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BSI CP*116: ADD*% 70 1624669 0294989 3 m

BRITISH STANDARD CODE OF PRACTICE

LARGE-PAN EL
STRUCTURES AND
STRUCTURAL
CONNECTIONS IN
PRECAST CONCRETE
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Addendum No. I (1970) to


CP l i 6 : I965 and CP 116 : Part 2 : 1969
The structural use of precast concrete

THE COUNCIL FOR CODES OF PRACTICE


BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION
2 Park Street, London WIA 2BS
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BSI CP*33b: A D D 8 3 70 = Lb2Libb9 0294993 3 9

Addendum No. I (1970)


lo CP 116

Addendum No. 1 (1970) to CP i I6 : 1965 and C P I I6 :


Part 2 : 1969.
This Addendum has been prepared by a Committee convened
by the Codes of Practice Committee for Building. It was
published under the authority of the Executive Board on
26th November, 1970.

0 British Standards Institution.


SBN : 580 06275 9
This Addendum makes reference to the following British
Standard and Code of Practice:
BS 916. Black bolts, screws and nuts,
CP 116. The structural use of precast concrete.

British Standards and Codes of Practice are revised, when


necessary, by the issue either of amendmettt slips or of revised
editions. I t is important that users ascertaiti that they are in
possession of the latest amendments or editions,

The following BSI references relaie to the work on this Code of Practice:
Committee reference BLCP/35 Dran for comment 69/4327
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B S I CPSLIIb: ADD*II 70 Lb24bb9 0 2 9 4 9 9 0 T

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Addendum No, 1 (1970)


to C P 116

CODE DRAFTING COMMITTEE BLCP/35-PRECAST CONCRETE


(Secretariat: Institution of Striictriral Engineers)
Mr. W. Hunter Rose (Chairman)
Mr. J. F. Bradford
Mr. A. Marcham
British Precast Corrcrete Federation
Mr. Brian Rhodes
Mr. A. N. Sparke
Mr. P. B. Kenyon British Standards Itisiitrction
Mr. D. T.Williams British Steel Itidristry
M r . A. J. Newman
Biiildiirg Research Station
Mr. Andrew Short
Mr. A. W. Hill
Cemetit aiid Coiicrete Associatiori
Mr. J. D. McIntosh
hlr. J. A. Derrington
Federation of C i d Eigineeriirg Cotitractors
Mr. G. F. Eley
Mr. A. H. Ferrier
Federation of Coiicrete Specialists
Dr. D. D. Matthews
Mr. E. W. Bunn Greater London Coiiticil
Mr. R. M. Silber Incorporated Association of Arcliitects
arid Siirveyors
Mr. W. J. M. Haines Itistitutioti of Civil Etgitieers
Mr. W.S. Scott iiisti!iitioti of Mirnicipal Etrgbieers
Prof. P. W.Abeles
Mr. J. W. A. Ager
Prof. R. H. Evans
institiition of Strirchral Engineers
Mr. J. E. Guest
Mr. R. A. D. Noble
Mr. W.Hunter Rose J
Mr. J. H. Garnham Wright Ministry of Horisitg atid Local Govertirnent
Mr. R. C. Westbrook Ministry of Public Biiiidirg and Works
Mr. G. P. Mallett Ministry of Triirisport
Dr. W. W. Chan National Brrildiig Agency
Mr. J. Rodin National Federation of Biiildittg Trades
Eittplo)ers
Mr. J. A. Loe Roud Research Laboratory
Mr. Anthony Jones Royal itistitrife o/ Briiisl Arcliitects
Mr. D. A. S. Lloyd Royal Itistitrrtion of Charlered Srcrveyors
Mr. R. I. Lancaster
Mr. D. H. New The Coiicreie Society

The Committee is indebted to the following for valuablc assistance in connection


with the Addendum:
Mr. A. P. Backler, Dr. E. W.Bennett, Mr. P. Burhouse, Mr. E. W. H. Gifford,
Dr. F. W. Gifford, the late Mr. J. I<, Miles, Mr. G. Sonicrville and Mr, G .
J . Zunz. IC----\

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Addendum No. 1 (1970)
to CP 116

CONTENTS
Page
Foreword 5

1. GENERAL

901 Introduction
a 6
902. Misalignment and lack of plumb 7

2. GROUP I: LARGE-PANEL STRUCTURES REQUIRED TO WITHSTAND


ADDITIONAL LOADS OR THEIR EFFECTS
903. Stability requirements 7
904. Horizontal connections between loadbearing walls
and floors or roof 9
905. Peripheral tie 9
906. i nternal tie 10
907. Development of tie force IO

3. GROUP II: OTHER LARGE-PANEL STRUCTURES


, 908. Design 11

4. SRUCTURAI, CONNECTIONS
909. Connections 12
910. Continuity of reinforcement 13
91 1. Joints transmitting mainly compressive forces 15
912. Joints transmitting bcnding 16
91 3. Joints transniitting mainly sliear 16
914. Other types of cnnection 18
91 5 . Inspection 18

FIGURE
1. Example of corbel 19

This Addcnduni rcprcscnts a stiindrrd of g a d prncticc and tlicrcforr


iitkcs llie furni of rcconinicnd;iliuns. Conipliancc witti il docs nut
confer iinniuiiily froni relevant statutory and legal rcquircments.
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B S I CP*AILLb: ADDPAIL 70 M 162'4669 0294993 5 I

