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High Voltage Power Cable,

Splicing & Terminating


edited by Robert Goodman and William Osborn

3Innovation
Y TABLE OF CONTENTS
ou’re in a
demanding
industry. To be
The Technology ..................................................................... 4
successful, you need a wide
The Human Factor ................................................................ 4
range of reliable products
designed to effectively High Voltage Power Cable .................................................... 5
Types ................................................................................................................5
manage your daily processes. Components .....................................................................................................5
Conductor ..................................................................................................5
You need a supplier with a Concentric Stranding ................................................................................5
solid understanding of your Compressed Stranding ..............................................................................5
Compact Stranding....................................................................................5
industry and the technology Solid Wire .................................................................................................5
Strand Shielding ........................................................................................5
that drives it. Quite Insulation...................................................................................................6
Insulation Shield System...........................................................................6
simply, you need 3M. Our Jacket.........................................................................................................6
Preparation .......................................................................................................7
Electrical Products Division Abrasives ...................................................................................................7
Solvents .....................................................................................................7
designs and manufactures
Splicing .................................................................................. 8
a comprehensive line of
Definition .........................................................................................................8
products that can address Steps ..........................................................................................................8
Prepare Surface .........................................................................................8
your diverse applications. Join Conductors With Connector ..............................................................8
Reinsulate ..................................................................................................9
Widely recognized for our Reshield.....................................................................................................9
Rejacket...................................................................................................10
innovation, reliability and
global corporate strength, Terminations ........................................................................ 11
Stress Control.................................................................................................11
3M has the products and Geometric ................................................................................................12
Capacitive................................................................................................12
services you need and the External Leakage Insulation ..........................................................................12
Seal to the Environment .................................................................................13
name you trust.

2
Introduction

F
rom our earliest endeavors with tapes, adhesives and abrasive minerals over a half-century ago,
3M has grown to worldwide recognition in vital technologies. 3M sales offices, laboratories
and manufacturing plants in a hundred countries research and develop products that meet the
world’s needs. Investments in the hundreds of millions of dollars are made each year in the search for
better answers that combine dependability with usability.

3
THE TECHNOLOGY
Our laboratory understanding of O involvement with CONNECTING
TAPE TECHNOLOGY forwards TECHNOLOGY has generated a top
the effort to create useful, effective performing line of connectors that are
products across a wide range of UL listed for the majority of known
electrical needs. crimping tools with means greater
convenience for the installer.

2
Our experience with modern
5
RUBBER TECHNOLOGY has
developed a “cold shrink” family of
products with the features electricians
ask for.
THE HUMAN FACTOR
Products are only as good as the
people who create them. Teams of
3M chemists, engineers, designers and
toxicologists, along with manufac-
turing, quality control, sales and
distribution people are intent upon
the established reputation for high
quality, problem-solving products
made for people.
3
Our chemical expertise with RESIN
TECHNOLOGY has evolved into
an ever-growing series of efficient,
remarkably self-contained electrical
products.

For this reason, each 3M product 7


contains “human engineering.”
Products designed to be not only
durable and cost effective, but to
work smoothly as they’re applied,
6 to perform efficiently in installer’s
hands. Products that work for the
people who need them. It’s a vital
combination of Technology...and the
Human Factor.
4

4
HIGH VOLTAGE POWER CABLE
HIGH VOLTAGE HIGH VOLTAGE Compact Stranding
CABLE TYPES CABLE COMPONENTS Compacted to 90% of concentric
conductor diameters. Although this
Of the nearly limitless variety of Conductor conductor has full ampacity ratings,
cables in use today, five of the most The current carrying components. the general rule for sizing is to
common are: Made of copper or aluminum (less consider it one conductor size smaller
• Tape shielded expensive but less efficient...requiring than concentric or compressed. This
• Drain wire shielded a larger conductor diameter to carry an reduced conductor size results in all
• BICC UniShield® equal electrical load when compared of the cable’s layers proportionally
• Concentric Neutral (CN) to copper conductor). reduced in a diameter, a consideration
• Jacketed Concentric Neutral (JCN) Conductor used with modern solid when sizing for molded rubber
dielectric cables come in four basic devices.
configurations:

Concentric Stranding
(Class B)
Not commonly used in modern
shielded power cables due to the
penetration of the extruded strand
shielding between the conductor
strands, making the strand shield
difficult to remove during field cable
8 preparation.
Beyond cable shield types, two
common configurations are used: 13
• Single conductor...consisting of one Solid Wire
conductor per cable or three cables This conductor is not commonly used
for a three-phase system. in industrial shielded power cables.
• Three conductor...consisting of three
cables sharing a common jacket.

