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LET REVIEWER

by zhay01042016

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GEN. ED and PROF. ED

"Don't stop praying, God will help you"

The cultivation of reflective and meditative skills in teaching is an influence of

A. Taoism- (also called Daoism) is a spiritual, philosophical and religious


tradition of Chinese origin that emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also
romanized as Dao). The term Tao means "way", "path", or "principle", and can also
be found in Chinese philosophies and religions other than Taoism.

B. Shintoism- also called kami-no-michi, [note1] is an ethnic religion of the


people of Japan. It focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently, to
establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.

C. Confucianism- lso known as Ruism, is a system of philosophical and "ethical-


sociopolitical teachings" sometimes described as a religion.

D. Zen Buddhism- Zen is a form of Buddhism that strictly emphasises 'sitting


meditation' for the realisation of Buddhist truths, particularly for realising the
truth of no-self, emptiness, and the Mind. Zen is also a form of Buddism that
emphasises the originally pure nature of the mind, much as other Mahayana schools
of Buddhism. As Bodhidharma, who is thought of as the first Chinese teacher of
Ch'an (Jap: Zen), said...Once mortals see their nature, all attachments end.
Awareness isn't hidden. But you can only find it right now. It's only now. If you
really want to find the Way, don't hold on to anything.

Which activity

is characterized by a relationship of mutual trust ang respect,with individuals


agreeing to observe each other's teaching and solving problems together?

A. Group dynamics- is a system of behaviours and psychological processes occurring


within a socialgroup (intragroup dynamics), or between socialgroups (intergroup
dynamics).

B. Mentoring- is an essential leadership skill. In addition to managing and


motivating people, it's also important that you can help others learn, grow and
become more effective in their jobs.
C. Peer evaluation- One of the ways in which students internalize the
characteristics of quality work is by evaluating the work of their peers. However,
if they are to offer helpful feedback, students must have a clear understanding of
what they are to look for in their peers' work. The instructor must explain
expectations clearly to them before they begin.

D. Brainstorming- is a group creativity technique by which efforts are made to find


a conclusion for a specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously
contributed by its members. The term was popularized by Alex Faickney Osborn in the
1953 book Applied Imagination.

___is a disorder of neutral development characterized by impaired social


interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.

A. mental retardation- is a condition diagnosed before age 18, usually in infancy


or prior to birth, that includes below-average general intellectual function, and a
lack of the skills necessary for daily living. When onset occurs at age 18

or after, it is called dementia, which can coexist with an MR diagnosis.

B. autism- a mental condition, present from early childhood, characterized by


difficulty in communicating and forming relationships with other people and in
using language and abstract concepts.

C. ADHD- is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through
adolescence and adulthood. Symptoms include difficulty staying focused and paying
attention, difficulty controlling behavior, and hyperactivity (over-activity).

D. Physical Disabilities- is a limitation on a person's physical functioning,


mobility, dexterity or stamina. Other physical disabilities include impairments
which limit other facets of daily living, such as respiratory disorders, blindness,
epilepsy and sleep disorders.

"We are all perfectly imperfect." This sentence is an example of

A. Metonymy- is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is called not by its


own name but rather by the name of something associated in meaning with that thing
or concept.

B. Paradox- is a statement that contradicts itself and yet might be true (or wrong
at the same time). Some logical paradoxes are known to be invalid arguments but are
still valuable in promoting critical thinking.

C. Oxymoron- less commonly the Greek-style oxymora) is a figure of speech that


juxtaposes elements that appear to be contradictory. Oxymorons appear in a variety
of contexts, including

inadvertent errors (such as "ground pilot") and literary oxymorons crafted to


reveal a paradox.

D. Hyperbole- is an extreme exaggeration used to make a point. It is like the


opposite of "understatement." It is from a Greek word meaning "excess."

The square of the standard deviation is known as the?

a.formula-

b.mode- The mode is the number that occurs most often within a set of numbers. For
the server power consumption examples above, there is no mode because each element
is different.

c.variance- The square root of the variance is called the Standard Deviation .
Note that is the root mean squared of differences between the data points and the
average.

d.mean- In mathematics and statistics, the mean is another name for the average.
Themean is calculated by adding all of the values together, then dividing by the
number of values. Example: 1, 2, 2, 100, 100 is a set of numbers or scores. If we
add all the numbers, the answer is 205.