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Addendum No. i (1970)


to CP 116

BRITISH STANDARD CODE OF PRACTICE CP 116


THE STRUCTURAL USE OF PRECAST
CONCRETE
ADDENDUM No. 1
LARGE-PANEL STRUCTURES AND
STRUCTURAL CONNECTIONS IN PRECAST
CONCRETE
FOREWORD
When CP 116, ' The structurai use of precast concrete I , was published in 1965,
the Foreword stated :
' A sub-coinniittce has been set up to make a detailed study of connections
in precast structural frames, and any reconimendations that can be made as a
result of this sub-committee's work will be issued as addenda to the Code.'
When the work of this sub-coinmittee commenced, it was decided to include
large loadbearing panel construction.
The Ministry of Housing and Local Government published Circular 62/68
in November 1968 dealing with flats constructed with precast concrete panels.
The CP 116 committee is aware of this circular and of the notes published by the
Institution of Structural Engineers giving guidance on the circular and also
their paper ' Structural stability and the prevention of progressive collapse *,
This addendum contains the recommendations of the cornmittee with respect to
large precast concrete panels at the present time to deal with Recommendation
44 of the Ronan Point inquiry Report:
' A Code of Practice applicable specifically to large concrete panel con-
struction should be prepared and published as a matter of urgency.'
The cominittce has had uppermost in its mind the need to guard against
a chain reaction of faiiiircs following damagc to a small part of the structure due
to an accidental loading not specifically considered in design, i.e. what has
become known as progressive collapse, Thecoinmittee realises that not enough is
known about the inagnitude and frequcncy of possible accidental loadings, such
as explosive forccs, nor about the response of the structure to such loading. For
the time being, therefore, and until thc necessary evidence becomes available,
ihe committee has adopted the criteria contained in the Building (Fifth Arnend-
ment) Regulations 1970.
The clause numbers in this addendum arc a continuation of the clause
numbers in CP 116. Where cross reference. is made to clauses not forming part of
5

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Addendum No. 1 (1970)
to CP 116

the addendum, these clause numbers refer to clauses in CP 116, Values in this
addendum Lire given in both SI and imperial units as this forms an addenduni fo
both CP 116 : 1965 and CP 116 : Part 2 : 1969 (metric units). It supplements
and extends these existing Codes, and it should not be used in isolation from the
main Codes. In particular, Clause 909 replaces and extends Clause 346.

1. GENERAL
901. Introduction. This addenduni relates to structures which utilize precast
loadbearing wall panels of not less than single-storey height. The iecommenda-
tions apply particularly where floor and roof are also in concrete panel con-
struction, but tlie principles should be taken to apply whereother types of floor
and roof construction are used.
Clauses 909 to 916 also relate to connections in all types of precast concrete
structures.
The stability of large-panel structures is normally obtained by arranging and
joining floors and walls so that the floors can transmit load, or reactions to the
walls which act as thin, deep buttresses and transmit these loads to the founda-
tions. The choice of plan form is a most important consideration for eniuring
stability and, as far as practicable, the various elements of a building should be
arranged in such a way as to reduce lhe effect of any local accident.
The connections and critical sections of panels close to joints have to be
designed to resist the worst combinations of shear, axial force and bending
caused by vertical and horizontal loads. The detailed design of each critical
section at a joint will determine whether there is full continuity, or whether there
is a release of bending restraint without excessive reduction of resistance to shear
and axial force. Where floor or roof units are designed as simply supported
members, care should be taken that their shear resistance is adequate taking into
account the effects of cracking due to restraint against rotation at the supports.
Large-panel structures have to be capable of withstanding safely the normal
loadings specified for the type of structure concerned. In addition provision has
to be made to accommodate local or general effects arising from constructional
defects such as misalignment and lack of plumb and for which recommendations
are given in Clause 902.
The recommendations given in Clause 903 to 908 inclusive dealing with the
connections between units, the tying together of the structure, and the plan form
of lhe building, aiin at enabling the structure to accommodate a limited amount of
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accidental loading which may occur as a result of causes such as construction


loading, differential settlement of the supports, thermal movements, explosions,
accidental impact, etc., which are not defined as normal loading. These accidental
loadings may produce local damage, but the recommendations have as their
objective the limitation of the extent of such damage to an acceptable risk. No
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Addendum No. 1 (1970)


to CP 116

structure can be expcctcd to be resistant to all the excessive loadings which


could arise in cxtrcnic ciises.
Tlic prominence givcn i o such aims will depend inainly on the probable risk
of a ha7ard occurring, and the coiiseqiicncc of fiiilurc. Two standards of strength
are rcconiiiiendcd : iiaiiiely. that for large-panel striicliircs requiring special
provisions foi addition:il accidciiial loads or their ects (Group I), for which
rccoinnicndations iirc i i i d e in Clauses 903 to 907 inclusivc; lind that for all other
Iargc-piincl structurcs (Groiip II), for which ilic recoinnicidations of Clause
908 art: intended.
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902. Misalignmcnt and Inck of pluni. Misalignnieiit and lack of plumb produce
clfccis which iirc both local and general. Tlic gcncral cffcct is to produce an
ovcriiiriiing iiioiiicnt on tlie building. in addition io wind loading. The local
cmects will influence the beliaviour of ihc joints and of tlie loadbearing panels.
Both ilicsc cffccts should be takcii into account in design. I n calculating these
clcts, the beliavioiir of both tlic joint and tlie panel should be considered and
tlic ecccntriciiies rclatcd to tlic tolerances iii nianufacture and ercction. Such
tolcranccs should cover all aspects which are relevant to thcstability of the joint
of the loodbcariiig panel. Paiicls should be checked for pluinb and alignment a t
all Icvcls.
in ;he absence of firiii data the following allowances should be made:
( i ) li %'I; nim (0.47d i ; in) out of plumb where I I isthc number of storeys; and
(i)A niisaligniiicnt of 20 iiini (0.75 in) for thc purpose of calculating local
eccentricity across a joint between piinels.
The perniissiblc stresses applicable to wind loading niay be adopted when
assessing the stability of ilie structurc in flic light of these eTccis.

