34-T0123/B
microprocessor system automatically checks all readings throughout the plunger and a specimen collector
test and displays the fourth reading as the Impact Value. An essential EN/BS stabilized soil set for fine and
trench control tool for all cable and pipe laying service contractors. medium grained soils specimen size Spares
50 x 100 mm (diameter x height)
Specifications EN 13286-53 and BS 1924:2 34-T0123/S1
Dimensions: 140 x140 x 700 mm (approx) Set of 5 stainless steel casing for specimen
Weight: 65 kg (approx) 34-T0124/A size 50 x 50 mm (diameter x height)
EN/BS stabilized soil set for fine and
medium grained soils specimen size
100 x 100 mm (diameter x height)
main features EN 13286-53 and BS 1924:2

> Results can be directly


correlated to the CBR test
> An essential trench control tool
for all cable and pipe laying
service contractors

34-T0123/A 34T0124/B

34-T0168/B

155
35 COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | FIELD DENSITY

FIELD DENSITY
Sand replacement method
The verification of the degree of compaction can be determined on site with a simple procedure that essentially
involves removing and weighing a section of compacted soil and then refilling the hole with sand. A simple ap-
paratus is used to record the volume of sand, and then the density of the removed soil can be calculated.

ASTM/AASHTO/NF Sand Ordering information Sand replacement set parts (ASTM)


density Part description* 35-T0128 35-T0129 35-T0133
cone apparatus 35-T0128
4diameter 6.5 diameter 12diameter
4 (1016 mm) diameter sand density cone
Standards Double cone 35-T0128/1 35-T0129/1 -
apparatus
ASTM D1556 | AASHTO T191 | Plastic sand jar (2 pieces) 35-T0130/2 35-T0130/2 -
35-T0129
NF P94-061-3 | UNE 7371 | CNR N 22 Metal base plate with flanged 35-T0128/2 35-T0129/2 -
65 (1651 mm) diameter sand density
(rimmed) hole
We produce three versions of this cone apparatus
apparatus, each suitable for soils Weight of complete set (approx.) 3 kg 3 kg 20 kg
35-T0133
of different grain sizes.The sets all 12 (3048 mm) diameter sand density *all parts can also be purchased individually
include a double cone, a metal cone apparatus
base plate and two plastic sand
jars, except the 35-T0133 model
Accessories
which is supplied with one acrylic
sand container. 35-T0130/8
The 35-T0129 6.5 (165.1 mm) di- Calibrating container for 35-T0129
ameter model can be completed Weight: 5 kg (approx)
with a calibrating container. See 35-T0127
Accessories. Standard sand, 03 to 06 mm grain size,
conforming to ASTM/AASHTO/BS 50kg
sack
35-T0127/1
Standard sand, 04 to 20 mm grain size,
conforming to CNR 22 50 kg sack

35-T0128, 35-T0129, 35-T0133

156
COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | FIELD DENSITY 35

BS Sand replacement Ordering information Field Density tools


apparatus Used to dig, level and remove soil
35-T0125
Standards BS 1377:9 | BS 1924:2 100 mm diameter sand replacement during various field density tests.
apparatus
The operating principle is identi- 35-T0125/A 35-T0140
cal to the ASTM/AASHTO method. 150 mm diameter sand replacement Metal dibber, weight 300 g
Three sizes of apparatus are avail- apparatus 35-T0141
able, each comprising a pour- 35-T0126 Scraper, weight 600 g
ing cylinder, calibration can and 200 mm diameter sand replacement
density tray made of plated sheet 35-T0142
apparatus
steel. The apparatus have a simi- Pointed steel rod, weight 100 g
lar design to the ASTM/AASHTO 35-T0143
models but the pouring cylinders Accessories Density spoon, weight 150 g
and calibration can are made
35-T0127 35-T0144
from precision-machined cast
aluminium. Standard sand, 03 to 06 mm grain size, Rubber mallet, 50 mm diameter, weight
conforming to BS/ASTM/AASHTO 1 kg
50 kg sack 35-T0145
Hammer, weight 300 g
Sand replacement set parts (BS)
35-T0145/G
Part description* 35-T0125 35-T0125/A 35-T0126
100 mm diameter 150 mm diameter 200 mm diameter Club hammer, weight 2 kg
Sand pouring 35-T0125/1 35-T0125/A1 35-T0126/1 35-T0146
cylinder Density pick, weight 1 kg
Calibration can 35-T0125/2 35-T0125/A2 35-T0126/2 35-T0147
Density tray 35-T0125/3 35-T0125/A3 35-T0126/3 Chisel, 300mm long, weight 1 kg
Weight of 77 kg 13 kg 275 kg 86-D1348
complete
set (approx.) Tin lid lever, 5 litre capacity, weight 100 g