It is defined as the degree to which a text measures what it purporse to measure


and how adequately.

a.validity- Validity generally refers to how accurately a conclusion, measurement,


or concept corresponds to what is being tested. For this lesson, we will focus on
validity in assessments. Validity is defined as the extent to which an assessment
accurately

measures what it is intended to measure.

b.usability- Usability assessment methods evolved from traditional human


factors/ergonomics techniques beginning in the early 1980s.

c.reliability- Reliability is the degree to which an assessment tool produces


stable and consistent results. Types of Reliability. Test-retest reliability is a
measure ofreliability obtained by administering the same test twice over a period
of time to a group of individuals.

d.cognition -

1.Ito ay isang epiko na matandang pangalan ng Bicol. Noong 1895, si Prayle Jose
Castao ay may kinaibigang bulag na lagalag na mang-aawit na si Cadungdung. Sa
kanya narinig ng pari ang epikong Ibalon. Itinala at isinalin ng pari sa Castila
ang isinalaysay sa kanya ni Cadungdung.

a. Ibalon

b. Ullalim

c. Maragtas

d. Labaw Donggon

2. Ito ay isang gamit ng pangngalang nararanasan ng isa sa mga limang pandamdam


(paningin, pandinig, panlasa, pakiramdam at pang-amoy) at may katangiang pisikal.

a. Tahas- pangngalang nararanasan ng isa sa mga limang padamdam (panlasa,


pakiramdam, pang-amoy,pandinig, paningin) at may katangiang pisikal.Halimbawa:
buko, pagkain, pabango

b. Basal- pangngalang tumutukoy sa isang kaisipan o konsepto na hindi nararanasan


ng limangpandamdam at walang pisikal na katangian.

c. Lansak- pangngalang tumutukoy

sa isang kalipunan o karamihan

d. Hango

3. Siya ay tinawag na "Ama ng Katipunan"

a. Jose Rizal

b. Andrs Bonifacio
c. Apolinario Mabini

d. Marcelo H. del Pilar

4. Itinuturing na "Ama ng Pambansang Wika at Balarila" ng Pilipinas.

a. Lope K. Santos

b. Rogelio Sikat

c. Jose Palma

d. Amado V. Hernandez

5. Siya ay ipinanganak sa San Nicolas, Cebu noong Marso 27, 1917. Nang matapos siya
ng sekundarya, nagtungo siva sa Maynila upang mag-aral sa U.P. Naging miyembro siya
ng U.P. Writers Club dahil sa taglay niyang katalinuhan at kakayahan sa pagsulat.
Sa pagitan ng mga taong 1958 at 1978, nagwagi siya ng mahigit kumulang sa sampung
karangalan mula sa maikling kuwento at dula sa Free Press, Carlos Palanca Award at
Arena Theatre Contest.

a. Marjorie Evasco

b. Genoveva Edroza Matute

c. Estrella D. Alfon

d. Edith Tiempo

6. Ito ay isang kayarian ng pang-uri na binubuo ng dalawang salitang pinagtatambal.


Mga halimbawa: ningas-kugon, ngiting-aso, balat-sibuyas, kapit-tuko at bahag
buntot.

a. Payak

b. Inuulit

c. Maylapi

d. Tambalan

7. Ito ay isang uri ng pang-abay na nagsasaad kung kailan naganap o magaganap ang
kilos na taglay ng pandiwa.

a. Pananggi

b. Panlunan

c. Pamanahon
d. Pamitagan

8. Ito ay isang pahayagan na naging pangalan ng isang samahan ng mga Pilipinong


ilustrado sa Espanya na naghangad na magkaroon ng representasyon ang Pilipinas sa
Cortes Generales. Ito rin ang naging pangalan ng opisyal na pahayagan ng samahan na
itinatag noong 13 Disyembre 1888.

a. La Solidaridad

b. Aviso Al Publico

c. La Esperanza

d. Boletin Oficial de Filipinas

9. Anong uri ng pangungusap ito: " Mayroon daw ganito roon."

a. Mga pangungusap na sagot lamang

b. Mga pangungusap na Pautos/Pakiusap

c. Mga sambitla

d. Mga pangungusap na eksistensyal

10. Ito ang pinakamatandang unibersidad pang-obispo ng Pilipinas ay itinatag sa


pamamagitan ng mga Dominicans sa 1611.

a. University of Sto. Tomas

b. Kolehiyo ng La Concordia

c. Colegio de San Juan de Letran

d. Assumption Convent

sagot a, a, b, a, c, d, c, a, d, a

It is the tendency of a body at rest to remain at rest or of a body in motion to


stay in motion unless disturbed by an external force.

a. Gravitation

b. Motion

c. Inertia
d. Net Force

Edgar Dale's Cone of Experience

=================

prof.ed

PROF ED

PART 1: KOUNIN'S MGT MODEL (1970)

stimulus boundedness -- teacher's attention interrupted by extrateneous stimulus

Thrust -- teacher interrupts students engaged in activities w/o considering


whether the student is ready or not.

Dangels -- teacher interrupts activity of student and return to it again.

Truncations -- teacher does not return to current act. after being interrupted.

Overdwelling -- teacher focuses on a certian topic that will lead to too much time
consupmtion, the lesson will slow down.

