You are on page 1of 42

Target 2014 Current General Studies-10

www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 16, 2014

Contents
Section A: Fundamentals
Historical and Legal Basics of Archaeological Sites and Monuments ...................................................................................................3
Ghadar Movement ........................................................................................................................................................................................8
Basic Knowledge about Elections in India ............................................................................................................................................. 13
Advanced Price Agreements (APA).......................................................................................................................................................... 29
Section B : Shortnotes, Updates, Articles and Essays
International Year of Family Farming...................................................................................................................................................... 30
Floating Nuclear Power Stations ............................................................................................................................................................ 30
Reusable Rockets ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 31
Gabriel Jos Garca Mruez ..................................................................................................................................................................... 32
Sri Aurobindo in Freedom Struggle .......................................................................................................................................................... 33
Field Marshal SHFJ Manekshaw ............................................................................................................................................................. 34
India Innovative Inclusion Fund (IIIF) ...................................................................................................................................................... 34
P2P Diplomacy .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 35
Kanakdasa ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 35
Childhood Obesity ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 35
Rising anti-Semitism and anti-immigrant sentiments as threat to EU .............................................................................................. 36
Making a case for Post Bank of India ..................................................................................................................................................... 36
Cellulosic Ethanol ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 37
Naduvattam Jail ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 39
Mangar Forest ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 39
Rainbow Warrior of Greenpeace .............................................................................................................................................................. 39
Pattachitra Paintings ............................................................................................................................................................................... 39
Vulture Restaurants .................................................................................................................................................................................
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229 40
Integrated Farming ................................................................................................................................................................................... 40

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e |1
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 16, 2014

Note: This Document is supplemented with a Writing Practice Worksheet (WPW-10) with below Questions

Model Questions
1. Comment on the role of British Indologists towards Indian archaeology.
2. Constitution of India has divided the responsibility related to the functioning of the archaeology between the Centre and States.
Amplify.
3. What is a Monument of National Importance? How it is defined?
4. Write a short note on legal framework around treasure troves in India.
5. Critically examine the performance of National Mission on Monuments and Antiquities.
6. Despite of two Anglo-Sikh wars that led to destruction of the Sikh sovereignty, the Sikh princes sided with the British during the 1857
revolt. Throw light on the reasons.
7. "The political activism and radicalism of the Ghadar movement was first and foremost directed at promoting Indian Independence."
Discuss.
8. "Free and Fair elections are bedrock of democracy."Discuss throwing light on various constitutional and statutory provisions made to
ascertain free and fair elections in India.
9. What provisions have been made in the constitution of India to ascertain independence of the Constitution? Objectively elaborate the
Powers & Functions of Election Commission.
10. What are the qualifications to exercise right to vote in India? On what accounts, one's voting rights can be taken away? Discuss.
11. Discuss the salient provisions in RoPA 1951 with reference to the Political parties in India.
12. Objectively differentiate between a national party and state parties, throwing light on role of regional parties in centre post 2014
elections.
13. What are the major elections offenses as per RoPA? How election commission has been empowered to handle these offenses?
14. Objectively discuss various components of the SVEEP Programme.
15. "Qualitatively and quantitatively, the voter's participation is bedrock for a participative democracy." To what extent, the SVEEP
programme has been able to improve voter's participation. Analyze.
16. "Voter's education is much broader area than merely imparting knowledge about the use of Electronic Voting Machines." Discuss.
17. What are electoral trusts? Discuss their objectives and roll in bringing transparency in political funding in India.
18. Make a neat diagram of an Electronic Voting Machine throwing light on how it works.
19. Discuss the efforts made by Election Commission of India to maintain accuracy of electoral rolls.
20. "NOTA is not right to reject; but will let the disillusioned voters be heard." Discuss.
21. In comparison to mutual agreement procedure (MAP), the advance pricing agreement/arrangement (APA) promise more advantages.
Discuss. Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229
22. Researchers opine that Floating nuclear power stations would have both economic and safety benefits. Objectively discuss the
environmental, economic and political consequences of the Floating Nuclear Power Plants.
23. What are reusable rockets? Comment on various challenges to create reusable rockets successfully.
24. Gabriel Jos Garca Mruez is regarded as Symbol of the pride and The Greatest Columbian who ever lived. Discuss his
contribution in area of literature, politics, and Journalism.
25. Examine the role of Sri Aurobindo during Freedom Struggle of India.
26. The name of Sam Bahadur figures prominently in the list of important personalities of the 20th century. Comment.
27. Write a short note on: India Innovative Inclusion Fund (IIIF)
28. Rising anti-Semitism and anti-immigrant sentiment is emerging as a threat to the European Union idea. Critically evaluate.
29. The rise of user-friendly communication technologies had led to a shift from G2P to P2P diplomacy. Comment.
30. Discuss the magnitude of the problem of Childhood Obesity in India.
31. Comment on the threats of rising anti-Semitism and anti-immigrant sentiments to European Union.
32. Make a case for Post Bank of India
33. What do you understand by Second Generation Ethanol? In hwat way, it may help in the Ethanol Blending Programme. Throw light on
various challenges faced and suggest measures to fast track the second-generation ethanol industry.
34. What do you understand by Integrated Farming? Discuss its various components.
Write Short Notes on the following
1. Pacific Coast Hindustan Association 10. Sir Alexander Cunningham
2. Paris India Society 11. Bengal Regulation XIX
3. India House 12. Family Farming
4. Agnes Smedley 13. Kanakdasa
5. Gulab Kaur 14. Naduvattam Jail
6. Lala Hardayal 15. Mangarabani
7. Charles Wilkins 16. Rainbow Warrior of Greenpeace
8. Nathaniel Brassey Halhed 17. Pattachitra Paintings
9. Sir Williams Jones 18. Vulture Restaurants

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e |2
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

Section A: Fundamentals
GS Paper-1: Indian Culture
Historical and Legal Basics of Archaeological Sites and Monuments
Towards the close of the 18th century, the need to preserve the cultural heritage of India had taken a definite
shape. The Indian monuments had been surveyed by many Indology enthusiasts. But it was the effort of Sir
William Jones, that Archaeological and historical pursuits of India were started in the form of AsiatiK Society
on January 15, 1784 at Calcutta.
Founding Fathers of Indology
Sir William Jones was not the earliest orientalists / indologists to arrive in India. Along with him, two more names
are cherished viz. Charles Wilkins and Nathaniel Brassey Halhed, who had come to India prior to Jones. All
the three are known as earliest fathers of Indology.
8 Charles Wilkins was the first person to translate Bhagavad-Gita into English. He and Panchanan
Karmakar were the first to create the first Bengali typeface. Wilkins had also helped Sir Wilkins Jones in
setting up of the AsiatiK Society.
8 Nathaniel Brassey Halhed was a writer / grammarian in the British East India Company. On the order
of Warren Hastings, he compiled, translated the Hindu legal code from a Persian version of the original
Sanskrit. This translation was published in 1776 under the title A Code of Gentoo Laws, also known as
Ordinations of the Pundits. This book worked as a reference legal material for the courts of the time.
Halhed had also published a Bengali grammar in 1778. This grammar was printed in a press at
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229
Hooghly, which was the first Bengali press in India.
Asiatic Society
Jones had come to Calcutta in 1783 as a Supreme Court judge during the governorship of Warren Hastings.
During those days, India was going
Role of British Indologists in Indian Culture
through a cultural as well as To Jones, and to the many other European scholars, India
political transition. On one hand, owes a deep debt of gratitude for the rediscovery of her past
literature. Much of it was known of course throughout every
Company government was age, but the knowledge had become more and more confined
reluctant to teach English to to select and exclusive groups, and the dominance of Persian,
as the language of culture, had diverted people's minds from
Indians; on the other hand, the it. The search for manuscripts brought out many a little-known
Hindu Brahmins also objected to work and the application of modern critical methods of
scholarship gave a new background to the vast literature that
teach Sanskrit to Englishmen or foreigners. Initially was revealed. (Excerpt from Discovery of India by J L Nehru)
Jones expressed interests to some Brahmins to learn
Sanskrit but no one agreed to teach Sanskrit to a firangi. After lots of efforts, a non-brahmin vaidya agreed to
teach him Sanskrit on certain stringent conditions, which Jones happily accepted. He was fascinated with
Sanskrit, specially the discovery of the old Indian drama. It was the efforts of Sir Williams Jones that Europe had a
glimpse of some of the treasures of Sanskrit literature.
Jones was a linguistic genius who had mastered the current and classical European languages, as well as Persian.
He immediately recognized Sanskrit as a distant relative of Greek and Latin, and through his influence the
serious study of Sanskrit texts began. From a legal perspective, his most important work was a translation of
Manusmriti. This translation was intended to give the British some idea of classical Hindu law, but they failed to
realize that this text was composed not as a legal manual but as a guide to religious life. Jones died at age forty-
eight from an inflammation of the liver. His translation was published posthumously.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e |3
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

According to Sir William Jones, Asia was the nurse of sciences and the inventers of delightful and useful arts. He
proposed to found a society under the name of the AsiatiK society. Warren Hastings supported him and thus
was AsiatiK society was established in 1784 by Sir William Jones under the chairmanship of Sir Robert
Chambers. The name went through a number changes. It remained AsiatiK society from 1784 to 1825. Later was
transformed into Asiatic society (1825-1832), the Asiatic society of Bengal (1832-1935), the royal Asiatic society of
Bengal (1936-1951) and the Asiatic Society again since July 1951.
In 1788, a journal was brought out named Asiatick Researches. Similar societies were started in Bombay in 1804
and at Madras in 1818. It was due to these research and documentations that Chandragupta Maurya was
identified with Sandrokottos of Greek Historians and Pataliputra was identified with Palibothra. In the time to
come, Charles Wilkinson deciphered the Gupta and Kutila scripts. In 1800 Francis Buchanan was appointed by
Lord Wellesley to survey Mysore. We note here that Francis Buchanan was surgeon of Lord Wellesley and had
organized a zoo which later became Calcutta Alipore Zoo.
Bengal Regulation XIX and Act XX of 1863
The above discussion makes it clear that the role of Indologists was not only limited Indian Literature but Indian
history and archaeology also. In 1810, the Bengal Regulation XIX attempted for the first time, the
government to intervene in case of risks to monuments through legislation. Its counterpart Madras Regulation
VII of 1817 was also enacted. These legislations gave the respective Governments to intervene whenever any
historical building was threatened with the misuse by private individuals. However, the above regulations did not
apply to the Government officials; this is something which explains how Lord William Bentinck had once
considered auctioning Taj Mahal for value of its marble.
Archaeological Survey of India
Nearly half a century later than the enactment of Bengal Regulation XIX and Madras Regulation VII, the British
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229

Government of India enacted the Act XX in 1863, during


Treasure Trove Act 1878
the times of Lord Canning. This was followed by the The 1878 Treasure Trove Act provided for confiscation and
Treasure Trove Act , that was enacted in 1878. Further, the safety of treasures and antiquities found during chance
digging. This treasure Trove act had given the
Archaeological Survey of India in its current form was Government powers to claim possession of any unearthed
founded in 1861 under Sir Alexander Cunningham during treasure that exceeded Rs. 10 in value. Later the
Government also issued notifications and debarred the
times of Viceroy Canning. Its domain covered present day Government officials for disposing of any antiquity
India, Pakistan, Bangladesh as well as Afghanistan. without official permission.
This act is not in force now. The current act is AAT act of
Ancient Monuments Preservation Act 1904 was enacted and 1972.
on 28th April 1906 ASI was made a permanent body. When
India got independence, the Indian Legislature in 1947 passed the Antiquities (Export Control) Act of 1947. Under
this act, it was made a provision that no antiquity may be exported except under the authority of a license
granted by the Central Government. After independence, ASI ame under The Ancient Monuments and
Archaeological Sites And Remains Act of 1958.
Archaeology under Constitution of India
The Constitution of India has divided the responsibility related to the functioning of the archaeology between the
Centre and States. So the subject was listed in both the Union List and State List.
The Union list of 7th Schedule has the following entry:
67. Ancient and historical monuments and records, and archaeological
sites and remains, [declared by or under law made by Parliament] to be of
national importance
Similarly the state list mentions:
40. Archaeological sites and remains other than those [declared by or
under law made by Parliament] to be of national importance

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e |4
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

The above division of responsibility between the states and Union Government needed that parliament enacts a
legislation. The parliament passed the Ancient and Historical Monuments and Archaeological sites and Remains
(Declaration of National Importance) Act 1951. By this act, all the monuments preserved under the ancient
monument Preservation act of 1904 were designated as monuments and sites of national importance. Today,
ASI administers around 3600 monuments of national importance.
Current Legislation: AMASR Act 1958
Currently, there is an array of legislations relating to heritage treasure law in the country. The laws started with
Bengal Regulation XIX and end with
AMASR (Amendment and Validation) Various Acts related to Ancient Monuments and Antiquity in India
Act 2010. The current regulation is 1 Bengal Regulation XIX 1810
AMASR act of 1958 and its amendment
2 The Madras Regulation VII, 1817
in 2010. The three cited objectives of
3 The Act XX, 1863
this act are as follows:
8 Preservation of ancient and 4 Indian Treasure-Trove Act, 1878
Repealed Acts
historical monuments and 5 Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, 1904
archaeological sites and 6 The Antiquities (Export Control) Act, 1947
remains of national importance The Ancient and Historical Monuments and Archaeological Sites and
7
8 Regulation of archaeological Remains Act, 1951 (AHMASR Act)

excavations Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act (1958)
8
(AMASR Act)
8 Protection of sculptures,
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229
9 Antiquities and Art Treasures Act, 1972 (AAT Act)
carvings and other like objects.
10 AMASR (Amendment and Validation) Act 2010
This act was enacted after repealing the
1904 act, 1951 act and section 126 of the States Reorganization Act, 1956. The AMASR Act 1958 has provisions to
declare ancient monuments and sites to be of national importance, acquisition of protected monuments,
excavations in unprotected areas, power to control the movement of antiquities, to compensate for loss or
damage to a site or monument under private ownership and maintenance of monuments under private
ownership after entering into an agreement.
For your examinations, some important observations are as follows:
What is ancient Monument?
According to the act, an ancient monument is any structure, erection including any cave, sculpture or monolith,
which is of historical, archaeological or Salient Features of AAT Act
artistic interest and is at least 100 The 1972 Antiquities and Art Treasures Act (AAT Act 1972) regulates the export
trade in antiquities and art treasures. This act makes provisions for:
years old. The ancient monument 8 prevention of smuggling and fraudulent dealings in antiquities
includes its remains, its site, any portion 8 compulsory acquisition of antiquities and art treasures for preservation
in public places
of land, and means of access to that 8 Other related matters.
monument. The Act prescribes export of antiquities by individuals and other organizations
What is Antiquity? (other than by the Central Government) except in accordance with the terms and
conditions of a permit to be issued by an authority notified under the Act. Further,
Antiquity is any coin, sculpture, all sales of antiquities can be done only under a license. The Act also stipulates
that all such licenses have to maintain records and photographs in such manner
manuscript, epigraph, or other work of as may be prescribed. The Act empowers the Government to notify specified
art or craftsmanship. It also includes antiquities that need to be registered for the purposes of preservation,
safeguarding and conservation of cultural heritage, and makes it mandatory for
any article, object or thing detached the owners of these antiquities to register them. The Government also retains the
from a building or cave. It further right to compulsorily acquire the antiquities, though this right has hardly ever
been exercised.
includes any articles object or thing