11
Compressed Stranding
(common conductor configuration)
Compressed to 97% of concentric
conductor diameters. This compres-
sion of the conductor strands blocks 14
9 the penetration of an extruded strand Strand Shielding
Despite these visible differences, all shield, thereby making it easily The semi-conductive layer between
power cables are essentially the same, removable in the field. For sizing lugs conductor and insulation which
consisting of: and connectors, sizes remain the same compensates for air voids that exist
• Conductor as with the concentric stranding. between conductor and insulation.
• Strand shield Air is a poor insulation, having a
• Insulation nominal dielectric strength of only
• Insulation shield system 76 volts per mil, while most cable
(semi-con & metallic) insulation have dielectric strengths
• Jacket. over 700 volts/mil. Without strand
Each component is vital to an optimally shielding an electrical potential exists
performing power cable and must that will over-stress these air voids.
be understood in order to make a As air breaks down or ionizes, it
dependable splice or termination. goes into corona (partial discharges).
This forms ozone which chemically
Strand
Jacket Semi-
Shielding deteriorates cable insulation. The
conductor
semi-conductive strand shielding
Conductor 12 eliminates this potential by simply
“shorting out” the air.

Metallic Insulation 10
Shield
5
HIGH VOLTAGE POWER CABLE
Modern cables are generally Each is preferred for different Insulation Shield System
constructed with an extruded strand properties such as superior strength, The outer shielding which is com-
shield. flexibility, temperature resistance, etc. prised of two conductive components:
(Reference: AEIC NO. 5, D. Semicon- depending upon the cable characteristics a semi-conductive layer (semi-con)
ducting Shielding.) required.The selection of the cable
insulation level to be used in a
particular installation shall be made
on the basis of the applicable phase-
to-phase voltage and the general
system category as outlined below.

a. 100 Percent Level - Cables in this


category may be applied where
the system is provided with relay
protection such that ground faults
will be cleared as rapidly as possi-
ble, but in any case within one 18

15 minute. While these cables are


applicable to the great majority of
Insulation. the cable installations which are
on grounded systems, they may
be used also on other systems for
which the application of cable is
acceptable provided the above
clearing requirements are met in
completely deenergizing the faulted
section.

b. 133 Percent Level - This insulation


level corresponds to that formerly
designated for ungrounded systems. 19

16 Cables in this category may be


A third layer consisting of many applied in situations where the under a metallic layer (see cable types
different variations such as extruded clearing time requirements of the for common shield varieties). The
solid dielectric, or laminar (oil paper 100 percent level category cannot principal functions of the insulation
or varnish cambric). Its function is to be met, and yet there is adequate shield system are to:
contain the voltage within the cable assurance that the faulted section 1. Confine the dielectric field within
will be de-energized in a time not the cable
exceeding one hour. Also, they may 2. Obtain a symmetrical radial
be used when additional insulation distribution of voltage stress within
strength over the 100 percent level the dielectric
category is desirable. 3. Protect the cable from induced
potentials
c. 173 Percent Level - Cables in 4. Limit radio interference
this category should be applied on 5. Reduce the hazard of shock
systems where the time required 6. Provide a ground path for leakage
to de-energize a grounded section and fault currents.
is indefinite. Their use is recom-
mended also for resonant grounded The SHIELD MUST BE GROUNDED
17
systems. Consult the manufacturer for the cable to perform these
system. The most common solid for insulation thicknesses. functions.
dielectric insulations in industrial use
today are: (Reference: AEIC No. 5 Reprinted with
• polyethylene permission)
• cross-linked polyethylene (XLP)
• ethylene proplyene rubber (EPR)

