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A dissertation submitted to the HNB Garhwal university, Shrinagar,

Garhwal, in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the -

Award of the degree of Master of Science (M.Sc.) degree in zoology

SUBMITTED BY:- Shubham kumar

M.Sc. 4th Semester

ZOOLOGY (2015-2017)


(Affiliated to HNB Garhwal university, SHRINAGAR)

Supervisor:- Assisted by:-

Dr. Pooja Arora Dr. S.C. Dhiman

H.O.D. Department of Zoology Associate Professor
K.L.D.A.V.(P.G.) COLLEGE, Deptt. of Zoology, M.S. college,
ROORKEE (U.K.) Saharanpur (U. P.)


I hereby declare that the work herein now submitted as a thesis for master
of science degree to the HNB Garhwal University, Shrinagar is the results of my
investigations and that no previous submission for a degree has been done
here or elsewhere. Works by others which served as a source of information
has been duly acknowledged by reference to the authors.


(Student) (Supervisor)


(selection of topic)


1. Introduction 6

2. Objectives 13

3. Review of literature 15

4. Method and material 18

5. Result 20

6. Conclusion 33

7. References 34


I am extremely obliged to Dr. Pooja Arora, H.O.D. Department of zoology,

K.L.D.A.V.(P.G.) College, Roorkee for consistent guidance and encouragement and

to Dr. S.C. Dhiman Associate professor. Department of zoology, M.S. College,

Saharanpur for selecting me for this burning problem and helping me a lot.

I pay my thanks to the principal

*M.S. College, Saharanpur for providing me laboratory facilities generously.

My parents deserve special thanks who not only provided

funds for this project but also gave me affection and consistent encouragement

for my studies. Really, I cannot pay my debt throughout my life.


M.Sc. 4thsem.


K.L.D.A.V.(P.G.) College,

Roorkee (U. K.)






Environment is the manifestation of combined actions of several

components of human life that are intricately interconnected, in addition to

natural components. These include physical, biological, cultural, social and

economic components of late, the realization of interrelationship between the

human health, environmental pollution and developmental imperatives has led

to growing awareness about the detrimental aspects of both industrial

development and environmental pollution. Energy store is being turned to

solve the problem of environmental pollution through better environmental

management techniques with rapid deterioration of environmental quality,

realization that these components have limited assimilation and supportive

capacities is now being accepted. Industrial and economic development of the

part are now being reviewed against adverse environmental effects. More

important is the realization that natural environmental resources of air, water,

soil, plant and animal life constitute the material capital on which man

depends to satisfy his needs and achieve his aspirations of development.

Effective management of these resources has demanded positive and realistic

planning that would balance the human needs against the potential the

environment has for meeting them. Major component of planning and

consequent implementation lie under the control of various state Govt. agencies

which in turn are coordinated by central Govt. bodies.

On January 27, 1994 MEF has brought out the notification under the

environment (protection) Act 1986 making environmental clearance mandatory

for expansion and modernization of any activity if pollution load is to exceed

existing one and also for new project. The notification was amended in May,

1994. However, EIA notification no. 1533 (1) dated 14 September 2006

replaces the 1994 notification.

Things around the organism constitute its environment. It has direct

influence on the environment are factors which cannot be separated from

each other. A balanced environment consists of various component in a

definite ratio and proportion which, if disturbed either due to the addition of

any undesirable factors or loss of some useful component, leads to pollution.

Environmental pollution can be best defined as, Environmental pollution is

the unfavourable alteration of our surroundings, wholly or largely as a by

product of mans actions, through direct or indirect effects of changes in

energy pattern, radiation levels, chemical and physical constitution and the

abundance of organisms.

Urbanization and industrialization have made our life more comfortable,

undoubtedly but have affected the natural environment, harmed the natural

resources and have made them polluted. We are worried now, not just by

wars and fanatic violence but by the air we breathe, the water we drink, the

food we eat and even the safety of evening walk. Modernization has

influenced the nature at every aspect. Due to this man is facing the problems

of environmental pollution, with increase population. Pollution is an

undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of our

air, water and land that may or will harmfully affect human life, industrial

progress, living condition and cultural assets.