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e |5
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

illustrative of science, art, crafts, literature, religion, customs, morals or politics in bygone ages etc. Further, it
also includes any object which has been declared by Central Government as antiquity for the purpose of the
act. The antiquity includes only those materials which are at least 100 years old. This definition comes from AAT
act 1972.
What is Monument of National Importance?
In the above description, we have read that protection of historical monuments is a subject in both the Union List
and State list of the 7th schedule of Indian Constitution. So, the constitution of India has divided the
responsibility of their protection between Centre and States. By this, the monuments of national importance are
those which are directly under the central government. Here we note that, we have around 3650 monuments of
national importance under ASI, which protects them. Not all have attained that status only after freedom of
India. In fact, for the first time, this category was created by Lord Curzon via the 1904 act. The idea was to legally
differentiate between the monuments of national importance and other monuments.
However, it does not mean that the states have no responsibility towards them at all. But when a monument is
declared monument of national importance, it becomes responsibility of the centre to protect them.
The 1958 act has vested the power to declare a monument as monument of national importance in Central
Government. The declaration is done via Official Gazette; however no legislation needs to be passed for that. The
government needs to give two months prior notice about its intention to declare such ancient monument or
archaeological site and remains to be of national importance. This is allow people to raise objections if any.
Which government controls the Treasure Troves in India?
Kindly note that the AMASR act 1958, AAT Act 1972 and the Antiquities and Art Treasure Rules 1973 all of
them bestow the Centre with monopolistic control over heritage treasures. These acts have the following provisions
in general:
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229

8 Any object of archaeological treasure, except un-worked natural objects or minerals extracted from a
natural deposit or objects otherwise not designated to be of heritage value in India, belong to the nation
and to be used for public benefit.
8 Government's constitutional prerogative is only to preserve. The constitution or acts don't give any
reason to the Government to encash the found valuables and spend them.
8 Central government is the sole authority over any potential treasure trove of heritage value.

National Mission on Monuments and Antiquities


The National Mission on Monuments and Antiquities (NMMA) was launched in 2007 and had finished its term in
2012 without making any significant imprint. The reason to launch such a mission was as follows. We have Lakhs
of ancient monuments in our country. Out of them, only around 3650 have been assigned to ASI for protection;
but the performance of ASI has been dismal. In fact many of the monuments are only on paper; in realty, they
have disappeared. For example, a CAG study in 2013 said that after inspection of 1655 monuments, it found that
92 are untraceable. This mission was launched so that:
8 A national database can be developed of 5 Lakh monuments. This database should be accessible to
students, scholars, researchers and public at large; and preserve it for the posterity.
8 Improve awareness about cultural inheritance and encourage their use for educational and research
purposes for lifelong learning.
At the end of the mission, it could create a database of 80,000 monuments only of the targeted 5 Lakh
monuments. Thus, the conservation and preservation of archaeological monuments & sites and antiquarian still
remains a significant challenge. Some of the built heritage and antiquarian remains have already disappeared,
while some of these are in a state of decay/damage.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e |6
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

Since these monuments and antiquarian remains are on the verge of extinction because of the hostile
conditions of weather, encroachment in the name of developmental works, it is our sacred duty to safeguard
them from all the odds. Our challenge is to safeguard them by means of adopting measures of conservation,
preservation, environmental development followed by documentation. The challenges before the Central and
State governments are enormous and arduous in nature, for which other organizations and stakeholders have
to be roped in as equal partners in safeguarding the monuments, sites and antiquarian remains. The NMMA was
launched with these noble intentions but somehow, it lost the track, as other schemes of the UPA government
did.
Model Questions
1. Comment on the role of British Indologists towards Indian archaeology.
2. Constitution of India has divided the responsibility related to the functioning of the archaeology between the Centre and States.
Amplify.
3. What is a Monument of National Importance? How it is defined?
4. Write a short note on legal framework around treasure troves in India.
5. Critically examine the performance of National Mission on Monuments and Antiquities.

Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e |7
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

GS Paper-1: Indian Freedom Struggle


Ghadar Movement
The Ghadar Movement, which completed 100 years in 2013, was an important episode in Indias freedom struggle. A ship named Komagatamaru,
filled with Indian immigrants was turned back from Canada. As the ship returned to India several of its passengers were killed or arrested in a clash
with the British police. This incident made the Gadar Party proclaim war and inspired thousands of Indian immigrants to come back and organise an
armed rebellion against British imperialism. However, this movement was crushed.
This study deals with the important events of that episode.
19th Century: Sikh sentiments towards Raj during Mutiny
At the end of the second Anglo-Sikh war in 1849, the Khalsa sovereignty was put to an end and Punjab was
annexed into the territories of East India Company by Lord Dalhousie. But, one of the important consequences
of the Anglo-Sikh wars was that they gave substance to the Sikh valour in the eyes of the British. Notwithstanding
the initial efforts to disband the Sikh army, the British saw an opportunity in a Sikh soldier who could help them
firmly establish the Raj on Indian soils.
Within a decade happened the Mutiny of 1857. The Sikhs saw this mutiny nothing more than an attempt by
Marathas to bring back the old order of Mughals. The Sikhs sided with the British in 1857 and the Sikh princes
backed the East India Company by providing soldiers as well as support. There were four primary reasons to
this.
Firstly, Sikhs never wanted the Mughals to return to power in Delhi, thanks to the bitter past.
Secondly, Sikhs were already anguished against the Indian soldiers (Bengal sepoys / Poorbia sepoys /
Rajputs / Marathas etc.) in the British army who had sided with the British during Anglo-Sikh wars and
were hunting for chances to take it back on them.
Thirdly, the idea of Member
Indian nationalism
Name: was Email
Anand Mohan Member's notaddress:
ripe dubledoreslair@gmail.com
at that time and61.8.129.229
the early nationalism of the Sikhs
was Punjabi and not the Indian. The Sikhs resented the presence of Eastern Troops (Poorbia sepoys) in
Punjab and were eager to take an chance of getting their own back on the Bengal sepoy, this time with
the British on their side.
Fourthly, British won the confidence of the Sikhs by tolerating their religious sentiments and making
suitable changes in army recruitment process by allowing the baptized Sikhs to observe Sikh code of
conduct and wear the five emblems of Sikhism.
These steps undertaken by British finally culminated in form of loyalties of the Sikhs in Anglo-Burmese war of
1852 and against the nomad tribe on the North West frontier. They played a role in crushing the 1857 revolt.
Frederic Cooper, the Deputy Commissioner of Amritsar, Punjab during 1857 also had serious doubts about the
Sikh participation in the mutiny. He was able to maintain the trust of Sikhs in the British rule throughout the
revolt. The appreciation of the role of Sikhs was recorded in secret correspondence of the British.
The Sikhs were duly rewarded by giving special ranks in the newly reformed British army. The Sikhs which
constituted only 2% population of British India formed over 30% of Indian army. This association was carried on
smoothly till the World Wars in which again the Sikh soldiers participated in largest amount.
Early 20th Century: Sikh exodus to distant lands and resentment towards British
The 1890s and the following years saw a massive migration of a huge number of landless peasants, ex-soldiers
from Jullundhar and Hoshiarpur districts of Punjab to Hong Kong and further east to Canada and USA. While
many belonged to land-constrained areas and went in search of better pastures and means of survival; others
were the ones who had served in the British Indian Army and had awareness of the abundant opportunities
abroad.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e |8
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

These immigrants mainly indulged in labor work in Canada and some secretly crossed borders to West Coast
and made settlements in cities like Portland, San Francisco, San Jose and Los Angeles. The Punjabis gradually
created their own niches and established micro-societies. The promised lands then closed doors to the fresh
immigrants. In addition the settlers were racially discriminated against by the Whites. The ones which had just
gone from the villages and were not aware of the western culture and mannerisms were even refused entry. The
American whites launched agitations against the incoming South Asians calling it the so called Brown Invasion.
The rise in hostilities towards Indian immigrants led to strong opinion against the British government back as
the latter had refused to intervene as against Japanese and Chinese governments who actively supported their
citizens. The Canadian government which was under British rule responded by harassing the immigrants and
further tightened the immigration rules for Indians. The Canadian government established a "Continuous
Passage Act" to stop the immigrants particularly from India. The "Continuous
Passage Act" was a bizarre law, which required that the Indians will have to directly
come from the country of their birth/citizenship via a continuous journey on tickets
purchased before they left their home country. The Indians were also required to
possess a sum of $200 which was an unthinkable sum for many Indians who only
earned a few cents in a day. Canada had its own legitimate reasons for not
supporting the cause of Indian immigrants abroad. These included:
8 Fear of familiarity with western cultures
8 Intermingling of cultures will eventual damage British pride
8 Spread of socialist ideas among immigrant Indians
8 Knowledge of revolutions canAnand
Member Name: leadMohan
to national
Member's Emailagitation
address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229

Lala Hardayal, India House and launch of Ghadar Party


The Surat split of 1907 followed suppression of the extremists. But at the same in time in London, numerous
informal nationalist organizations were working. The most important among them was the India House. After
1910, the activities of India House had declined and the cradle of activities shifted from Europe to America. Lal
Hardayal was In India till 1909, when he moved to Paris and associated himself with a newspaper Vande
Mataram over there. In 1911 he settled in San
India House
Francisco and indulged in Industrial Unionism. In The India House was based in London and was established by
1913, Pacific Coast Hindustan Association was Shyamji Krishna Verma to promote the nationalist views among the
Indians of Britain. It published a newspaper "The Indian
founded by Lala Hardayal with Sohan Singh Sociologist" which used its subtitle -An Organ of Freedom, and
Political, Social, and Religious Reform.
Bhakna as its president, which was called Ghadar Several revolutionaries got associated with the India house and
Party. The members of this party were the most important ones are V D Savarkar and Madan Lal Dheengra.
Others were V.N. Chatterjee, Lala Har Dayal, V. V. S. Aiyar, M.P.T.
immigrant Sikhs of US and Canada. The first issue Acharya and P.M. Bapat. All of them later laid the foundation of
of The Ghadar, was published from San Francisco militant nationalism in India. The newspaper was later banned for
sedition.
on November 1, 1913. Later it got published in
Urdu, Punjabi, Hindi and other languages also.
Original name of Ghadar Party was Pacific Coast
The Ghadar Hindustan Association. The founding president of
The masthead of the paper carried the inscription in bold Ghadar Party was Sohan Singh Bhakna and Lala
Hardayal was the co-founder of this party.
letters,Angrezi Raj ka Dushman and also had a feature article Headquarters of the movement were set up at
on the front page of each issue under the title, Angrezi Raj ka Yugantar Ashram in San Francisco.
Kacha Chittha. It went far beyond the American borders to
reach Indians in Canada, Malay States, Hong Kong, Philippines, Honduras, Singapore, Trinidad and India. It got
widespread attention, appreciation and acceptance. People were moved by the views expressed in it and were
motivated to join hands with Ghadar leadership for the common cause.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e |9
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

The government hostility towards Indians continued unabated. Ghadar party which came into being saw new
leadership take charge after Lala Hardayal was arrested for a hate speech he had made against the British rule
in India 3 years ago.
The Komagatamaru Tragedy 1914
As mentioned above, the circumstances were not in favour of Indian / Sikh immigrants in west and they were
subject to all kinds of racial / political / procedural discriminations. The continuous immigration of Indians,
particularly Sikhs had already irked the Canadian natives and authorities. It was a fear that Indians would take
their jobs. In such backdrop, the Komagatamaru Incidence was
About Steamship : Komagatamaru
one of the first Indian challenges to colonist British beyond the Gurdit Singh, a Sikh from a small village in Punjab
pacific Coast. was a son of a small time farmer near Amritsar. Father
of Gurdit Singh left Punjab and moved to Malaysia. He
The Canadian Continuous Passage Act" was enacted to stop became a small time contractor over there. In 1885,
the so called Brown Invasion from Asia, particularly India. This Gurdit Singh joined his father and later he established
a steamship company. This company had leased a
law required that the immigrants must travel nonstop to their Japanese steamship Komagatamaru.
country of the birth. At that time there was no direct ship from
India and the journey of the Komagatamaru was set to circumvent this law. The ship had sailed from Hong Kong
to Vancouver in 1914, aboard 376 passengers including 240 Sikhs, 24 Muslims and 12 Hindus. The ship arrived
on 23 May 1914 at Vancouver. The Canadian authorities refused to allow the passengers to go ashore. Gurdit
Singh, owner of the ship; was pressurized to pay the charter dues in one go. He said he would do so after selling
the cargo but the ship was not allowed to unload its cargo. The Indians at Vancouver started agitations against
the government. After some confrontation, the only 24 passengers were admitted to Canada and the ship was
forced back to India carrying rest all. After a return voyage, the Komagatamaru docked at Hooghlys Budge
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229
Budge harbour. Here, the British government treated these passengers as rebels. The ship was searched and
the Sikhs were herded in trains to force them back to Punjab. When some of them refused, Police opened fire
killing 18 people. 200 people were herded in jails. The incident became famous as Budge Budge riot. Gurdit
Singh escaped the Police and he surrendered in 1921, after 7 years.
Implications of Komagatamaru incident on Indian History
The incident made its imprint in the historical annals merely due to indifference shown by the British rule
towards the agonized passengers of the doomed carrier. The incident gathered widespread criticism and was
the most notorious attempt by the Canadian government to contain the entry of British citizens of Indian
descent into Canada. The action was supported by Canadian media by putting alerts saying,' Mounting Oriental
Invasion.
Arrival of Ghadar in India and suppression
The most notable happening was the onset of World War I in which British energies and forces were severely
spent. The British Army was largely comprised of the Sikh soldiers. The Ghadarites regarded it as a golden
opportunity to establish self-rule
Mistakes made by Ghadar Revolutionaries
in India. The leaders decided to
move to India and mobilise the Extremely poor sense of secrecy

anti-Britain sentiments further Lack of organization


amongst the civilian population Not taking steps to avoid information leak.
and the Indian recruits into the
Failure to gauge the choices of Indian people
British army. Ailan-e-Jung or
Failure to grasp the essence of imperialism.
Proclamation of War was issued
and circulated among Indians settled in various countries to arouse them to go to India and give shape to an
armed rebellion.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 10
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