Fragmentation -- chunks of lesson for students to understand his/her lesson


effectively or breakibg down of act. to cause too much time.

Flip Flop -- teacher changes its activity from current activity to new one and
vice versa

whenever he/she changes his/her mind.

PART 2 PO.

THEORIES AND THEIR PROPONENTS

Wilhelm Woundt = german psycologist "founder of modern psychology.

Titchener = structuralism psychology

William james, G. Stanley Hall, James M. Cattell.... these three promote


"functionalism psychology

Charles darwin = theories to mental characteristics as human think, feel &


behave(" evolutionary psychology")

Herman Ebbinghaus = associationism psychology

Edwin Guthrie = (stimulus and response ) :; temporal conguity

Edward Lee Thorndike = "satisfaction" "the law of effect".


Ivan Pavlov = involuntary behavior

Max Wertheimer

= gestalt psychology

Otto Loewi = discovered "acetylchloline

" respobsible in stimulation of muscles

Ulf von Euler discovered "norepinephrine" bringing our nervous system into "high
alert" Arvid Carlsson discovered "dopamine" the reward mechanisms in the brain

Jean Piaget -- cognitive dev't , info processing , dynamic interrelation.

Sigmund Freud -- psychosexual , psychoanalytic

Erik Erickson -- psychosocial

Lawrence Kohlberg -- moral dev't,

Burrhus Frederic Skinner -- operant cond.

Ivan Pavlov -- classical cond.

Edward Lee Thorndike -- connectionism

Albert Bandura -- social learning, neo - behaviorism

Robert Gagne -- sequence of instruction

Abraham Maslow -- hierarchy of needs , motivation theory

William Kohler -- insight learning

Robert Havighurst -- devt task theory

Benjamin Bloom -- bloom's cognitive taxonomy

Simpsons / Anita Harrow -- psychomotor domain

David Krathwohl -- affective domain

Jerome Bruner -- constructivist, spiral curr, instrumental conceptualism

Lev Vygotsky -- socio-cultural theory of cognitive devt , linguistic theory,


Scaffolding

Edgar Dale -- cone of exp. (20% remember)

kohler,koffka, weirtheimer -- gestalt psychology

John Locke -- tabularasa , empiricism

Howard Gardner -- multiple int.

Noam Chomsky -- language acquisition theory , fr

of linguistic, nativism
David Ausubel -- meaningful learning, graphic organizer, assumption

Charles Cooley -- looking glass self theory

John Flavel -- metacognition

Sandra Bem -- gender schema theory

Elliot Turriel -- social domain theory

Robert Sternberg -- triachic theory of int.

Johm Watson -- behaviorial theory

Maria Montessory -- transfer of learning, kinder garten preparation of children.

Edward Tolman -- purposive behaviorism and goal oriented

Edward Torrance -- creative problem solving

Bernard Weiner -- attribution theory

Daniel Goleman/coleman? -- emotional intelligence

Wolfgang Ratke -- used vernacular for approaching the class.

mencius -- idealistic wing of confucianism

hzun tzu -- realistic wing of confusianism

taoism -- lao tzu

Herbart spencer -- moral devt

Pestallozi -- symmetrical and harmonious devt of child

John Jacques Rosseau -- nature of child

Arnold Gesell - maturation theory

John Dewey - Learning by doing

David Froebel - Father of kinder garten

John Bowly - Attainment Theory

Edward Boro - Six Thinking Hats Theory

Auguste Comte - Father of Sociology

Carlos Linnaeus - Father of modern taxonomy.

John Amos Comencius - Fr. of modern education.

Erasmus Desiderius - Fr. of humanism/ social humanism

/>William Kilpatrick - Project method.


PART 3:

IDEALISM -- plato

REALIAM -- aristotle

EMPIRICISM -- locke

PRAGMATISM -- dewey

EXISTENTIALISM -- hegel

PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS -- moore

ESSENTIALISM -- bagley

PERENNIALISM -- hutchins

PROGRESSIVISM -- dewey

RECONSTRUCTIONALISM -- brameld

BEHAVIORISM -- skinner or watson

STRUCTURALISM -- helmholts or wundt?

FUNCTIONALISM -- james,nugell, or carr?

PURPOSIVISM -- hormic

PART 4 -ISM

NATURALISM -- only nature exist, nature is better than civilization (NATURALESA ng


isang BAGAY)

IDEALISM -- spiritual, values, moral, socratic method

REALISM -- natural world, values arenatural and absolute, reality exist


undercieved

PRAGMATISM/EXPERIMENTALISM -- practical, problem solving research, knowledge is


what works, values are related, truth is warranted assertion.

ESSENTIALISM -- 3r's (4r's ngayon), achievement test, certain knowledge&skill

s are essential for rational being.