6
HIGH VOLTAGE POWER CABLE
HIGH VOLTAGE CABLE Abrasives.
PREPARATION Research has proven a 120-grit to be
optimum...fine enough for the high
It is necessary to begin with a good voltage interface and yet coarse enough
cable end. For this reason it is to remove semi-con residue without
common practice to cut off a portion “loading up” the abrasive cloth.
of cable after pulling to assure an
undamaged end. A key to good cable
20
preparation is the use of sharp, high
The semi-conductive component is quality tools.
available either as a tape or as an
extruded layer. (Some cables have an
additional layer painted on between
the semi-con and the cable insulation.)
Its function is similar to strand
shielding: to eliminate the problem of
22
air voids between the insulation and
26
metallic component (in this case the When the various layers are removed,
metallic shielding). In effect, it “shorts cuts should extend only partially The abrasive must have a non-
out” the air that underlies metallic through the layer. For example, conducting grit. DO NOT use emery
shield, preventing corona and its when removing cable insulation, the cloth or any other abrasive that contains
resultant ozone damage.
conductive particles since these could
The metallic shield is the current
embed themselves into the cable
carrying component that allows the
insulation. When using an insulation
insulation shield system to perform
diameter dependent device (e.g. molded
the functions mentioned earlier. This
rubber devices), care must be taken
is the layer where various cables types
not to abrade the insulation below the
d most. Therefore, most cables are 23
minimum specified for the device.
named after their metallic shield (e.g. installer must be careful not to cut
tape shielded, drain wire shielded, completely through and damage the Solvents.
UniShield®, etc.). conductor strands. Specialized tools It is recommended that a non-
Shield type (cable identification) are available to aid in the removal of flammable cable cleaning solvent be
thus becomes important information the various cable layers. used. Any solvent that leaves a residue
to know when selecting devices for
should be avoided. DO NOT use
splicing and terminating.
excessive amounts of solvent as this
can saturate the semi-con layer and
Jacket
render them non-conductive. Know
The tough outer covering for
your solvent. Avoid toxic solvents
mechanical protection as well as
which are hazardous to health.
moisture barrier. Often the jacket serves
as both an outer covering and the semi-
conductive component of the insulation
shield system, combining two cable 24
layers into one...the semi-conductive Another good technique for removing
jacket. Typical materials used for cable polyethylene cable insulation is to use
jackets are PVC, neoprene, lead, etc. a string as the cutting tool.
Frequently industrial three conductor
cables have additional protection in the
form of an armor layer.