Air pollution can by defined as per prevention and control pollution,

Amendment Act 1987-

Any solid, liquid or gaseous substance (including noise) present in the

atmosphere in such a concentration as may be or tend to be injurious to

human being or other living creature or plants or property or environment.

Due to rapid industrialization it has become difficult to find clean air (Table-

1) due to various pollutant which enter in aerial environment. They originate

from manufacturing processes, power generation, transport emission, chemical

processing, domestic activities, agricultural operations, forest fires and a variety

of other sources and events etc.

Table -1:- composition of clean air

Constituents formula Concentration in

Nitrogen N2 78.0840

Oxygen O2 20.9460

Argon Ar 0.9334

Carbon di oxide CO2 0.0315

Neon Ne 0.0018

Helium He 0.52

Methane CH4 1.5

Krypton Kr 1.0

Nitrous oxide N 2O 0.3

Ozone O3 0.01-0.15

Sulphur di oxide SO2 0.002-0.008

Carbon mono oxide CO 0.1

Hydrogen sulphide H2S 0.0002

Many kinds of pollutants are responsible for air pollution. These are -

1. Gaseous pollutants such as CO, CO2, SO2, Hydrogen peroxide, chlorine,

oxides of nitrogen, ozone, NH3, aldehydes, H2S, hydrocarbons (hexane,

benzene, ethylene, methane, butane, butadiene), mercury vapours,

arsines and carbonyl chloride.

2. Particulate pollutants are in the form of solids or liquids. The former

includes dust smoke, fumes, flash etc. and the later include mist and

spray. About fifty percent of these particulate pollutants comes from

transportation means.

The air pollution is responsible for increase in earth temperature

leading to global warming and affecting the flora and fauna of our

beautiful blue - green planet. Hence, globally now a days efforts are made

to save our only environment in which we live and to maintain its

natural composition. We have seen already in India, Bhopal tragedy due

to methyl isocyanide gas leak in atmosphere killing hundreds of people

and affecting many mores. Many plants are helpful in preserving and

purifying the environment particularly air. Hence, in view of this efforts

have been made in this dissertation to describe Environment (air)

purifying plants.

Such studies will arm the environmentalist to save our environment

so that human generation and other life on earth grow continues.

Compound leaf

Simple leaf



Following objectives are kept into mind to undertake present investigations:-

1. Fossil fuel burning in thermal power plants, industries, automobile

exhaust, chemicals, pesticides and insecticides, dumping of household

and industrial wastes emitting CH4, H2S, CO2, and other gases and

even rocket launching etc. are causing air pollution day by day

deforestation, forest fires also causes air pollution.

2. This air pollution is responsible in depletion of ozone layer, making

hole in ozone layer and global warming which causes unpredictable

weather, low agricultural productivity. Furthermore, ozone holes

permits ultraviolet rays to come on earth causing cancers of skin

and depleting plant foliage and many other diseases.

3. Hence, there is a dire need to save our only environment so that

our planet earth remains always habitable for man and other

organisms and plants.

4. Plants provides vital air (O2) for respiration of man plants itself. Not

only this, these maintains O2 and CO2 level in atmosphere.

5. There are many plants which reduces air pollution by absorbing SO 2,

H2S, CO2, CH4, dust, smoke (carbon particles).

6. In view of this present research has been conducted to find out

Indian origin plants which helps in purifying air up to some extent.

By planting these trees and preventing their cutting we will help in

air purifying, because we cannot survive without pure air having

normal O2 level.



The importance of trees in human environment is now widely recognized

that they too cleanse the particulate as well as gaseous air pollution and help

to make villages and cities more agreeable places to mitigate the environment

pollution. Planting of trees and shrub for abatement of pollution and

improvement of environment is an effective way and well recognized

throughout the world. Proper planning and planting schemes depend upon the

magnitude and type of pollution, selection of pollution tolerant and dust and

harmful gases absorbing trees and shrubs.