2. GROUP I : LARGE-PANEL STRUCTURES


REQLIRED *roWITHSTAND ADDITIONAL
ACCIDENTAL LOADS OR THEIR EFFECTS
903. Stiibility rcquirements. l i 1 addiiioii lo safely supporting all appropriate
dcad, iniposcd and wind loads, buildings in this group should bc designed and
constructcd so h i t if any oiic striictiirA iiicnibcr (otlicr than one purposely
dcsigncd to resist iniiial daiiiiigc) wcrc considcrcd to Iiovc bccii reiiiovcd, tlic
conscqucnt sirtictiiral failure would alfcci only LI sniall part of ilie building.
The structural pliin foriii of tlic building has it considerable cTTect on the
:ibility of tlic building to iicccpt the loss of one iiiciiibci wiilioiit bccoiiiing
scvercly damaged; in addition, the disposition of rciiiforcciiicni for tying I

iogethcr the building as ii wliolc has grcut infliiencc. I f thc recoiiiiiicndations


givcn in Clauscs 904 to 907 arc followed, i t should not be diticuli to provide an
xccpiablc building.
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Addendum No. 1 (1970)
to CP 116

Whcn asscssing how tlic building iiiiglit bcliavc iifier the loss of one tiieiiibcr
(e.g. as a braced fraiiic, rigid fraiiic, bcaiii cantilever, etc.), accouiit iiiay b2 taken
of any building coiiiponcnts, even those wliicli niay bc considcrcd to be non-
loadbcaring under iioriiial conditions. 111 this assessiiient, tlie loading io bc
considcrcd is the coiiibincd dead, iiiiposed and wind loads described below, and
i f this indicates that structural damage would extciid beyond acceptable liiiiits,
then the plan forin and/or tlie arrangciiicnt of tlic reinforcement should be
niodified to ensure that structural failure is suitably restricted. The aniount of
serious dainage acceptable in this contcxt should iiivolvc not more than 3 storcys
nor acct niore than 70 ni (750 fi2) or 15 / (whichever is thc least) of a!i arca
masurcd horizontally, in cach storey aected.
Alicrnatively, damage need not be assuincd to be initiated by thc notional
loss of a structural inember if it is capablc of sustaining a load of 34 kN/m2
(5 Ibf/in2) applied to it from any dircction, siiiiultancously with and additional
to the combined dead, iniposcd and wind loads described bclow, together with
any load which would be transmitted to it from any immediately adjacent parts
of the building, whether structural o r not, if these parts were subjected to a
similar additional load applicd in the saiiic direction. Thc amount of load trans-
mitted should iiot cxcecd the strcngtli of tlie adjaccnt paris nor the strength of
thcir connections to thc structural nicinbcrs,
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Thc extent of tlic part of n structural mcnibcr assunied to h e been initially


rernovcd from a building and to have become wholly unserviceable should,
in gcncral, bc takcn to be that part which is situatcd or spans between adjaccnt
supports or bctwccn a support aiid an cxtreiiiity of tlic incmbcr. For particular
types of structural incmbcr the extent of tlie portion rcnioved to be taken into
account should be as follows:
Rem : the clear span mcosurcd bctwccn adjacent supports or tlic length
of a cantilcver.
Colirr>vior
pier: the clear height measured bctwccn adjacent lateral supports.
Floor : thc arca included within ils lines of support and its titisupported
edges, if any, Notioniil lines of support niay be iakcn as straiglit
lines between adjacent poiiits of support. Notional lines of sup-
port niay also be assuincd wlierc substantial partitions occur.
Wll : the arca includcd within thc clcar Iiciglit nicasurcd betwccn tlic
floors and its Icngtli bctwccn adjacent Intcr:il supports or betwccn
a lateral support and a frec edgc or 2.25 times its hciglit, which -
ever is the Icast. For the purpose of this dctnition of wall arca, a
substantial partition* at right aiiglcs to the wall, providcd that i t
is adcquatcly tied or bondcd to the wall, niay bc assunicd to be a
latcral support lo that wull.
For the purposcs of this clause a subsinntiat partition mxy be taken as onc having an
nvcragc w i g h t of iiol Icss Ilian I50 kglm2 (SO Ih/fiz).
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Addendum No. 1 (1970)