*all parts can also be purchased individually

35-T0126, 35-T0125/A, 35-T0125

157
35 COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | FIELD DENSITY

Balloon method
The principle of operation is similar to the sand replacement method but
the hole is filled with a rubber balloon into which water is pumped. The
amount of water can be easily determined by reading the graduations
marked on the cylinder or piston stress. Two versions are available: the
ASTM/AASHTO/CNR model, with 1.6 litre capacity (35-T0131), and the NF
version, with 3 or 6 litre capaci-ty (35-T0134 and 35-T0134/A).

35-T0131 NF Balloon apparatus


ASTM/AASHTO Balloon Standards
density apparatus
NF P94-061-2
Standards

ASTM D2167 | AASHTO T205 | CNR N 22 This apparatus is used for de-
termining the in-situ density of
This test set consists of a gradu- well-bonded soil according to NF
ated cylinder with 1596 ml capa- specifications. A metal cylinder
city housed inside an aluminium is filled with water which is then
guard, a reversible rubber aspi- pumped into a rubber membrane
rator pump, a 9 square density mounted on the base of the cyl-
plate and 12 rubber balloons. inder, which fills a hole previously
- Capacity: 1596 ml made in the soil. The water pres- 35-T0134
- Weight: 6 kg (approx) sure is controlled by a pressure
gauge and the volume of the bal-
Accessories and spares loon is measured on the gradu-
ated piston stem. Two versions Ordering information
35-T0131/4
are available: 3000 and 6000 ml 35-T0134
Rubber balloons, pack of 12 capacity. The apparatus are sup- Balloon density apparatus, 3000 ml
plied complete with base plate, 3 capacity
locking clamps and 6 reinforced
35-T0134/A
balloons.
Balloon density apparatus, 6000 ml
- Weight: capacity
35-T0134, 95 kg (approx)
35-T0134/A, 115 kg (approx) Accessories and spares
35-T0134/2
Spare reinforced 3000 ml membranes for
35-T0134 Pack of 6
35-T0134/A2
Spare reinforced 6000 ml membranes for
35-T0134/A Pack of 6

35-T0131

35-T0134/A

158
COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | FIELD DENSITY 35

Surface soil samplers


In this method a sampling tube is driven into the ground to take a standard core sample, which is then removed,
trimmed, and weighed in order to establish the in-situ density of the soil. Two different versions are available, one
conforming to ASTM/CNR and one to BS.

ASTM/CNR Surface soil BS Surface soil samplers Field density of undisturbed


sampler (Core cutters) soil
Standards Standards
35-T0164
ASTM D2937 | CNR N 22 BS 1377:9 Piston volumeter, 30 cm3 capacity

This apparatus is made from cor- This version of the soil sampler in- Ordering information This is an easy to use pocket de-
rosion-resistant steel and consists cludes a core cutter, driving dolly 35-T0137 vice; very useful for determining
of a 5 kg sliding-weight drop- and driving rammer.Two sizes are the in-situ density of undisturbed
100 mm diameter core cutter set
hammer which falls freely onto available: 100 and 150 mm inter- soil. A stainless steel tube is driven
the driving head situated above nal diameter, both made of steel. 35-T0138 into the soil and the volume is
the sampling tube. 150 mm diameter core cutter set read off the stem which is marked
- Weight: 10 kg (approx) from 0 to 30cm3.
- Sampling tube: 73 mm internal diame- - Weight: 05kg (approx)
ter, 66 mm long