The government CID had already broken into the Ghadar movement, which made British aware of the Ghadar
plans and helped them control the movement in the budding stage itself in India. Resultantly all the main brass
of the Ghadar was immediately arrested on their arrival at India. With this arrest the Ghadar movement came to
an abrupt end to settle in the arms of history forever. The
mistakes made by Ghadar revolutionaries are show in adjacent Notably, Ghadar published the following
advertisement:
graphics. Wanted: Enthusiastic and heroic soldiers for
Relevance of Ghadar Movement organizing Ghadar in Hindustan:
8 Remuneration: Death
The Ghadar movement can be described as tale of extreme 8 Reward : Martyrdom
valour, hard-work, toil which has reached the heart of every 8 Pension : Freedom
8 Field of work: Hindustan.
Indian settled on distant lines. The powerful speeches by its
leaders did shape the NRI opinion against the misrule of British
in India. It truly qualifies for a major struggle which aroused the people internationally and sowed seeds for any
other future course of action. The immediate results would have been different had the then leaders introduced
proper organization and had given more time to study the general mood of the population. As we complete 100
years from when the incident took place, we salute the zeal, the energy and the speed with which they steered
the way to success.
Ghadar Activism- Racial Project versus attempt to overthrow British Empire
One cannot deny from the fact that the Ghadar activism was a racial projection which emerged out of racial
exclusion and so called "brown invasion" theory of the whites. But, as evident in the words of Maia Ramnath,
the Ghadar Movement had charted global radicalism and attempted to overthrow the British Empire. The
movement as well as the Ghadar Party was indigenous to California and was founded to overthrow the British
Rule. The political activism and radicalism of the Ghadar movement was first and foremost directed at
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229

promoting Indian Independence. It charted global radicalism because of its unique ability to forge an identity for
South Asians in the United States, where, it not only sought freedom for India but also aimed to achieve dignity
and respect for South Asians in first world. The Ghadar party collectively painted of the South Asians immigrants
as "nationalists. Before the Ghadar movement was launched, the radicalism in students at Berkley led them to
launch a newspaper "Free Hindustan", which contained nationalistic writings. But it was Lala Har Dyal, a founder
of the Ghadar Party and lecturer at Stanford University, who tapped into the energy of students and radicalise
them more towards achieving the objective of Free Hindustan. Lala Hardayal called the students to prepare to
become great patriots and wonderful warriors. He electrified their views by saying that " anybody can be a
Collector, or an Engineer, or a Barrister, or a Doctor, but what India needs is warriors of freedom. Better death in
that noble cause than living as slaves of the British Empire.
Women Activists of the Ghadar Movement
The role of women activists in the Ghadar Movement was no less than their male counterparts. The most
notable women activists in the Ghadar Movement were Gulab Kaur, Bhikaji Cama and Agnes Smedley (American)
Gulab Kaur
Gulab Kaur was a native of Bakshiwala village in Sangrur district of Punjab. Due to economic hardships, Gulab
along with her Husband had moved to Phillipines for an onward jounrey to America in 1914. But when a ship, SS
Korea, reached Manila for an onward journey to India, Gulab boarded it to work with Ghadarites, including
Kartar Singh Sarabha. She left her husband to work with Ghadrites, while her husband refuse to participate in
any radical activities. She was arrested from Naudh Singh Wala and tortured at Lahore's Shahi Quila. She died in
1931.
Bhikaji Cama
Bhikaji Cama, who is best known for founding the Paris Indian Society; was born in a wealthy Parsi family in
Mumbai in 1861. She was named Bhikaji Sorab Patel and became Bhikaji Rustom Cama after her marriage. She

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 11
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

not only worked in the slums of Mumbai during outbreak of plague but also left her husband to work selflessly
for the poor people afflicted with the disease. She fell sick and was taken to Germany for treatment. Later, she
went to England to work with the Indian revolutionaries. On 22 August 1907, Madam Cama had unfurled a self-
designed tricolour in Stuttgart town of Germany. This enraged the British. She then later moved to US and
worked with the Ghadar activists.
Agnes Smedley
Agnes Smedley was a journalist and writer, born on February 23, 1892 at Missouri in US, was known more for
her autobiographical novel "Daughter of Earth" wherein she described her association with the Indian freedom
struggle. Despite no similarity in culture and traditions, Agnes came in close contact with Lala Lajpat Rai, M N
Roy, Virendranath Chattopadhyaya, Shailendranath Ghose, Bhagwan Singh and Taraknath Das in US during
World War-I and served as a communication volunteer for Indian revolutionaries and oversaw Ghadar party's
various publications.
Notable Trivia:
8 The eventual course of action for the Ghadar party in 1914 was moulded by 3 isolated but highly
charged incidents viz. Arrest of Lala Hardayal, Komagatamaru incident and First World War.
8 After Lala Hardayal was compelled to leave USA, he moved to Germany and set up the Indian
Independence Committee at Berlin. The committee had a plan to mobilise Indians living abroad, to
help revolutionaries in India and finally through an arms struggle and also may be through an attack,
free India from British rule.
8 Budge Budge railway station on Kolkatas outskirts was the place where many Sikhs fell to the bullets of
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229
the British after their ship, Komagatamaru, was forced to return to Indian waters from Canada. The
Government of India has renamed the railway station as Komagatamaru Budge Budge station to
salute the martyrs of September 29, 1914.
8 Bhagat Singh was deeply impressed by the Ghadar Movement from a tender age and that he regarded
Kartar Singh Sarabha as his hero. Bandi Jeewan by Sachindranath Sanyal, which included the first
historical account of the movement by an insider, was a basic textbook which he and his friends at
the National School at Lahore read and discussed. The Rowlett Committee Report of 1918, containing
the British Governments secret intelligence version of the Ghadar movement, was another.
Model Questions
6. Despite of two Anglo-Sikh wars that led to destruction of the Sikh sovereignty, the Sikh princes sided with the British during the
1857 revolt. Throw light on the reasons.
7. "The political activism and radicalism of the Ghadar movement was first and foremost directed at promoting Indian
Independence." Discuss.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 12
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

General Studies Paper-II : Salient Features of Indian Constitution


Basic Knowledge about Elections in India
According to the constitution, unless the term of Lok Sabha has been increased due to emergency, the Lok Sabha must be reconstituted an interval
of five years or earlier when parliament is dissolved by the president. The elections for 15th Lok Sabha were held in April-May 2014 and its term was
to expire on 31 May 2014. The General Elections 2014 were held for constitution of 16th Lok Sabha. Via these elections, 543 members were elected
in an election that ran into nine phases from 7 April to 12 May 2014. A total of 814.5 million people were eligible to vote, with an increase of 100
million voters since the last general election in 2009. This number made these elections largest in the country so far and largest election ever in the
world. More than 8200 persons contested for 543 seats. Average turnout was 66.38%, which is highest so far in the history of India's general
elections. The results were declared on 16th May. NDA got a clear mandate with 336 seats and 31% vote share. BJP, with 282 seats emerged as
single largest party with a clear mandate since 1984. UPA won 58 seats, including 44 seats by INC. The below study revisits important fundamental
topics related to elections in India.

Legal and Constitutional Framework around Elections


Democracy is one of the inalienable basic features of the Constitution of India and forms part of its basic
structure doctrine as propounded in the Kesavananda Bharati v State of Kerala and Others case of 1973. The
constitution visualizes the concept of democracy as representation of the people in Parliament and State
Legislatures by the method of election.
Free and Fair elections are bedrock of democracy. This is because; democracy can survive only when rule of law
prevails. For rule of law to prevail, best available persons should be chosen as peoples representatives; and for
election of the best available persons, elections must be free and fair and conducted in an atmosphere where
the electors are able to exercise their
0 The important acts related to elections in India are as follows:
franchise according to their own free will.
1 Constitution of India
Prerequisites for free and fair elections
Our country has adopted the British 2
Representation of the People Acts, 1950 and 1951 with their amendments and rules
made under them.
Westminster system of parliamentary form
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com
61.8.129.229

3 Parliament (Prevention of disqualification) Act, 1959


of government. We have an elected
4 Delimitation of Council Constituencies Orders.
President, elected Vice-President, elected
5 Presidential and Vice-Presidential Elections Act 1952
Parliament and elected State Legislature
for every State. Moreover, we also have elected municipalities, Panchayats and other local bodies. There are
three prerequisites for ensuring free and fair elections:
There should be an independent authority insulated from political and executive interference, to
conduct the elections.
There should be a set of laws to govern the conduct of elections. The authority charged with the
responsibility of conducting these elections should hold them
There should be a mechanism whereby all doubts and disputes arising in connection elections should
be resolved.
The constitution of India has paid attention to all the above three prerequisites.
To hold the elections as early as possible, the Article 324, which provides for the setting up of Election
Commission as an independent constitutional authority, was brought into force from 26th November, 1949. We
note here that the provisions of constitution of India which were given immediate effect from November 26,
1949 included Citizenship, Elections and Provisional Parliament under Article 327. Rest all became effective later.
ECI and other laws: Constitution and Legal Provisions
The Election Commission of India (ECI) was formally constituted on 25th January, 1950, i.e., one day before India
became Sovereign Democratic Republic. Indias First Chief Election Commissioner was Sh. Sukumar Sen, who
was appointed on 21st March, 1950.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 13
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

From 1950 to 1989, ECI worked as a single member body. From 1989 to 1990; it worked as a three member
body. In January 1990, it was again reverted back into a single member body. Since 1993, the ECI is working as a
three member body. The Constitutional provisions regarding ECI are summarized as below:
Article 324
Article 324 has vested the power of superintendence, direction and control of certain elections in the Election
Commission of India. These certain elections include:
8 All elections to Parliament
8 All elections to Legislature of every State including legislative council.
8 Offices of President
8 Office of Vice-President
The elections to the local bodies dont come under the purview of the Election Commission of India, instead they
are regulated by State election commissions.
Article 324 says that Election commission will be headed by Chief Election Commissioner. The number of
Election Commissioners has not been fixed and it is left to the President to decide. To maintain independence of
the constitution, article 324 makes provision that the Chief Election Commissioner can be removed from office
only in like manner and on the like grounds as a Judge of the Supreme Court. This implies that the removal
process is complex, lengthy and cumbersome. Further, an Election Commissioner cannot be removed unless
CEC recommends so. Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners are given the same salary
and allowances as of a Judge of the Supreme Court. All the three Commissioners have equal powers in decision
making and in case of any difference of opinion on any issue, the decision is taken by the majority. The term of
office of CEC and ECs is six years or till the age of 65, whichever is earlier.
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229

Article 325
Article 325 makes provisions for a single electoral roll for a constituency.
Article 326
Article 326 of the Constitution had originally granted electoral franchise to every Indian citizen who has attained
21 years of age and who has not been declared a bankrupt, criminal, insane or a non-resident. In 1988 the 62nd
amendment was passed by parliament whereby voting age has been reduced to 18 years.
Article 327 & 328
Article 327 vests in parliament the supreme power to make laws relating to elections- at central as well as state
levels. However, Article 328 gives the states also certain limited powers of legislation with respect to elections
to the Legislative Assemblies. The sole idea to give these limited powers to states was to avert the fear from the
mind of minorities in the states of being discriminated against by the majority. On this basis:
The law relating to the elections to the offices of President and Vice-President of India has been
enacted by Parliament in the form of Presidential and Vice-Presidential Elections Act 1952. This Act has
been supplemented by the Presidential and Vice-Presidential Elections Rules 1974 and further
supplemented by the Election Commissions directions and instructions on all aspects.
To govern the conduct of elections to Parliament and State Legislatures; Parliament of India passed
RoPA 1950 and RoPA 1951. The RoPA makes provisions related to qualifications of voters and matters
connected with the preparation of electoral rolls, laid down the procedure for delimitation of
constituencies and the number of seats in parliament to the states and fixed the number of seats in the
respective state legislative. The RoPA 1951 made provisions for actual conduct of elections and dealt in

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 14
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

detail with subjects like administrative machinery for conducting elections, the poll, election disputes,
by-elections, etc. These acts and rules pertaining to these acts have been amended from time to time.
The state election commissions have been also provided constitutional backing for conduct of elections
to municipalities, Panchayats and other local bodies (Articles 243 K and 243 ZA), which dont come
under the purview of ECI.
Article 329
Article 329 makes yet another provision for free and fair elections to be conducted by ECI. This article bars
interference by courts in electoral matters. This implies that:
8 The validity of Article 327 & 328 can NOT be challenged in court
8 An election of MLA or MP can be questioned in a court but only via election petitions.
We note here that while the constitution prescribes the method of the presidential and vice-presidential and
vice-presidential elections, it is parliamentary legislations (RoPA 1950/51), which decide the mode of election to
both national and state legislative bodies. With respect to the poll petitions, high court is original court while
Supreme Court is appellate court. Poll petitions can be filed for the violation of electoral procedure, the ineligibility
of the candidate, communal and monetary traps laid down to affect public opinion and he misuse of the official
machinery.
Powers & Functions of Election Commission of India
The powers of the election Commission are as follows
8 Superintendence , direction and control of all the elections mentioned above
8 Power of appointing
Member Name:election Election
Anand Mohan Member's Commission
Email address: is entrusted for
dubledoreslair@gmail.com the following:
61.8.129.229

tribunals for the decisions of 1 Election of President


doubts and disputes in connection 2 Election of Vice-President
with the elections. 3 Election of Lok Sabha as well as Rajya Sabha
8 Please note that Election commission 4 Elections to State Legislatures as well as Legislative Councils
of India is a permanent body. 5 Reservation of Seats in Lok Sabha and State Legislatures
Other Functions 6 Qualifications of the MPs and MLAs
B Preparation of Electoral rolls 7 Determination of population for purposes of election
B Recognition of political parties and
allotment of symbols
B Scrutiny of the nomination papers: Various Models of Election Commissions
Across the world, there are five different models of the Election
B Monitoring of Election Expenses Commissions. Our is an Independent model. Here, the ECI is independent
from executive and legislative branches of the government. The countries
Independence of ECI where this model is working include India, Pakistan, Australia, Canada,
The constitution of India has ensured that South Arica. In some countries such as India and South Africa, the
independence of the Election Commission has been guaranteed by the
the commission shall act as an constitution. The other models include
independent body. Independence is B Branch model (where EC is a separate branch of government,
example Bolivia),
secured by some of these provisions: B Mixed model (where there is an independent board but election are
The chief election commissioner shall not carried out by a department, example France, Germany and Japan),
B Executive Model (where there is a cabinet minister directing the
be removed from office except in like elections, example US, Denmark, Switzerland, Singapore) and
manner and on like grounds as a judge of B Judicial Model (where there is a electoral court to closely supervise
the Election Commission, example Brazil and Argentina).
the Supreme Court. A judge of supreme
court can be removed only by an order of the President passed after an address by each House of Parliament