PROGRESSIVISM -- process of development, higher level of knowledge, the child's


need and interest are relevant to curriculum.

EXISTENTIALISM -- knowledge is subjective, man shapes his being as he lives,

we are what we do, deciding precedes knowing.

PERENNIALISM -- education that last for century, universalist, knowledge is


eternally valid.

SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTIVISM -- for better society, community based learning

RECONSTRUCTUONALISM -- the school should help rebuild the social order thus social
change.

BEHAVIORISM -- learning is change in behavior, S-R relationship

EMPIRICISM -- knowledge comes thru senses, 5 senses (observatory learning)

STRUCTURALISM -- complex mental exp. such as image,feeling and sensation

FUNCTIONALISM -- focus to motivation, thinking & learning.

PURPOSIVISM -- individual hormones are responsible for the motive to strive


towards fulfillment of his/her objective.

PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS -- reality is what verifiable, truth correspondes to


reality, usage determines meaning

PART 5: REPUBLIC ACTS

9155 -- Governance of basic educ. act of 2001

6728 -- GASTPE

7722 -- creating CHED

7784 -- " " of center of excellence

7796 -- creating TESDA

6655 -- Free public secondary act of 1988

4090 -- creating a state scholarship council to intergrate, systematize, administer


and implement all program scholarships and appropriating funds.

5447 -- creation of a special educ. fund act enacted in 1968

-- organization and extension of classes

-- adding classroom to remote areas,barrios and provincial schools

6139 -- regulated

the secretarian schools/

private school in charging higher tuition fee

7687 -- science and technology scholarship act of 1994

7743 -- establishment of city and municipal libraries.

8292 -- higher educ. modernization act of 1997

6850 -- an act to grant Civil Service eligibility under certain conditions to Gov.
employees appointed under provisionap or temporary status who rendered 7 years of
efficient service

8545 -- amending RA 7628 Expanded GASTPE Act

8525 -- Adopt a school program

8491 -- Flag and Heraldic code of the Ph.

7797 -- lengthen the school prog. to 200 days and not more than 220 days

8190 -- act of granting priority to residents of the brgy. where school is located
in the appointment and assignment of school.

6972 -- act of stablishing DAY CARE CENTER FOR EVERY BRGY.

7624 -- integrating of drug prevention and control in the intermediate & secondary
curricula and indigeneous learning system

7743 -- act providing libraries and reading centers throughout the Ph.

7877 -- anti-sexual harassment act of 1995

9163 -- NSTP of 2001

6193 -- regulation of tuition fees of private educ. institution

10627 -- anti-bullyinh act of 2013

10533 -- enhance basic educ. act of 2013 (K-12 PROGRAM)

9485 -- anti-red tape act

Executive Order (E.O.) 66 -- rule of cancellation of classes due to typhoon,


flooding and other calamities.

PART 6

Philosophers

Related to Learners Development

SIGMUND FREUD -- "the mind is like an iceberg, it floats with one-seventh of its
bulk avove water.

COMPONENTS OF PERSONALITY

ID -- pleasure center

EGO -- reality center

SUPER EGO -- conscience / judgment center.

PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEV'T

ORAL -- thumb sucking, biting


ANAL -- toilet training, control of their bowel.

PHALLIC -- sexual interest, genital stimulation.

LATENCY -- sexual urges & interest were temporary

GENITAL -- adult sexual interest and activities come to dominate.

Odipus complex - son vs father towards mother/wife feelings . (excessive


attachment)(Phallic stage)

Electra complex - daugther vs mother towards father/husband feelings. (excessive


attachment)(Phallic stage)

Personality Dynamics

LIFE INSTINCT

DEATH INSTINCT

==============================

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ERIK ERICKSON -- "healthy children will not fear in their elders have integrity
enough to fear of death.

PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES of DEVT

CRISIS -- a person goes through

MALADAPTATION -- result from failure to effectivity resolve the problem

MALIGNACY -- "

VIRTUE -- emerges when balance & resolution of crisis attained.

PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY STAGES

Stage: Early Childhood (2 to 3 years)

Basic Conflict: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

Important Events: Toilet Training

Outcome: Children need to develop a sense of personal control over

physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy,


failure results in feelings of shame and doubt.

Stage: Preschool (3 to 5 years)

Basic Conflict: Initiative vs. Guilt

Important Events: Exploration


Outcome: Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment.
Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too
much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.

Stage: School Age (6 to 11 years)

Basic Conflict: Industry vs. Inferiority

Important Events: School

Outcome: Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads
to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.

Stage: Adolescence (12 to 18 years)

Basic Conflict: Identity vs. Role Confusion

Important Events: Social Relationships

Outcome: Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads
to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a
weak sense of self.