Plants are driven of solar energy, self-reproducing and concentrate,

detoxifying pollutant. The ability of plants to clean up dispersed ambient

pollutant has been confirmed in a number of studies conducted time to time

(Hill, 1971, Okano, Simonich and Hites, 1994, 1995, Pacala

2001, Singh, 2013). Plants are natural monitor and detoxifier devices of toxic

pollutant in our ambient environment while adding value to our building,

landscapes and communities for the pollutants released in the environment.

Only the plant care only the hopes which can move up the pollutant by

absorbing and metabolizing them from the atmosphere. Therefore, the plants

role In pollution control has been recognized in recent years. Various studies

have been carried out on the role of plants in checking air pollution time to

time. Among these prominent authors are-

Kumar (2008 a and 2008 b), S. Ramesh kumar (2013), De Braak (1991)

Gilhooley (2002) Vohr (1994), Orwell (2006), Relf (1996), Wilkins

(2000), Wolverton (1997), Wood (2006), Kent (2007), Singh (2013),

Agarwal and Sharma (1980), Karthiyayani (2005), Dwivedi and Tripathi

(2007), Aglnaire and Esiefarienrhe (2009), Tripathi and Tiwari (2009), Agbaire

(2009), Das and Prasad (2010), Jyothi and Jaya (2010), Begum and Harikrishna

(2010), Kuddus (2011), (2012), Sarala and Maheshwari

(2012), Mahecha (2013), Tanee and Albert (2013), Esfahani et. al. (2013),

Rai (2013), Bhattacharya, Sharma, Buchchi babu (2013), Khureshi (2013), Veni et. al. (2014), Agawanand and Tiwari (2014),

Mitulkotecha (2014), Pathak and Tomar (2015), Nayak et.el. (2015),

Pandey (2015).

The main air pollutant are represented by gases forms, particles in

suspension, different ionizing radiation and noise. The gases forms are oxidized

and reduced forms of carbon (CO2, CO, CH4),SO2, O3, C6H6 vapours, Hg, volatile

phenols Cl2etc.Particulate forms are- PM10 and PM2.5 particulate matter, heavy

metals with toxic effects (Pb, Ni, Cd, As), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ,

PAN etc. Most of the sources of air pollution are related to mans activities as

a result of modern life style. Harmful effects of pollution have both acute and

chronic effects on human health such as minor irritation of eyes and the

upper respiratory system to chronic respiratory diseases, heart diseases, lung

cancer and death. In the womb it may cause neurological problems, incomplete

mental development, autism and brain damage, in adult Parkinsons disease,

multiple sclerosis, Alzheimers disease, heart disease and even death.

Greenhouse effect induce global warming, ozone depletion is another result of

pollution. Since, last few decades scientist made studies on the pollution level

to warn the mankind. In this regard some other studies are conducted by Ali

(1993), Badrinath (2007), Bandhu (2000), Bhaskar and Mehta

(2010), Cacciola (2002), Cavanaugh (2008), Chakre (2006), CPCB (2010),

Fisher et. al. (2007), Flanagan (1980), Gavali (2002), Grantz

(2003), Johanson (2009), Kapoor (2013), Lalitha (2013), Liu (2012), Miria and khan (2013), Morani (2011), Nayak (2011),

Nowak (2006), Pant and Harrison (2013), Prazapati and Tripathi (2008),

Radhapriya (2012), Ram (2014), Rawat and Banerjee (1996), Samara and

voutsa (2005), Saxena and Ghosh (2013), Sharma and Tripathi (2009), Sharma (2005), Singh (1991), Tewari (1994), Tomasevic (2004), Turk

and Wirth (1975), Verma (2003), William and Banerjee (1995), Yang

(2005), Paz-Alberto and Sigua (2013), Papinchak and Holcomb(2009), Garrec

(2008), Innes (1990), Mankovaska (1997), Moses (1996), Mudd and Kozlowski

(1975), Sharma and Roy (1999), Otchere (2008).

Thus, various ecologists, toxicologists, chemists, zoologists and botanistsmade

extensive studies time to time to mention the rateof plantsin checking air

pollution up to some extent. In present study, effort has made to describe the

role of indigenous air purifying plants of district Haridwar in reduction of

environmental (air) pollution. These studies will open the door for further

research on this aspect.