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 15
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

supported by a majority of the total membership of that House and by a majority of not less than two thirds of
the members of that House present and voting has been presented to the President in the same session for
such removal on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity. The other election commissioners cannot be
removed from office without recommendation of the CEC. Their conditions of service shall not be varied to their
disadvantage after their appointment. It is the duty of the president or the governor of a state to make available
to the commission , when so requested, such staff as may be necessary for the conduct of its functions.
From Balloting System to EVMs
The population of India as per the 1951 Census was 35.66 Crore. In the first general elections held between
October 1951 to March 1952, 17.32 Crore Indians exercised their right to vote. The first Lok Sabha consisting of
497 members was constituted on 2nd April, 1952. The first Rajya Sabha consisting of 216 members was
constituted on 3rd April, 1952. Following this, first presidential elections were held in May, 1952 and the first duly
elected President assumed charge of office on 13th May, 1952. At the time of first General Elections, ECI had
recognized 14 political parties as multi-state parties and 39 parties as the state parties. Currently, there are six
recognized National parties and 47 recognized State parties.
Balloting System versus Marking system
For the first and second General Elections in 1951-52, and 1957, ECI had adopted the Balloting System of voting.
Under this system, every candidate was allotted a separate ballot box at each polling station in a screened
compartment and the voter was required only to drop his ballot paper, the centrally pre-printed ballot papers
into the ballot box of the candidate of his choice. However, from the 3rd General Elections in 1962 onwards, the
Commission switched over to marking system of voting. Under this system, a common ballot paper containing
the names and election symbols of all contesting candidates is printed on which the voter has to put a mark with
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229
an arrow cross mark rubber stamp on or near the symbol of the candidate of his choice. All the marked ballot
papers are put into a common ballot box.
Electronic Voting Machines
The Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) were used for the first time in part of Parur Assembly Constituency in
Kerala in 1982, on experimental basis. Later, the extensive use of EVMs started in 1998. The EVMs were used at
all polling stations in the country in the 14th General Election to the Lok Sabha in 2004 for the first time. Since
then all elections to Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies have been held using EVMs.
Representations of Peoples Acts
The 1950 law makes provisions for allocation of seats in Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies, Delimitation of
Constituencies, Qualifications of voters, Manner of filling the seats of Rajya Sabha by Union Territory
representatives etc.
The 1951 Law makes provisions for conduct of elections to Parliament and state legislatures, Qualifications and
disqualifications, various offences, various doubts and disputes etc.
Salient Notes from Representation of the People Acts, 1950
B All seats in Lok Sabha to be filled by direct election. One seat for every constituency and one person
for one seat.
B In all states and UTs except Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh, the extent of a constituency is to be
determined by the Delimitation Commission made under Delimitation Act 1972. For Sikkim, the
extent of assembly to be defined by Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order,
1976, and Representation of the People (Amendment) Act, 1980.Election commission conferred the
power to keep Delimitation Order up-to-date.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 16
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

B Election Commission has been also conferred the power to determine the constituencies to be
reserved for Scheduled Tribes in the states of Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura.
B President of India conferred the power to amend orders delimiting constituencies, only after consulting
the Election Commission.
B Each state to have a Chief electoral officer nominated or designated by Election Commission in
consultation with the state government. The Election Commission will also appoint district level election
commissioners in consultation with the state government.
B Each constituency has to have an electoral roll. No person to be registered in electoral rolls of more
than one constituency. No Person to be registered more than once in any constituency. A person shall
be disqualified for registration in an electoral roll if he is either not a citizen of India or is of unsound
mind or is disqualified from voting.
B The electoral roll for each constituency has to be prepared in the prescribed manner. Any person
whose name is not included in the electoral roll of a constituency may apply to the electoral
registration officer for the inclusion of his name in that roll.
B Power to make rules under this act conferred to Central Government, which can exercise this power in
consultation with Election Commission. The Civil Courts have also been barred to question the legality
of any action of electoral registration officer regarding revision of such electoral roll.
Salient Notes from Representation of Peoples Act 1951
Voter Qualification Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229

8 Only an elector can be a representative. If a person is not qualified to vote, he cannot represent the
people in the Lok Sabha as well as Rajya Sabha.
8 In case of Lok Sabha, if the seat is reserved for SC, a non-SC voter cannot be elected to that seat; if the
seat is reserved for ST, a non-ST voter cannot be elected to that seat. He must be from these categories
however; he may be a voter registered from any other constituency within India. However, in case of
autonomous districts of Assam, Sikkim, ST seat for Lakshadweep, the elector should be enrolled as a
voter in the same constituency.
8 The same criteria are followed in legislative assembly of state, barring that the elector should be an
eligible voter in the same state.
Disqualification matters
If a person is convicted under a punishable offence related to promoting enmity, bribery, undue
influence or personation at an election, rape, cruelty towards a woman, creating or promoting enmity,
hatred or ill-will between classes, promoting religious acrimony, practice of untouchability, import and
export of prohibited goods, any other unlawful activities, FEMA, laws related to Narcotics, terrorism
acts, offences related to religious places and religious practices, offences related to insulting the
National Insignia, Constitution of India, offence related to practice of Sati and so on... will be
disqualified if sent to jail for at least 2 years. This disqualification is for six year after the person is
released from jail.
The other grounds for disqualification are as follows:
o If found guilty of corrupt practices

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 17
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

o Dismissed for corruption


o Disqualified for a contract entered into with government related matters
o A person remains disqualified as long as he managing agent, manager or secretary of any
government company or corporation
o If fails to lodge expense accounts of elections
Provisions related to political parties
Every association or body which calls itself a political party shall have to apply to Election Commission of India
for registration. The election commission will register that party after considering all the particulars, relevant
factors and after hearing the representatives of the party.
The Election Commission's decision regarding registration will be final.
If a political party changes its name or address, it shall communicate the election commission as soon as it
does so.
A registered political party may accept any voluntary contribution by any person or company within India
other than a government company. Political parties are not allowed to seek and receive contribution from a
foreign source.
Each political party has to prepare the report related to contribution more than ` 20,000 from persons and
companies in year and submit it to the Election Commission.
National Party versus State Parties
Structurally, a party is recognized as state political party if it has secured at least 6% of the total votes given in
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229

the state in the general or assembly elections and also the party has been able to grab at least 3% of total seats
or a total of 3 seats in the state legislative assemblies.
It becomes a national party if it manages to get minimum of 6% of the valid votes cast for assembly or general
elections from within a total electorate of 4 or more
Relevance of Coalition Dharma
states. In addition to this, the party seeking national Lately in coalition politics, it had become the norm for the
status must also win at least 2% (11 out of 543 seats) national parties to join hands with regional parties to form
government at the center. In the absence of a clear
seats in Lok Sabha from at least three different states OR mandate therefore, the regional parties had gained
a total of 4 seats in Lok Sabha from any number of significance and sometimes even emerged as kingmakers.
The fallout was that, the national party was able to rule only
state(s). at the mercy of their regional supporters (in the name of
Coalition Dharma) rendering decision making in
Functionally, the national party usually seeks a majority in government a slow and cumbersome process. With India
Lok Sabha to become able to influence national politics MODIfied in the recent elections, the coalition politics at
centre has vanished, at least for 16th Lok Sabha.
and therefore it raises issues of national and international
interest. Whereas the Regional party advocates the interest of the state it represents and greater autonomy
from central government. At the present moment we have a total of 6 national parties namely: INC, BJP, BSP, CPI,
CPI-M and NCP. Whereas the number of regional parties is well above 700.
Right to Vote
Any person who is duly enrolled on a electoral roll and is not disqualified to vote, shall have right to vote. One
person can vote at one constituency only and only for one time in a particular election. If a person votes in more
than one constituency, all his votes will be deemed void in all constituencies. If a person is jailed / lawful
detention at the time he shall not be eligible for voting. However, if a person is in preventive custody, he can
vote.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 18
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

Other salient provisions


8 Every elected candidate shall submit the declaration of his assets and liabilities within 90 days from
taking oath.
8 Every contesting candidate is required to maintain account of election expenses.
8 Election petitions are to be heard in high Court and appeal to Supreme Court. High court has to
conclude such petition within six
months from the date of petition.
Election Offenses
High Court will intimate its
Promoting enmity
decision to Election Commission Public meetings within prior 48 hours of polling.
and Speaker / Chairman. Appeal Creating disturbance
Restriction on the printing of pamphlets, posters etc.
to Supreme Court can be made
Officers acting for a candidate
within 30 days. Canvassing in or near polling stations.
8 The Corrupt practices which can Illegal hiring or procuring of conveyance
Breach of official duty
lead to cancelling of an election Removal of ballot papers
include bribery, undue influence, Booth capturing.
No liquor sale within 48 hours prior to the polling to the conclusion of
promotion of enmity, hiring of polling.
vehicles to and from polling
stations.
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229
8 In case of any enquiry, the election commission is conferred the powers of a Civil Court for
summoning and enforcing the attendance of any person or any evidence. The election has power to
regulate its own procedure.
8 For election related works, the following are to be made available to election commission viz. every
local authority, university, Government Company, any other institution undertaking under the control
of state or central government.
8 A candidate contesting election to Lok Sabha has to make a deposit of Rs.25,000/- as security, whereas,
for all other elections, the amount of security deposit is Rs.12,500/-. Candidates belonging to scheduled
caste and scheduled tribe get a concession of 50% in respect of the amounts of security deposit
mentioned above. (Section 34).

SVEEP Programme
Qualitatively and quantitatively, the voter's participation is bedrock for a participative democracy. Similarly, the
voter registration and electorate education are central to the election management process. India faces a huge
gap between what the voters should know and what they actually know in relation to various components of the
election process. Further, it has been also observed that voter awareness alone does not convert the voters into
actually casting their votes.
The Systematic Voters Education and Electoral Participation (SVEEP) programme of Election Commission of India
is a landmark programme to inform, educate, motivate and facilitate voters and in turn make Indian democracy
more participative and meaningful.
In this programme, every aspect of the election process is simulated to ensure enhanced voters participation in the
polling. It is the impact of this programme that during last few years, the voter registration has continuously

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 19
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

gone up and high voter turnout with greater participation from youth and women has become possible. Here
are some important trivia and notes regarding this programme:
The SVEEP programme began from Bihar.
The programme involved an array of simple policy initiatives and activities intended to improve
peoples participation in the electoral process.
The sole idea is to remove gaps in information, motivation and facilitation of the voters and then increase
voter turnout in elections.
The programme involved carrying out Voters Behaviour Surveys. These surveys found out underlying
reasons for under registration, problems in getting duplicate EPIC, correcting names on voter list and
various information gaps and low voter turn-out. These surveys also helped to map the demographics
of elector-segments with lower electoral participation.
To increase the participation of youth and women, ECI made some direct interventions such as making
the enrolment process easier and convenient and people friendly.
Implementation
8 To implement the programme, the ECI created a SVEEP wing to formulate policies, lay down the
framework and to plan & monitor interventions. The SVEEP wing carries out continuous discourse with
voting public, civil society groups and media.
8 Apart from that, the ECI initiated some internal organizational changes in the state level and had also
created state and district level
Member Name: core
Anand groups
Mohan Member'sto coordinate
Email and implement
address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com all SVEEP activities.
61.8.129.229

8 Further, the ECI collaborated with educational institutions, youth organizations such as NYKS, NSS, NCC
etc. to tap new voters and promote greater awareness.
8 ECI also collaborated with 0 What Consists of Voter Education?
Central and State 0 Voter should be aware of:

governments and 1 Voter registration

departments so that these 2 EPIC/Identity proofs


3 Polling station location
departments can extend their
4 Use of EVMs
existing infrastructure and
5 Timing of the poll
manpower (field 6 Dos and donts with regard to Model Code of Conduct
functionaries) for electoral 7 Use of money, muscle and liquor power by candidate or their associate to influence electorate

education and outreach. 8 How to file complaints

8 ECI also collaborated with


Government media, private media, Civil Society and credible NGOs for increasing peoples awareness
regarding electoral participation.
8 For increasing electoral literacy, the ECI signed an MOU in 2013 with NLMA (National Literacy Mission
Authority). In fact, electoral literacy was made a major component of the Sakshar Bharat Programme of
the Government of India. We note here that the ECI and UNDP also have an MoU in the field of Voter
Education.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 20
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

8 ECI also introduced students as Campus Ambassadors in educational institutions to facilitate the SVEEP
Programme.
8 To create awareness, the EC is making use of popular persons such as former President A P J Abdul
Kalam, cricketer M S Dhoni, badminton player Saina Nehwal and boxer Mary Kom. The campaign was
and is being carried out mainly at public places such as railway stations, bus stations, busy junctions,
educational institutions and cinemas besides the contemporary media.
National Voters Day
In order to reach out to the masses, ECI initiated a practice to celebrate the National Voters Day on its
foundation day, 25th January, in 2011. It is considered to be a significant step among the various SVEEP
initiatives.
Appraisal
It was during the Bihar election in 2010 that the Components of SVEEP Programme
Election Commission first launched a project to 1 Voters Behaviour Survey
create awareness on the importance of voting. 2 Formulation of State and District level SVEEP plans
Later, it was modified as SVEEP. One of the major 3 Personnel for State level
components of the programme is Voters Behaviour 4 State and District level core groups
Surveys to understand the nature of the voters. As
5 Collaboration with Government departments
a result of the campaigning under SVEEP, the rate of
6 Collaboration with CSOs, Media and organisations
polling has increased in various states. Although it
7 National Voters Day
cannot be said that the programme has been highly
8 Identification of National and
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com State Icons
61.8.129.229
successful everywhere in India, but yes, its
contribution towards increase voter participation overall is worth praise. In Uttar Pradesh, the ECI launched a
very successful campaign Do minute vote ke liye to enlist voters and bring them to the polling booth. Similar
campaigns were carried out in different parts of the country at state and district level.
Election Expenditures
Without money, multi-party democracy cannot function. But there are certain risks of money power such as:
8 Money creates uneven playing field and lack of fair competition
8 Certain sections / parties face disadvantage and political exclusion
8 Money Power results in tainted governance and undermining of rule of law
Influence of money in Indian elections is not a new phenomenon. This was reported even during the Nehru era
which is called golden era of Indian democracy. But in those times, influence of money was much limited in
comparison to modern times. According to a February 2014 study carried out by Centre for Media Studies, the
2014 General Elections in India were estimated to incur an expenditure of Rs. 30,000 crore by Government,
political parties and candidates, making it by far the most expensive electoral exercise in Indian history. If true,
these figures would rival the USD 7 billion (approximately Rs. 42,000 crore) spent by candidates and parties in
the 2012 US presidential elections.
The Expenditure Limit What is NOT election expenditure?
The section 77 of RoPA 1951 mandates that every Section 77 of the RoPA, 51 says that the expenditure incurred
by leaders of a political party on account of travel by air or by
candidate at an election needs to keep a separate and any other means of transport for propagating programme of
the political party is not considered to be the election
correct account of all poll expenditures between the expenditure. Further, any expenditure which is done for
date on which he was nominated to date on which service of the Government and discharge of official duty is
also not considered to be election expenditure
results are declared. Thus, legislation mandates for
maintenance of records, but there is no such statutorily defined limit on poll expenditures. However, we have a