Ordering information
35-T0135
ASTM/CNR Surface soil sampler

Accessories and spares


35-T0135/1
Spare thin wall sampling tube, 73 mm
internal diameter, 66 mm long

Soil samplers parts


Description 35-T0137 35-T0138
100 mm diameter 150 mm diameter
Core cutter (weight) 35-T0137/1 (1 kg) 35-T0138/1 (45 kg)
Driving dolly (weight) 35-T0137/2 (1 kg) 35-T0138/2 (4 kg)
Driving rammer (weight) 35-T0137/3 (135 kg) 35-T0138/3 (16 kg)
Total weight (approx.) 155 kg 245 kg
Note: all parts can also be purchased individually

159
35 COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | BEARING CAPACITY

Bearing capacity
Plate bearing test apparatus Each one of the above versions is - Electronic measuring system Technical Specifications
100, 200 and 500kN capacity available in the following configu- with a pressure transducer for All above versions are listed and
Standards rations: load measurement, three linear detailed in the table on page 162
- Analogue measuring system displacement transducers for and in the ordering information
ASTM D1194 | ASTM D1195 | ASTM
with manometer and dial deflection measurements and a
D1196 | BS 1377:9 | UNE 739 | UNE 7391
gauges datalogger for data acquisition,
| DIN 18134 | CNR N 92 | CNR N 146 500 kN ASTM loading
- Digital measuring system processing and display
system
with digital manometer and
These test methods are used for analogue dial gauges A 500 kN loading system, conform-
estimating the bearing capac- ing to ASTM D1194 and ASTM
ity of a soil under field loading D1195, is also available and can be
conditions for a specific loading completed with the suitable ac-
plate and depth of embedment cessories (datum bar, load plates
(ASTM D1194). They also cover and dial gauges). See page 163.
load tests on soil and flexible
pavement components, for use in
evaluation and design of airport
and highway pavements (ASTM
D1195, D1196 - BS 1377 - CNR No.
92 and No. 146 DIN 18134).

35-T1171
Models available
Our new models have been de-
signed primarily with the opera-
tors site requirements in mind.
These considerations are summa-
rized in the following points:
- Light and easy to handle
- Easy load reading options,
either by high-resolution digital
manometer or with a pressure
transducer and data logger
- We produce an extensive range
of models which offer different 35-T1171/D
levels of sophistication and
load capacities and satisfy the
requirements of all the relevant
standards.
There are two basic versions:
- 100 / 200kN capacity, 300 mm Detail of the digital gauge fitted in the 35-T1170/D, 35-T1171/D, 35-T1172/D and
plate diameter. 35-T1170 to 35-T1173/D models
Very high resolution (65,000 divisions), 0-100 kN range, 10N minimum reading
35-T1172/EL models.
LCD display, display height 16 mm with high visibility Battery operated, 1 year
- 200 kN capacity, 300, 450, 600 battery life
and 760 mm plate diameters.
35-T1173/D and 35-T1173/EL
models

35-T1173/D

160
COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | BEARING CAPACITY 35

main features
> 180/200mm piston travel, to meet easily the reaction loading system
> Double-delivery hand pump for fast approach to the reaction loading
system
> Three measuring system options: Analogue, Digital with analogue dial 35-T1170, 35-T1171,
gauges and Electronic with load and displacement transducers and a 35-T1172 versions
datalogger The set is housed in a trolley type
case which is very easy to handle
> Light and extremely rigid aluminium alloy measuring bridges (50kg only) The measuring
> Load and measuring system housed in a practical,very easy to handle- bridge has its own wooden case,
weighing only 10kg Both can be
trolley case
easily transported by car
> Light and easily transportable: Analogue and Digital versions (35-
T1170 to 35-T1172 series) weigh only 60kg in total, including cases
> Supplied complete with calibration and conformity certificates

35-T1170, 35-T1170/D, Detail of dial gauge housing conforming to CNR N 146 method A standard

35-T1173/D detail of plate set, hydraulic cylinder, dial gauges with supports, hand pump and high
resolution digital gauge: 0-200kN range, 10N resolution