to CP 116

The arca of wuII or floor considcrcd to be icinovcd iiiay consist of more than one
coiiipoiiciit. i t is rccoiiiiiicndcd thut in tlic case of a loadbearing flank wail in
cross-wall construction tlic length of the wall section assunicd to have been
reiiiowd should not bc Icss than tlic distance between adjaccnt lateral supportes,
bctiicen it 1atcr;il support and a frce cdgc, or if [here arc no lateral supports, the
cntirc Icngth of tlic flank wall.
Thc coiiibincd dead, iiiiposcd and witid loads referred to above sbould be
takcn as:
(i) tlic dead load,
(i) one-third of the wind load, und
(iii) onc-third of the iniposcd load, except that
(1) in the case of buildings or putts of buildings used predoiiiinantly for
storage, no reduction should be made, and
(2) in tlie case of factory or workshop floors the load should not be
rcduccd bclow 490 kg/ni2 (100 Ib/ft2) on each floor.
Wlicrc structurcs arc designcd in accordance with this addenduin, debris
loading nccd not nornxilly be takcn into account. .
In coinplying vAli this clause, the design stresses for both steel and concrete
may bc assumcd as 1.75 tiiiics thosc rcconimcndcd in Section 3, provided that, in
the case of niild stccl, the incrcased design stress should not be taken as greater

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than 95 7; of tlie yield stress of the steel. Where interaction bctwccn ptccast units
is assuimd or bridging action, elfcctive stcel connections have to be provided
betwen tlicsc units and care has to be taken to ensure that there is adequate
shear rcsistancc in tlie vertical joints between wall panelS.
Rciiiforccment should be provided in every wall panel rcquired for stability
and so arranged that the areu of vcrtical reinforcenicnt is not less than 0-1%
of the total horizontal crc,ss-scctional urca of the panel, and thc area of lateral
reinforcciiiciit is not Icss than 0.1 :{ of thc total vertical cross-sectional area of
the panel.
904. IioriLontal caniicctioiis betwcen loadbcaring walls and Iloors or roof. The
steel coniicctioii ai the top and ut the bottoiii of all cxtcrniil loidbearing WIIIIS,
or intcinal ioadbcaring \\ails having floors on one sidc only or having the floor
on otic side spanning in a dilcrcnt direction froiii that on the othcr side, should
bc capable of resisting Iiurizoiital foiccs i n citlicr dircction at right anglcs to the
wall equal t o 25 kN;iii* Iciigtli of joint (1700 Ibf/ft) at tlic top iind 13.5 kN/iiI*
(850 Ibfift) at the bottoiii, without cscccding permissible strcsscs.
905. Pcriphcral tie. At cacli floor aiid roof level in clcctivcly uiiiiikxrupted
pciiplicriil tic should be providcd. This tie should bc cap;ible of rcsiscing U
Thcse Figurcs relaie to a floor to cciling Iiciglit nut cxcceding 2-5 ni (8 fi) and should bc
incrci1scil I I I proporiiirii for grciiirr Iieigliis.
9
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Addenduni No. 1 (1970)
to CP 116

tensile force of 40 kN* (goo0 Ibf) without exceeding the permissible stress in the
steel. The tie niay consist of:
( i ) steel reinforcement in the in situ horizontal external wall-to-floor joint;
(2) steel reinforcement in the extcrnal wall close and parallel to the top edge
of the wall panels;
(3) steel reinforcc,nent or prestressing tendons in an edge k a n i or in the
edge of the floor or roof construction within 1.2 in (4 fi) from the edge of. the
building, or its general line where there are relatively small projections in the face.
Reinforcenieiit provided to resist dead, iiiiposcd and wind loading, or that
needed to fiilfil the rcquircnients of Clauses 904 and 906, may form the whole or
part of this tie.
At re-entrant corncrs, or at substantial changes in construction, care should
be taken to ensure that.thc peripheral tie is adequately anchored into the
adjacent floor or otherwise made effective.
906. nternal tie. At each floor and roof Ievel,eictively uninterrupted ties should
be provided in two directions at approximately right angles across the building
and should be anchored to the peripheral reinforcement at both ends. Where
openings occur in the floor and roof, care should be taken that the total tie
force across the building is maintained,
The longitudinal (in the direction of spon) and transverse ties should be
capable of resisting forces of 25 kN/m (1700 Ibf/ft) and 12.5 kN/m (850 Ibf/ft)
respectively without exceeding the permissible stresses; where transverse ties
are concentrated at a transverse wall the internal tic steel provided need be
based only on a length equal to half of the longer of the floor spans supported
by the wall. In buildings with two-way spanning slabs the tie forces in both
directions should be equal to forces of 19 kN/m (1300 Ibf/ft) without exceeding
the permissible stresses. Reinforcement provided for other purposes may be
used for the internal ties.
907. Development of tie force. Except for units less than 1.2 m (4 fi) wide, till
internal ties in the direction of the span should bc encased in the precast floor
or roof units. T r m v e r s e ties may be encased in the precast lloor or roof units
or concentrated in the i n situ joints between units. Whenever ties are encase in
the floor or roof unit, they should be adequately distributed to avoid out-of-
balance eTects on the units unless these clccts are allowed for, and, except for
units less than 1.2 m (4 ft) wide, at least two ties should be provided in the saille
direction on each supported edge,
Where tics are encased in the precast floor or roof units, the tensile resistance
between units niay be developed by nicihods allowed in Clause 910 except that
the ties between units in the direction of the span should not be lapped at the
These figures relate to a floor to ceiling height not exceeding 2.5 m (8 ft) and should be
increased in proportion for grcatcr heights,
10