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 21
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

ceiling on election expenses fixed by the Government of India. As per the current norms, the maximum limit of
election expenses per candidate is as follows:
Lok Sabha Constituencies
8 Rs. 70 Lakh for all States except Arunachal Pradesh, Goa
All Political parties sponsoring candidates for the
and Sikkim. elections are required to maintain day to day
accounts for all election campaign expenses and
8 Rs. 54 Lakh for Arunachal Pradesh, Goa and Sikkim = submit the accounts to the Commission within 90
54.00 Lakhs days of Lok Sabha Elections and 75 days of Assembly
Elections.
8 Rs. 70 Lakh for NCT of Delhi
8 Rs. 54 Lakh for other Union Territories.
Assembly Constituencies
8 Rs. 28 Lakh for bigger states and NCT of Delhi
8 Rs. 20 Lakh for smaller states and UTs.
Please note that these ceilings are fixed by the Union Government by order and NOT by election commission.
Election commission however recommends the same to the government. The objective of these provisions is to
encourage candidates to declare their poll expenses truthfully in the interest of greater transparency.
Election Expenditure Monetary System
The ECI has launched a robust Election Expenditure Monetary System mechanism to curb the influence of
money power in elections. It was first implemented in 2010 in Bihar and subsequently taken to other states till
recently in the General Elections. Some notable features of this mechanism include:
8 Separate bank account
Memberby each
Name: Anand contesting candidate
Mohan Member's Email for incurring all61.8.129.229
address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com poll expenditures and incurring
expenditure via cheques / DDs only.
8 A complaint-monitoring cell in each district with 24X7 toll free number
8 Flying Squads, Quick Response Teams, Static Surveillance Teams headed by Executive Magistrates to
track illegal cash transaction or any distribution liquor or any items for bribing/ inducement of the
voters.
8 All airports in the State, major railway stations, hotels, farm houses, hawala agents, financial brokers,
cash couriers, pawn brokers and other suspicious agencies/persons engaged in movement of cash are
to be kept under close surveillance by the Income Tax Department and necessary action to be taken as
per the provisions of the Income Tax Act.
8 Monitoring of suspicious cash withdrawal from any bank account during election process.
8 Expenditure Observers are appointed for each district with senior officers from Income Tax
Department, Customs & Central Excise Department and other finance & accounts services from outside
the State to oversee the election expenditure by the candidates during election.
8 Assistant Expenditure Observers are appointed for each constituency, to assist the Expenditure
Observers.
8 Shadow Observation Register is maintained in each constituency for each candidate to record major
expenses observed during the election.
8 Video Surveillance Team is constituted with camera persons and Govt. officials in each team to
videograph major election campaign expenses.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 22
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

8 Accounting Team is constituted in each constituency to maintain Shadow Observation Register and the
folder of evidence.
8 Media Certification and Media Expenditure Monitoring Committee (MCMC) constituted to monitor both
print and electronic media including cable network, social media etc. for election advertisement and
suspected Paid News.
8 Campaign for ethical voting.
The above measures have gone a long way in curbing pernicious effect of money power during the General
Elections held in the last four years. But, there is still a lot of distance to be covered in this regard to eliminate
the deep seated malady.
Electoral Trust Scheme
In recent times, many of India's biggest industrial houses have taken advantage of a new law to set up electoral
trusts, hoping to make wavelets of their own by giving money to their favourite political parties. The legal
framework for these trusts was introduced in January 2013, ostensibly with the idea of bringing transparency to
the way campaigns are funded. For the first time, in this election private firms can donate money to political
parties without any restrictionin exchange for disclosing what they have donated. Here is a brief information
about electoral trusts.
What is the idea behind an Electoral Trust?
Election funding for political parties has always been a topic of discussion and there have been demands from
various quarters to make the process more transparent. The Finance Act of 2009 had set provisions for Electoral
Trusts under the Income Tax Act 1961. Section 13B of the Act provides that the companies and entities looking
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229

to provide funding to political parties can set up non-profit companies, which mandatorily contain 'Electoral Trust'
in their names. Any voluntary contributions received by an Electoral Trust shall not be included in the total
income of the previous year of such Electoral Trust, if such Electoral Trust donates at least 95 percent of that
money to registered political parties. This simply implies that tax benefits are available on funds given to political
outfits through electoral trusts. The objective to bring transparency in the political funding and poll funding.
Definition of Electoral Trust
An Electoral Trust is a non-profit
company established for orderly receipt 0 Salient Features / Prerequisites of Electoral Trusts

of the voluntary contributions from any 1 Formation on or after 01.04.2012.


person (or company) for distributing the 2 The name shall include the phrase electoral trust.
same to the respective political parties, 3 Essentially Non-profit.
registered under Section 29A of the
Sole object of the electoral trust is to distribute the contributions received by it to
Representation of People Act, 1951. 4 political parties registered under Section 29A of Representation of People Act,
1951
Such a company is registered under
Companies Act comes under the purview 5 Each electoral trust shall have a permanent account number.
of CBDT for tax matters. 6 Governed by Companies Act 1956 and now 2013
Who can contribute to electoral trusts? 7 Need to contribute 95 per cent of total funds collected to political parties
The electoral trust may receive voluntary
contributions from
8 An individual who is a citizen of India
8 a company which is registered in India and
8 a firm or Hindu undivided family or an Association of persons or a body of individuals, resident in India.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 23
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

Who shall not contribute to Electoral Trust?


The electoral trust shall not accept contributions-
8 From an individual who is not a citizen of India or
8 from any foreign entity whether incorporated or not and
8 from any other electoral trust which has been registered as a company under section 25 of the
Companies Act, 1956 and approved as an electoral trust under the Electoral Trusts Scheme, 2013.
Appraisal of the Electoral Trusts
An approved electoral trust can receive voluntary contributions and distribute the same to the political parties.
Thus, the work of the trust is only two fold. Receive it and donate it to political parties. No other work or
business is allowed. One trust cannot donate to other. The electoral Trusts Scheme is relatively new scheme and
is part of the ever going electoral reforms in the country. The scheme brings in more transparency in the funds
provided by corporate entities to the political parties for their election-related expenses.
This scheme has been welcomed by companies and corporate mainly due to its simplicity and tax benefits. By
March 2014, at least 14 electoral trusts have been registered in India and this count must have become larger
with the conclusion of the General Elections. The major groups which have registered their electoral trusts
include Mahindra group, Anil Ambani-led Reliance Group, Anil Agarwal-led Vedanta Group, Sunil Mittal-led Bharti
Group and Kolkata-based K K Birla Group etc.
Indelible Ink, EVM, VVPAT
Indelible Ink
Indelible ink which is applied to fingers of voters during elections to prevent double voting contains Silver
nitrate, which make it stain Member
the skin, almost impossible to wash off, subject to Lime juice theory of Sharad Pawar
Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229

J.
The ink has been produced by Mysore Paints and Varnish Limited (MPVL) and it is not only used in India but also
exported to many other countries. It is put on the left hand
forefinger nail of the voter. If the voter does not have a left hand forefinger, the indelible ink should be applied
on any finger on his left hand. If he or she does not have any fingers on the left hand, the ink will have to be
applied on the right hand forefinger. If the voter does not have a right hand forefinger, the ink can be applied on
any finger. But if there are no fingers on either hand, the ink should be applied on 'such extremity (stump) of his
left or right hand as he possesses. Usually Indelible Ink is in violet color. South American country, Suriname,
used Orange color ink in its legislative elections of 2005.
Electronic Voting Machines
Electronic Voting Machines (EVM) was first used in 1982 in the by-election to Parur Assembly Constituency of
Kerala for a limited number of polling stations (50 polling
Bhutan used the Indian EVMs for the whole country
stations). They are being used in part from 1999 elections and during their last elections. These machines were also
in total since 2004 elections. The EVMs reduce the time in both used by Nepal for some of their constituencies during
the last general elections in the country.
casting a vote and declaring the results compared to the old
paper ballot system. Bogus voting and booth capturing can be
greatly reduced by the use of EVMs. Illiterate people find EVMs easier than ballot paper system. EVMs are easier
to transport as compared to ballot boxes.
The invalid and doubtful votes in the earlier ballot and box system have been almost eliminated by use of EVMs.
These were the root causes of many election petitions. Further, EVMs reduce a great extent the quantity of
paper used thus saving a large number of trees making the process eco-friendly. It reduces cost of printing
almost nil as only one sheet of ballot paper required for each Polling Station.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 24
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

Unique Features
8 Simple machine, can be operated easily by both polling personnel and the voters.
8 Sturdy and able to withstand rough handling and Before their introduction, the ECI had discussed about
variable climatic conditions. EVMs with all the recognized political parties and held
demonstration before them. Moreover, opinion of the
8 Standalone machine without network connectivity. Technical Committee comprising Prof. S. Sampath,
Prof. P.V. Indiresan and Dr. C Rao Kasarbada was also
Due to this, nobody can interfere with its obtained. The Committee examined the machines
minutely from all technical angles and unanimously
programming and manipulate the result. recommended their use in elections.
8 Does not run on electricity but on alkaline batteries.
So can work with erratic / absent power supply.
Manufacturing
The EVMs are manufactured by two central government undertakings viz. Bharat Electronics Limited and
Electronics Corporation of India Limited.
Design
An EVM consists of two interlinked units viz. ballot unit (used by voter uses to exercise his / her vote) and
control unit (used by the polling officials).
8 The Ballot Unit is the simple voting device. It displays
the list of candidates. A facility to incorporate party
names and symbols is in-built. All the voter has to do is
press the desired switch located next to the name of
each candidate. The main advantage is the speed,
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229

apart from the simplicity of operation, which requires


no training at all. A single ballot unit takes in the
names of 16 candidates. And thus, by connecting four
ballot units the EVM can accommodate a total of 64
candidates in a single election.
8 The control unit is the main unit which stores all data
and controls the functioning of EVM.
8 The new EVMs have also got real time clock and date-
time stamping facility which enables them to record
the exact time and date whenever a key is pressed.
After the voting is completed and the close button is pressed, the machine does not accept any data or
record any vote. Through the press of total button, the control unit can display the number of votes
recorded till that time which can be cross checked with the register of voters in Form 17-A.
8 The display system of the control unit shows the total number of votes polled in a polling station and
the candidate-wise votes polled in the machine when the result button is pressed by the counting staff
in the presence of counting agents at the counting centre. The control unit can also detect any physical
tampering made with the connecting cable and indicate the same in the display unit.
Capacity
Normally less than 1400 votes are assigned to a polling station. An EVM can record a maximum of 3840 votes
which exceeds this number. Elections can be conducted through EVMs when the maximum number of

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 25
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

candidates does not exceed 64. If the number of candidates exceeds 64, then there is no option than to use the
conventional method of ballot papers.
Security Features / Tamperproof
The following information has been sourced from Election Commission website:
The program which controls the functioning of the control unit is burnt into a micro chip on a one time
programmable basis. Once burnt it cannot be read, copied out or altered. The EVMs use dynamic coding to
enhance security of data transmitted from ballot unit to control unit. The fused program can neither be altered
nor overwritten. Any attempt to burn additional or substitute code on the chip would destroy its existing
program and render it unusable/useless. As an additional precautionary measure, the machines prepared for a
poll are physically sealed in the presence of candidates or their agents and kept in secure strong rooms guarded
by Central Police Force which can also be watched by the representatives of the candidates. The storage places
for these pre-poll or polled EVMs can be accessed only by following a stringent procedure set by the Commission
ensuring complete transparency.
EVM randomization
Despite the EVMs being tamper proof, further precautions are taken by way of a two stage randomization
process for the EVMs to be used in an election. This is done to make sure that nobody comes to know
beforehand to which constituency/ polling station a specific EVM will be used. For this purpose, serial numbers
of all the EVMs to be used under the jurisdiction of a District Election Officer are listed. The EVMs which are to be
used in a particular constituency is then randomly selected through a computerized process which is known as
first level randomization. Another randomization called second level randomization is done by the Returning
Officer afterwards to determine which specific EVM will be used at a particular polling station of that
constituency. Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229

VVPAT
Voter-verified paper audit trail (VVPAT) also known as verified paper record (VPR) is a verification system for
voting machines that allows voters to verify whether or not their vote was cast correctly, to detect possible fraud
or malfunction, and to provide a means to audit the stored electronic results.
The VVPAT is a paper-based record rather than computer memory-based record. It is readable by the human
eye and allows voters to interpret their vote directly. Whereas Computer memory needs a device and software,
etc. It adds a layer of security to the mandate as insecure voting machine records could be changed quickly
without detection but it would be difficult for voting machines to
corrupt paper records without human intervention. A VVPAT
allows voters to verify that their votes are cast as intended. It can
also serve as an additional barrier to changing votes.
Under VVPAT, a printer is linked to the EVM and a receipt is
generated when the vote is cast. This receipt is then kept locked
with the election officers to be viewed in the rare case of a fraud.
The system is being introduce to upgrade the process of
digitization of the voting process and not because the EVMs are
unsafe.
VVPAT can introduce large concerns over reliability, records printed on thermal papers can fade over time and in
the event that audit is conducted, it is unclear which count will be considered the actual count as machines on
both ends of the security spectrum can malefaction or be hacked.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 26
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