A big survey was made to record the presence of air purifying plants in

district Haridwar and surrounding areas. These plants were identified by S.K.

upadhyay (Rtd. Taxonomists) M.S. college Saharanpur. Photographs of some of

some of the plants were also taken. The leaves of the plants were plucked

and collected in polythene bags and brought to laboratory for examination of

APTI level. While selecting the species for pollution control following

characteristics were considered:-

Plants should be evergreen, large leaves, low water requirement, minimum

care, capacity of high absorption of pollutant, pollutant resistant, agro climatic

suitability, height and spread, canopy architecture, growth rate and habit,

aesthetic effect, dust scavenging capacity.

For determination of Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI), Singh and Rao

method was used. In it four different parameters considered from leaf extract

such as pH, ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll and relative water contents.

The APTI was calculated by using the following formula (Singh and Rao,


APTI = [A(T+P)+R]/10

Where A = Ascorbic acid (mg/g dry wt.)

T = Total chlorophyll (mg / gm. Dry wt.)

P = pH of leaf extract

R = Relative water content of leaf tissue (%)

Based on the APTI value, the plants were conveniently grouped as follows

(Kalyani and Singaracharya, 1995).

30 100 Tolerant

29 17 Intermediate

16 - 1 Sensitive

Less than one very sensitive

Different types of leaves tend to have differences in several aspects of their

surface. Some types of leaves have greater surface rigidity or roughness than

other leaves which may affect their sticknen or particles solubility stickier leaves

are better for collecting particles because more particles would stick to their

surface. Therefore, certain plant leaves may be more useful for efficient dust

capturing than other plant. Thus, various morphological features are also major

factors for capturing by leaves. The crown area of plant is depending upon the

morphological features of the leaf. Removal capabilities of various plants is

calculated by gm./m2 .

Two laboratories are used for present studies for finding out APTI index of

plants. Theseare Entomological Research laboratory and Research lab. of Botany

department, M.S. College, Saharanpur. Plants leaves extract was prepared and

analyzed for total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and relative water content. Data are

recorded are presented in tables. 1 & 2.



Actually, air pollution is a broad term which covers lots of different types of

problems. They are automobile exhaust (emission), acid rain, domestic and

industrial smoke, smog, green house effect, particulate radionuclides and ozone

layer depletion.

Plant species selected as a air purifying for pollution control :-

Air purifying plants are selected for present studies with following

characteristics. Plants should be evergreen, large leaved, rough bark, indigenous,

ecological compatible, having low water requirement, minimum care, capacity

of high absorption of pollutant, resistant to pollutant, suitable to agro climate,

spreading property, canopy architecture, good growth rate, easily availability,

availability in nurseries, good looking and attractive, dust trapping property and

having medicinal properties also. Selected plants are :-

1. Neem (Azadirachta indica) A. Juss:- The neem tree has been referred as an

air purifier. It is found throughout India including Uttrakhand. In Roorkee

its trees are in good number. In villages it is grown in front of chopals

and houses. People use its delical branch as toothstick, leaves when

bursthave mosquitoes repellent properties. This isused to treat sweet itch and

mud fever in horses. Neem use as a fertilizer. Leaves of Neem tree boiled in

the water can be used as a bird repellant, especially for sparrows. Dried leaves

are kept in containers to prevent pest attack. Neem leaves absorbs some

of the environmental pollutant (SO2, CO etc.) and act as an air fresher by

releasing oxygen and odorous particles. Neem trees growing along road

sides and highly polluted areas are not affected by various gases. It has a

greater ability to adapt to stress from exposure to air pollution. Neem is

tolerant to most soil types including dry, stony, shallow soils, sandy soils,

lateritic crusts and clays. With an extensive and deep root system, the hardy

neem can grow and flourish even in marginal and leached soils. It is one of the

few shade giving trees that thrive in the drought prone areas. The trees

are not at all delicate about the water quality and can thrive well on the

merest trickle of water.