Stage: Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years)

Basic Conflict: Intimacy vs. Isolation

Important Events: Relationships

Outcome: Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other
people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness
and isolation.

Stage: Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years)

Basic Conflict: Generativity vs. Stagnation

Important Events: Work and Parenthood

Outcome: Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast

them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other
people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure
results in shallow involvement in the world.

Stage: Maturity(65 to death)

Basic Conflict: Ego Integrity vs. Despair

Important Events: Reflection on life

Outcome: Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment.
Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret,
bitterness, and despair.

==============================

=====

LEV VYGOTSKY -- "the teacher must orient his work not on yesterday's devt in the
childs but on tomorrow's.

SCAFFOLDING -- is the systematic manner of providing assistance of the learners to


effectively acquire skills.

MKO(More Knowledge Others) -- higher level of performance.

==============================

=====

JEAN PIAGET -- " the school should be creating men & women who are capable of
doing new things not simply repeating what other generation have done.

STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVT.

SENSORY MOTOR (BIRTH - 2y/o) -- infants knowledge.

PRE-OPERATIONAL ( 2-7y/o) -- pretent to play but still struggle with logic,mental


symbols interest.

CONCRETE OPERATIONAL (7-11) -- think logically, hypothetically and concepts, solve


problems

FORMAL OPERATIONAL (11-UP) -- deductive reasoning and understanding of abstract


ideas, think symbolically.

==============================

=====

LAWRENCE KOHLBERG -- "right action tends to be defined

in terms of general individual rights and standards that have been critically
examined & agreed upon by the whole society.

LEVELS OF MORAL DEVT.


PRE-CONVENTIONAL -- obidience & punishment (consequences) , individualism &
exchange

CONVENTIONAL --interpersonal relationship, maintain social order.

POST-CONVENTIONAL -- social contract and individual rights , universal principles,


set of values and beliefs.

==============================

=====

URIE BROFENBRENNER --

ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM THEORY

MICROSYSTEM -- sorroundings of individual: family, friends, neighborhood

MESOSYSTEM -- connections between context, school experiences to church experience.

EXOSYSTEM -- includes other people and places that the child herself may not
interact with often herself but that still have a large effect on her.

PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY STAGES

Stage: Early Childhood (2 to 3 years)

Basic Conflict: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

Important Events: Toilet Training

Outcome: Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills
and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results
in feelings of shame and doubt.

Stage: Preschool (3 to 5 years)

Basic Conflict: Initiative vs. Guilt

Important Events: Exploration

Outcome: Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment.
Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too
much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.

Stage: School Age (6 to 11 years)

Basic Conflict: Industry vs. Inferiority

Important Events: School

Outcome: Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads
to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.
Stage: Adolescence (12 to 18 years)

Basic Conflict: Identity vs. Role Confusion

Important Events: Social Relationships

Outcome: Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads
to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a
weak sense of self.

Stage: Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years)

Basic Conflict: Intimacy vs. Isolation

Important Events: Relationships

Outcome: Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other
people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness
and isolation.

Stage: Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years)

Basic Conflict: Generativity vs. Stagnation

Important Events: Work and Parenthood

Outcome: Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by
having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success
leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in
shallow involvement in the world.

Stage: Maturity(65 to death)

=================

filipino

Talinghagang tinumbasan ng mga bahagi ng katawan o kaya'y kilos ng tao

Buks ang palad - magaang magbitiw ng salapi; galante; hindi maramot

Kadaupang-palad- kaibigang matalik

Kumindat sa dilim - nabigo; nilubugan ng pag-asa

Lawit ang pusod - balasubas

Ligaw-tingin - torpe; hindi makapagsalita sa nais ligawan


Mababang-luha - iyakin; bawat kalungkutan ay iniiyak

Mabigat ang dugo - kinaiinisan

Magaan ang bibig - palabati; magiliw makipagkapuwa

Magaan ang kamay - magandang magbuwana mano, kung sa negosyo o sugal; mapagbuhat ng
kamay, o madaling manampal o manakit

Mahaba ang paa - nananaon sa oras ng pagkain ang pagdating o pagdalaw

Mahabang-dila - palasumbungin

Mahabang-kuko- palaumit

Mahigan ang kaluluwa - matinding galit

Mainit ang mata - malas sa panonood; nagdadala ng kamalasan kapag nagmiron sa


sugalan

Manipis ang balt- mapaghinanakit; madaling masaktan kapag sinabihan

Marumi ang noo - taong may kapintasan

May balahibo ang dila - sinungaling

May blat sa batok - malas

May bituin sa palad - masuwerte sa lahat ng bagay, lalo sa negosyo; mapapalarin

May kuko sa batok - masamang tao; di-mapagkakatiwalaan

May kurus ang dila - nagkakatotoo ang bawat sabihin

May nunal sa paa - Lays; mahilig maglagalag

May tala sa noo - babaeng ligawin o malimit suyuin ng mga lalaki

May-sungay - lalaking di-pinagtatapatan ng asawa; lalaking kinakaliwa o


pinagtataksilan ng asawa

Nakadikit ng laway - tanggalin; madaling tanggalin

/>Namuti ang mata - Nabigo sa paghihintay; hindi dumating ang hinihintay

Namuti ang talampakan - kumarimot dahil naduwag; tumakbo palayo dahil sa natakot o
naduwag.