Maintaining Accuracy of electoral rolls


In the 2014 Lok Sabha Elections, some questions were raised about the efficiency of the process of electoral rolls
revision and updating. However, there have been robust steps taken by the ECI to ensure the integrity and
accuracy of electoral rolls from year to year and election to election.
Going back, in 1993 the Election Commission of India (ECI) had initiated the issue of Electors Photo Identity Cards
(EPIC), which gives every voter a unique identification number. ECI also followed it up with computerization of
the all electoral rolls in a phased manner. Some states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu even published photo
electoral rolls. More recently, online registration of voters was meant to ensure a near-foolproof voters list by
eliminating impersonation and bogus/ghost voting.
This year, the ECI launched a nationwide online electoral roll search to be used by voters from their computers
or even smartphones to search their names on the rolls. Furthermore, the system of distribution of booth slips
also helps those on the rolls find their polling booth and makes a good cross-checking device. However much
needs to be done to maintain the accuracy of the lists and to decentralize the inclusion and deletion of names in
the voter list at the ward level. The lists should be linked to a real time database that may reflect any changes
made to address or name-change immediately.
The whole process needs to be made more citizen-friendly by providing an online portal for viewing, editing and
changing particulars and applying for and issuing of new voter-id cards.
NOTA
While deciding on a demand for providing negative voting, the Supreme Court, on September 27, 2013 had
made a judgement thereby directing the Election Commission to provide the NOTA (None of the Above) option
on ballot papers and EVMs. In this judgement, the Supreme Court had given the following two important
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229
pronouncements:
8 Recognition of the right to a negative vote (even though it will not affect the result) as a part of freedom
of expression, as envisaged in Article 21
8 Direction to Election Commission to introduce NOTA on the EVM (and ballot paper) to ensure voter
secrecy (earlier it used to be a register)
India has become the 12th country to introduce NOTA or a similar option in its electoral proceedings. Other
countries which provide this option are: France, Belgium, Greece, Brazil, and Bangladesh.
Implications:
The NOTA option is not new; it was there before this judgement also. However, earlier, the option was
as per rule 49-O of Conduct of Election Rules, whereby the voters were required to register their
option of NOTA in a register. This would compromise the secrecy of the candidates.
By implementing the NOTA button on EVMs, the right to vote and right to not to vote have been kept at
same pedestal, while maintaining secrecy.
NOT will be electronically counted. But it will not affect the election results even if the NOTA votes
exceed 50% of the total votes cast, because winner will be selected on the basis of rest of votes on the
basis of first past the post system.
NOTA is thus, basically a symbolic step towards electoral reforms to strengthen the democratic set up of
India.
In the judgment, Supreme Court also commented in the dubious quality of the candidates and need for
candidates with ethical and moral values. The Court also commented on voter apathy. Voter apathy towards
election is not a good sign for democracy. Responsible citizens are expected to come to the poling booth. One of

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 27
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

the major reasons of growing voter apathy is the increased criminalization of the politics and rampant use of
money power.
NOTA versus Right to Reject
NOTA is not right to reject; but will let the disillusioned voters be heard. There was a demand from some sections of
the society for a "right to reject" whereby voters are given right to reject the candidates with criminal and
otherwise tainted background. The demand was such that if more than 50% voters reject all candidates, there
should be a forced re-election of that particular seat. It is not possible because of many practical reasons such
as:
If a list of candidates on the ballot is rejected by the voters, will all of them stand disqualified? The
innocent and clear record candidates may suffer along with those who have tainted backgrounds.
If all of them are not disqualified, then how to define, who would disqualify and who will not?
If some of them are disqualified then for how long they would remain disqualified?
If there is a re-election and the voters find that the new candidates are even worse than the previous
ones and then again reject all of them; then will there be again a re-election. How long such re-
elections would be conducted? Won't this lead to election fatigue?
Conducting re-elections again and again for a particular constituency consume too much resources and
time.
The Model Code of Conduct remains in force from the time the dates of election are announced by EC
till elections are over. All major government decisions such as transfers, budget related etc. are put on
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229
hold in such period. If there are recurrent elections at a particular place, it will affect the works of the
government.
Frequent re-elections would lead to voter's apathy; the turn-out will reduce in successive re-elections.
As of now, we don't have a right to reject. Before India heads for such right, the above questions need to be
solved first. Democracy is not just about exercising the right to vote; it is also about voting responsibly.
Model Questions
8. "Free and Fair elections are bedrock of democracy."Discuss throwing light on various constitutional and statutory provisions made
to ascertain free and fair elections in India.
9. What provisions have been made in the constitution of India to ascertain independence of the Constitution? Objectively elaborate
the Powers & Functions of Election Commission.
10. What are the qualifications to exercise right to vote in India? On what accounts, one's voting rights can be taken away? Discuss.
11. Discuss the salient provisions in RoPA 1951 with reference to the Political parties in India.
12. Objectively differentiate between a national party and state parties, throwing light on role of regional parties in centre post 2014
elections.
13. What are the major elections offenses as per RoPA? How election commission has been empowered to handle these offenses?
14. Objectively discuss various components of the SVEEP Programme.
15. "Qualitatively and quantitatively, the voter's participation is bedrock for a participative democracy." To what extent, the SVEEP
programme has been able to improve voter's participation. Analyze.
16. "Voter's education is much broader area than merely imparting knowledge about the use of Electronic Voting Machines." Discuss.
17. What are electoral trusts? Discuss their objectives and roll in bringing transparency in political funding in India.
18. Make a neat diagram of an Electronic Voting Machine throwing light on how it works.
19. Discuss the efforts made by Election Commission of India to maintain accuracy of electoral rolls.
20. "NOTA is not right to reject; but will let the disillusioned voters be heard." Discuss.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 28
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

General Studies Paper-III


Advanced Price Agreements (APA)
On March 31, 2014, India signed its first batch of five advance pricing agreements (APAs) with multinational companies. The concept of Advanced
Pricing Agreement (APA) was introduced in India via the Finance Act 2012.
The international transactions are complex and involve more than one country. The sole objective of the APA is
to bring tax certainty in international transactions and overcome the issues due to transfer pricing between
related parties. By related parties, we mean to say that one party is a holding, subsidiary or an associate
company of another party.
We understand this by the following example.
Suppose a US resident company US Inc. purchases goods for 100 rupees and sells it to its associated Indian
resident company India Inc. for 200 rupees, who in turn sells in the open market in India for 400 rupees. Had A
sold it direct, it would have made a profit of 300 rupees. But by routing it through B, it restricted it to 100 rupees,
permitting B to appropriate the balance. The transaction between A and B is intentionally arranged and not
governed by market forces. The profit of 200 rupees is, thereby, shifted to the country of B. The goods is
transferred on a price (transfer price) which is arbitrary or dictated (200 hundred rupees), but not on the market
price (400 rupees). Thus, the effect of transfer pricing is that the parent company or a specific subsidiary tends
to produce insufficient taxable income or excessive loss on a transaction. The Income Tax authorities may object
to the low profits or losses incurred by the India arm. On the other hand, the US tax authories may also raise a
question why the US Inc. sold the goods to India Inc for lower profits. It is also possible that against the actual
income of Rs. 400; the two related parties may end up paying double taxation on profits. The two companies
may also involve in litigations in respective countries.
To avoid uncertainty, a principleMember
of arm's-length price (ALP) is used to decide what price should be charged by related parties, that is,
Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229

the price two unrelated parties would charge under similar circumstances. Although there are various methods to determine ALP,
yet, there is no scientific way to calculate an exact one. Further, the two countries often take the benefit of a provision in the double
taxation avoidance agreements/conventions (DTAAs/DTACs) called mutual agreement procedure (MAP). In the above example,
competent authorities of India and the US would negotiate how much of total profit would be taxable in India and how much in the
US, so that there is no double taxation.
But the mutual agreement procedure (MAP) is a post-assement process and may take long time. To remove this
problems, some countries have advance pricing agreement/arrangement scheme (APA scheme). Under this
scheme, which was introduced by India in Finance Act 2002, the two competent authorities will negotiate in
advance to determine the ALP of the future international transaction. Thus, APAs bring tax certainty, reduce
litigation expenses and avoid risk of double taxation. An APA brings extra revenue to the tax administration.
The APAs may be bilateral or unilateral. When the competent authorities of two countries negotiate in advance
to determine the ALP of the future international transaction, it is called bilateral APA. On the other hand;
sometimes, taxpayers may like to go for unilateral APA, to have an agreement only with one government
authority to have tax certainty in that country. This is called Unilateral APA and it is generally done when there is
no DTAA/DTAC between the two countries or that the taxpayer is only looking for tax certainty in one country.
Recently signed agreements are five unilateral APAs signed by CBDA for five years. The agreements specify the
Arms Length Price for the Covered International Transactions Entered into by the Taxpayers. These agreements
cover a range of international transactions, including interest payments, corporate guarantees, non -binding
investment advisory services and contract manufacturing. The agreements pertain to different industrial sectors
including pharmaceuticals, telecom, exploration and financial services.
Model Question
21. In comparison to mutual agreement procedure (MAP), the advance pricing agreement/arrangement (APA) promise more
advantages. Discuss.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 29
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

S e c t i o n B : S ho r t N o t e s , Up d a t e s , A r t i c l e s a n d E s s a y s
International Year of Family Farming
What is this?
2014 is declared by the United Nations IFAD (International Fund for Agriculture Development) as the International Year of
Family Farming (IYFF) in order to recognize the importance of family farming in reducing poverty and
improving global food security.
Concept IYFF has four key objectives:

Family farming is a multidimensional concept 1 Support the policies that foster sustainable family farming.

covering sociological elements, economic 2 Increase knowledge and awareness about family farming.

terms and entrepreneurial skills. It includes 3 Rise awareness about constraints and potential of family farming.

all family-based farming activities linked to 4 Create synergy for sustainability

several areas of rural development. Family


farming is more than a professional occupation as it is a lifestyle promoting family business values. At
the national level the input factors needed for development of family farming are: agro-ecological and
territorial conditions, policy farming, access to markets, land, natural resources and finance.
Family farming is the predominant form of agriculture worldwide with more than 500 million family
farms covering 98% of farming holdings which are responsible for at least 56% of agricultural
production and same percentage of the land. Local and Global food security are under threat as family
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229
farmers across the world and especially in India face the challenges of climate change, insecure tenure,
limited access to finance and price volatility.
UN has asked the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) to implement the IYFF in collaboration with various
NGOs and international stakeholders, including the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).
Floating Nuclear Power Stations
What is this?
Floating nuclear power is same as a normal nuclear power station. The only difference is that it is based offshore
in the sea akin to the Oil and gas exploration stations.
Why was it in news?
For two reasons: First is that Akademik Lomonosov is a non-self-
propelled vessel to be operated as the first Russian floating nuclear
power station. Second is that they are increasingly gaining importance
now a days, although commercially viable Floating Nuclear Power
stations are yet to be created.
Is it a new Idea?
It is not new, but has never been used on large scale. In 1960s, a ship
containing 10 MW of nuclear reactor was used to provide electricity
to Panama Canal Zone which that time faced some severe power
crisis. Similarly, a plan was devised to build a 1,200 MW nuclear
power station off Americas east coast which would float on giant concrete structure and surrounded by a
backwater. However, the idea faced opposition and thus had to be scrapped because of technical as well as
regulatory obstacles. The idea is gaining momentum because of potential benefits that such nuclear power
stations can easily tide out the Tsunamis and Earthquakes.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 30
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

What are potential benefits?


It is claimed and hoped that these can obviate the possible hazards of existing nuclear power stations.
They can easily handle Tsunamis and Earthquakes.
Since nuclear power generation needs a lots of water for their cooling system, being offshore gives this
advantage. The issue of acquisition of land also gets solved automatically.
The safety issues are also addressed, however, the safety risk moves shifts from humans to marine
organisms.
How it will work?
The idea is to build the structure of the nuclear power plants into a shipyard using tried and tested techniques
and then place it out of several miles in the sea. The concept is thus to build a nuclear power station offshore
and the electricity produced through it to be carried onshore using undersea cables. It has the same perceived
benefits which an existing nuclear power plant can provide but it does not have the disadvantages of existing
nuclear power plants. The requirement of land for establishing the power station is easily met because it is to be
placed in the ocean. Thus, it would also solve the problem of water availability for its cooling which otherwise
has to be maintained using power generators to consistently pumping the water from nearby water resource,
thus benefit of using sea as the infinite heat sink.
Reusable Rockets
What is this?
Space travel or space launches involve excessive cost. In the current flying
mechanism, the rockets are used for one time only. Once launched, they do
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229
their job and fall in Oceans. They are retrieved from Oceans only to reuse some
of their parts. Currently, the scientists are trying to create prototypes of such
rockets which can be used more than once. The objective of such invention
would be to cut cost of space travel or space launch.
Are there any successful inventions?
No experiments have been successful so far. We note here that the NASAs
space shuttles are though designed to be reusable, but they have been proved
dangerous and very costly. Some private research labs are trying to design a
cost effective reusable space ship to make space sojourn cheaper.
US based organization SpaceX has taken a lead into creating such reusable rockets. The organization through its
prototype rocket known as Falcon 9 Reusable (F9R) promises to deliver reusable rockets. In its test flight the
F9R rocket successfully completed the height of
The reusable rockets currently being designed to be similar to the
over 3300 feet and came back to its launching pad existing rockets but with a difference of having four landing legs
on its four legs. The SpaceX claims that such rockets which are folded up along its side. Once the rocket is fired and
finishes its job (such as placing the satellite in orbit, delivering
after servicing and refilled with rocket fuel can be cargo to International Space Station etc), it will fire its engine once
readied to fly again. again in order to come back to the earth. However, this time,
instead of crashing into the sea it would make a controlled and
What is potential? slow descent and with deploying its legs, drop itself to the launch
Reusable rockets if created successfully will be the pad once again.
biggest advancement in rocketry and it should be
culminated into higher demands for space flights. It would pave the way for many organizations, even smaller
ones, to have their own rocketry system for their purposes in education, research or business. India has a
special interest attached to it as being a developing country, our scientists are still exploring many possibilities to
send satellites in the orbit in lesser cost and if the reusable rockets are able to do this job, our space programme
might get a new boost.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 31
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