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Addendum No. 1 (1970)


to CP 116

joint unless thc adcquacy of the lappcd joint can bc deiiionstratcd. In addition,
tic-bars placcd i n tlic i n situ joints bctwccn uiiits slioiild not bc considered as
lapping with thc rcinforccnicnt in thc units to form an ctkctivcly iinintcrruptcd
tie.
Tics Iiavc to bc assunicd to bc fully tensioncd to within 25 mm ( i in) of the
outside surface of a wdl which tlic tie is rcstraining against outward movcincnt.
Tlic cificicncy of nicchanical anchorciges havc to bc dcterinincd by test. 'Whcn
rcsistancc to tension is given by bond of the stccl bar to thc concrcie, an adcquatc
bond length beyond tlic point of full tension has to bc provided,
Burs in thc in situ joints bctwccn units and bars at right anglcs to thc span
niay bc lapped to forni cn'cctivcly unintcrruptcd tics but lapping should not bc
used for anchoring internal tics to peripheral tics as required by Clausc 906
cxccpt for spccial rcasons to be justificd by the Engiiieer.
Whcre thc location of !lie tics is changed on plan, adequatc overlap should
be providcd.
Wlicrc the plan foinis arc complex duc to re-entrants, change of span or
other rcasons, adequatc tying togethcr should bc provided.
Where tie forces are developed by bond in in situ coiicrctc in joints, thc niain
dimension of tlic in situ coiicrctc should be not less than:
( i ) 2 x bar size -1- 2 x nominal maximum size of aggrcgatc f 6 nim
(0.25 in) for site bars lapping in an in situ joint.
(2) 1 x bar size -t. 2 :-:noininal maximum size of aggregatc -I- 6 mni
(0.25 in) where a joint encloses a singlc site bar without laps.
Except for a nib at the bottom, thc width of a floor joint should preferably
be not less than 35 inm (1% in) where units less than 1-2ni (4 fi) wide are used
and 60 mni (2.4 in) where wider floor units are used.
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3. GROUP II : OTHER LARGE-PANEL STRUCTURES


908. Design. For thc design of ofhcr large-panel slructures, thc rccornnieiidations
of Clauscs 901 and 902 arc appropriate and the rccoiiinicndations of Clauscs 904
to 907 inclusivc should be adhcred to, with the following modifications:
( I ) the tie forces specified in Clauses 904 to 906 may be halved;
(2) tic bars placed in tlic in situ joint bctwcen floor units inay be considcrcd
as lapping with thc main reinforccnient in the units to form an utiintcrruptcd tic,
providing the dinicnsions of the gap bctwccn and tliccdgc dciails of ihc units are
designed to develop ecctivc bond (sec Clause 907);
(3) reinforcement forming tlic infcrnal tic niay bc placcd in'thc floor or roof
units or concentrated at the joint, regardless of the width of the units (sec
Clause 907);
(4) stccl between the foot of a loadbearing wall and thc supporting structurc
need not bc provided where other structural methods sufice (sce Subclausc 9096).
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E S 1 CP*LLb: ADD*L 70 Lb24bb9 0295000 7

Addcndiiiii No. 1 (1970)


to CP 1 I6

This claiisc tiitiy not iipply to singlc-stocy garages and likc structures wlicre
adcquiitc nicans of ensuring stability arc provided.

4. STRUCTURAL CONNECTIONS
909. Conncctions
a. G~*rrci.n/. Siibclauscs I) to e of this clause follow closcly Cliiiisc 346 and give
gencral advice on tlic dcsign and construction of coiincctions. The remainder of
this addcnduin givcs more detailed requircnients for particular types of con-
nection. 4

h. S/rrtc/rii.al reqriii.enieri/.r,Tlie overall stability of the building, includiiig


t tic sinbiliiy during tlic period of construction, should be considered wlieii
designing and dctailing the connections. All nienibers should be adcquatcly tied
togctlicr. Fiequciitly, the most scvere forces Lind stresses arc applied to precast
units during the various stogcs of handling and construction. Tlie clkcts of these
operaiions should bc carcfiilly studicd, particularly at seatings and bearings, to
avoid spalling of cdgcs and corncrs which can Icad to instabilify and failure.
Coiincctioiis shoiild, howcver, where possible, he dcsigiicd in accordancc
with thc gciicrally acccptcd thcorics applicable to reinforced concrete, prcstrcsscd
concrcic o r structural steel. Wlicrc, by tlie nature of the construction or inatcrial
iiscd, siicli tlicorics arc not applicablc, the cniciency of the connection should be
proven by tests and its usc justified by rcasoncd analysis of tlic tcst rcsulis. Care
should be takcn to incliidc in tlie design the eTccts of possiblc horizontal forces
due to shrinkage or other causes and as far as possiblr: provision for niovcnicnt
throughout the lifc of the building should be considered when designing and
dctailing the coiincctions.
Dctailcd drawings of cach type of conncction shoiild be iiiade at thc design
stage to a siiltcicnt scolc to indicate the intcrrelation of ;ill parts of the coniicction.
These tlctiiils should iillow for the eTect of cuniulativc tolcranccs in diiiiciisions
allowcd iindcr Clause 407 and in addition for ercctioii clearances in tlic iisscnibly
and location of projccting parts. Where critical, thc :iCtiil tolcroiiccs dlowcd by
the dcsigiicr should be stiitcd on tlie drawings.
This iiiforiiiaiioii should bc avoilablc at tlic iiiiic of tciidcr.
C. Prci/c,c/iorr. Coiiiiccioiis slioiild bc dcsigncd 10 i1iiiiiit:iiii thc stmidiird of
protcciioii iigiiiist wciiilicr, lire and corrosion rcqiiircd foi' the rcniiiiidcr of the
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siriici iirc.
d. l/,i,<,<ri<ilrce.Wlicrc contiections arc io bc cq~osed.iticy should be so
dcsigiicd tliiii tlic qii;iliiy of tippciirance icqiiircd for tlic iciiiaindcr of ilic
striictiirc or building ciin bc iciidily :ichicved. This tiioy oftcii hc bcticr donc by
ciiipliiisiriiig ratlier t t i i i n by atlciiipiiig to coiiceil tlie coniicctioiis.
c. A ~ i i i i $ i c / r r w , rr.ssertrb!y < i r i d erectioii. klcthods o iiianiifiiciiirc and erection
I -
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Addcnduni No. 1 (1970)