Nasa dulo ng dila - hindi masabi-sabi; hindi matandaan, bagama't alam na alam

Naulingan ang kamay - nagnakaw; kumupit ng salapi

Puting tainga - maramot

Sa pitong kuba - paulit-ulit

Tabla ang mukha - walang kahihiyan


Taingang-kawali - nagbibingi-bingihan; kunwari'y hindi nakarinig.

Walang butas ang buto - malakas

Walang sikmura - hindi marunong mahiya

Ang tayutay ay isang sinadyang paglayo sa karaniwang paggamit ng mga salita upang
madaling maunawaan, mabisa at kaakit-akit ang pagpapahayag. Nakadaragdag ito sa
kalinawan, kapamagitan at kagandahan ng isang katha, pasalita man o pasulat.

Mga iba't ibang uri ng Tayutay

A. PAG-UUGNAY O PAGHAHAMBING

1. Simili o Pagtutulad (Simile) - nagpapakita ng pagtutulad ng dalawang magkaibang


bagay sa pamamagitan ng paggamit ng mga katagang kagaya, katulad, para, parang,
para ng, anaki'y, animo, kawangis ng, gaya ng, tila, kasing-, sing-, ga-, at iba
pang mga kauring kataga.

Halimbawa:

1. Tila yelo sa lamig ang kamay na nenenerbyos ng mang-aawit.

2. Si Menandro'y lobong nagugutom ang kahalintulad.

3. Ang kanyang kagandahan ay mistulang bituing nagninigning.


4. Ang mga tumakas ay ikinulong na parang mga sardines sa piitan.

5. Si maria na animo'y bagong pitas na rosas ay hindi napa-ibig ng mayamang


dayuhan.

6. Gaya ng maamong tupa si Jun kapag nakagalitan.

7. Tila porselana ang kutis ni Celia.

8. Ang tao ay kawangis ng Diyos.

2. Metapora o Pagwawangis (Metaphor)- tiyak na paghahambing ngunit hindi na


ginagamitan ng pangatnig. Nagpapahayag ito ng paghahambing na nakalapat sa mga
pangalan, gawain, tawag o katangian ng bagay na inihahambing. Hindi na rin ito
ginagamitan ng mga katagang kagaya, katulad at mga kauri.

Halimbawa:

1. Siya'y langit na di kayang abutin nino man.

2. Ang kanyang mga kamay ay yelong dumampi sa aking pisngi.

3. Matigas na bakal ang kamao ng boksingero.

4. Ikaw na bulaklak niring dilidili.

5. Ahas siya sa grupong iyan.

6. Ikaw ang apoy na sumusunog sa aking puso.


7. Matigas na bakal ang kamao ng boksingero.

3. Alusyon - nagbibigay - saanggunian mula sa kasaysayan, panitikan, pulitika,


bibliya at iba pang aspekto ng buhay ng tao.

Halimbawa:

1. Pinaniwala niya ang mga tao na siya ang kanilang tagapagligtas mula sa delubyo.

4. Metonimya o Pagpapalit-tawag (Metonimy) - ang isang salita o grupo ng mga salita


ay pinapalitan ng isa pang salita o grupo ng mga salita na may kaugnayan sa nais
ipahayag.

Halimbawa:

1. Ang kapalaran mo ay handog sa iyo na langit sa itaas na tinitingala ko

2. Siya ang timbangan, lakas tagahusga sa buti at sama mag-aanalisa.

3. "Sa ngalan ng Hari ay isinambulat

gayong ordeng mula sa dibdib ng sukab.

4. Ang ikalawang tahanan ng mga kabataan

5. Sinekdoke - nagbabaggit sa isang bahagi, konsepto kaisipan, upang sakupin o


tukuyin ang kabuuan.

Halimbawa:
1. Isinambulat ang order sa dibdib ng taksil.