2. Ficus religiosa Linn. (Peepal tree) :- it is a pious tree grow in temples and

along road side having a good canopy. It is also a important forest tree. Its

leaves are smooth. Pious hindus used to irrigate it on Saturday and also tied

on its stem ( trunk ) by a thread. It is resistant to gaseous pollutant. The

leaves of it are known to emit a lot of oxygen into the environment, even

during night. It can be used as biomarkers and mitigators of pollutant coming

out of automobiles exhaust. Its root hold soil and helps in checking soil

erosion. In Bhagwatgeeta Shrikrishna while teaching Arjuna, said that among

trees I am a Peepal tree. It is grown also along road side along highways as an

air purifier tree.

3. Ficus bengalhensis Linn. (Bargad tree) :- it is evergreen tree. Its life span is

very long ( thousand of years ) due to its rooting properties. It has large

canopy and gives good shade. It is called Banyan tree. Its leaves are large and

trap particulate matter. Its leaves can absorbs SO2, CO and other gases. Hence,

it has good air purifier property. It is a forest tree, grown in villages, temples

and along road sides. It also helps in removing automobile exhaust from air. In

Culcutta garden ( Botanical ), several thousands years old Banyan tree exists.

4. Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Sheesham tree) :- Higher chlorophyll content in plants

favors tolerant to pollutants. Ascorbic acid is an antioxidant that is found in

growing parts of the plant and influences resistant to adverse environmental

conditions including air pollution. It has good potential for removing heavy

metals from industrial and commercial waste water. Dalbergia sissoo is an ideal

tree species to monitor and indicate the Pb concentration in air. The leaves

absorbs gaseous air pollutant also such as (SO2, CH4, CO ).

It has high APTI and is grown in successfully in areas of air pollution, poor

drainage, compacted soil, sandy soil, hilly stony soil etc., but it is not a salt

tolerant. Its wood is durable and strong, used in furniture industries. It is used

as a wind break and shelter belt and as shade tree in intercropping of

orchards, mango tree and coffee plantation. It has extensive branching root

system, hence, used for erosion control and soil stabilization along stream

and river banks. It is planted for reforestation as well as along road side. It

increase soil fertility through nitrogen fixation and is intercropped for these

reason as well. It is planted on the edge of crop fields as well as in gardens.

5. Mangifera indica Linn. (Mango tree) :- it is a popular fruit tree (Horticultural)

grown for its delicious mangoes fruits. It has good canopy and provide shade. It is

grown in orchards as well as in kitchen gardens. Its leaves are elongated and trap

air pollutant particulate matter as well as gaseous pollutant such as SO 2, CH4 etc.

its wood is used in furniture industries as well as in fire wood. In Uttrakhand and

U.P., its dried wood is used in havan ceremonies because it emits less smoke.

Besides this, its stem bark also trap dust and other particulate pollutants. It also

emits good O2 in atmosphere, acts as good air purifier.

6. Butea monosperma (Dhak or Taysu) :- it is a small or medium sized tree which

is highly ornamental when in flowers which are of bright red or orange colour.

A large number of very useful products are obtained from this plant. Different

parts of the plant are of medicinal value. A yellow or orange coloured dye is

obtained from the flowers (petals) which is largely used during holy festival. A

decoction of flowers is used to keep out the white ants from the fields. It is also a

good host for lac insects. It provides gum which is known as Bengal Kino is

collected from the incisions made in the bark. Its leaves are used in making

Pattals and Donnas and also in wrapping parcels. Leaves are used as fodder for

cattle and elephants. Seeds are antihelminthic and used as antidote for snake

bite. Gum is given in diarrhoea and dysentry. Broad leaves trap particulate

pollutants from the air. The leaves absorbs SO2, CO2 and other injurious gases.

The plant is a good air cleaner.

7. Alstonia scholaris:- This is commonly called Satian tree or Saptparni. It is an

ornamental tree. Its flowers giving beautiful smelling. Wood is light and is used

for making pencils, tea boxes, and also used for coffins. In Burma it is largely used

for making blackboards and hence, the name of the species. The bark is used as a

medicine in chronic diarrhoea and in dysentry. The latex is applied in ulcers,

mixed in oil, used in earache. It gives good shade. Hence, planted in good

number along road side. Leaves absorb automobile exhaust (smoke particles,

SO2, CO etc.). Particulate matter stick to the leaves.