to CP I6

should be considered during design, and the following points should be given
pnrticulnr attention:
( i ) V h r c projectitis burs or scctions arc reqiiircd, thcy sliould hc kept to a
miniiiiiini and iiiade as simplc as possible. Tlic lengths of such projections should
not bc iiiorc than ncccssary for security. .I
(2) Fragile fins and nibs should be avoic,ed.
(3) Fixing devices should be located in concrete sections of adeqiiatc streiigth.
(4) The prwticiibility of both casting and nssciiibly should be considered.
( 5 ) Specific instriictions shoiiid bc passki to the sitc, where necessary, on
the following: i
Sequence of forming joint. I

Critical details and dimensions. e.g: accurate location required for a


particular reinforcing bar or i i i i i t to tie left free to slide.
Details of teiiiporary propping and ti. ic wlizii i t niay be rcinovcd.
temporary bracing.
y
Description of general stability of s riicture with details of necessary
I
Degree to which uncompleted structurd niay proceed above the coinpletcd
and matured section.
Fiil1 details o specialized iiiaterials.
Tlic tolerances allowed for by the design,
I
( 6 ) Most connections require tlie introduction of suitable jointing inaterial.
Sucient spacc should be allowed in the design for such iiintcrhl to ciisure that
tlie propcr lilling of tlic joint is practicable.
910. Continuity of reinforcement
a. Gvtrerd. The following jointing nicihods may be used for thc reinforcement
to ensiire continuity:
( I ) Lapping of bars.
(2) Loop and dowel joints.
(3) Sleeving.
(4) Threading of bars.
(5) Wclding of bats by splice or lap wclditig.
( 6 ) Any oilier iiiethod which Iias been proveil to bc sofe aiid priicticable by
independcot tests.
1). Lqpiiv of 6 m : ~The rcqiiireinciits for laps hi bars giveti in Clausc 315
iippiy in ;iddition to tlic following design rules:
Grori/pocke/.Tlic design should providc agoinst air locks diiririg groiitiiig.
Siirnip.v. Tlic Iippcd bnrs sliould be adcqu;itely eiicloscd by stirrups or
rcsiraiiicd by adjacent concrctc, c.g. as in joints bctwccii floor units.
c. Loop / i d dowljoi/i/,s.In loop and dowcl joints thc ritdiiis of tlw bend in
the loop lias to be sudi that tlic bearing stress docs not excecd that given in
13
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Addendum No. I (1970)
to CP 116

Subclause 3155 Thc relativc position of tlic loops and the disposition of the
dowcls should be arranged te ciisurc propcr transiiiission of thc load, without
exccssivc displaccmcnt.
d. S/eevittg. (i) Two priiicipal types of slcevc jointing may be used:
( I ) Fillcd slccvcs capable of transmitting both tensilc and compressive
forces and uscd with advantagc in joining high-bond bars.
( 2 ) Slccvcs which align tlic acctirntcly square cut cnds of two successive
bars nicchanically to iallow the trnnsiiiissioii by end bearing, of coniptcssivc
forccs OiilY.
(i) , 4 / < \ r t i t n m / . Tlic delitilcd dcsign of the slcevcs and the nicthod of
iiiiiiiu1;1ctwc iind assciiibly should be such as to cnsurc that the cnds of the two
bars can he accuriitely aligncd into the sleeve,
(iii) Cuircrvte c u w r . The concrete cover provided for ilic sleeve should be
iioi Icss i h n that spccificd for iiornial reinforcemciit (Clause 3 IO). Additional
light stirruping or otlicr encasing rciiiforcemcnt should be provided in the covcr
whcrc slccvcs arc embedded i i i concrctc iiiadc with nori~ialaggregates, to cnsurc
that the concrcfc covcr does not spall prcniaturcly in thc cvcnt of fire. No stich
additional reinforcciiicnt nccd be provided for slccves cmbcdded in structural
gradc lightwcight aggrcgatc concrete.
(iv) Ao/oryppe IC'SIS. Not Icss than thrce saiiiplcs of each type of slecve
should be subjcctcd to loading tcsts to destruction, to deteriiiinc its loadbearing
capacity and dcforniation undcr load.
e. Tlirecdirg. ( i ) ?'he following niethods may be used for joining threaded
bars :
( I ) The threaded ciid of bars may he joined by left Iiandjright hand
couplcrs. This type of tlircadcd connection requircs an cxccptional dcgrec of care
and accuracy in iiianufacturc in view of the difficulty of cnsuring alignincnt.
(2) Onc set of bars iiiay be wclded to a steel platc which is drilled to
rcccive the tlirciided cnds of the second set of bai's to be joined to the first sei.
the ends of thc sccond set of bars k i n g held to ihc plaie by iiieaiis of nuts.
(i) Luckiirg c/erices. Wlierc fhcrc is ii risk of thc screwed coniicction
working loosc. c.g. during vibration of i i i sitii concrctc. a locking dcvice should
be incorporatcd. c.g. locknuts or spring washers.
(iii) Prorec/ioti. Girat care should be t;ikcii ;it all stugcs of triinsporiii-
tioti, storagc iind erection to protcci the tlirciids froiii accidciitil daiiiiigc.
(iv) T l p e uf src~d.Thc use of tlircadcd coiincctioiis sliould'bc rcstrictcd to
plain rouiid mild steel bars. Wlicrc tlicrc is diiliciilty in producing ti clcaii thrcad
at thc cnd of a bar, siccl normally spcciicd for black bolts (US 916 : 1953*.
Clause 2) having ia niiniiiiuni tciisilc strcngili of 430 N/iiiiii2 (28 foiif/itP) sliotild
be uscd.
DS 916. ' Dlack bolis, s c r w s nnJ miis I.
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E S 1 CP*LLb: ADD*L i 0 Lb24bb9 0295003 2