2. Isang Rizal ang nagbuwis ng buhay alang-alang sa Inang Bayan.

3. Walang bibig ang umasa kay Romeo.

4. Hingin mo ang kaniyang kamay.

5. Hanggang sa malibing ang mga buto ko.

B. PAGLALARAWAN

1. Pagmamalabis o Eksaherasyon (Hyperbole) - Ito ay lagpalagpasang pagpapasidhi ng


kalabisan o kakulangan ng isang tao, bagay, pangyayari, kaisipan, damdamin at iba
pang katangian, kalagayan o katayuan. Ito rin ay gumagamit ng eksaherasyon

Halimbawa:

1. Pilit na binuhat ang sandaigdigan upang ang tagumpay ay kanyang makamtan.

2. Bumaha ng dugo sa kapaligiran ako ang nagwagi sa aming labanan

3. Yumuko sa akin ang sangkatauhan nang masaliksik ko ang katotohanan.

4. Namuti ang kaniyang buhok kakahintay sayo.

5. Abot langit ng pagmamahal niya sa aking kaibigan.

6. Bumabaha ng dugo sa lansangan.


7. Umuulan ng dolyar kina Pilar nang dumating si Seman.

8. Umulan ng pera sa pagtama ko sa lotto.

2. Apostrope o Pagtawag (Apostrophe) - pakikipag-usap sa karaniwang bagay na para


bang nakikipag-usap sa isang buhay na tao na malayo o isang taong parang naroon at
kaharap gayong wala naman.

Halimbawa:

1. O tukso! Layuan mo ako!

2. Kamatayan nasaan ka na? wakasan mo na ang aking kapighatian.

3. Araw,

sumikat ka na at tuyuin ang luhang dala ng kapighatian.

4. Ulan, ulan kami'y lubayan na.

5. Diyos ko, iligtas po ninyo ang aming bayan sa masamang elemento.

6. Buhay, bakit naging maramot ka sa akin.

7. Kalayaan, kay tagal kitang inasam mahawakan sa aking mga kamay.

8. Diyos Ama, ituro nyo po sa amin ang tamang daan.

3. Eksklamasyon o Pagdaramdam (Exclamation) - isang paglalabas opapahayag ng


matinding damdamin
Halimbawa:

1. Aking nadarama ang kapighatian sa pinapasan kong sobrang kalungkutan!

2. Lubos ang tuwa ko sa pagdating ninyo Mabuhay! Mabuhay! Lalaya na ako!

3. Ibigay mo sana ang pagpapala Mo, sagipin Mo Poon, malulunod ako!

4. Isa kang hanggal!

4. Paradoks - naglalahad ng salungat sa likas (o karaniwan) na kalagayan o


pangyayari.

Halimbawa:

1. Malayo ma'y malapit pa rin.

2. Kung magbangis ka ma't magsukab sa akin mahal ka ring lubha dini sa panimdim

5. Oksimoron o Pagtatambis (Oxymoron)- nagtataglay ng mga salitang nagsasalungatan


upang lalong mapatingkad ang bisa ng pagpapahayag.

Halimbawa:

1. Magsaya na kayo't ililibing ako di na makikita ng lahat sa mundo

2. Nalulungkot ako sa pananalo mo sa pagwawagi mo, hustisya'y natalo.

3. Banal na demonyo

4. Batang matanda
C. PAGSASALIN NG KATANGIAN

1. Personipikasyon o Pagsasatao (Personification) - Ginagamit ito upang bigyang-


buhay, pagtaglayin ng mga katangiang pantao - talino, gawi, kilos

ang mga bagay na walang buhay sa pamamagitan ng mga pananalitang nagsasaad ng kilos
tulad ng pandiwa, pandiwari, at pangngalang-diwa.

Halimbawa:

1. Hinalikan ako ng malamig na hangin.

2. Ang mga bituin sa langit ay kumikindat sa atin.

3. Nahiya ang buwan at nagkanlong sa ulap.

4. Sumasayaw ang mga dahon sa pag-ihip ng hangin.

5. Nagtago ang buwan sa likod ng ulap.

6. Tik-tak ng orasan ay naghahabulan

7. Masayang umihip ang hanging amihan

8. Nagalit ang buwan sa haba ng gabi.

D. PAGSASATUNOG
1. Panghihimig o Onomatopeya(Onomatopoeia) - ito ang paggamit ng mga salitang kung
ano ang tunog ay siyang kahulugan.

Halimbawa:

1. Ang lagaslas nitong batis, alatiit nitong kawayan, halumigmig nitong hangin, ay
bulong ng kalikasan.

2. Himutok na umaalingawngaw sa buong gubat.

3. Humalinghing siya sa sakit ng hagupit na tinanggap.

4. Grr-ggrrrrr!!Aww-aww! Ang galit na si Bantay ay nakatingin sa akin.

6. Himutok na umaalingawngaw sa buong gubat.

7. Kinakabog ang mga dibdib ng mga kalahok.

8. Tinataghuy-taghoy na kasindak-sindak.

2. Aliterasyon o Pag-uulit (Alliteration) - magkakasintunog ang unang patinig o


katinig ng mga kakalapit na mga salita o taludtod o saknong na nagbibigay ritmo sa
pagbigkas ng tula.