8. Cassia fistula (Amaltas) :- it is a medium sized tree which is highly ornamental

when in flowers producing bright yellow flowers during summer months April to

July. The bark is used in dyeing and tanning. The wood is very durable. The

branches yield good fodder. The root bark, seeds and leaves are used as a

laxative. The fruits are cathartic and are applied in rheumatism and snake bite.

The juice of leaves is used in skin diseases. The leaves trap particulate matter and

particles. Leaves also absorbs exhaust gases such as SO2, CO as well as CH4 . it is a

good air purifier and the tree is planted in gardens as well as along roadside.

9. Ocimum sanctum (Holy basil, Krishna Tulsi) :- it is a branched, 1 to 2 feet in

height herb. It is largely cultivated by pious Hindu thought as one of the sacred

plants. The juice of the leaves is diaphoretic and is used in catarrh and

bronchitis. It is dropped in the ear as a remedy for earache. The infusion of

leaves use as a stomachic in gastric disorders of the children and in hepatic

affections. The seeds are given in the disorders of the gastro-urinary system. The

root is given in decoction in malarial fever. The fresh roots, stems and leaves are

crushed and are applied in bites of mosquitoes. The plant is used as an antidote

for snake bite and scorpion sting. The plant is a good air purifier and cleanse air

from toxic gases such as SO2, CO, and also remove dust and smoke particles

from air. Kumar (2008 a and b) also reported its air purifying property and

removes from air SO2,CO, CO2 and Pb. They mention in the reduction of pollution

level where tulsi plant were planted in good number.

10. Acacia arabica (Babul or Kikar) :- It found throughout north India in plains as

well as in desert area of Rajasthan and Gujarat. It is spiny medium sized tree with

dark brown bark, flowering during rainy month from July to September. Its

flowers are very beautiful yellow in colour and leaves are compound. Young

branches with leaves and fruits are eaten by camels and cattle. The plants yields

gum which is used medicinally in diarrhoea, dysentry and diabetes. After fry, gum

is used in making pajories which is given to mothers who gave birth to young

babies. The barks is astringent and is also used in tanning. The dried powder of

bark along with rapeseed oil is applied in burns and erruptions. The barks trap

dust and particulate matter from air. The leaves absorbs pollutants gases from

air such as SO2, H2S, CO, CO2 and carbon particles. Hence, it is also a good air


11. Tamarindus indica Linn. :-It is called Imli tree. It is used for plantation on road

side. It has been found that tamarind fruit shells both in natural and acid treated

forms are excellent biosorbents for the removal of chromium ions. The twigs and

branches of tamarind are very resistant to wind, making it speciallyuseful as a

shade or street tree for freezy locations. The compound leaves also absorbs

pollutant speciallyharmful gases.

12. Thevetia nerrifolia Juss :- It has been recommended for growing along road sides

in areas polluted by automobile emission. The tree is very popular and can be

found in every homestead. It is a tough, drought and termite resistant species

with a high rate of survival.

13. Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. :- it is having a good canopy. Its leaves are rough

and hairy. Which help in retaining the dust and particulate matter. Har Singar

flowers bear beautiful smell. The dye yield by flowers is used to colour rice

preparations. Decoction of leaves is used in Sciatica.

14. Aloe vera (Gheekumari) :-The plants are shrub by xerophytes with succulent

leaves, extremely common in deserts. The leaves are cut and the juice thus

obtained is reoperated to give a drug called aloes. The plant is stomachic,

purgative, anthelmintics and given in piles and rectal fissures. The dried juice is

cooling and given in fevers. The pulp is given in menstrual suppression. The root

is used in colic. The root absorbs air pollutant particulate matter which comes on

land during raining. Leaves also absorb some harmful gases.