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Addendum No. 1 (1970)
to CP 116

(v) Design stresses. The structural design of the threaded joints should be
based on the cross section of the bar at the root of the thread, the permissible
stresses being as for reinforcemcnt generally. In the case of connections in tension,
however, the permissible strcss of the steel should be that specified for bolts.
91 1. Joints transmitting mainly compressive forces -
a. Joi~irsfillcdwith C i situ coticrete or mortar. When joining walls the space
between adjacent wall panels should be capable of being properly filled by
using normal standards of workmanship and supervision and therefore the filling
inaterial and method of filling should be taken into account when sclecting its
shape and size, The assembly instructions should contain definite information as
to the stage during construction when the gap should be filled. The assembly
instructions should form part of the design.
The strcngih of the concrete or mortar to be placed in situ should be taken
into account in the design and stated. Where dry packed mortar is used as a
filling material it should comply with Clause 413, but care should be taken that 6
its consistency and waterlcement ratio are appropriate to tRe method of filling
and compaction and that the cavity is completely filled.
Local stress concentrations due to surface irregularities or shims of too small
an area should be avoided.
In the absence of more accurate information derived from a comprehensive
programme of suitable tests, the area of concrete to be considered in calculating
the strength of the joint may be either
( i ) the area of the in situ concrete ignoring the area of the intruding units; or
(2) 75 %of thearea ofcontact between wall and joint, whichever is thegreater.
The area of contact should be assumed to be not greater than 90 % of the wall
area. Only those parts of the precast units which are solid over the k a r i n g should
be considered and the units should be properly bedded on concrete or inortar.
b. Direct bearitg connection. The contact surfaces should not contain exces-
sive irregularities and the compressive stress in the contact area should not
normally exceed 0.25 idw. Where the members to be joined are made of concretes
differing in strength, then for purposes ofcnlculation the lower concrete strength
is applicable. Higher stresses may be used where suitable measures are taken to
prevent bursting of the concrete at the interface, e.g. the provision of steel
bearing plates and/or additional enveloping or binding reinforcement at the
column heads. Where stresses in excess of 0.5 itw are used, these should bejusti-
fied by the results of loading tests specially designed for the purpose.
Direct bearing connections should not be used for wall to wall connections.
Horizontal loading across direct bearing connections can reduce the load-
bearing capacity of the supporting nieinber considerably by causing prcmature
splitting or shearing. Premature failure can be prevented by:
( I ) sliding bearings;
15
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E S 1 CP*LLb: ADD*% 70 rn Lb24bb9 0295004 4

Addendum No. 1 (1970)


to CP 116

(2) transverse reinforcement in the form of binding or welded niesh;


(3) continuity reinforcenient, provided to tie together the ends of two units
meeting over the supporting wall.
Where, owing to large spans or other reasons, large rotations are likely t o
occur at the end supports of iexural members, suitable bearings capable of
accommodating these rotations should be used.
912. Joints transmitting bending. Tlie design of structures consisting of precast
concrete niciiibcrs is normally based on the assumption that the joints between
thcse members are not capable of transmitting bending moments. Ai working
loads, however, most joints have a measure of flexural stiffness, and unless this
is taken into account in the design and suitable precautions are taken, unsightly
local failures niay rcsult (sec Clause 901). 1

913. Joints transmitting mainly shear


a. Corbels (see FI&. i). A corbel is a short cantilever beam in which the shear
span bears a ratio of less than 0-6 to the effective depth at the face of the sup-
porting menibcr. Tlie bottom front edge is frequently chamfered and the depth
of the chamfer should not exceed one-half of the overall depth at the face of the
supporting nieinber.
The main tensile reinforcement in bending should be calculated in accordance
with Clause 31 i or 3 13.The shear reinforcement should be-calculated in accord-
ance with Clause 319,except that it should in no case be less than one-half of the
main tensile reinforcement.
The main longitudinal reinforcement should be adequately anchored at the
front face by welding to a crossbar of at least equal strength or by bending
back the longitudinal bars, forming a loop. In either case the bearing area should
not projcct to the front of the corbel beyond the straight portion of the niain
reinforcement. The cross section of the main reinforcement should be not less
than 0.4 % nor more than 1.3 % of the effective concrete section.
The shear reinforcement sli9uld consist of horizontal stirrups placed over