Halimbawa:

1. Magagandang maya sa puno ng mangga Makikita silang masayang-masaya


2. Dinggin mo ang Diyos na dinadakila Dibdibin ang tinig ng Poong Bathala

3. "At sa mga sulong dito'y nakasabog, nangalat, napunla, Nagsipanahan,


nangagsipamuhay, nagbato't nagkuta."

4. Gumagalang gutay-gutay na gagamba

3. Repitasyon - pag-uulit ng mga salita o parirala upang bigyang - diin ang isang
aspekto ng akda.

Halimbawa:

1. Ito nga! Ito nga! Itong nganga.

2. Saan, saan, ay saan makikita ang bayani ng bayan?

=================

filipino

Kasaysayan ng Pambansang Awit

Kasaysayan ng Pambansang Awit

Hunyo 5, 1898 kinomisyon ni Emilio Aguinaldo sa si Julian Felipe, isang kilalang


pyanista at kompositor na taga-Cavite na lumikha ng isang martsa upang mapagkaisa
ang damdamin ng mga Pilipino sa paglaban sa mga mananakop na Kastila.

Pinamagatan ni Julian Felipe ang kanyang nalikhang martsa na Marcha Filipino


Magdalo.

Hunyo 11, 1898 - itinanghal ni Felipe ang musika sa harap ni Aguinaldo at sa mga
tinyente nito.

Hunyo 12, 1898, unang tinugtog sa saliw ng bandang San Francisco de Malabon

Jose Palma- isang kawal na naglapat ng titik sa martsa na hango sa kanyang tula na
Filipinas

1920 - isinalin nina Camilo Osias at Mary A. Lane sa wikang Ingles.

1940 - nagkaroon ng maraming salin sa Filipino/Tagalog ngunit ang pinakapopular ay


ang salin nina Julian Cruz Balmaceda, Ildefonso Santos at Francisco Caballo ("O
Sintang Lupa")

1943 -Sa ilalim ni dating Presidente Jose P. Laurel, isinalin ng Surian ng Wikang
Pambansang titik ng pambansang awit sa salitang Ingles at Pilipino. "National
Ideal" ang naging pamagat nito sa Ingles at "Diwang Bayan" naman sa Pilipino.

Noong Mayo 26, 1956 unang inawit sa katutubong wika na Tagalog ang pambansang awit
ng Pilipinas, ang Lupang Hinirang

1962 - pagbabago sa liriko at ang bersyong ginagamit hanggang sa kasalukuyan

Kasaysayan ng Watawat ng Pilipinas

Kasaysayan ng Watawat ng Pilipinas

Emilio Aguinaldo - nagdesinyo ng watawat ng Pilipinas

Hongkong - sa bansang ito ginawa nina Marcela at Lorenza Agoncillo, at

Delfina Herbosa de Natividad (pamangkin ni Jose Rizal)


May 28 1898 - unang ginamit ang pambansang watawat ng Pilipinas

Hunyo 12, 1898 - iwinagayway ang watawat ng Pilipinas sa Kawit, Cavite

Puting tatsulok - sagisag ng Katipunan na sa pamamagitan ng pagsasanib

ng dugo ay nakapanghikayat sa mga Pilipino na sumama sa rebolusyon.

-pagkakapantay-pantay at kapatiran

Asul - kalayaan, katotohanan, at katarungan;

Pula - kabayanihan at kagitingan

Tatlong bituin - Luzon, Visayas (Panay) at Mindanao

Walong sinag ng araw - sumasagisag sa walong probinsyang unang nag-alsa sa Kastila:


Maynila, Cavite, Bulacan, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Laguna, at Batangas.

Mga Ipinagbabawal na paggamit sa Watawat

Ang pagbababa sa watawat sa pagbibigay ng papuri o parangal sa isang tao o bagay.

Ang paggamit sa watawat bilang kurtina, palamuti, mantel, panakip sa dingding,


istatwa at iba pang bagay; bilang banderitas sa tabi, likod, o taas ng anu mang
motor na sasakyan; bilang tatak o marka; at paggamit nito sa industriyal, komersyal
at agrikultural na disenyo o tatak.

Ang paglalagay ng watawat sa ilalim ng anumang pintura o larawan, o sa mga


sayawan, sabungan, club, casino at ibang lugar ng pasugalan.

Ang pagsusuot sa watawat, buo man o parte lamang bilang damit o uniporme.
Ang paglalagay ng anumang salita, pigura, marka, larawan, disenyo, dibuho o
anunsyo sa watawat.

Ang paggawa at paglalagay ng representasyon ng watawat sa panyo, kutson at iba


pang uri ng paninda.

Ang paglagay ng watawat sa harap ng gusali kung saan namamalagi ang mga hindi
Filipino.