Internal view 35-T1170/E L Electronic version Detail of platen assembly with pressure transducer connected to the
of carrying cases pump, three displacement transducers and DATALOG8, data acquisition system

161
35 COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | BEARING CAPACITY

Plate bearing test apparatus


Technical specifications
Models 35- T1170 T1170/D T1170/EL T1171 T1171/D T1171/EL T1172/D T1172/EL T1173/D T1173/EL
Standards CNR 146-A CNR 146-A CNR 146-A BS 1377:9 BS 1377:9 BS 1377:9 BS 1377:9 BS 1377:9 ASTM D1194 ASTM D1194
CNR 146-B CNR 146-B CNR 146-B CNR 146-B CNR 146-B ASTM D1195 ASTM D1195
ASTM D1196 ASTM D1196
BS 1377:9 BS 1377:9
CNR 146-B CNR 146-B
Capacity, kN 100 100 100 100 100 100 200 200 200 200
Plate diameter(s), 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300
mm 450 450
600 600
760 760
Deflection 30 x 001mm 30 x 001mm One Three Three Three Three Three Three Three
measurement dial gauge dial gauge electronic 30 x 001mm 30 x 001mm electronic 30 x 001mm electronic 30 x 001mm electronic
method transducer dial gauges dial gauges transducers dial gauges transducers dial gauges transducers
Load measurement Manometer Digital Pressure Manometer Digital Pressure Digital Pressure Digital Pressure
method 200mm pressure transducer 200mm pressure transducer Pressure transducer pressure transducer
(scale and divisions/ diameter gauge and diameter gauge and gauge and gauge and
resolution) 0-50 kN scale 0-100 kN data logger 0-50 kN scale 0-100 kN data logger 0-200 kN data logger 0-200 kN data logger
250 N div 10 N res 250 N div 10 N res 10 N res 10 N res
Data acquisition - - Datalog8* - - Datalog8* - Datalog8* - Datalog8*
with with with with
82-P9008/1 82-P9008/1 82-P9008/1 82-P9008/1
Inverter and Inverter Inverter Inverter
case and case and case and case
Case dimensions, Trolley Trolley Trolley Trolley Trolley Trolley Trolley Trolley Trolley Trolley
cm and approximate 80 x 48 x 50 80 x 48 x 50 80 x 48 x 50 80 x 48 x 50 80 x 48 x 50 80 x 48 x 50 80 x 48 x 50 80 x 48 x 50 80 x 48 x 50 80 x 48 x 50
weights 50 kg 50 kg 50 kg 50 kg 50 kg 50 kg 50 kg 50 kg 50 kg 50 kg
Wooden case Wooden case Wooden case Wooden case Wooden case Wooden case Wooden case Wooden case Wooden case Wooden case
137 x 15 x 12 137 x 15 x 12 137 x 15 x 12 137 x 15 x 12 137 x 15 x 12 137 x 15 x 12 137 x 15 x 12 137 x 15 x 12 162 x 31 x 12 162 x 31 x 12
10 kg 10 kg 10 kg 10 kg 10 kg 10 kg 10 kg 10 kg 27 kg 27 kg
Wooden pallet Wooden pallet
96 x 95 x 20 96 x 95 x 20
200 kg 200 kg
Total weight, kg (approx.) 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 277 277
(including cases)