15. Aegle marmelos (Bael) :- The tree is planted in garden as well as in orchards

and in temples etc. The pulp of fruits is laxative and mixed with water and sugar

makes a very good sharbat which had very cooling effect. The mucus of Shells is

used as an adhesive. It rich in antioxidants which inactivates the free radicals or

makes them less active and thus guards against reactive oxygen species . The

leaves are supposed to be sacred and are offered to lord Shiva on Monday in the

month of shravan. The leaves are also used as fodder. The root bark is given in

intermittent fever. The leaves also absorb air pollutant such as SO2, CO, CO2 etc.

and trap particulate matter.

16. Ficus elastica (Indian Rubber Tree) :-It is large beautiful tree with a dense crown

of dark green foliage and spreading branches, reach upto the height of 120 feet

with numerous aerial root. It is commercial source of natural rubber. The tree

also valued for shade and ornament. The stem and main branches trapped for

latex. The thick leaves trap dust and other particulate matter form air and also

absorb air pollutant and help in cleaning air.

17. Curcuma longa (Turmeric or Haldi) :- The plant is perennial herb, 2 - 3 feet high

with short aerial stems, tufted leaves and thick tuberous rhizome. These are

largely cultivated for the sale of these tuberous rhizome which yield the turmeric

powder of commerce which is used as colouring matter (dye) and as condiment.

Turmeric is an auspicious articles in all religious ceremonies in Hindu. It is also

used for dyeing wool, silk, and other threads or clothes. It is used as colouring

matter in pharmacy, confectionary and food industry. It is used as stomachic,

tonic and blood purifier. Mixed in warm milk , it is beneficial in common cold.

Juice of fresh rhizome is used as antiparasitic for many skin diseases. Paste mixed

with alkali is used to applied in joint pains. Dried powder has antiseptic property.

A small dose acts as carminative, stomachic and appetizer. Broad and long leaves

trap particulate matter from air and root absorb from soil heavy metals. Thus it is

a good air and soil cleaner.

18. Terminalia arjuna (Arjun tree) :- It is grown in moist soil and is oneof the long

tree to shed its leaves. The leaves are generally plucked for fodder. The treeis 60

to 80 feet in height. The tree is large, evergreen with a spreading crown. Its barks

is deeply cracked. The leaves are glabrous, medium sized. Flowers are small and

greenish white. It is grown in cities and town for the purpose of shade, grown in

India throughout plains and low hills. The wood is used in furniture, cabinet

work, boat building etc. It is resistant to white ants and fungi. The bark powder is

used in cardio vascular diseases, it control B.P., maintain of health of heart. The

tree not only provide shade but also provide high O2 and absorb CO2 and CO and

other gases.

19. Opuntia (Prickly Pear) :- Various species are very ornamental and often grown

in form of hedges. They are baked and given in whooping cough. The latex is

used as purgative.When made into pulp, applied in the eyes in opthalmia. The

plant is an antidote in snake bite. The plant show extreme xerophytic characters

such as reduction of transpiring surface. The plants have anti pollutant properties

as these absorb heavy metals form soils and polluted air from environment.

20. Psidium guajava (Guava or Amrood) :- The plant is indigenous of tropical

South America and was brought into country by Portuguese. It is largely

cultivated in all parts of country for edible fruits. The fruit is a laxative and very

rich in vitamin-C, along with vitamin A & G. The bark of root as well as leaves

usedas decoction for diarrhoea. The unripe fruits after backing are eaten along

with salt in cough. Guava tree trunk trap dust and other particulate matter and

leaves provide good shade and absorb CO2, CO and even SO2 up to some extent.

21. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (Gudhal) :- The plant is chief cultivated as an ornamental

plant and it is a native of china. In china the dye made from crushed flower is

used for colouring hair, eyebrows, food and liquors. The beautiful flowers are

aphrodisiac. The decoction of flowers is given in bronchitis, catarrh and the

leaves are laxative, when grown in good number, the plants acts as air purifier

and emits good O2, absorb CO2, CO and some other gases such as H2S, SO2.




