You are on page 1of 7

60 60 Pass 3

Pass 2 Pass 2
Pass 3
SH OP TA L K

1 /2 Flux Core
There is a wire or filler metal on the mar-
/16
1
ket now that is flux core, which eliminates the need for a
1 /16
purge for some applications.
Pass 1 Pass 1
0 to 3/16 0 to 3/16
Aluminum Backup No Backup

A without excessive buildup on the back side. Make up a test


Flat Position weld in 316- to 3 8-inch aluminum plate, Fig. 19-40 (p. 624).
Prepare two specimens sectioned from the test plate for
With backup 1/8 to 3/16 root
Same as at Left
Pass 1 bend testing, as instructed in Fig. 19-41, page 624.
opening.
Without backup 3/16 to 1/8 Pass 3 The specimens must bend 180 without cracking or
Pass 2
root opening. fracturing in a fixture, as specified in Fig. 19-42, page 625.
1 /2 The hydraulic guided-bend test fixture shown in
/16
1 Fig. 19-43, page 625 can be made in the school. The hy-
draulic jack and pressure gauge will need to be purchased.
Pass 3
Bending the specimens in a fixture of this kind ensures
Pass 1 100
C
full control of the testing situation and provides a uniform
Vertical Position test procedure for all specimens tested. Students have
Same as at Left /16
1 complete confidence in the procedure.
Pass 1 Land
Pass 2 Carbon and Stainless Steel
Pass 2 Practice: Jobs 19-J8J19
70 to 90
/16
1
In welding carbon and stainless steel, follow much the
Land same procedure that you followed in the welding of alu-
/2
1 minum. Excess melt-through is a problem because it is
70 to 90 Pass 3
harder to control when welding steel than when welding
B D
aluminum. Use a 332- to 316-inch root opening for the steel
Horizontal Position Overhead Position and stainless steel, as compared to the tight fit used for
aluminum. This will allow better control over the amount
Fig. 19-39 Sequence of weld passes for groove welds in (A)flat, of melt-through. The larger aluminum pool makes it eas-
(B) horizontal, (C) vertical, and (D) overhead positions inheavy
ier to judge when the weld pool is about to fall through.
aluminum plate.
The steel weld pool is about half as large as the aluminum
pool. A copper or ceramic backup strip prevents exces-
torch forward, and add filler rod when you see that the sive penetration. It may be necessary to heat the copper
pool is about to fall through. Do not start the weld at the backup before beginning the weld. This method is used
edge of the plate. Fill the crater hole at the finish of the for welder certification when excess melt-through is a
weld with the technique described earlier. The alumi- cause for failure.
num oxide needs to be removed from the groove face, When welding stainless steel, you will notice that the
groove floor, and the weld area on the front and back pool seems to stay in the same place until you move the
side of the joint. torch. You will have to push the weld pool with the torch.
Practice making both single- and multiple-pass groove Other than this, the welding technique is not much different
welds. Figure 19-39 shows the sequence of passes for mul- from that used for carbon steel or aluminum.
tipass welds in heavy plate for each position of welding. Stainless steel requires less heat than aluminum. The
tungsten electrode should be tapered. The choice of the
Inspection and Testing Practice making butt joints until filler rod size is crucial. If the rod diameter is too large, it
you are satisfied with their general appearance and there will soak up a good deal of heat and make welding more
is evidence that you are getting complete penetration difficult.

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 19-J1J19 (Plate) Chapter 19 623
Face Bend Root Bend
Specimen Specimen
Discard

2
Discard
13/4
Weld
.
Min
13/4 10
Plate to /8 Thick
3
Side Bend Discard
2
Specimen
Hold for
Saw Cut Further Testing

2
Discard 5 /8
Weld
.
Min
10
/8
3
2
Plate /8 and More
3 Hold for
Inches Thick Further Testing

Fig. 19-40 Test plates for groove welds in aluminum.

6 Min. 6 Min.
Plate Pipe Plate Pipe

11/2 11/2

T T T T


T R = 1/8 Max.
T R = 1/8 Max.

Face Bend Specimen Root Bend Specimen

Fig. 19-41 Shapes of face- and root-bend specimens.

Back purging with an inert gas is required when weld- on the part of the welder. The adding of filler rod must
ing stainless steel to prevent the root side of the joint be timed perfectly, or the weld pool will overheat and
from being contaminated. If the back side is exposed to excess will melt through.
the atmosphere, it will be severely oxidized; this is often Groove welds in stainless steel are made with exactly
referred to as sugaring. Back purging is not generally re- the same technique as groove welds in carbon steel, ex-
quired on aluminum and steel. cept for the slower travel speed. A dark purplish or pur-
Distortion is greater in stainless steels than in alu- plish-blue bead with hardly noticeable ripples indicates
minum and carbon steel. Proper clamping and tacking too much heat.
techniques are very important. Numerous tack welds
placed close together will help control distortion to a Inspection and Testing Practice the jobs listed in the
degree. Although travel speed can be increased by in- Job Outline (in the order shown), p. 614, for each type
creasing the heat setting, high heat requires great skill of metal. When you are satisfied with their appearance