27

25
When penciling is required (not
normally necessary for molded rubber
devices), a full, smooth taper is necessary
to eliminate the possibility of air voids.
It is necessary to completely remove
the semi-conductive layer(s) and the
resulting residue. Two methods are
21 commonly used to remove the residue:
abrasives and solvent.
7
SPLICING
Cable preparation materials are SPLICING STEPS
available which contain solvent
saturated rags appropriately filled with The previously quoted definition
the proper quantity of non-flammable, accurately develops five common
non-toxic cable cleaning solvent. steps in building a splice:
These kits also contain a 120-grit non- 1. Prepare surface
conductive abrasive cloth. 2. Join conductors with connector(s)
3. Reinsulate
4. Reshield
5. Rejacket
Prepared for tape splice 30
It should be recognized that the
greatest assurance against splice
failure remains with the person who
makes the splice. Adequate cable
preparation, proper installation of all
28
After the cable surfaces have been components and good workmanship
cleaned, the recommended practice require trained skills performed by
is to reverse wrap (adhesive side out) people adept at them. Much has been
a layer of vinyl tape to maintain the done in the last few years to develop
cleanliness of the cable. products and systems that make splic-
ing easier. Yet the expertise, skills and 31
Prepared for pre-molded splice
care of the installer are still necessary
SPLICING to make a dependable splice.
DO NOT USE mechanical type
Definition: connectors (e.g. split-bolts). Connector
A splice may be considered as two 1. Prepare the surface.
High quality products usually include selection is based on conductor
or more conductors joined with a suitable material: copper or aluminum.
connector...reinsulated, reshielded and detailed installation instructions.
rejacketed with compatible materials... These instructions should be followed.
A suggested technique is to check off Aluminum conductor
applied over a properly prepared surface. Connect with aluminum-bodied
Whenever possible, splicing is steps as they are completed. Good
instructions alone do not qualify a connector (marked CU/AL). These
normally avoided. However splicing is must come pre-loaded with contact
often an economic necessity. There can person as a “cable splicer.” Certain
manufacturers offer “hands-on” aid (anti-oxide paste) to break down
be many reasons for building splices the insulating aluminum oxide coating
such as: training programs designed to teach
proper installation of their products. on both the connector and conductor
• The supplied length of cable is not surfaces.
sufficient to perform the intended job... It is highly recommended that
... only so much cable can be inexperienced splice and termination
installers take advantage of such Copper conductor
wound on a reel (reel ends) Connect with either copper or
... only so much cable can be pulled programs where available.
aluminum bodied connectors.
through so much conduit, around so It is recommended that a UL
many bends, etc. listed connector be used that can be
• Cable failures applied with any common crimping
• Cables damaged after installation tool. This connector should be tested
• A tap into an existing cable (tee or and approved for use at high voltage.
wye splices) In this way, the choice of the high
In all the above cases, the option is to voltage connector is at the discretion
either splice the cable or replace the of the user, and is not limited by the
entire length. The economy of modern tools available.
splicing products in many cases makes
splicing an optimal choice. 29
Whatever the reason to splice, good
practice dictates that splices have the 2. Join conductors with connector
same rating as the cable. In this way After the cables are completely
the splice does not derate the cable prepared, the rebuilding process
and become the weak link in the begins. If a cold shrink or premolded
system. splice is being installed, the appro-
priate splice components must be slid
onto the cable(s) before the connection
is made. The first step is reconstructing
the conductor with a suitable 32
connector. A suitable connector
for high voltage cable splices is a
compression or crimp type.
8
SPLICING
3. Reinsulate. Most molded rubber splices use shield currents, a jumper braid is
Perhaps the most commonly recog- EPR as the reinsulation material. This installed to connect the cables metallic
nized method for reinsulating is the EPR must be cured during the mold- shields. This jumper must have an
traditional tape method. The most ing process. Either a peroxide cure or ampacity rating equal to that of the
versatile approach, tape, is not depen- a sulfur cure can be used. Peroxide cables’ shields.
dent upon cable types and dimensions. cures develop a rubber with maximum
Tape has a history of dependable service flexibility (for easy installation on
and is generally available. However, a wide range of cable) and most
wrapping tape on a high voltage cable importantly, provides an excellent
can be time consuming and error long-term live memory for lasting,
prone since the careful build-up of more reliable splices.
tape requires accurate half-lapping (Reference: IEEE paper Cat. 76 CH 119-
and constant tension in order to reduce 7-PWR “Effect of Curing Agents on Long
build-in air voids. Technology has term Permanent Set of Molded Rubber
Devices” by R.D. Erickson and P.N. 37
Nelson, 3M Company) For a cold shrink or rubber molded
splice, conductive rubber is used to
4. Reshield. replace the cable’s strand shielding
The cable’s two shielding systems and the semi-conductive portion of
(strand shield and insulation shield the insulation shield system. Again,
system) must be rebuilt when the metallic shield portion must be
constructing a splice. The same two jumpered with a metallic component
methods are used as outlined in the of equal ampacity.
reinsulation process: tape and molded
33 rubber.
For a tape splice, the cable strand
made available linerless splicing tapes. shielding is replaced by a semicon-
These tapes reduce both application ductive tape. This tape is wrapped
time and error. Studies have shown time over the connector area to smooth the
savings of 30% to 50% are possible crimp indents and connector edges.
since there is no need to stop during
taping to tear off liner. This also allows 38
the splicer to maintain a constant tape
tension, thus reducing the possibility of A desirable design parameter of
taped-in voids. Tape splice kits which a molded rubber splice is that it be
contain all the necessary tapes along installable without special installation
with proper instructions are available. tools. To accomplish this, very short
These versatile kits assure that the electrical interfaces are required.
proper materials are available at the job, These interfaces are attained through
and make an ideal emergency splice kit. p design shapes of the conductive
35
rubber electrodes.
The insulation shielding system is
replaced by a combination of tapes.
Semi-con is replaced with the same
semi-conducting tape used to replace
the strand shield.