Vegetation naturally clean the atmosphere by absorbing gases and some

particulate matter through leaves and bark. Plants have very large surface area and

their leaves function as an efficient pollutant device. Plants have classified according

to their degree of sensitivity and tolerance towards various air pollutant. Sensitive

plant species act as bio indicator. Levels of air pollution tolerance vary from species

to species, depending on the capacity of plants to withstand effect of pollutants

without showing any external damage. The present study is useful for the better

understanding and management of air quality as well as in selection of suitable plant

species having high to APTI for plantation in industrial areas as well as on road side.

APTI ( Air pollution tolerance index ) was determined according to the method

suggested by Singh and Rao (1983) as described in the chapter of method and

material. The APTI value response of different plants is mentioned in the following

table :-

Table showing plant species for their air pollution tolerance index (APTI)


Azadirachta indica 7.5 6.0 17.5 55 31

Ficus religiosa 15.1 8.1 5.1 90 21

Ficus bengalhensis 14.21 8.1 4.90 90 21

Mangifera indica 8.3 7.4 8.1 75 19

Butea monosperma 8.6 7.9 8.2 71 18

Alstonia scholaris 11.2 9.1 8.5 85 19

Cassia fistula 7.8 8.2 7.9 72 17

Ocimum sanctum 8.6 7.9 8.1 71 16

Acacia arabica 4.6 7.0 6.0 78 15

Tamarind indicus 8.1 7.1 6.9 81 17

Thevetia nerrifolia 5.6 6.2 6.3 71 14

Nyctanthes arbortristis 6.1 7.1 6.2 76 15

Aloe vera 5.6 6.1 5.9 80 16

Aegle marmelos 5.1 7.6 6.1 75 17

Ficus elastica 7.1 8.2 8.1 85 20

Curcuma longa 4.6 6.5 7.2 70 14

Terminalia arjuna 5.1 6.2 7.9 76 16

Opuntia 4.6 5.6 6.1 69 14

Psidium guajava 7.2 6.5 7.8 75 18

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis 6.8 5.9 7.0 74 17

The effect of air pollutant on trees varies according to season. Present studies are

carried out during summer months March to May. Based on APTI value the plants

are conveniently grouped as :-

25 100 Tolerant

16 24 Intermediate

15 - 1Sensitive

Less than one very sensitive

Thus, Azadirachta indica having 31.0 high tolerance. The Ficus religiosa, Ficus

bengalhensis, Mangifera indica, Butea monosperma, Alstonia scholaris, Cassia

fistula, Ocimum sanctum, Tamarind indica, Aloevera, Aegle marmelos, Ficus

elastica, Terminalia arjuna, Psidium guajava, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis have moderate

tolerance, 16 21. Thevetia nerrifolia, Curcuma longa and Nyctanthes arbortristis

as well as Opuntia are intermediate tolerance.

Dust removing capacities of various plant species was also calculated in gm./m2 .

Among the plants studies, Ficus bengalhensis (30.5 %), Ficus religiosa (28.5%),

Azadirachta indica (26.2 %), Thevetia nerrifolia (15 %), Aegle marmelos (18%),

Psidium guajava (17%) have dust removing and particulate matter removing

properties. Minimum 10 15 % particulate matter removing property was observed

with Curcuma longa, Aloevera, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and Ocimum sanctum. The

results form a basis for the selection of tolerance species fit for sites continuously

exposed to elevated levels of particulate pollutants.



The importance of trees in any environment specially in urban is now widely

recognized because they too cleanse the gaseous as well as particulate matter from

air and provides environment for the living of man and other animals. Trees such

Neem, Peepal, Bargad, Bael, Alstonia, Sheesham (Dalbergia sissoo), Kikar, Arjun and

Amaltas are suggested to be planted along road side and in empty spaces. The study

concluded that judicious placement of plants in pollutant areas can reduce the

pollution. Further, present studies recommends various tree species for planting in

pollution affected areas as well as trees for urban planning. A wider range of

indigenous as well as exotic tree species can be explored for controlling air born

pollution in Industrial areas and urban climate.



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Mangifera indica Cassia fistula

Curcuma longa Butea monosperma


Nyctanthes arbor-tristis