624 Chapter 19 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 19-J1J19 (Plate)
As Seal Weld
Re
qu See Note 10
ed ire
q uir d
Re
As
/
3 4

/
3 4
6/
3 4
A
.
in. Min
1
/2
1 /4 C
2M 3 Manual PAC
2 This Edge
11/8 / R
3 4

/
3 4 1
/8 B /
3 4 Manual
PAC- 1
2
51/2
/
3 4 11/8 D
1 /8 1B
1 /8 1/2
2
ke 1/2
Yo 7
9 1A 1A
37/ 3 11/2
8

Inch Millimeter
Shoulders hardened and greased, or preferably hardened 1
16 1.6
rollers 11/2 dia. May be substituted for jig shoulders.
1
8 3.2
Fig. 19-42 Guided-bend test jig for aluminum 1
4 6.4
specimens. 1
2 12.7
1 25.4

Notes:
1. All dimensions U.S. customary unless otherwise specified.
2.10 ga.18 ga. thickness aluminum material. Optional choice of thickness within range
specified.
3.The welder shall prepare a bill of materials in U.S. customary units of measure prior to
cutting.
4. The welder shall convert the above bill of materials to S.I. metric units of measure.
5. All parts may be mechanically cut or machine PAC unless specified manual PAC.
6. All welds with the GTAW process.
7. Fit and tack entire assembly on bench before welding.
8. All welding done in position according to drawing orientation.
9. Employ boxing technique where applicable.
10. Melt-through not required.
11. Use WPS B2.1.015 for aluminum (M22 or P-22).
12. Use WPS AWS-5-GTAW for aluminum (M-23).
13. Visual examination in accordance with the requirements of AWS QC10, Table 1.

Fig. 19-44 GTAW aluminum workmanship performance qualification.


Source: AWS QC 10

and are getting good penetration and fusion on all types


of joints, make up the usual test plates and test the spec-
imen in the usual manner.
Fig. 19-43 Hydraulic guided-bend test fixture. An aluminum test Figures 19-44 through 19-46 discuss qualifications in
coupon is being bent in the jig shown in Fig. 19-42. welding workmanship (pp. 625627).

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 19-J1J19 (Plate) Chapter 19 625
Seal Weld
1 /8 See Notes 10 and 12

/8
1

1 /8
1 /8
6

11
1D 6 313/16 1E See Note 8

2 2
2
Manual PAC
Seal Weld This Edge 2
See Note 10 6
1F 1/2 TYP 2
1C
1B

1A 5 1 /8 2-4
8 Seal Weld
1 /8 2-4 See Notes 10 and 13

Inch Millimeter
1
16 1.6
1
8 3.2
1
4 6.4
1
2 12.7
1 25.4

Notes:
1. All dimensions U.S. customary unless otherwise specified.
2. 10 ga.18 ga. thickness plain carbon steel material. Optional choice of thickness within range specified.
3.The welder shall prepare a bill of materials in U.S. customary units of measure prior to cutting.
4. The welder shall convert the above bill of materials to S.I. metric units of measure.
5. All parts may be mechanically cut or machine PAC unless specified manual PAC.
6. All welds GTAW.
7. Fit and tack entire assembly on bench before attaching to positioning fixture arm.
8. Attach 2 in. 2 in. extension tab of part 1E to positioning fixture arm. All welding done in position according to drawing orientation.
9. Employ boxing technique where applicable.
10. Melt-through not required.
11. Use WPS B2.1-008.
12. Weld joins Parts 1C and 1D to 1E.
13. Weld joins Parts 1C and 1E to 1A.
14. Visual examination in accordance with the requirements of AWS QC10, Table 1.

Fig. 19-45 GTAW plain carbon steel workmanship performance qualification. Source: AWS QC 10

626 Chapter 19 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 19-J1J19 (Plate)
Seal Weld
See Note 10
/8
1

1/8

6 1 /8 1-2
1 /8 1-2

11/2 1C
Manual PAC
This Edge
2

Seal Weld Manual


See Note 10 PAC- 1 2 6

1B 1D 1 /2 TYP 2

1A
3
1A
6

Inch Millimeter
1
16 1.6
1
8 3.2
1
4 6.4
1
2 12.7
1 25.4

Notes:
1. All dimensions U.S. customary unless otherwise specified.
2. 10 ga.18 ga. thickness stainless-steel material. Optional choice of thickness within range specified.
3. The welder shall prepare a bill of materials in U.S. customary units of measure prior to cutting.
4. The welder shall convert the above bill of materials to S.I. metric units of measure.
5. All parts may be mechanically cut or machine PAC unless specified manual PAC.
6. All welds GTAW.
7. Fit and tack entire assembly on bench before welding.
8. All welding done in position according to drawing orientation.
9. Employ boxing technique where applicable.
10. Melt-through not required.
11. Use WPS B2.1.009.
12. Visual examination in accordance with the requirements of AWS QC10, Table 1.