* Complete with plastic carrying case For detailed information see page 552

Ordering information pressure gauge 0-100 kN range, 10 N 10 N resolution, conforming to ASTM Conforming to BS 1377:9 and CNR N 146
Analogue models resolution, conforming to CNR No 146 D1194-D1195-D1196, BS 1377:9 and CNR method B
method "A", one dial gauge No 146 method "B", three dial gauges 35-T1172/EL
35-T1170
Plate bearing test apparatus, 100 kN 35-T1171/D Plate bearing test apparatus, 200kNca-
Electronic models
capacity, 300 mm diameter plate, pressure Plate bearing test apparatus, 100 kN pacity, 300mm diameter plate, complete
capacity, 300 mm diameter plate, pressure 35-T1170/EL with pressure transducer, three linear
gauge 0-50 kN range, 250 N divisions,
conforming to CNR No 146 method "A", gauge 0-100 kNrange, 10 N resolution, Plate bearing test apparatus, 100 kN displacement transducers and Datalog8
one dial gauge conforming to BS 1377:9 and CNR No 146 capacity, 300 mm diameter plate, data acquisition and display unit Battery
method "B", three dial gauges complete with pressure transducer, one operated with adaptor for 110-230 V
35-T1171 displacement transducer and Datalog8 Conforming to BS 1377:9 and CNR N 146
Plate bearing test apparatus, 100 kN 35-T1172/D data acquisition and display unit Battery method B
capacity, 300 mm diameter plate, pressure Plate bearing test apparatus, 200 kN operated with adaptor for 110-230 V
capacity, 300 mmdiameter plate, pressure
35-T1173/EL
gauge 0-50 kN range, 250 N divisions, Conforming to CNR N 146 method A
conforming to BS 1377:9 and CNR No 146 gauge 0-200 kN range, 10 N resolution, Plate bearing test apparatus, 200 kN capa-
35-T1171/EL city, 300, 450, 600 and 760 mm diameter
method "B", three dial gauges conforming to BS 1377:9 and CNR No 146
method "B", three dial gauges Plate bearing test apparatus, 100 kNca- plates, complete with pressure transducer,
Digital models pacity, 300 mm diameterplate, complete three linear displacement transducers and
35-T1173/D with pressure transducer, three linear Datalog8 data acquisition and display unit
35-T1170/D Plate bearing test apparatus, 200 kN capa- displacement transducers and Datalog8 Battery operated with adaptor for 110-230 V
Plate bearing test apparatus, 100 kN city, 300, 450, 600 and 760 cm diameter data acquisition and display unit Battery Conforming to ASTM D1194-D1195-D1196,
capacity, 300 mm diameter plate, digital plates, pressure gauge 0-200 kN range, operated with adaptor for 110-230V BS 1377:9 and CNR N 146 method B
162
COMPACTED ROAD BASE AND SUBBASE SOILS | BEARING CAPACITY 35

Electronic components of the Plate bearing test apparatus, 35-T0116/33 35-T1173/10


models 35-T1170/EL | 35-T1171/EL | 35-T1172/EL and 35-T1173/EL 500 kN capacity loading As above but 55 m long
The Electronic Plate bearing apparatus models listed above include a system
Load plates
pressure transducer to be fitted to the hand pump, three linear displace-
ment transducers to measure the deflection and a datalogger for data Standards 35-T0116/27
acquisition and display. These components can also be purchased indi- ASTM D1194 | ASTM D1195 Load plate, 300 mm diameter
vidually to convert an analogue to an electronic model and to create a Weight 14 kg (approx)
loading system using the other available accessories. 35-T0116/23
This apparatus consists of a 500
kN capacity hydraulic jack, spheri- Load plate, 450 mm diameter
cal seat, hand pump and pressure Weight 28 kg (approx)
82-P0324 82-P0700
Pressure transducer, range 0-700 gauge and is supplied complete 35-T0116/24
Linear displacement potentio-
metric transducer, 50 mm travel. bar. with a wooden carrying case. Load plate, 600 mm diameter
The set can be completed with a Weight 55 kg (approx)
Specifications Specifications:
datum bar, dial gauges and load 35-T0116/25
- Input voltage: 10 V DC - Accuracy: 05% plates to make a complete Plate
- Output: from 0 to 10 V DC - Resolution: infinite Load plate, 760 mm diameter
bearing test apparatus that suits Weight 80 kg (approx)
- Repeatability: better than 0002 mm - Weight: 150 g (approx) your requirements. See Acces-
- Accuracy: better than 0002 mm sories.
- Weight: 100 g (approx) Dial gauges
Weight: 40 kg (approx)
82-D1259/B
Accessories Dial gauge, 50 mm travel, 001 mm
divisions
Datum bars (measuring bridges)
82-D1257
35-T1171/10