39

34
Another method for reinsulating
utilizes molded rubber technology.
These factory-made splices are
36
designed to be human engineered
for the convenience of the installer. The cable’s metallic shield is
In many cases these splices are also generally replaced with a flexible
factory tested and designed to be woven mesh of tin plated copper
installed without the use of special braid. This braid is for electrostatic
installation tools. shielding only, and not designed to
carry shield currents. For conducting
9
SPLICING TERMINATIONS
(Reference: IEEE Std 48-1975. Quoted “A Class 2 Termination is one that
with permission as follows:) provides only (1) and (2): some form
“This standard supersedes IEEE Std of electric stress control for the cable
48-1962 Standard for Potheads. (Note: insulation shield terminus and com-
Current standard is IEEE Std. 48- plete external leakage insulation, but
1990) “The superseded document no seal against external elements.
encompassed only the pothead, a Terminations fall into this classifi-
40 cable termination designed primarily cation would be, for example, stress
for cables having laminated insula- cones with rain shields or special
Laboratory field plotting techniques tion, and which sealed the end of a
show that the optimum design can outdoor insulation added to give
cable and provided insulation egress
be obtained using a combination of for the conductor or conductors. complete leakage insulation, but
“A considerable increase in the use no seal against external elements.
of cables having extruded insulation Terminations falling into this
has occurred since the issuance of classification would be, for example
IEEE Std 48-1962 and has encouraged stress cones with rain shields or
the development of new types of cable special outdoor insulation added to
terminations. As a consequence, there give complete leakage insulation,
41 are available today many types of and the more recently introduced
logarithmic and radial shapes. cable termination designed primarily slip-on terminations for cables
5. Rejacket. for cables having extruded insulation having extruded insulation when not
Rejacketing is accomplished in a tape which perform some, or all, of the providing a seal as in Class 1.
splice by using a combination of the functions of a pothead but which
rubber splicing tape overwrapped with cannot be classified as such. “A Class 3 Termination is one that
a vinyl tape. “This standard encompasses all provides only: (1) some form of
(with one exception) terminations electric stress control for the cable
for alternating-current high-voltage insulation shield terminus. This class
cables having laminated or extruded of terminations would be for use
insula-tion: conventional potheads, primarily indoors. Typically, this
factory reassembled terminations, would include hand-wrapped stress
hand-wound tape and pennant stress cones (tapes or pennants), and the
cones, slip-on terminations and stress slip-on stress cones.
cones, resistance graded terminations, “Some Class 1 and Class 2
42 etc. The only exception is separable Terminations have external leakage
In molded rubber splice, rejacketing i made of polymeric material.
is accomplished by proper design of the insulated connectors, a special type of
high-voltage cable termination which It is recognized that there is some
outer semi-conductive rubber, effectively concern about the ability of such
resulting in a semi-conductive jacket. is covered by another standard.
“In order to categorize the various insulation to withstand weathering,
When a molded rubber splice is used ultraviolet radiation, contamination
on internally shielded cable (such as tape types of terminations so that distinc-
tions may be made, the terminations and leakage currents, and that a test
shield, drain wire shield or UniShield® capable of evaluating the various
cables), a shield adapter is used to seal the have been classified according to what
they provide. materials would be desirable. There
opening that results between the splice are available today a number of test
and cable jacket. procedures for this purpose. However,
As a general summary, for the “A Class I High-Voltage Cable
Termination (or more simply, a Class none of them has been recognized and
versatility to handle practically any adopted by the industry as a standard.
splicing emergency, or for those situations I Termination) provides: (1) some
form of electric stress control for the Consequently, this standard cannot
where only a few splices need to be made, and does not include such a test.”
or when little detail is known about the cable insulation shield terminus, (2)
complete external leakage insulation These IEEE Classes make no
cable, the most effective splice is made provision for “indoor” or “outdoor”
with tape or a tape kit. between the high-voltage conductor(s)
and ground, and (3) a seal to prevent environments. This is because
For those times when cable size, contamination and moisture can be
insulation diameter and shielding type the entrance of the external environ-
ment into the cable and to maintain highly prevalent inside most industrial
are known and when numerous splices facilities (such as paper plants, steel
will be made, use molded rubber the pressure, if any, within the cable
system. This classification encom- mills, petro-chemical plants, etc.).
splices for dependability and simplicity
passes the conventional potheads As a general recommendation, if
as well as quick application.
for which the original IEEE Std there are airborn contaminates, or fail-
48-1962 was written. With this new safe power requirements are critical,
classif-ication or designation the term use a Class 1 termination.
pothead is henceforth dropped from
usage in favor of Class 1 Termination.
43

