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Chapter 16: Magnetism


1. Made up of iron/cobalt/nickel/steel (iron and carbon)

2. Magnets attract magnetic material and it creates magnetic forces of attraction
3. Magnets is surrounded by a magnetic field
4. Any magnetic material that is placed in the field will be attracted by the magnet

Magnetic field

1. Magnetic fields = area surrounding a magnet where its magnetic force acts on it

2. Magnetic field line pattern of a magnetic field that consists curved lines of magnetic force
- Are imaginary lines
- Can be seen through iron fillings
- The direction of the magnetic field can be shown by a compass

3. Characteristics of magnetic field lines:

(a) The arrows show the direction of the field

(b) The magnetic field lines of a magnet begin at the north

pole and end at the south pole of the magnet

(c) The magnetic field is strongest at the poles of a magnet

(d) The magnetic field lines do not cross one another

(e) The magnetic field lines from the same pole repel one

(f) The stronger the magnetic field is, the closer the
magnetic field lines


1. Has a magnetised needle fixed at its centre of gravity

Hence the earths magnetic pole will cause the compass needle to rotate along the lines
of the earth magnetic field

2. This enables the compass needle to turn freely on its pivot on a horizontal plane
3. Uses of compass:
(a) To find and map magnetic field
(b) Shows directions as it always points towards the Earths magnetic north pole
(c) Detect underground metal pipes

TKS Y8 SC Chapter 16 Magnetism

Earths magnetic field

1. The earth core is made up of 2 parts

(a) Inner core solid metal
(b) Outer core liquid metal

2. As the earth spins, the two cores move at different speed and generates magnetic field
around the earth

Geographic North pole is at the Magnetic south poles

because it attracts the south pole of the bar magnet.

Geographic South pole is at the Magnetic North poles

because it attracts the north pole of the bar magnet.


1. Another type of magnet is called Electromagnet

2. Electromagnet functions when it is induced by


3. When an electric current flows through the coil of wire,

the coil becomes magnetised.

4. If the coil is wrap around a piece of conductor (eg: iron),

the magnetic field of the electromagnet will become

TKS Y8 SC Chapter 16 Magnetism

5. Uses:

(a) Using crane to move heavy metal object

(b) In electric motors and generators
(c) Doorbells and relays (electric switch)

To increase the magnetic force of the electro magnet

(a) Wrap the coil around a piece of conductor (eg: iron)

(b) Make the coil with more turns of wire (longer wire)
(c) Increase the electric current flow (add more dry cells)

The field of the electromagnet

1. Its magnetic field is like the field of a bar magnet

2. The magnetic lines come out of one end of the electromagnet and that region is called North
3. The field lines that goes around and back into the other end is the South pole

Electric bell
Many objects around you contain electromagnets. They are found in electric motors and loudspeakers. Very
large and powerful electromagnets are used as lifting magnets in scrap yards to pick up, then drop, old cars
and other scrap iron and steel.

Electric bell
Electric bells like the ones used in most schools also contain an

1. When the current flows through the circuit, the

electromagnet makes a magnetic field.

2. The electromagnet attracts the springy metal arm.

3. The arm hits the gong, which makes a sound.

4. The circuit is broken now the arm is out of position.

5. The electromagnet is turned off and the springy metal arm moves back.

6. The circuit is complete again.

7. The cycle repeats as long as the switch is closed. Check your understanding of this with the animation.

TKS Y8 SC Chapter 16 Magnetism

Explaining magnetism with the domain theory

Domain Theory
To explain what happens inside materials when they are magnetized and why a metals can
be magnetised.

1. Like any other substances, there is atoms in each materials

2. According to domain theory, when the materials is magnetized, there are domains
3. Domain is a group of magnetize atoms that are grouping together and are aligned in the
same direction.

4. If the materials are

(a) Unmagnetised
- The domains are arranged
randomly in many
different directions

(b) Magnetized
- The domains are lined up
and point in the same
- The greater the alignment
domain, the stronger the

How to measure the magnetic strength?

1. Measure the number of objects that a magnet can hold
2. Investigate the distance at which an object is attracted to a magnet
3. Investigate the magnetic field using iron fillings to see the field lines. The closer the magnetic
field lines, the stronger the magnetic effects

NOTE: to evaluate the above methods, there is a need to compare the repeatability, reproducibility,
accuracy and precision of the data

TKS Y8 SC Chapter 16 Magnetism

Distance from which it Number of paper clips held
attracts a paper clip (cm)

Magnet 1 20 100
Magnet 2 25 100
Magnet 3 28 100
Magnet 4 30 100

(a) Independent variable:

(b) Dependent variable:

(c) Control variable:

(d) Which is a strong magnet? Why?

Case study:
Scenario 1:
Bill has to drive a truck to transport a stack of cardboard that containing a magnet in each
cardboard. He arranged the cardboards neatly. When he drove the truck halfway, it is found out
that his truck was able to attract the other magnetic materials that surrounding it (eg: the cab that
drove next to him)

Problem statement: WHY and what has happened?


According to the domain theory, a magnetized material contains magnetic effect when its domains
are arranged in the same direction.

When the magnets in each cardboard are arranged neatly, the domains at first domains are
arranged randomly in many different directions. There is no magnetic effect and magnetic field.

When the truck starts to move, the magnets may be stroke in a forward and reverse direction when
the car move and breaks repeatedly. This causes the domains to be lined up and point in the same
direction, with one end of the material becoming magnetic North pole and the others end a South
Pole. Hence it creates a magnetic effect and magnetic field. hence, the truck become magnetized
and able to attract the cab that was driving near to it.

TKS Y8 SC Chapter 16 Magnetism