Gabriel Jos Garca Mruez


Who was he?
A legendary Columbian author and 1982 Nobel Literature Prize winner, who
died recently.
th
Considered as one of the most significant authors of 20 century due to his
style of writing (famously known as Magical realism) and the contribution to
the literary community throughout the world.
Famous for using magical elements and events in ordinary and realistic
situations and using the theme of Solitude in many of his novels, poetries and
fictions.
Due to his enormous contribution and bringing laurels to his country
Columbia, Gabriel Garca Mruez is also described as Symbol of the pride and
The Greatest Columbian who ever lived.
His Magical Realism
Gabriel Jos Garca Mruez is widely credited in helping to popularize magical realism, a genre where magical
elements are a natural part in the otherwise ordinary realistic situation. The most famous of his work where he
has brilliantly used magical realism is his famous novel The hundred years in solitude which sold more than 30
million copies. The area of magical realism was explored beautifully to depict a story in which one Buendia
family who founded a fictional South American village of Mocondo. The history of Macondo is often generalized
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229
by critics to represent rural towns throughout Latin America or at least near Garca Mrquez's native Aracataca.
In the noble prize which was gives to him in 1982, his work on magical realism was aptly described as The noble
prize in Literature is awarded to Gabriel Jos Garca Mruez for his novels and short stories, in which the
fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life
and conflicts".
His role in Columbian Politics
Gabriel Jos Garca Mruez apart from his literally contribution, is also famously known for his political
orientation and his deep desire of mediating a solution to the countrys (i.e. Columbia) rebel conflict. In fact, it
was the allegation that he had contact with the rebel guerrillas that he had to flee the country in 1981 when the
army wanted to interrogate him for the same purpose. His strong political leftist views and his outspoken
attitude always kept him in focus domestically as well as internationally. He was direct in his approach and said
things as they are. In one of his speeches, he bluntly pointed the political reality of Columbia as "We're
scandalized by our country's bad image abroad, but we don't dare admit to ourselves that the reality is worse,"
he said in a speech at the presidential palace in 1994. "We're capable of the noblest acts as well as the most
abject, of sublime poems and insane assassinations, of jubilant funerals and deadly revelry. Not because we're
good and others are bad but because we all partake in both extremes."
As opponent of US Imperialism
Gabriel Jos Garca Mruez also was eminent opponent of US imperialism and he never hesitated speaking
against it on all the platforms. Due to his outspoken views against American imperialism, the governments in US
banned his arrival to their country by labelling him a subversive and denying him visa. This continued till Bill
Clinton after becoming the President of the USA lifted the ban citing The hundred years of Solitude his
favourite novel.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 32
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

Legacy
Gabriel Jos Garca Mruez rightly regarded as one of the most influential author of his time made several
contribution in the area of literature, politics, and Journalism. Whatever be his approach, Gabriel Jos Garca
Mruez always sought to strengthen the countrys democracy and bring about peace. He also actively
contributed towards growth of journalism by creating a foundation to train reporters and raise the standard of
journalism across Latin America.
Sri Aurobindo in Freedom Struggle
Sri Aurobindo, born as Aurobindo Acroyd Ghose, was an eminent nationalist, philosopher, yogi, guru and a poet.
He is best remembered for being a spiritual reformer apart from taking active participation in Indian National
Movement albeit for a brief period. His vision on human progress and spiritual evolution
brought much accolade to him. However, his contribution to the national movement with
his own idea of freedom ranks him the pioneer of the Indian history and the struggle of
its liberation from British.
Despite being trained in England since his early years (at the age of seven he want to sent
to England to insulate him from Indian affairs and sentiments about the freedom of
struggle), he always dreamed of India as a free country. His knowledge to English proved
much beneficial in suitably portraying the indigenous sentiments and writing many poems, plays and many
literary works. Sri Aurobindo joined the state service of Baroda (a princely state that time) after his arrival to
India. Before that he qualified for the Indian Civil Service (ICS) exam but was failed in the riding test. His tenure in
India enabled him to see the English Raj and the devastation it is causing to the Indians.
A better understanding of Member
the Name:
ideaAnand
of Sri Aurobindo cant be obtained before we appreciate the prevailing
Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229
situation which was dominating the scene of nationalist movement at the start with his tenure with active
politics. Sri Aurobindo when he came to India in 1893, it were the days of moderate politics where the nationalist
leaders of that time believed in petitioning the government and making appeal to them to initiate constitutional
reforms to give them more autonomy. The concept of Swaraj was dominating the scene and Indians were ready
to work under the overall British Empire.
However, Sri Aurobindo came to the active politics with an evolutionary idea of Independence instead of
Swaraj. He was a believer that the nation had the right to obtain its freedom from foreign rule by any means
possible. In 1905, with the partition of Bengal, Aurobindo pleaded for leaving moderate politics and join the
extreme politics of prominent contemporary leaders such as Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and Bipin
Chandra Pal. He was among the first Indian leaders to openly declare for complete and absolute Independence.
In his famous writing, he wrote there are some who fear to use the word freedom' but I have always used the word
because it has been the Mantra of my life to aspire towards the freedom of my nation".
In the movement arising out of Bengal partition, the application of moral force took the shape of full scale non-
violent and non-cooperation and passive resistance movement in the hands of Aurobindo. In his inspiration the
partition movement soon developed into a fully fledged Swadeshi and Swaraj movement. Due to his bold
outlook and even bolder speeches to articulate his outlook, it prompted the British to take stern action against
him. The then viceroy Lord Minto was quick to term him as the Most dangerous man in India. Sri Aurobindo was
tried twice for sedation but acquitted both the times. However, in May 1908 he was arrested in Alipore Bomb
case and imprisoned for one year. In 1910 he left active politics to become a yogi.
A quick to remember point about Sri Aurobindo is that he came to the political scene much earlier than Gandhi
Ji, M N Roy, Jawaharlal and Subhash Chandra Bose. But, he had that vision of revolutionary politics that was later
followed by all eminent nationalist involved in winning the independence for the country. His was the
mastermind wherefrom originated most of the governing ideas of freedom movement. He always believed that

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 33
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

India is not just a piece of land with the mere collection of people. India with its thousands of years old
civilization and convergent point of multi-cultural society is a conscious divine power which must be free from
foreign control. Only then could she develop and manifest the greatest of her soul.
Field Marshal SHFJ Manekshaw
Birth anniversary of late Field Marshal SHFJ Manekshaw, fondly called "Sam Bahadur" and "Sam Manekshaw"
was observed on April 3, 2014. His name figures prominently in the list of important
personalities of the 20th century. He is remembered as first Indian Army officer, who
began his career as second lieutenant, to be promoted to the rank of Field Marshal.
He became one of the only two Indian Army generals to be awarded this prestigious
rank of Field Marshall. Another was General K M Cariappa.
General Mankshaw began his career with service in the British Indian Army in World
War II. In the four decade long career, he rose to become the eighth chief of staff of
the Indian Army in 1969 and under his command, India won the 1971 war with
Pakistan.
While serving for the British Indian army during World War II in Burma, he was badly hurt by the bullets of
Japanese. He suffered bullets in his lungs, liver and Kidneys and was close to death; when his orderly evacuated
him from the battlefield and was saved by doctors. It has said that when Surgeon asked what happened to him;
he replied that he was "kicked by a donkey"!! Later he was awarded the Military Cross for gallantry during the
Burma campaign of the Second World War.
Before partition of India, he was serving in the 12th Frontier Force Regiment (in present Pakistan). After partition,
that regiment became a part of Pakistan.
Member Being
Name: Anand Mohan a Parsi,
Member's he could
Email address: move to Pakistan,
dubledoreslair@gmail.com but he decided to serve India
61.8.129.229

and was reassigned to the Punjab Regiment and later Gorkha Rifles. Once asked what would have happened
had he opted for Pakistan at the time of the Partition in 1947, he reportedly quipped, "then I guess Pakistan
would have won (the 1971 war)"!!
Manekshaw is best remembered for the decisive campaign he crafted during the 1971 India-Pakistan war that
saw the emergence of Bangladesh. It led to his elevation as Indias first field marshal.
He famously refused to address then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi as Madam as according to him, this
sobriquet was reserved for occupants of a certain kind of house.
India Innovative Inclusion Fund (IIIF)
The Sam Pitroda headed National Innovation Council (NInC), established by previous UPA regime had proposed
creation of an India Inclusive Innovation Fund to
IIIF is an inclusive strategy not just for building the countrys
promote grass root innovations with social returns to capacity for entrepreneurship but also because it rewards
support enterprises in the MSME sector. The interim businesses, which have social and economic inclusion as a
goal. An inclusive growth strategy is necessary for any further
budget 2014-15 had announced an initial contribution plans of innovation, as an innovation cannot be allowed to
of Rs. 100 crore to the corpus of the fund. We still become an excuse for exclusion. Given the high inequality of
income distribution and the resultant low growth in India, the
have to see, how the new government goes about it. IIIF is a timely solution to address the problem of inclusive
The purpose of this fund, as mentioned above is to innovation.
promote grassroots innovation by catalysing the
creation of an ecosystem of enterprise. The money from the fund is to be used for investment in new generation
of Indian businessmen to help them build enterprises that focus on the problems of the poor, without
compromising on economic success. It will give money to up and coming entrepreneurs at different stages of
the enterprise development cycles.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 34
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

P2P Diplomacy
Traditionally, Diplomacy has always been oriented towards government-to-government (G2G) relations whereas
traditional Public Diplomacy has been oriented in a Government-to-People (G2P) direction and it included the
governments efforts to inform, influence and engage those publics in support of national objectives and foreign
policies.
However, recently public diplomacy has acquired another dimension in the form of P2P or people to people
orientation. P2P diplomacy involves all the ways in which governments and private individuals, organizations and
groups influence foreign policy directly and indirectly. It includes the public attitudes and opinions that have bearing
on governments foreign policy relations and decisions.
The shift from G2P to P2P is caused by the rise in user-friendly communication technologies that have increased
the participation of public in talking about foreign affairs and foreign policy making. Furthermore the increase in
people to people exchanges across national borders in both virtual medium and physically.
This shift has resulted in the rise of two different philosophies about public diplomacys utility:
That public diplomacy is a necessary evil, an ancillary tactic supporting conventional diplomacy and
Public diplomacy as a context for how nations interact with each other.
Relevance of P2P Diplomacy
Today, technology is making practice of public diplomacy more difficult and complicated inside government
corridors. The Internet spreads rumours faster than authorities can set the record straight. The challenge for
diplomacy in the digital age is to utilize it to monitor as well as respond to the dialogue on the Internet. Whereas
the traditional diplomacy took the public for granted, today participatory democracy is highlighted as an
important feature of good governance.
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229

Kanakdasa
th
The state government of Karnataka declared 20 November to be observed as Kanakdasa
Jayanti, a state holiday every year in honour of medieval Kannada poet Kanakdasa.
Kanakadasa, who lived from 1509 to 1609, was a follower of the Dwaita philosophy
propounded by Madhavacharya.
(the story of Nala and Damyanti), (the essence of
Five of his major works are Nalacharitre Haribhaktisara
Krishna Devotion), (compositions in praise of Lord Narsimha), (an epic story of Ragi
Nrisimhastava Ramadhanyacharitre
Millet) (about the river Krishna).
, Mohanatarangini His unique writings dealt with class struggle,
inequality, and injustice and always bluntly criticized those who opposed good practices. He used similes to
rationalize the bhakti devotion and his writing identified more with the poor and downtrodden than with the
rich. Apart from the above mentioned 5 works, he wrote more than two hundred musical compositions in
Carnatic Music besides these five major works mentioned above.
Childhood Obesity
What is this?
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat is accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative
effect on health. It may cause reduced life expectancy and increases health problems. People with body mass
index (BMI) exceeding 30 are considered obese. BMI is a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by
the square of the person's height.
Causes
Obesity may be caused by lifestyle choices, endocrinal reasons (hormonal), Genetics, Illnesses (Eating disorders,
Hypothyroidism), or correlations between economic affluence and social class. Obesity in children exposes them
to various health risks, especially cardiovascular diseases, Diabetes, Certain types of cancers and osteoarthritis.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 35
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

Magnitude of problem
National Family Health Survey (NFHS) shows that heart disease accounted for about a th of all deaths of people
aged between 25 and 69 between 2001 and 2003. In urban areas of deaths are caused by heart disease.
Obesity in early childhood has been shown to have a direct correlation with serious illnesses in young adults. On
the other hand, India is also home to the greatest number of malnourished children in the world - about 48% of
all children are underweight and almost 2 million die each year from related preventable diseases as of 2012.
Indias policy makers now have to fight an epidemic of malnutrition on one hand and address a growing
challenge of mass obesity on the other. Both these extremes require sharply different strategies, efficient
allocation of resources, addressing health concerns etc.
Rising anti-Semitism and anti-immigrant sentiments as threat to EU
2014 is the year of the 8th Europe-wide election to the European Parliament. As expected, immigration issues
and the Jewish question have taken center stage in the electorate and media psyche and are going to be the key
factor in driving the election campaign of various parties forward. The Right-Wing Eurosceptic parties have until
now remained a fringe phenomenon but recently there have been concerns about the anti-Europeans getting
ahead of the curve and the disruptive impact of such gains.
In recent years, the discontent with EU has increased substantially and right-wing anti-immigration, anti-Semitic,
Nazi and other ultra-nationalist parties are seeing a marked increase in the number of their supporters. Some of
these parties are openly Islamophobic. There are genuine fears that if some of these parties get into a
leadership position after the election, then Europe might suffer a serious bout of policy paralysis.
Yet, cautious optimism remains the watch phrase as populist radical right is dismissed by heavyweights as mere
hype. They support their claim by saying that one fourth of European countries do not even have a far-right
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229
party and that gains of the far right in some countries have been offset with losses in others. Voting behavior
analysis of the far right suggests that the voters tend to rebel and go against the majority on issues that matter
to them. Other dangers of overstating the threat of far right lie in oversimplification of policy stances such as on
immigration.
However, the threat of anti-Europe and anti-immigration right must be taken seriously if the people want to
make an informed decision towards an open and Inclusive Europe, as was originally envisioned by the creators
of EU.
Making a case for Post Bank of India
RBI had recently granted new banking licences to IDFC and Bandhan Financial Services Pvt Ltd. Our humble India
Post was one among the 25 unsuccessful contenders for new bank licences. In a recent update, the RBI has said
that India Post will have to apply afresh to RBI under differential licence guidelines if it wishes to start banking
operations. Here are some notes to present a case for India Post Bank.
Providing financial services to poor and unconnected rural
At present, there are 27 public sector banks and
masses is not a new thing for the post offices in India. Post 22 private sector lenders in the country.
offices have been providing people with a savings scheme
for decades. These post offices have the advantage of high penetration, a great number of Grameen
Dak Sevaks or agents (approximately 2.69 lakh in total) who are all people from the neighbourhood of
the clients themselves making them more trustworthy than banking correspondents which are usually
strangers to a village's financial ecosystem.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 36
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

These Post offices have created a unique banking-cum-postal service milieu, which is impossible to
replicate without incurring huge expenditure. The post office banking model has evolved over time and
today serves millions of clients throughout the country.
There are 1.54 lakh post offices in India out of which about 90% are in the rural areas which means that
every 7176 people in the country have access to a post office and therefore by starting a Post Bank of
India, we can automatically make all these rural post offices transform into basic banks overnight.
Post Bank of India can do wonders to our goal of Financial Inclusion, as it would solve the "last mile connectivity"
problem. Since these post offices have been therefore decades, they will be more accessible to common people.
This has been tried during the UPA regime when payments for NREGA work were routed through the post
offices. Even today, approximately 2.2 crore people get their NREGA payments through post offices.
About Rs. 1800 crores would be required to set up the bank and there are apprehensions that the creation of
such a bank would lead to an unreasonably large cash flow beyond immediate control of govt. but those issues
can be tackled.
Cellulosic Ethanol
What is Biomass Conversion?
Biofuels are derived from biomass such as plants and animal materials. The biomass is converted to biofuels by
Thermal conversion
Chemical Conversion
Biochemical Conversion
The resultant fuel from these processes can be used as an alternative to fossil fuels.
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229

What is problem with conventional ethanol?