10
TERMINATIONS
STRESS CONTROL material to be applied in the termina-
tion. The particular length required is
In a continuous shielded cable the determined by the operating voltage
electric field is uniform along the and the properties of the insulating
cable axis and there is variation in materials. This removal of a portion of
the field only in a radial section. This the shield results in a discontinuity in
is illustrated in Figures 44 and 45 the axial geometry of the cable, with
the result being that the electrical field 49
is no longer uniform axially along the
cable, but exhibits variations in three
dimensions.

50
44

47
which show the field distribution over
such a radial section. The spacing Figure 47 shows the electric field in
of the electric flux lines and the the vicinity of the shield discontinuity.
correspond-ing equipotential lines is The electric flux lines originating
closer in the vicinity of the conductor along the conductor are seen to
than at the shield, indicating a higher converge on the end of the shield,
electric stress on the insulation at the with the attendant close spacing of 51
conductor. This stress increase, or
concentration, is a direct result of the 2. Capacitive Stress Control
geometry of the conductor and shield This method consists of a material
in the cable section and is accommo- possessing a high dielectric constant
dated in practical cables by insulation (K), generally in the range of K 30
thickness sufficient to keep the stress and also a high dielectric strength.
within acceptable values.
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT = K:
48 A MEASUREMENT OF THE ABILITY OF
A MATERIAL TO STORE A CHARGE.
the equipotential lines signifying the
presence of high electric stresses in
MATERIAL K
this area. This stress concentration is
AIR 1
of much greater magnitude than that
CABLE INSULATION 3
occurring near the conductor in the
130 C TAPE 3
continuous cable, and as a result steps
HIGH K MATERIAL 30
must be taken to reduce the stresses
45 occurring near the end of the shield
This K is generally an order of
if cable insulation failure is to be
magnitude higher than the cable
avoided.
In terminating a shielded cable, it insulation. Located at the end of
All terminations must at least
is necessary to remove the shield to a the shield cut-back, the material
provide stress control. This stress
point some distance from the exposed capacitively changes the voltage
control may be accomplished by two
distribution in the electrical field
commonly used methods:
surrounding the shield terminus.
Lines of electrical flux are regulated
1. Geometric Stress Control
to equalize the electrical stresses in
This method involves an extension
a controlled manner along the entire
of the shielding (figure 49) which
area where the shielding has been
expands the diameter at which the
removed. (Figures 52 and 53)
terminating discontinuity occurs
46 and thereby reduces the stress at the
discontinuity. It also reduces stresses by
conductor as shown in Figure 46. enlarging the radius of the shield end at
This is to secure a sufficient length of the discontinuity. (Figures 50 and 51).
insulation surface to prevent break-
down along the interface between the
cable insulation and the insulating