Fig. 19-46 GTAW stainless-steel workmanship performance qualification. Source: AWS QC10

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 19-J1J19 (Plate) Chapter 19 627
CHAPTER 19 REVIEW

Multiple Choice 9. In the GTAW process hydrogen is the best shielding


Choose the letter of the correct answer. gas. (Obj. 19-4)
a. True
1. Which of the following metals can be welded with
b. False
the GTAW process? (Obj. 19-1)
a. Titanium 10. What shade lens is recommended for GTAW with
b. Aluminum 125 amps? (Obj. 19-5)
c. Steel a. 6
d. All of these b. 8
c. 10
2. Aluminum should never be welded using alternating
d. None of these
current with stabilization. (Obj. 19-1)
a. True 11. Arc wandering can be caused by ______.
b. False (Obj.19-6)
a. A current setting that is too high
3. What is the proper torch angle for GTAW once the
b. An electrode that is not contaminated
weld pool is established and a weld is being made?
c. Welding on nonmagnetic metals
(Obj. 19-2)
d. Drafts in the work area
a. 90 from the surface of the base metal
b. 75 from the surface of the base metal 12. Problems that will cause the tungsten to contami-
c. 15 from a line perpendicular to the base metal nate the workpiece are ______. (Obj. 19-6)
d. Both b and c a. Scratch starting the arc
b. The electrode melting and becoming an inclu-
4. What is the proper filler rod angle for GTAW?
sion in the base metal
(Obj. 19-2)
c. Shattering of the electrode due to thermal
a. 15 from the surface of the base metal
shock
b. 75 from a line perpendicular to the base metal
d. All of these
c. 45 from the surface of the base metal
d. Both a and b 13. Which method should be followed in breaking
the arc to stop welding and fill the crater?
5. Only certain types of joints can be welded with the
(Obj.19-7)
GTAW process. (Obj. 19-3)
a. Move the torch slower until the weld pool gets
a. True
larger
b. False
b. Backtrack the bead slightly before breaking the
6. Materials less than what inch thickness are best arc
welded with the GTAW process? (Obj. 19-3) c. Shorten the arc quickly and do not add any more
a. " filler rod
b. " d. Both a and b
c. 18"
14. To control distortion when welding stainless
d. All of these
steel, use more tack welds closer together, and
7. A setup procedure for the GTAW equipment must provide for more jigs and fixtures to hold this metal.
be followed, as the process requires precision weld- (Obj. 19-7)
ing techniques. (Obj. 19-4) a. True
a. True b. False
b. False
15. Why is direct current electrode negative so popular
8. Which of the following GTAW arc starting methods with the GTAW process? (Obj. 19-7)
will produce the least chance of tungsten contami- a. Cleaning action
nation? (Obj. 19-4) b. Tungsten runs hotter
a. Lift arc c. Faster welding speed
b. Scratch d. None of these
c. High frequency
16. When making fillet welds on lap and T-joints, the
d. Both a and c
weld pool must be observed so that the notch is

628 Chapter 19 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 19-J1J19 (Plate)
filled in the entire length of the joint for joint root 20. List four aluminum welding techniques used in weld
penetration to be achieved. (Obj. 19-8) sequencing for distortion control. (Obj.19-2)
a. True 21. Explain the method that should be followed in
b. False breaking the arc to stop welding. (Obj. 19-2)
17. What test methods can be used to examine T-joints? 22. Name and explain the various starting methods.
(Obj. 19-8) (Obj. 19-2)
a. Tensile pull test 23. List some of the different compositions that make
b. Etch test up metal backup bars. Identify typical weld joints
c. Hardness test that can use backup and how to place the bar in the
d. All of these weld zone. (Obj. 19-3)
18. What test method can be used to examine butt 24. List five factors that affect welding technique in
joints? (Obj. 19-8) controlling distortion in aluminum. (Obj. 19-5)
a. Bend test (face, root, and side bends)
25. List eight safety precautions required for GTAW.
b. Etch test
(Obj. 19-5)
c. Hardness test
d. Both a and c 26. List four causes of arc wandering. (Obj. 19-6)
27. Give two reasons why direct current electrode nega-
Review Questions tive is recommended for welding stainless steel.
Write the answers in your own words. (Obj. 19-8)
19. What are the proper filler rod and torch angles for 28. Why is it necessary to provide more jigs and fix-
gas tungsten arc welding? (Obj. 19-1) tures when welding stainless steel? (Obj. 19-8)

INTERNET ACTIVITIES

Internet Activity A
Using your favorite search engine, look up GTAW and report your findings.
Internet Activity B
Find a supply store on the Internet and make a list of items you would need to
complete GTAW jobs.

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 19-J1J19 (Plate) Chapter 19 629