- tlic upper two thirds of the effective depth of the corbel. Where lhe corbel is
W g n e d to resist a stated horizontal force, additional reinforcement should be
provided sufficient to transmit this force in its entirety. Where a corbel is designed
to resist a stated vertical force only, additional reinforcement has to be providcd
capable of resisting not less than 10 % of the vertical reaction taken to act as u
horizontal force. The reinforcement should be welded to the bcaring plates if
providcd and should be adequately anchored within the wall. The bcaring
should satisfy the provisions of Subclause 91 IB.
6. Walls atrdJloors rratrsnriititrg drear. A joint niay be assuiiicd to transmit a
shear forcc bctwccn panels, such as arises whcn a wall acts as a wind bracing
wall or a floor acls as a wind girdcr, providing one of the following rcquircnicnts
is satisfied:
i6

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Addenduni No. 1 (1970)
to CP i16

( i ) Floor units transmitting shear in a horizontal plane should be re-


strained to prevent their moving apart horizontally, and the joints between theni
should be formed by grouting with a suitable concrete or mortar mix. No
reinforcement need be provided in the joint, and the sides of the unit forming the
joint may have the normal finishes given in Subclause 409b, when the calculated .
shear stress in the joint does not exceed 0-15 N/mm2 (21.8 Ibf/in2).
a
(2) No reinforcement need be provided in joints that are under coni-
pression in all design conditions when the sides of the panels or units forming
the joints comply with the finishes in Subclause 409d, and when the calculated
shear stress in the joint does not exceed 0.30 N/mni* (43.5 Ibf/in*) (see Clause
91 ia).
(3) The shear stress calculated on the minimum root area of a castellated
joint is less than the permissible shear stress in Table 3 (Clause 303). Separation
of the panels normal to the joint should be prevented either by steel tics across
the ends of the joint or by a compressive force normal to the joint under all
loading conditions.
A taper is usually provided to the projccting keys of a castellated joint
to ease the removal of formwork. To limit movcnients in the joint, this taper
slioiild not be excessive.
(4) Reinforcement is provided to resist the entire shear force which does
not exceed Q given by:
Q = pstArttan +
where pst -- permissible tensile stress in the reinforcement which should not
exceed either i40 MN/m2 (20 o00 Ibf/in2)or the stress which can be developed
by bond,
Ast = cross-sectional area of the reinforcement which should be perpendicular
to the cross section and properly anchored on both sides of the joint (rein-
forcement which is connected to other properly anchored reinforcement by
one of the methods given in Clause 910 may itself be assumed to be properly
anchored) and
$I = angle of internai friction; tan 4 can vary between 0-7and 1.7 but the
following value may be assumed:
Smooth intcrfacc as in untreated construction joint (0.7).
Roughened o r castellated joint as defined in (i), (2) or (3) above without
continuous in situ strips across the ends of the joint (1.4).
Roughened or castellated joint as defined in (i), (2) o r (3) abovr: with con-
tinuous in situ strips across thc ends of the joint (1.7).
Where the above expression is used in calculations to prove stability in the
damaged state as required by Clause 908, a steel stress of 1 -5ps1may bc assumed
subject to a limiting shear stress on the joint of 5.5 MN/ni* (800 Ibf/in*).
( 5 ) The shear forci: across any joint undcr comprcssion does not excccd
17
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B S I CP*KL16: A D D * 1 70 H 1 6 2 4 6 6 9 0295006 & H

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Addciiduni No. I (1970)


1 0 CP 116

0.3 ian 4 tiiiies tlic coniprcssivc force norriiul i o itic joint whcrc tan 4 lias !lie
velues given iihovc. The \\hale shear force iiiay h e assuilied io be resistcd by
rrictioil.
i61 l i can be shown thai rcsisiancc to sliding of the joini is providcd by
c Iter iiic;iiis for iniaiicc shear displacciiicnis hci\vcet-i paiicls iiiay be I>rcscnied
hy ilic rciiiforcciiicni in ihc i n situ joinis ~ICI'OSSihc ends of ilie panels.
914. Other types of connection. Any oihcr type o f conncciioii tvliicli cai1 i-c
sho\vii i o bc cqxihlc of ciirryiiig tlic loxis acting on ii niay he used. Aiiiongsi
tliosc siiiiablc for rcsktiiig shcnr and flesurc are:
( I \ cLriincciionz wing siruciiiral siccl imcris:

f 2 ) coiiiicciioiis iii:idc by prcsircssing iicrohi: (tic joiiii.

I h i i i ;idlicsitcs iiiay hc iiscd io forin joinis suhjccicrl :o conipressioii h i


iioi I O rcsisi icrision o r shear. Tlicy may not hv iiscd wlicre ilicy arc noi adeqiinicly
;ig;iiiisi ilic cflects of fire.
I~ro~ccicd
915. Iiispectioii. A carcriil visual inspcciion of coniicciion prior i o concrciing i\
qxci;illy iiii1iori;irii.

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-BSI CP*LLb: ADD*L 70 E Lb24669 0295007-T - . h

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Addcndiiin No. I (1970)


IO CP I 16

h iin tensile -
reinforcement
welded to cross
bar o r looped
a s drawn

--_---

'I II
'I II
I Ar Il

Fig. I . Example of corhel

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