11
TERMINATIONS
CLASS BIL Both contamination (dust, salt, airborn
(kV) (kV-crest particles, etc.) and moisture (humidity,
5.0 75 condensation, mist, etc.) will decrease
8.7 95 this resistance. This results in surface
15 110 discharges referred to as tracking. In
25 150 an industrial environment it is difficult
34.5 200 to prevent these conditions. Therefore
52 46 250 a track resistant insulator must be used
69 350 to prevent failure.
A high performance Class 1
termination is built with properly
designed insulator skirts which are
sized and shaped to form breaks in
the moisture/contamination path, thus
reducing the probability of tracking
problems. Also, such skirt design
53 can reduce the physical length of a
termination by geometrically locating
By changing the electrical field sur- V the creepage distance over the
rounding the termination, the stress convolutions of the insulator, a
concentration is reduced from several factor when space is a consideration.
hundred volts per mil to values found Good termination design dictates
in continuous cable - usually less than that the insulator be efficiently applied
50 volts/mil at rated cable voltage. under normal field conditions. This
(Reference: for a detailed technical expla- means the product should be applied
nation see “High Dielectric Constant
by hand with a minimum of steps,
Materials for Primary Voltage Cable
Termination” by P.N. Nelson and H.C.
56 parts and pieces. Preferably, no special
Hervig, 3M Company.) installation tools or heat should be
Terminations can be subjected to necessary.
flashovers such as lightning induced Because they are inorganic
surges or switching surges. A good materials and do not form carbon
termination must be designed to (conductive) residues, both porcelain
survive these surges. Terminations and silicone are considered the best in
are assigned a BIL (Basic Lightning track resistance.
Impulse Insulation Level) according (Reference: IEEE paper Cat. 76-CH
to their insulation class (see IEEE Std 119-7 PWR “Contamination Testing of
48.) As an example, a 15 kV class Distribution Class Cable Terminations”
termination has a BIL rating of 110 by L.A. Johnson and W.C. Osborn, 3M
54 kV-crest. Company and “Accelerated Environment
Terminations are also Testing of Distribution Class Silicone
subjected to tracking. Tracking can be Terminations” by H.C. Hervig, 3M
EXTERNAL LEAKAGE defined as the process that produces Company.
INSULATION localized deterioration on the surface
This insulation must provide two of the insulator, resulting in the loss of
functions: protection from flashover i function by the formation of
damage and protection from tracking a conductive path on the surface.
damage. A termination can be considered
an insulator, having a voltage drop
between the high voltage conductor
and shield. As such, there develops a
leakage current between these points.
The magnitude of this leakage is
inversely proportional to the resistance
on the insulation surface. Fig. 56

55
INSULATION

12
TERMINATIONS
SEAL TO THE For further information or copies of
references contact
EXTERNAL
ENVIRONMENT 3M Electrical Markets Division
In order to qualify as a Class 1 P.O. Box 2963
Termination, the termination must Austin, TX 78769-2963
provide a seal to the external 512-984-5000
environment. Both the conductor/lug
area and the shielding cut-back area
must be sealed. These seals keep
moisture out of the cable to prevent
degradation of the cable components.
Several methods are used to make
these seals such as: factory-made
seals, tape seals (silicone tape must
be used for a top seal), and compound
seals. Fig. 57

57

All terminations are normally


grounded. However, individual
circumstances can exist where it is
not desirable to ground both ends of
the cable. The cable shield MUST BE
grounded somewhere in the system.
When using solid dielectric cables,
it is recommended that solderless
ground connections be used (elimi-
nating the danger of over-heating
cable insulation when soldering).
As a general summary, for highly
contaminated and exposed environ-
ments or on extremely critical circuits,
porcelain or silicone rubber termin-
ations are preferred.
For potentially contaminated,
moisture-prone areas...most likely
the majority of cases...silicone
rubber provides dependable Class 1
terminations.

13
In your business, innovative solutions,

technology and reliability are essential.

3M delivers that and more.

We have the power of a diversified,

global manufacturer with more than

60,000 products in our line; a reputation

for technical excellence and innovation;

and employees committed to delivering

quality products and service to you,

our valued customer. Our capability

doesn’t stop with electrical products, it

starts there. To explore the many ways

we can serve you, contact your 3M

representative today.


Caution: Working around energized high-voltage systems may cause serious injury or death. Installation should
be performed by personnel familiar with good safety practice in handling high-voltage electrical equipment.
De-energize and ground all electrical systems before installing product.

3M is a trademark of 3M. Used under license in Canada.


UniShield is a registered trademark of General Cable
Technologies Corporation.

Important Notice Warranty; Limited Remedy; Limited Liability.


Before using this product, you must evaluate it and determine if it 3M’s product warranty is stated in its Product Literature
is suitable for your intended application. You assume all risks and available upon request. 3M MAKES NO OTHER WARRANTIES
liability associated with such use. INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
If this product is defective within the warranty period stated above,
your exclusive remedy shall be, at 3M's option, to replace or repair
the 3M product or refund the purchase price of the 3M product.
Except where prohibited by law, 3M will not be liable for any loss
or damage arising from this 3M product, whether direct, indirect,
special, incidental or consequential regardless of the legal
theory asserted.
3
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