Currently, ethanol is made from carbohydrates, either sugar or starch. The sources of these two easily breakable
molecules are sugarcane, sorghum, corn, paddy, potato etc. But there is a shortage of conventional feedstock
for bio-ethanol production. One example, our Government launched the National Policy on Biofuels in 2008,
which sets an ambitious target of 20% ethanol blending by 2017. But, only less than 3% of ethanol blending with
petrol has been implemented so far. The problem is due to supply-side issues including competition from the
beverage industry.
Moreover, the use of these products tends to lead to increase in food prices, mainly on account of demand of
huge arable land needed for these crops.
Cellulosic Ethanol
Cellulosic ethanol, also known as Second generation ethanol is not produced from starch or sugar but from
cellulose fibers, which are found in abundance in plant cell walls. Humans cannot digest cellulose and it is
enormously available. The IAEA says that the cellulosic ethanol can allow ethanol fuels to play a much bigger role
in the future than previously imagined. The feedstock for this second generation alcohol is the agricultural
residues containing cellulosic biomass (e.g. stalks, leaves, bagasse, and husks of rice, wheat, wood chips,
sawdust or energy crops.). The lignocellulose fibers contained in the residue can also be converted into
fermentable sugars.
Challenges
This conversion relies heavily on the use of enzymes and enzyme manufacturers have been successful in
identifying the right enzyme to use at the right stage of the process. During the process, lignin can also be
extracted from the biomass. Lignin is a polymer that burns very well. It can further be used to produce power to
meet the facility's energy needs and excess green energy can be sold to the local grid.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 37
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

Current Status worldwide


The cellulosic ethanol technology has already become a reality with the first commercial plant already
operational in Italy by Beta Renewables. Slowly but surely, countries are shifting to renewable energy source in
the Biofuels segment. While most of them are currently blending gasoline with ethanol produced from the first
generation, governments are progressively supporting and promoting the need for cellulosic ethanol.
Economic Benefits
In India, the agricultural sector, which has long been the backbone of our economy, also presents a unique
opportunity to develop cellulosic ethanol industry because of the availability of vast agricultural residues. It is
estimated that by 2020, between 125 million and 183 million tonnes of biomass residues will be available
annually in India for conversion in cellulosic ethanol. Thus, without changing todays agricultural land-use
patterns or cultivating new energy crops the available biomass residue could be converted into approximately
50 billion litres of cellulosic ethanol annually.
Cellulosic ethanol industry will also lead to the following benefits:
It will create a million aggregated jobs predominantly be in rural areas, enhancing India's agricultural
sector and providing impetus to inclusive growth.
Catalyze rural development by generating up to $ 15 - $20 billion of annual revenues in India by 2020,
leading to inclusive growth especially in the rural economy.
Reduce road transport greenhouse gas emissions from fossil gasoline by 47-69%. CO2 and methane
emissions would also decrease as biomass residues not be burned or decompose in the field.
The Government has already sponsored cellulosic ethanol pilot projects in the country and a few private
companies have also announced their plans for initial demonstration plants. Although there is positive intent
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229

from the Government, stable & coherent policy framework is required to fast-track the deployment of second
generation biofuels including:
Blending mandates
Loan guarantees
Private/public co-financing
Biomass collection programs, and
Infrastructure directed towards end consumers (e.g. pipelines and blending infrastructures).
How to fast track?
Some steps that can be considered to fast track the second-generation ethanol industry:
Indias policy-makers could introduce an India-wide mandate for next-generation ethanol especially
given the ongoing debate over first-generation ethanol availability
The absence of any incentive to collect agricultural residues and the requisite infrastructure to preserve
and transport them hinders the development of a second-generation ethanol market in the short term
Government support for first movers in the segment as it will certainly be a high investment
proposition initially
Therefore, although India has the Biofuels policy and the resources to implement it, the support and the push
from the Government with proactive steps will make the cellulosic ethanol a reality in India in the best interest of
the economy and overall development of farmers.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 38
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

Naduvattam Jail
What is this?
A historic jail complex located 30 Kilometers from Ooty in Tamil Nadu.
Why it was in news?
2014 being the year of India-China year of friendly exchanges has also given way to explore the historical touch-
points between the two countries. Naduvattam jail, houses the great signage to event which dates back to the
2nd Opium war in 1850s when the British on request of W.G. McIvor, (superintendent of cinchona plantations
and architect of the Government Botanical Gardens) in 1864 to send some inmates for plantation work, brought
a batch of skilled Chinese prisoners of war, to this jail. The latter got involved in the construction of Lawrence
school at Lovedale and also pioneered the plantations of tea and cinchona. The defiant ones were hanged while
the ones who had completed their sentence stayed on in Nilgiris, entered into dairying, gardening and later also
married local women. The Jail complex which housed two large rooms with brick walls and a zinc sheet roof still
remains intact under the care of Tamil Nadu Tea Plantation Corporation Limited (TANTEA) and is proposed to be
converted into a museum.
Mangar Forest (Mangarbani)
What is this?
An ancient forest grove and a virgin forest area in ICR located on Delhi Faridabad highway.
Why was it in news?
Mangar bani which rests in the NCR region about 50kms away from the Delhi is crowned of being the only forest
in this area which is usually making headlines for alarming
What sets the Bani apart from the surrounding vegetation
pollution levels. The forest located at the foothills of is that 95 per cent of it comprises a slow growing tree
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229
Aravalis is endowed with rich flora and fauna. It houses the called Dhau (Anogeissus pendula). The tree has a unique
feature. If it is nibbled by cattle, it spreads out on the
Dhau trees and snow leopards, which are not found ground or over rocks like thick prostrate undergrowth. If
anywhere else in Haryana. In addition, the forest patch left undisturbed, it grows into a middle-sized tree. The 13-
meter-tall dhaus in Mangar Bani testify to the forests
also enjoys close proximity to Asola Bhatti sanctuary and is antiquity, points out Pradip Krishen, the author of Trees of
within 100kms radius of Sariska Tiger Reserve. Lately, there Delhi. (Source: Down To Earth)
was a massive felling of trees by the locals for fuelwood.
The excessive felling has many a eye from the environmentalists. The bani is also known for its huge and
untapped groundwater potential. It was considered as a National Conservation Zone by National Capital Region
Planning Board in 2005 and was later opened to tourism and ancillary units.
Rainbow Warrior of Greenpeace
What is this?
World's first purpose-built environmental campaigning ship being built by Greenpeace Internation.
Why it was in news?
Rainbow Warrior is crowned for being the first ship in the fleet of Greenpeace and is the most environment-
friendly ships ever made. The third in line, recently shot to headlines when it went-off on a mission to block a
Russian oil-tanker Mikhail Ulyanov, owned by Russian Gazprom as it was carrying the first consignment of oil
from Russias Arctic production unit, the Prirazlomnaya platform. Greenpeace has always voiced its concerns
against offshore drilling from Barents Sea as such activities may destroy the fragile ecosystems by
unprecedented oil spills.
Pattachitra Paintings
Pattachitra paintings are one of the most treasures art-forms in India. They originated around 8th Century AD
and comprise phenomenal pictorial depictions, peculiar and vibrant conventions. They trend back to the

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 39
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

Jagannath cult and have dealt with paintings in praise and worship of Lord Jagannath.
However, lately they have also started taking more secular themes.
The paintings are taken as patrimonial professions and are passed on to subsequent
generations in form of a family-sketchbook. These house sketches of Gods and Goddesses,
their legends, animals, etc. The, Pattachitra, thus is a devotional art-form and the artists are
specially known as chitrakars. The chitrakars are largely native of Puri, Orissa. The paintings
being done on cloth, has got the name of Patta (cloth) and Chitra (picture). Another
outstanding feature is the entire use of colors is purely organic and is extracted from leaves,
petals, fruits, etc. They are painted in a specific style and sequence.
Vulture Restaurants
A vulture restaurant is a unique concept, which recently won international applause. These have come up in
India, Nepal and Pakistan. The idea was started and spread by vulture activists and involves thorough examining
of dead animal especially cattle remains for the presence of any drugs like diclofenac which the cattle are
usually given by farmers. It is only after this process, the carcass is left in open for vulture feed. The concept is
important as the rising levels of diclofenac was finding its way down the food-chains to vultures who due to
amounting lethal amounts of this drug are now facing extinction and are put in the critically endangered
category by IUCN.
Integrated Farming
What is this?
Integrated Farming means to integrate crop production with livestock management which in a way complement
each other with a nice symbiotic relationship
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's which atdubledoreslair@gmail.com
Email address: the time is economically
61.8.129.229 viable and profitable,
environmentally suitable, and benefit giver of diversification of production.
Why it is in news?
Integrated farming is an another approach or farming practice which originally devised in China and now being
supported world wide as a all round development of agriculture along with animal husbandry and other such
occupation which is related to core agricultural practices. Integrated farming has the capability to make the
agriculture sector profitable which otherwise has been proved largely as a subsistence sector and a major
reason behind leaving this age old occupation and migration to cities.
Example
An example of integrated farming could be fish and livestock cultivation along with general farming practices
which support each other. The fishes can be fed with the residuary materials of farms such as leaves, stalks or
other waste products. Additionally, the plankton which are major fish feed can grown using the manures
provided by the livestock which are getting raised at the side of fish farms. Near the fish farms, silk warms can
also be raised (i.e. sericulture). The silkworm pupae and other wastes can then be used to feed the fish. In return
the fish pond silt provides an excellent manure and fertilizer for land crops and highly solicited by farmers. This
way integrated farming has multicultural approach which is environment friendly and sustainably provide the
economic means to prosper.
In India
An Indian example of Integrated farming can best be understood by the fact that once a degraded land in
Jodhpur, Rajasthan having very less crop production (and income) with the use of integrated farming practices
such as plantation of improved qualities of Ber along with intercropping, honey been keeping and a goat unit
turned into a major revenue generator along with improving the quality of soil and decreased expenditure on
fertilizer and pesticides, produced good quality fruits using organic farming which has high demand overseas.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 40
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

Integrated farming can have many variants which can be used according to the environmental conditions of the
place. It can include combinations such as Fish-Duck Integrated farming, Livestock-Fish Integrated farming
(explained above), Cattle-Fish Integrated farming, Polutry-Fish Integrated farming, livestock-honeybee integrated
farming etc.
However, despite having many advantages
of integrated farming, it is so far not yet
Organizatio
popular as expected and hence the n and
Climate Planning Human and
farmers are not able to reap its benefits.
change and Social
There may be many reasons attributed to air quality Capital
this failure such as
Waste
The unawareness of farmers Managemen
Energy
t and
about the benefits of this farming Efficiency
pollution
control
practice It keep the farmers away
implementing best practices of Integrated
Landscape Farming Water Use
integrated farming. and Nature
and
conservatio
Protection
The lesser resources Around 80 n

percent of the farmers do not have


Animal
lands more than 5 acres. Hence, husbandry
Soil
Managemen
they cant be used mechanised and animal
t
welfare
farming with sophisticated tools. Crop health
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229
Crop
and
Also, the lack of capital acts as an Nutrition
protection
impediment in buying the
Components of Integrated Farming
expensive livestock and its
maintenance.
Government policies Though government has many schemes to provide on low rates loan for cattle
rearing, agriculture and purchasing mechanical equipments. However, the procedure along with
inherent corruption in government departments further discourages the farmers to approach them.
India with this majority of the population depending upon agriculture (around 58 percent) for its sustenance
surely needs to look into all such practices which make agriculture economically viable and environmentally
suitable to fulfil its goal of Inclusive and Sustainable development. The integrated farming is one such approach
which has the potential to turn the contribution of agriculture and allied activities in the countrys GDP which as
of now is only 18 percent (feeding the total population of 58 percent). The development of agriculture is our
utmost priority which found its true value in the year 2002 when the agriculture (and not industry) was declared
as the engine of growth of the country. The National Agricultural Policy, 2000 also suitable emphasizes the need
to improve integrated farming along with other agricultural practices to make the country food sufficient and
tame the increasing food inflation.
Model Questions
22. Researchers opine that Floating nuclear power stations would have both economic and safety benefits. Objectively discuss the
environmental, economic and political consequences of the Floating Nuclear Power Plants.
23. What are reusable rockets? Comment on various challenges to create reusable rockets successfully.
24. Gabriel Jos Garca Mruez is regarded as Symbol of the pride and The Greatest Columbian who ever lived. Discuss his
contribution in area of literature, politics, and Journalism.

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 41
|| ||
Target 2014 Current General Studies-10
www.gktoday.in April 21 to May 21, 2014

25. Examine the role of Sri Aurobindo during Freedom Struggle of India.
26. The name of Sam Bahadur figures prominently in the list of important personalities of the 20th century. Comment.
27. Write a short note on: India Innovative Inclusion Fund (IIIF)
28. Rising anti-Semitism and anti-immigrant sentiment is emerging as a threat to the European Union idea. Critically evaluate.
29. The rise of user-friendly communication technologies had led to a shift from G2P to P2P diplomacy. Comment.
30. Discuss the magnitude of the problem of Childhood Obesity in India.
31. Comment on the threats of rising anti-Semitism and anti-immigrant sentiments to European Union.
32. Make a case for Post Bank of India
33. What do you understand by Second Generation Ethanol? In hwat way, it may help in the Ethanol Blending Programme. Throw
light on various challenges faced and suggest measures to fast track the second-generation ethanol industry.
34. What do you understand by Integrated Farming? Discuss its various components.
Write Short Notes on the following

1. Pacific Coast Hindustan Association


2. Paris India Society
3. India House
4. Agnes Smedley
5. Gulab Kaur
6. Lala Hardayal
7. Charles Wilkins
8. Nathaniel Brassey Halhed
9. Sir Williams Jones
10. Sir Alexander Cunningham
Member Name: Anand Mohan Member's Email address: dubledoreslair@gmail.com 61.8.129.229
11. Bengal Regulation XIX
12. Family Farming
13. Kanakdasa
14. Naduvattam Jail
15. Mangarabani
16. Rainbow Warrior of Greenpeace
17. Pattachitra Paintings
18. Vulture Restaurants

GKTodays Reader Supported Online Assistance Programme for General Studies Papers of Civil Services Examination 2014
2014 Suresh Soni | E-Mail: gktoday.in@gmail.com | Website: http://ias.gktoday.in
P a g e | 42
|| ||